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JB/T 8467--96


This standard is not equivalent to ASTM A388- 84” Method and Criterion for Ultrasonic Testing of Large-
sized Forged Steels”.

This standard strives to use the stipulated testing equipment, testing requirement and testing method to
guarantee the conformity of ultrasonic testing results.

Classification of quality level of large-sized forged steel, in view of the discrepancy of quality
requirement is big, and it is not suitable to make united regulation in this standard. The quality acceptance of
forged steel shall be finalized jointly by the supplier and the user based on the technical specification.

This standard was proposed by and is under the jurisdiction of the Deyang Institute of Large-sized
Casting and Forged Steels under the Ministry of Machinery Industry of China.

This standard was drafted by Taiyuan Heavy Machinery (Group) Co.

The principal drafter of this standard: Song Shulin


Professional Standard of the People’s Republic of China for Machinery Industry

JB/T 8467—96
Methods for Ultrasonic Testing of Forged Steels

1. Scope
This standard specifies ultrasonic testing method for longitudinal wave or transverse wave contact
pulse reflection method of forged steel.
This standard is applicable to the ultrasonic testing inspection of carbon steel and low alloy forged
steel that the thickness or diameter equal to or greater than 100mm. The ultrasonic testing
inspection of austenite stainless forged steel can take this standard as reference.

2. Normative standards
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of this standard. At time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards
are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below.
GB/T12604.1-90 Non-destructive Test Terms Ultrasonic Test
JB 4126-84 Manufacture and Control of Steel Test Block for Ultrasonic Test
JB4730-94 Non-destructive Test of Pressurized Vessel
ZB y 230-84 “General Technical Requirements of A-scan Pulse Deflection Type Apparatus For
Ultrasonic Test”.
ZBY 231-84 Test Method of Probe Performance for Ultrasonic Test

3. Definition
The terms adopted by this standard, which also use following definitions besides these terms were
defined in light of the national standard of GB/T 12604. 1.
3.1. Equivalent diameter
Under same condition, the amplitude of discontinuity echo-wave equals to the echo-wave
amplitude of flat-bottomed hole with diameter of certain amount that vertical to ultrasonic beam.
This diameter is called “discontinuity equivalent diameter, or short for “equivalent diameter”.
3.2. Continuous discontinuity echo-wave
It is a discontinuity echo-wave, which the equivalent diameter of discontinuity not less than 2mm at
one probing distance, and the undulation amplitude of echo-wave not more than 2 dB within the
space, this space is that the last moving distance of probe equal to or more than 30mm.
3.3. Dense discontinuity
The dense discontinuity is a discontinuity echo-wave that there are five or more than five
discontinuity echo-waves inside of square with side less than or equal to 50 mm.
Note: translated from Clause in ASTM A388/A388M-84.
3.4. Wave bottom decrease BG/BF (dB)
It is a dB difference between the bottom echo amplitude (B G) at first time in sound area without


discontinuity and the bottom echo amplitude (BF) at first time in area with discontinuity.
Note: in light of Clause 3.2 in JB4730-94
3.5. Single discontinuity echo-wave
It is a discontinuity echo-wave that the space is more than 50 mm and the equivalent diameter is
not less than 2 mm.
3.6. Disperse discontinuity echo-wave
It is a discontinuity echo-wave that the amount of discontinuity echo-wave is less than five and the
equivalent diameter is not less than 2mm inside of square with side of 50mm.
3.7. Moving discontinuity echo-wave
It is a discontinuity echo-wave that the front moving distance of discontinuity echo-wave equivalent
to thickness of forged steel with 25 mm or more than 25mm while moving of probe on surface of
forged steel.

4. Technical specifications
4.1. General requirement
4.1.1 The ultrasonic testing personal shall have basic knowledge associated with smelting, forging and
heat treatment as well as experience on ultrasonic testing, etc. The ultrasonic testing personal
shall be examined by the approved agency and be qualified. The ultrasonic testing personal shall
have a certificate of qualification with certain rating, and can deal with the work related to his
4.1.2 The inspected surface of forged steel shall not have any adhesive substances which affect
ultrasonic testing sensitivity, such as painting, oxide skin, dirt and so on.
4.1.3 The surface roughness(Ra) of inspected surface of forged steel shall not be more than 6.3 μm.
4.1.4 The ultrasonic testing of forged steel shall be performed on two inspected surfaces that they are
vertical each other. And the whole forged steel shall be scanned completely as can as possible.
Such as disk and rectangle forged steels, the inspected surface shall be two surfaces that they are
vertical each other. For forged steel like shaft, the radial test shall be performed on its excircle
surface, if necessary, the axial test shall be carried out on end faces of shaft.
4.1.5 Steel contrast test block for ultrasonic testing of forged steel.
It shall meet the standard of JB 4126. Planar contrast test block of longitudinal wave straight probe, use CS-1 and CS-2 test block,also
can be self-produced, its shape and dimension shall be in accordance with relative standard. For
the contrast test block used for inspection of curved surface, Pl ease refer to Figure 1.


Note: R is 0.9-1.5 of curved surface radius of workpiece

Figure 1 Contrast test block for curved surface The contrast test block of transverse wave inclined probe shall be made of forged steel, which its
chemical composition, heat treatment condition, surface roughness and curvature should be same
as or similar to inspected forged steel. The internal wall of contrast test block used for hollow forged steel that shall be cut and form a
rectangle parallel to the shaft or 60°V-shape groove, its length is about 25 mm. It recommends that
the groove depth is the test block with 3% of forged steel thickness. The groove depth shall not
exceed 6mm test block at most.
4.2. Probing equipment and probe
4.2.1 The probing equipment shall be in accordance with the standard of ZBY 230. The working frequency of flaw detector shall be about 1 ~ 5 MHz at least, and the accuracy of
equipped attenuator which the error shall be about ±1 dB at any scale of 12 dB, total adjustment
shall be greater than 60dB. The vertical linearity of flaw detector shall be within 75% of screen height, its error shall be less
than 5%. And the horizontal linearity error shall not be more than 2%. When the longitudinal wave straight probe discover the flat-bottomed hole with depth of 200mm
and diameter of Φ2, the allowance of sensitivity shall not be less than 4 dB and the far resolving
power shall be more than or equal to 30dB.
4.2.2 The probe shall be in accordance with the standard of ZBY 231. The wafer diameter of longitudinal wave straight probe is about 12-218 mm, the maximal effective
area of inclined probe wafer is about 25mm×25 mm , all sorts of probes shall be able to use
under nominal frequency, the frequency error shall not exceed ±10% of nominal value. The rest of parameters about probe shall meet the standard of ZBY 231.
4.3. It recommends to use machine oil, glycerin, organic paste as couplant. Other couplant can be used
under the condition that ultrasonic testing sensitivity not be affected.

5. Ultrasonic testing requirements

5.1. In principle, the ultrasonic testing of forged steel shall be able to perform after finalized heat treatment. If
the forged steel shall implement the processes such as drilling, nicking, tapering before heat
treatment and its ultrasonic testing affected by these processes, the forged steel can be performed


with ultrasonic testing before those processes, too. After heat treatment, all detectable parts shall
retest by 100%.
5.2. The probe scanning speed shall not be more than 150 mm/s.
5.3. The probe movement shall overlap 15% of wafer width each time at least.
5.4. When redetection or reassessment of forged steel, the comparable ultrasonic testing conditions shall be
selected for use.

6. Ultrasonic testing methods

6.1. Longitudinal wave testing
6.1.1 Usually, the ultrasonic testing frequency is about 1 ~ 5 MHz, for general forged steel, it
recommends to use 2~2.5 MH for the ultrasonic testing.
6.1.2 Adjustment of ultrasonic testing sensitivity, in principle, it recommended to use the back plane
echo-wave reflection method for adjustment. Because of limit of geometry and size of forged steel,
the contrast test block method can be used to adjust, too.
6.1.3 Use back plane echo-wave reflection method to adjust
Put the probe on the inspected surface that the incident plane of forged steel parallel to the
reflection plane, and no any discontinuity and boundary reflected wave. Adjust the flaw detector
sensitivity knob and make the back plane echo-wave reach 40%-80% of screen height, then adjust
gain of forged steel in light of following formula:
a. Gain of forged steel with solid center

In where: ΔdB一Gain need to increase(dB);

T 一Thickness or diameter of inspected forged steel(mm);
Φ—Diameter of flat-bottomed hole for testing sensitivity requested (mm);
λ— Wave length(mm)
b. Gain of forged steel with center hole

In where:
D一一External diameter of inspected part of forged steel(mm);
d一一Internal diameter of inspected part of forged steel(mm).
6.1.4 Adjustment of sensitivity with contrast test block method Material quality, surface roughness, heat treatment condition of the used contrast test block shall
be same as or similar to those of the inspected forged steel. Use CS-1 or CS-2 contrast test block or other test block with equivalent performance to adjust. The reflection wave of flat-bottomed hole of CS test block chose in light of Clause herein,
which shall be adjusted to 40 %~80% of screen height.
6.1.5 When calculation of discontinuity equivalent, if the attenuation speed of forged material quality
exceeds 4dB/m, it shall be corrected. The measurement of attenuation coefficient shall be
calculated by Formula (3) as follows:


In where: B1--- dB of the first order back plane echo-wave;

B2---dB of the second order back plane echo-wave;
T ----Thickness of forged steel (mm);
α-----Attenuation coefficient (dB/mm).
6.1.6 While testing of forged steel, the attention shall be paid to the part that the back plane echo-wave
decreased clearly, and find out the reason why the back plane echo-wave decreased, the area
where cause a clear decrease of back plane echo-wave shall be redetected.
6.2. Transverse wave testing
6.2.1 The transverse wave testing is used for circular or hollow forged steel mainly, its axial length shall
be more than 50mm, the ration that external diameter to internal diameter shall be less than 2:1.
6.2.2 If the ration that external diameter to internal diameter of forged steel or the geometry of forged
steel not affects the requested testing sensitivity, the inclined probe with refracting angle 45º shall
be used to test. In order to use the inclined probe to detect hollow forged steel with ratio of 2:1
between external diameter and internal diameter, can put one curved wedge or contact block on
the probe to form a necessary waveform or angle so that meet the requested sensitivity.
6.2.3 Correction of transverse wave testing sensitivity
Obtain a echo-wave with 60% of full screen height from rectangle or 60º V-shape groove on
detected internal wall of excircle parallel to axial direction of forged steel. Also can use single
contrast test block to do correction, the fabrication and selection of contrast test block shall be in
accordance with Clause 4.1.5 herein. If the forged steel produced by batch, one of produced
forged steels shall be processed to a contrast test block for correction, cut a groove on its internal
wall, the depth of groove shall be about 3% of maximal thickness of workpiece, but the deepest
point shall not exceed 6mm, the groove length shall be about 25 mm. The thickness of contrast
test block shall be same as the thickness of inspected workpiece. Use one apparatus to detect,
obtain a reflection echo-wave from a similar groove on the excircle, and plot a contrast amplitude
line by the first order wavecrest of internal and external grooves. If possible, it is better to cut a
groove on inspected workpiece or rest of forged steel directly. During the actual testing, probably,
the groove on excircle would not be detected from the excircle surface, if practicable (too small of
internal diameter of forged steels to detect), the test can be performed from internal and external
surface. And the groove on internal surface shall be detected from external surface, the groove on
external surface shall be detected from internal surface. If necessary and possible, the curved
wedge or contact block can be used to test too.
6.3. Readjustment of ultrasonic testing sensitivity
6.3.1 During testing of forged steel, if the setting values of probe, couplant and instrument have any
change, their testing sensitivities shall be readjusted.
6.3.2 During testing of forged steel, the testing sensitivity shall be calibrated about once at least. After
completion of testing, the testing sensitivity shall be calibrated. When the change of testing
sensitivity up to 2dB and over, the testing sensitivity shall be readjusted. The previous detected
forged steels shall be retested.

7. Measurement and recording

7.1. The quantification of longitudinal wave discontinuity uses the equivalent method and the transverse
wave uses the percentage method respectively.
7.2. When the equivalent diameter of discontinuity is more than or equal to single or disperse discontinuity


echo-wave of ultrasonic testing sensitivity, all shall be recorded.

7.3. Follow the technical requirement to record dense discontinuity echo-wave and mark the position and
distribution area of discontinuity.
7.4. Record the equivalent diameter, position and distribution area of moving discontinuity echo-wave.
7.5. Record part and distribution area where the back plane echo-wave decreased badly or disappeared.
7.6. For the transverse wave ultrasonic testing, record position and distribution area of discontinuity echo-
wave which not less than 60% of echo-wave amplitude of the contrast groove.

8. Ultrasonic testing reports

The ultrasonic testing report shall consisting of followings:
8.1. Name and material quality of forged steel, size sketch, inspected location and surface roughness of
inspected area.
8.2. Entrusted date, Name of ultrasonic testing agency entrusted,entrusted serial number.
8.3. Ultrasonic testing condition: type of flaw detector, frequency of probe, size of wafer, K & β of inclined
8.4. Ultrasonic testing sensitivity, name of couplant, type of contrast test block.
8.5. Ultrasonic testing result and level assessed.
8.6. Name of ultrasonic testing inspector, certificate of qualification, level of qualification; and name of
ultrasonic testing checker, number, level and date of certificate.