Sie sind auf Seite 1von 1

Home / Teaching Guides / Core /

General Mathematics

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Review of Functions from Junior High


School

Lesson Proper

Seatwork

Seatwork

Seatwork

Seatwork

Seatwork

Seatwork

Seatwork

Seatwork

Download Teaching Guide Book

TRACK/STAND
Core
SUBJECT
General Mathematics

 #

$ http://teachtogether.chedk12.com/teaching_guide

CONTENT STANDARD ∠

PERFORMANCE STANDARD ∠

LEARNING COMPETENCIES ∠

%
&
'
(
Functions

Functions as
Model | 9 mins

Review of Functions 
TT II PP

from Junior High


School | 0 mins
) 0 REMIXES

The following table shows how


relations and functions are the
same and how they are
different:

Relations

A relation is a rule that relates values from a


set of values (called the domain) to a second
set of values (called the range).

The elements of the domain can be imagined


as input to a machine that applies a rule to
these inputs to generate one or more
outputs.

A relation is also a set of ordered pairs (x, y).

The function as a machine

Functions

A function is a relation where each element


in the domain is related to only one value in
the range by some rule.

The elements of the domain can be imagined


as input to a machine that applies a rule so
that each input corresponds to only one
output.

A function is a set of ordered pairs (x,y) such


that no two ordered pairs have the same x-
value but di erent y-values.

The function as a machine

Mention that we will represent mathematical


relations as machines with an input and an
output, and that the output is related to the
input by some rule.

Draw the following six `machines' on the


board similar to the gures below. Write the
following rules inside the gures to indicate
how the machine functions. Then provide the
guide questions given below.

Figure 1.1: Function machines activity

Ask the class to give descriptive names to these


ve machines. Raise the following guide
questions to the class about these machines:

(a) Which of these machines, if you know the


input, can you determine a single or unique
output? The answers should be (a), (c), (d),
and (f). Have the class explain why. Ask why
(e) is not part of this list. Introduce the term
function to describe these machines.

(b) Which of these machines, if the output is


known, can you determine a single or unique
input? The answers should be (d) and (f).
Have the class explain why. This will be used
in the discussion of one-to-one functions
later.

(c) Suppose we connect machine (a) to


machine (c) such that the output of (a)
becomes the input of (c). Give the outputs for
the following inputs: A, R, S, U.

Functions and relations as a table of


values

For the following illustrations of functions and


relations, we draw from the definitions for
relations and functions given at the start of
the chapter.
Give the following examples to illustrate these
concepts:

EXAMPLE 1. Which of the following relations


are functions?

Solution . The relations f and h are functions


because no two ordered pairs have the same x-
value but different y-values, while g is not a
function because (1,3) and (1,4) are ordered
pairs with the same x-value but different y-
values.

Relations and functions can be represented by


mapping diagrams where the elements of the
domain are mapped to the elements of the range
using arrows. In this case, the relation or
function is represented by the set of all the
connections represented by the arrows.

EXAMPLE 2. Which of the following mapping


diagrams represent functions?

Solution. The relations f and g are functions


because each x ? X corresponds to a unique y ? Y.
The relation h is not a function because there is
at least one element in X for which there is more
than one corresponding y-value. For example, x
= 7 corresponds to y = 11 or 13. Similarly, x = 2
corresponds to both y = 17 or 19.

Functions as a graph in the Cartesian


plane

Recall from Grade 8 that a relation between two


sets of numbers can be illustrated by a graph in
the Cartesian plane, and that a function passes
the vertical line test (i.e., a vertical line can be
drawn anywhere and intersect the graph in at
most one point).

<strong>The Vertical Line</strong


> <strong>Test
</strong>A graph represents a fun
ction if and only if each vertica
l line intersects the graph at mo
st
once.

If a vertical line x = a intersects a graph twice, say


at (a,b) and at (a,c), then the graph cannot
represent a function because two di erent y-
values correspond to x = a.

Give the following examples and ask the


students to identify which graphs represent
functions and which do not.

EXAMPLE 3. Which of the following graphs can


be graphs of functions?

Solution. Graphs (a), (b), (c) are graphs of


functions while (d) and (e) are not because they
do not pass the vertical line test.

EXAMPLE 4. Which of the following represents


a function?

Solution. All are relations. All are functions


except (c). Equation (c) is not a function because
we can nd an x-value that corresponds to more
than one y-value (ex. if x = 0, then y can be +1 or ?
1.)

<strong>Definition.
</strong><strong></strong>The dom
ain of a relation as the set of a
ll possible values that the varia
ble x can take.

EXAMPLE 5. Identify the domain for each


relation above using set builder notation.

Solution. The domains for the relations above


are as follows:

If a relation is a function, then y can be replaced


with f(x) to denote that the value of y depends on
the value of x. Do this for the functions in the
examples above, replacing f with other letters to
distinguish the functions from each other:

Lesson Proper | 1 mins 


TT II PP

) 0 REMIXES

Functions as representations of real-life


situations

Functions can often be used to model real


situations. Identifying an appropriate functional
model will lead to a better understanding of
various phenomena.

EXAMPLE 66. Give a function C that can


represent the cost of buying x meals, if one meal
costs P40.

Solution . Since each meal costs P40, then the


cost function is C(x) = 40x.

EXAMPLE 7. One hundred meters of fencing is


available to enclose a rectangular area next to a
river. (see figure). Give a function A that can
represent the area that can be enclosed, in terms
of x

Solution. The area of the rectangular enclosure


is A = xy. We will write this as a function of x.
Since only 100 m of fencing is available, then
x+2y = 100 or y = (100?x)/2 = 50?0.5x. Thus, A(x) =
x(50 ? 0.5x) = 50x ? 0.5x2.

Piecewise Functions

Some situations can only be described by more


than one formula, depending on the value of the
independent variable.

EXAMPLE 8. A user is charged P300 monthly for


a particular mobile plan, which includes 100 free
text messages. Messages in excess of 100 are
charged P1 each. Represent the amount a
consumer pays each month as a function of the
number of messages m sent in a month.

Solution. Let t(m) represent the amount paid


by the consumer each month. It can be
expressed by the piecewise function

EXAMPLE 9. A jeepney ride costs P8.00 for the


first 4 kilometers, and each additional integer
kilometer adds P1.50 to the fare. Use a piecewise
function to represent the jeepney fare in terms of
the distance d in kilometers.

Solution. The input value is distance and the


output is the cost of the jeepney fare. If F (d)
represents the fare as a function of distance, the
function can be represented as follows:

The symbol [d] denotes the greatest integer or


floor function applied to d. The floor function
gives the largest integer less than or equal to d,
e.g. [4.1] = [4.9] = 4.

EXAMPLE 10. Water can exist in three states:


solid ice, liquid water, and gaseous water vapor.
It takes a certain amount of heat before water
can change state. Use the following information
to sketch the graph of the function representing
the temperature of water as a function of the
amount of total heat added in Joules (J). Explain
why this is a piecewise function.

A solid block of ice is at ?25?C and heat is


added until it completely turns into water
vapor.
The temperature of the ice increases
steadily and reaches 0? after 940 J of heat
is applied.
The temperature stays constant at 0?C
until all the ice melts, which happens
once a total of 6,950 J of heat is applied.
The temperature increases steadily and
reaches 100?C) after a total of 14,470 J is
applied.
The temperature stays constant at 100?
until all the water evaporates, which
happens after a total of 55,260 J is
applied.
When all the water is in a gaseous state,
its temperature can rise above 100?C
(This is why steam can cause third-degree
burns!) Solution. Let T(x) represent the
temperature of the water in degrees
Celsius as a function of cumulative or
total heat added in Joules. The function
T(x) can be graphed as follows:

This is a piecewise function because it behaves


differently across a sequence of intervals.

Seatwork | 1 mins 
TT II PP

) 0 REMIXES

Choose several of the activities below to assign


to the class as homework or seatwork.

Seatwork 1. Provide a real-world example or


scenario that can be expressed as a relation that
is not a function. Sample Answer: Destination
versus tricycle fare: For P15 you can go anywhere
within 3 kilometers.

Seatwork 2. Provide a real-world scenario of a


scenario that can be modeled by a linear
function. Sample Answer: Distance versus
time if traveling at a constant speed.

Seatwork 3. A videoke machine can be rented


for P1,000 for three days, but for the fourth day
onwards, an additional cost of P400 per day is
added. Represent the cost of renting a videoke
machine as a piecewise function of the number
of days it is rented and plot its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 4. The fee for hiring a guide to


explore a cave is P700. A guide can only take care
of a maximum of 4 persons, and additional
guides can be hired as needed. Represent the
cost of hiring guides as a function of the number
of tourists who wish to explore the cave and plot
its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 5. The cost of hiring a catering


service to serve food for a party is P150 per head
for 20 persons or less, P130 per head for 21 to 50
persons, and P110 per head for 51 to 100
persons. For 100 or more persons, the cost is at
P100 per head. Represent the total cost as a
piecewise function of the number of attendees of
the party.

Answer:

Seatwork | 1 mins 
TT II PP

) 0 REMIXES

Choose several of the activities below to assign


to the class as homework or seatwork.

Seatwork 1. Provide a real-world example or


scenario that can be expressed as a relation that
is not a function. Sample Answer: Destination
versus tricycle fare: For P15 you can go anywhere
within 3 kilometers.

Seatwork 2. Provide a real-world scenario of a


scenario that can be modeled by a linear
function. Sample Answer: Distance versus
time if traveling at a constant speed.

Seatwork 3. A videoke machine can be rented


for P1,000 for three days, but for the fourth day
onwards, an additional cost of P400 per day is
added. Represent the cost of renting a videoke
machine as a piecewise function of the number
of days it is rented and plot its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 4. The fee for hiring a guide to


explore a cave is P700. A guide can only take care
of a maximum of 4 persons, and Log in
additional Sign up
guides can be hired as needed. Represent the
cost of hiring guides as a function of the number
of tourists who wish to explore the cave and plot
its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 5. The cost of hiring a catering


service to serve food for a party is P150 per head
for 20 persons or less, P130 per head for 21 to 50
persons, and P110 per head for 51 to 100
persons. For 100 or more persons, the cost is at
P100 per head. Represent the total cost as a
piecewise function of the number of attendees of
the party.

Answer:

Seatwork | 1 mins 
TT II PP

) 0 REMIXES

Choose several of the activities below to assign


to the class as homework or seatwork.

Seatwork 1. Provide a real-world example or


scenario that can be expressed as a relation that
is not a function. Sample Answer: Destination
versus tricycle fare: For P15 you can go anywhere
within 3 kilometers.

Seatwork 2. Provide a real-world scenario of a


scenario that can be modeled by a linear
function. Sample Answer: Distance versus
time if traveling at a constant speed.

Seatwork 3. A videoke machine can be rented


for P1,000 for three days, but for the fourth day
onwards, an additional cost of P400 per day is
added. Represent the cost of renting a videoke
machine as a piecewise function of the number
of days it is rented and plot its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 4. The fee for hiring a guide to


explore a cave is P700. A guide can only take care
of a maximum of 4 persons, and additional
guides can be hired as needed. Represent the
cost of hiring guides as a function of the number
of tourists who wish to explore the cave and plot
its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 5. The cost of hiring a catering


service to serve food for a party is P150 per head
for 20 persons or less, P130 per head for 21 to 50
persons, and P110 per head for 51 to 100
persons. For 100 or more persons, the cost is at
P100 per head. Represent the total cost as a
piecewise function of the number of attendees of
the party.

Answer:

Seatwork | 1 mins 
TT II PP

) 0 REMIXES

Choose several of the activities below to assign


to the class as homework or seatwork.

Seatwork 1. Provide a real-world example or


scenario that can be expressed as a relation that
is not a function. Sample Answer: Destination
versus tricycle fare: For P15 you can go anywhere
within 3 kilometers.

Seatwork 2. Provide a real-world scenario of a


scenario that can be modeled by a linear
function. Sample Answer: Distance versus
time if traveling at a constant speed.

Seatwork 3. A videoke machine can be rented


for P1,000 for three days, but for the fourth day
onwards, an additional cost of P400 per day is
added. Represent the cost of renting a videoke
machine as a piecewise function of the number
of days it is rented and plot its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 4. The fee for hiring a guide to


explore a cave is P700. A guide can only take care
of a maximum of 4 persons, and additional
guides can be hired as needed. Represent the
cost of hiring guides as a function of the number
of tourists who wish to explore the cave and plot
its graph. Answer:

Seatwork 5. The cost of hiring a catering


service to serve food for a party is P150 per head
for 20 persons or less, P130 per head for 21 to 50
persons, and P110 per head for 51 to 100
persons. For 100 or more persons, the cost is at
P100 per head. Represent the total cost as a
piecewise function of the number of attendees of
the party.

Answer:

Seatwork | 1 mins 
TT II PP

) 0 REMIXES

Choose several of the activities below to assign