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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF REACTOR

LEVEL CONTROL VALVE


(CNA PLANT)

SCOPE:
DESIGN, DEVELOP, MANUFACTURE, TEST, SUPPLY,
ERECTION & COMMISSIONING AND TESTING AT HOCL,
RASAYANI.
APPLICATION/FLOW CONDITIONS/PROCESS DATA

• Application - Reactor Level Control


• Line Size - Inlet - 50 mm, Outlet – 15 mm
• Process Fluid - High Concentric Nitric Acid
• Flow rate - 2.82 M3/Hr
• Inlet Pressure - 48.8 Kg/cm2 g
• Pressure Drop - 47.8 Kg/cm2
• Inlet Temperature - 80 Deg. C
• Density - 1510 Kg/m3
• Shut-off Pressure - 50 Kg/cm2

This is a severe service control valve applications where problems of cavitation


erosion and vibration are frequent companions of high pressure drop and/or
lowdown stream pressure. These problems can be eliminated by limiting/reducing
the trim exit velocity, and offsetting/avoiding pressure reducing phenomena from
plug and seat assemblies. The valve outlet area remains constant for a given size
valve, but the trim exit area changes as the valve is throttled. The fluid
velocity/energy exiting the valve body is usually quite small in comparison to the fluid
velocity/energy exiting the throttled valve trim. It is the high energy/velocity fluid
exiting the valve trim that carries into the downstream piping and/or the valve body
with damaging impact.

It therefore becomes necessary for the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the
trim exit flow area in order to determine if the energy/velocity fluid is going to meet
recommended guidelines. By obtaining this calculation of area, velocity at the trim
exit, significant cost associated with fixing a valve problem can almost always be
avoided.

ISA04-P211 (Establishing Control Valve Trim Flow Velocity) recommends limiting the
trim exit velocity within 30 m/sec (100 ft/sec) for continuous service single phase
liquid applications, and the limit is 23 m/sec for cavitating fluids. This ISA document
describes the methods/formulae to calculate the trim exit velocity of various type of
trim styles viz. cage trim with venturi shaped slots, concentric cage trim with offset
drilled holes and trim with right angle turns. Among these the trim with right angle
trims (known as velocity control trims) are usually used to keep the trim exit velocity
within the acceptable limit.

Based on the above, we offer/propose to design, develop, manufacture, and supply


(including erection & commissioning and testing at site) a suitable valve for the
application, and complying the following technical requirements.

• The high differential drop should not take place in the plug and seat assemblies
• The trim shall be velocity control type: stag plates with right angle turns
• The trim exit velocity shall not exceed 23 M/sec
EXISTING VALVES DETAILS AND QUALITY ISSUES

• Size - 50 mm (Inlet) x 15 mm (Outlet)


• Type - Angle
• Pressure Rating - ANSI/ASME 600#
• Trim Type - Contour
• Valve/Trim Material - Antinit

Quality issues/problems associated with the existing valve

• Frequent cavitation /erosion damages of seat, plug & stem and downstream
side of the valve.

Root cause of these Quality issues/problems

• Severe/high levels of cavitation: Cv calculation of the valve has been carried


out considering contour trim, and the same is attached. As per the calculation
cavitation index is +14.61 Kg/cm2, and this value is very high. And it indicates
occurrence of severe cavitation when control valve with contour trim is used
against the given/actual flow condition. Negative value of cavitation index
indicates non-cavitating flow, and a positive value up to 1.5 to 2.0 Kg/cm2
may be managed by providing hard faced/hardened trim. Another method of
checking the occurrence of cavitation is comparing the pressure ratio (X), i.e.
(P1-P2)/(P1-Pv) with the ‘coefficient of incipient cavitation (Kc)’ of trim at
calculated/operating Cv. As per the calculation pressure ratio (X) is 0.977 and
coefficient of incipient cavitation (Kc) is 0.685. When pressure ratio value is in
between 0 and Kc, the flow is normal, i.e. non-cavitating/non-choking. If the
pressure ratio is just above Kc, the flow starts cavitating. In this case the
pressure ratio is very high compared to Kc, and it also indicates the flow/valve
is being subjected to severe cavitation.

• High Trim Exit Velocity: As the trim is not velocity control type the Cv
calculation sheet does not specify the value of trim exit velocity (it specifies
only valve outlet velocity). We may calculate the trim exit velocity of contour
trim as given below.

 Calculated Cv at operating flow = 0.59


 Flow rate (Q) = 2.82 M3/Hr
 K factor for contour trim = 33
 Trim throttling area (A) = 0.59/33 sq. Inch
= 11.5346 mm2
 Trim Exit Velocity = Q/A
= 67.91 M/Sec

Trim exit velocity 67.91 m/sec is very high compared to recommended limit of
23 m/sec specified in ISA04-P211 (Establishing Control Valve Trim Flow
Velocity)

• High differential drop takes place in seat and plug: In the case of contour trim
the majority of the required pressure drop occurs at the area between seat
and plug, and this may cause the damage of seat and plug.

Attachment:

1. Cv calculation of valve considering contour trim


Val-Met Controls Private Limited

GLOBE TYPE CONTROL VALVE Cv CALCULATION SHEET


(LIQUID SERVICE)

( Existing Control Valve)

SL No: 1
Customer : M/s HOCL
Quote No: QN- 0333

TAG No : 1 Line Size ( inches ): 2" SCH. 40

Line Fluid : HIGH CONC. NITRIC ACID ∆P Shut off : (kg/cm2 g) 50

Pressure CLASS : ANSI 600# Design Temp : (°C) 80


Flow Conditions Max. Flow Nor. Flow Min. Flow

FLOW (Q) (m3/hr) 2.82

INLET PRESSURE (Pi) (kg/cm2 g) 48.80

OUTLET PRESSURE (Po) (kg/cm2 g) 1.00

VAPOUR PRESSURE (Pv) (kg/cm2 abs) 0.9100

CRITICAL PRESSURE (Pcr) (kg/cm2 abs) 70.278

PRESSURE RECOVERY COEFFICIENT (FL) = 0.925

COEFFICIENT OF INCIPIENT CAVITATION (Kc) = 0.685

VALVE RECOVERY COEFFICIENT (Km) = 0.856

CAVITATION INDEX (kg/cm2) = 14.61

SUPERCOOLED VAPOUR PRESSURE ( Psv kg/cm2 abs ) = 0.84

PRESSURE RATIO ( X ) = 0.977

PRESSURE DROP ( ∆P kg/cm2 ) = 47.80

PRESSURE DROP LIMIT (NON-CAVITATING) kg/cm2 = 33.49

PRESSURE DROP LIMIT (NON-CHOKING) kg/cm2 = 41.90

SP GRAVITY ( S.G ) = 1.51

PIPING GEOMETRY FACTOR = Fp = 1

CALCULATED Cv = 0.59

VALVE SIZE ( Dv mm) = 50 X 15

VELOCITY ( Vo m/sec.) = 4.43

LINE SIZE ( DL mm ) = 50

PIPE WALL THICKNESS ( Th mm ) = 3.912

SOUND LEVEL (dBA) = 84.3

DESIGN Cv = 1.5

Trim Size (mm)= 4

Trim Style / No. Of Stages Contour

VALVE SIZE ( 50 mm X 15 mm )

VALVE SERIES = 15000


Comments ( if any ):
OFFERED/PROPOSED VALVE DETAILS AND TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

• Size - 50 mm (Inlet) x 15 mm (Outlet)


• Type - Angle
• Pressure Rating - ANSI/ASME 600#
• Trim Type - Mini VeloTRol – with 16 stages/turns
(Velocity control trim suitable for low Cv
applications)
• Valve/Trim Material - Antinit

Cv calculation of the offered velocity control trim valve has been carried out, and the
same is attached for reference.

Explanation - How the offered Velocity Control Trim Valve overcome/eliminates


the problems associated with the existing valve

• Cavitation: As per the calculation the cavitation index is -0.88 Kg/cm2, and
this minus value indicates non-cavitating flow. Again Kc (Coefficient of
Incipient Cavitation) of the valve/trim at operating flow is 0.996 which is higher
than pressure ratio 0.977. This also confirms that the there would not be the
occurrence of cavitation when the valve is functioned/operated against the
given/actual flow condition.

• Trim Exit Velocity: Trim exit velocity is 16.96 m/sec and this value is less than
recommended maximum limit of 23 m/sec.

• Protection of seat and plug from high differential drop: In this case, when the
valve is in operating condition the pressure drop between seat and plug is
negligible. Almost 100% of pressure drop takes place due to the 90 degree
turns of 16 stages of velocity control trim. And this protects the seat and plug
from damages by shifting the occurrence of pressure drop from the area
between seat and plug to the turns/stages.

Attachments:

1. CVTS (Control Valve Technical Specification Sheet) of the offered valve


2. Cv/Velocity/Noise calculation sheet of the offered valve
3. GA/Cross Sectional Drawing with BOM
4. Design Model
5. Cross Sectional Model
6. Copy of ISA04-P211 (Establishing Control Valve Trim Flow Velocity)
Val-Met Controls Private Limited

GLOBE TYPE CONTROL VALVE Cv CALCULATION SHEET


(LIQUID SERVICE)

SL No: 1
Customer : M/s HOCL
Quote No: QN- 0333

TAG No : Line Size ( inches ): 2" SCH. 40

Line Fluid : HIGH CONC. NITRIC ACID ∆P Shut off : (kg/cm2) 50

Pressure CLASS : ANSI 600# Design Temp : (°C) 80


Flow Conditions Max. Flow Nor. Flow Min. Flow

FLOW (Q) (m3/hr) 2.82

INLET PRESSURE (Pi) (kg/cm2 g) 48.80

OUTLET PRESSURE (Po) (kg/cm2 g) 1.00

VAPOUR PRESSURE (Pv) (kg/cm2 abs) 0.91

CRITICAL PRESSURE (Pcr) (kg/cm2 abs) 70.28

PRESSURE RECOVERY COEFFICIENT (FL) = 0.995

COEFFICIENT OF INCIPIENT CAVITATION (Kc) = 0.996

VALVE RECOVERY COEFFICIENT (Km) = 0.999

CAVITATION INDEX (kg/cm2) = -0.88

SUPERCOOLED VAPOUR PRESSURE ( Psv kg/cm2 abs ) = 0.84

PRESSURE RATIO ( X ) = 0.977

PRESSURE DROP ( ∆P kg/cm2 ) = 47.80

PRESSURE DROP LIMIT (NON-CAVITATING) kg/cm2 = 48.73

PRESSURE DROP LIMIT (NON-CHOKING) kg/cm2 = 48.94

SP GRAVITY ( S.G ) = 1.51

PIPING GEOMETRY FACTOR = Fp = 1

CALCULATED Cv = 0.59

VALVE SIZE ( Dv mm) = 50 X 15

VALVE OUTLET VELOCITY ( Vo m/sec.) = 4.43

TRIM EXIT VELOCITY (Vt M/Sec) 16.96

LINE SIZE ( DL mm ) = 50

PIPE WALL THICKNESS ( Th mm ) = 3.912

SOUND LEVEL (dBA) = 71.8

DESIGN Cv = 0.95

Trim Size (mm)= 15

Trim Style / No. Of Stages Mini VeloTRol 16

VALVE SIZE (mm) ( 50 mm X 15 mm )

VALVE SERIES = 12250


Comments ( if any ):
Val-Met Controls Private Limited

GLOBE TYPE CONTROL VALVE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SHEET


(LIQUID SERVICE)

Customer M/s HOCL Ref/Area LS/W


Contract Quote No QN- 0333
Cust. Ref Serial No 1
Tag No Item No V1P1
Quantity 1 Order No
Issued Date Delivery Date

Pressure Units - (kg/cm2 g) Flow Units - (m3/hr) Temperature Units - °C


Sr No. Flow Condition Maximum Normal Minimum

1 Line Fluid HIGH CONC. NITRIC ACID


2 Flow Rate 2.82
3 Inlet 48.80
4 Pressures Outlet 1.00
5 Pressure Drop 47.80
6 Temp. at Inlet 80.00
7 Specific Gravity 1.51
8 Vapour Pressure (kg/cm2 abs) 0.91
9 Critical Pressure (kg/cm2 abs) 70.28
10 ∆P Shut off (kg/cm2) 50.00
11 Design Pr./ Temp (kg/cm2) / °C 50 / 80 °C
12 Line Size In/Out/Sch. 2" / 1/2" / SCH. 40
13 Calculated CV 0.59
14 Outlet Velocity (m/sec) 4.43
15 Sound Level (dBA) 71.82
16 Design CV 0.95
17 Type of Body/ Model ANGLE / Series 12250
18 Body material 1.4361 (ANTINIT)
19 Trim material 1.4361 (ANTINIT)
20 Flange Material 1.4361 (ANTINIT)
21 Gasket Material 1.4361 (ANTINIT)
22 Valve size ( 50 mm X 15 mm )
23 Trim Size 15 mm
24 End Connection-Flange size & Rating Inlet 50 mm (2") X Outlet 15 mm (1/2") / Flanged RF, ANSI 600#
25 Trim Style Mini VeloTRol
26 Trim Design Solid
27 Flowed Under
28 Bonnet type STD.
29 Packing PTFE
30 ANSI Leakage class IV
31 Characteristic Linear
32 Actuator type Spring Return Diaphragm Type, Model- S2-350 (MOC: SS)
33 Handwheel Not Required
34 Spring Range 0.8 - 2.2 Bar g
35 Supply Pressure 2.7 Bar g
36 Travel 30 mm
37 Air Failure position Close
38 Positioner Smart Positioner (HART), ABB make, Model: V18345-1020120001
39 Air set Required, Make: Placka, Model No.:FPR 3SS

Comments ( if any ) :

Prepared by: Sales Engineer Approved by: DH(SS)


Sd/- Sd/-
F-SS-01 Rev.0

Page 1
We Provide Control Valve Solutions

DESIGN MODEL
SERIES : - 12250

VALVE SIZE:- 50mm X 15mm

TYPE : - ANGLE TYPE


We Provide Control Valve Solutions

CROSS-SECTIONAL MODEL

SERIES : - 12250

VALVE SIZE:- 50mm X 15mm

TYPE : - ANGLE TYPE


Establishing Control Valve Trim Flow Velocity
ISA04-P211

Gerald Liu, P. Eng. Laurence R. Stratton Herbert L. Miller, P. E.


Engineering Associate Manager Technical Valve Consultant
Utilities Technology Services Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Team Control Components, Inc. hlmiller37@cox.net
Syncrude Canada Ltd. Rancho Santa Margarita,
Fort McMurray, T9H 3L1 CA 92688
Alberta, Canada lrs@ccivalve.com
liu.gerald@syncrude.com

Abstract:

A method is provided for establishing a control valve trim's throttling exit flow area using readily
available information in the technical literature and known process conditions in the fluid flow
field. The area at the exit of the throttling trim is needed to determine the velocity and energy
content of the fluid jets leaving the valve trim.

The velocity and energy levels of the jets are essential in judging the ability of the valve design
to provide good control while minimizing the detrimental affects of cavitation for liquids and
noise for gases. Both of these effects can also lead to unwanted vibration of the piping systems.
In addition, knowledge of the fluid velocity in the jets can also aid in judgments regarding
erosion of valve internal components.

The method requires knowledge of the valve’s flow coefficient, the variables used in determining
the flow coefficient such as flow rate, pressure drop, fluid density and an estimate of the
resistance coefficient for the valve trim. It is this later item that is not readily available from the
valve manufacturer; however good estimates of the value of the resistance coefficient can be
made from information available in literature dealing with flows and pressure drops through
different geometries. Example calculations are provided for a number of valve trims as an aid in
understanding the method.

Key Words:

Control Valves, Trim flow area, Trim exit energy

ISA Expo2004 Page 1 of 11 Reliant Center Houston, TX


Nomenclature:

Symbol Description Unit Stk Valve stroke or travel mm


a Flow area mm2 V Fluid velocity m/s
c See Figure 2a W Mass flow rate kg/h
C Flow coefficient Kv , Cv ?p Pressure drop kPa
D Diameter of flow section mm a See Figure 2a
Ec Passage expansion, ai+1 /ai dmls ß See Figure 2a
f Friction factor dmls ? Density of fluid kg/m3
Gf Specific Gravity dmls ?ref Density of water Table 1
K Resistance coefficient dmls
KE Kinetic energy density kPa Subscript
L Length of flow section mm i Inlet conditions
N Numerical constants Table 1 o Outlet conditions
Np Number of flow passages dmls ref Reference value
p Pressure kPa gc Gradual contraction
Q Volumetric flow rate m3 /h ge Gradual extraction
r See Figure 2a n Stage number

Introduction:

In order to calculate a fluid velocity it is necessary to know the flow area for the fluid in addition
to the fluid density and the flow rate. There is a need to know this velocity so that a comparison
against guideline and application criteria can be made. Throughout the fluid flow industry there
are a number of criteria for the velocity of a fluid flowing through different components of a
process system. These guidelines have been gleamed from feedback of experience and their
application over time. Some have a strong basis such as a velocity that would cause flashing or
choking but most are generally derived from extensive experience. This doesn’t mean that the
guidelines are not helpful but it does mean that we need to continually question and update their
use so that they do not impose unreasonable constraints.

The valve trim flow area is implicit in the calculations used for predicting noise radiating from
the valve, Reference 1-3; however a specific orifice area is not calculated. The area needed for
these predictions is represented in the definition and use of the valve’s flow coefficient, C, in the
equations as well as the number of ports. The need for a specific area calculation is needed in
order to calculate the kinetic energy density or dynamic pressure of the jet leaving the valve trim
so that the energy may be checked to see if it is within the guidelines associated with successful
control valve application experience. A successful application is one in which the valve performs
its control function and is not damaged by erosion, vibration, cavitation and/or noise due to
excessive velocities. All of these debilitating effects are caused by excessive fluid velocities
exiting the valve trim or valve outlet. The valve outlet area can usually be closely estimated by
simply knowing the nominal size of the valve. However, the trim exit flow area is usually known
only to the valve manufacturer and is seldom published as part of the valve data sheet.

Criteria for the trim exit kinetic energy density ha ve been published in ISA’s “Control Valves –
Practical Guides for Measurement and Control,” Reference 4. These criteria are based on
extensive experience in severe service valve applications where problems of erosion, vibration,

ISA Expo2004 Page 2 of 11 Reliant Center Houston, TX


noise, and cavitation are frequent companions of high pressure drop and/or low downstream
pressure. Quantitative measures of the impact of following these criteria were published in 1997,
Reference 5, however there are hundreds of additional applications in which following these
criteria have resulted in correcting significant control valve problems in the field. The published
criteria for kinetic energy density exiting the trim are relevantly recent when compared to the
general rule of thumb associated with the velocity exiting the valve body that appeared around
the 1950’s. Keep in mind that the valve outlet area remains constant for a given size valve, but
the trim exit area changes as the valve is throttled. The fluid energy exiting the valve body is
usually quite small in comparison to the fluid energy exiting the throttled valve trim. It is the
high energy fluid exiting the valve trim that carries into the downstream piping and/or the valve
body with damaging impact. Although some designers still apply the valve outlet guidelines their
need has been replaced by the latest industry noise prediction procedures, References 1, 2.

It therefore becomes necessary for the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the trim exit flow
area in order to determine if the energy of the fluid is going to meet recommended guidelines. By
obtaining this calculation of area, velocity and energy at the trim exit, significant cost associated
with fixing a valve problem can almost always be avoided.

The Area Relationship:

The fluid kinetic energy density is defined as follows where ‘N’ is a units conversion factor
shown in Table 1.

ρo V 2
KE = (1)
2 N1

And the velocity is calculated from the Continuity Equation as shown below:

W Q
V= = (2)
N 2 ?o a N 3 a

The velocity in this expression is the average outlet velocity and the density, ?o , of the fluid at
the outlet of the trim. Different valve trims and the location within the trim for the velocity and
other considerations in the calculation of the kinetic energy are expanded upon in References 4,
5. Average velocity is used to keep the calculations as simple as possible. If some other velocity,
such as a peak velocity, was used then the acceptance criteria would be adjusted accordingly.

Velocity criteria for liquids are much lower than for gases because liquid densities are much
higher, resulting in higher energy levels. While the velocity limits are quite different, the kinetic
energy density criteria are the same as shown in Table 2. The specification should call for the
manufacturer to provide a valve trim that meets the criteria of Table 2.

The most frequent unknown is the trim exit area to be used in Equation 2. There are two
situations in which a user may determine this area and thus the fluid velocity and energy level.

ISA Expo2004 Page 3 of 11 Reliant Center Houston, TX


1. There is a problem and the valve is disassembled with the trim setting on a work bench.
The user can make physical measurements of the exit ports to establish the exit flow area
versus the valve travel. Once the trim outlet flow area is known as a function of valve
travel, measurements of flow rates, fluid outlet properties and valve position can be used
to find the fluid energy exiting the trim at minimum and at maximum flows.

2. A new valve order is being evaluated. An estimate of the resistance of the flow path is
made by looking at the type of trim. The trim’s flow resistance and the required flow
coefficient, C, can be used to find the trim’s outlet flow area and in turn the fluid energy
exiting the trim.

Table 1. Numerical Constants

Constant Value KE, ? V D, L W Q a C


p, ? p
100 000 bar kg/m3 m/s mm
N1 1 000 kPa kg/m3 m/s mm
4 633 psi lbm/ft3 ft/s in.
N2 0.003 6 kg/m3 m/s kg/h mm2
25 lbm/ft3 ft/s lbm/h in2
N3 0.003 6 kg/m3 m/s m3 /h
3.117 lbm/ft3 ft/s gpm
1 bar kg/m3 m3 /h Kv
N4 0.1 kPa kg/m3 m3 /h Kv
1 psi lbm/ft3 gpm Cv
N5 0.050 9 mm2 Kv
37.99 in2 Cv
?ref 1 000 kg/m3
62.4 lbm/ft3

Table 2. Valve Trim Outlet Fluid Kinetic Energy Density Criteria

Water Oil Air Kinetic


Velocity* Velocity* Velocity* Energy
(Gf =0.8) (p=7 MPa) Criteria
Service Conditions m/s (ft/s) m/s (ft/s) m/s (ft/s) kPa (psi)
Continuous Service, Single Phase Fluid 30 (100) 34 (112) 105 (345) 480 (70)
Cavitating and Multi-phase Fluids 23 (75) 26 (84) - 275 (40)
Vibration Sensitive System 12 (40) 14 (45) 42 (140) 75 (11)
* Noise, cavitation and erosion concerns may dictate lower velocities. Duty cycles may allow more risk.

The discussion in this paper shows how to make reasonable estimates of the flow area.

Area and Flow Resistance Relationship:

The relationship between the trim exit area and the required capacity of the valve can be derived
from three equations that govern the flow case. These equations are:
ISA Expo2004 Page 4 of 11 Reliant Center Houston, TX
The Darcy Eq uation expresses the pressure drop as a function of density, velocity and the
resistance coefficient of the flow path.

 f L  ρV 2 ρV 2
p1 − p2 = ∆p =   =K (3)
 D  2 N1 2 N1

The Continuity Equation (Equation 2 above) assures mass is conserved as the flow passes along
the flow path.

The required flow coefficient is defined as:

Q ρ ρ ref
C= (4)
N4 ∆p

Combining Equations 2 – 4 results in:

N5 a
C= (5)
K

The area is then expressed as a function of the required flow coefficient and the resistance
coefficient of the flow path using Equation 5. For a circular flow path the expression in Equation
5 may be expressed in terms of the diameter of the orifice. Once the area is known, the trim exit
velocity and the kinetic energy density are calculated using Equations 1 and 2.

In the calculation of the velocity using these equations it is assumed that the density is constant
for liquids and for gases the fluid follows the ideal gas relationship. This is true for most of the
fluids encountered in general practice. Assuming near constant temperature across the trim’s
flow path, the outlet density can be estimated from Equation 6.

po
ρ o = ρi (6)
pi

When choking occurs across the valve trim, the exit velocity reaches sonic velocity for the gas
and remains constant. In the case of sonic flow, the outlet density must be adjusted as follows:

V
ρ o′ = ρo (7)
c

This adjusted outlet density and sonic velocity would be used in Equation 1 to find the kinetic
energy density of the gas at the outlet of a choked valve trim.

At this point it would appear that we have simply substituted the unknown area for an unknown
resistance coefficient, which is true; however there is extensive literature developed for loss
coefficients associated with flow channels used in valve trim design.

ISA Expo2004 Page 5 of 11 Reliant Center Houston, TX


Resistance Coefficients:

In order to estimate the resistance coefficient for a valve trim it is necessary to know the
geometry of the flow passage. Knowing the flow geometry allows one to use readily available
information in the literature to derive a reasonable estimate of the total trim resistance. One of
the best references for resistance coefficients is presented in Reference 6.

The resistance coefficients assume a well developed turbulent flow length upstream and
downstream of the restriction. This is not possible within the short length available in a valve so
the actual resistance coefficients may be a bit different that the calculated. In some cases the
pressure drop will be larger such as for closely coupled right angle turns (about 10 percent
higher) and in some cases the pressure drops will be smaller because an expansion or contraction
occurs that results in separation of the fluid from the channel walls. The error resulting from this
lack of a developed flow is not significant because as seen in Equation 5, which is used to
calculate the trim exit area, the square root of the resistance coefficient is used. This dampens
some of the inaccuracy in the calculation.

In using the required flow coefficient and flow path resistance coefficients it is assumed that the
entire pressure drop occurs across the valve’s throttled trim and the pressure loss from flow
through the body and any attached expanders or reducers is not significant.

The example figures illustrate a flow area expansion between stages. An expansion also occurs
for most other trim types. When this expansion is greater than 10 percent the resistance
coefficient will be overstated because of significant fluid separation that causes the staging to be
less effective. Thus there would be higher jet velocities than calculated by the resistance
coefficient equations.

For other trim types a similar approach to that shown in the three examples will work. It is
particularly helpful if physical measurements can be made with the trim in hand. In some cases
there is information in the vendor’s catalogs that will help in making the judgment as to what the
outlet area would be. The area of the windows may be published along with the number of
windows for a cage guided trim. For axial flow trim the plug size along with the lift can help in
estimating the outlet flow area. That is; the outlet area would be the annular area between the
plug diameter and the seating surface (adjust for the angle of these two interfacing surfaces.)

Examples

Three examples are presented below to illustrate the calculation of the resistance coefficient of a
valve trim flow channel.

Example 1: Cage Trim with venturi shaped slots

Find the outlet flow area and stroke for the slotted cage shown in Figure 1. The plug lift is
throttling to meet a required flow coefficient of 40. Assume there are 16 identical slots and the
measurements are as shown in Figure 1a. Ignore the flow path’s axial flow by assuming the flow
path height matches the plug’s travel and is constant from the inlet to the outlet of the flow path.

ISA Expo2004 Page 6 of 11 Reliant Center Houston, TX


The valve trim with venturi shaped slots has a resistance coefficient due to the sudden
contraction at the inlet, a gradual contraction to the throat, a gradual expansion to the outlet and a
sudden expansion at the outlet.

The resistance coefficient for the sudden contraction into the slot is 0.5 based on the inlet area.
The resistance coefficient for the sudden expansion out of the slot is 1.0 based on the outlet area.

Since the contraction and expansion angles are less than 45°, the resistance coefficient for the
gradual contraction based on the throat area is found using (Reference 6):

 θ  a   30°  1.59 Stk 


K gc = 0.8 sin  1 − 1  = 0.8 sin  1− = 0.104
 2  a 2   2  3.18 Stk 

The resistance coefficient for the gradual expansion based on the throat area is found using
(Reference 6):

2
 θ  a 
2
 20°  1.59 Stk 
K ge = 2.6 sin 1 − 1  = 2.6 sin 1 −  = 0.200
 2  a 2   2  4.75Stk 

Normalizing the loss coefficients to the outlet area and adding those yields (Reference 6):

2 2 2
 4.75   4.75   4.75 
K o = 0 .5   + 0.104  + 0.200  + 1 = 4.83
 3.18   1.59   1.59 

Equation 5 can be rearranged to find the outlet flow area,

Cv K o 40 4.83
ao = = = 1727 mm2
N5 0.050 9

and the plug stroke is found from:

ao 1727
Stk = = = 22.7 mm
N p wo 16 (4.75 )

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Figure 1 Venturi Valve Trim Figure 1a Venturi Valve Trim Flow Path

Example 2: Concentric Cage Trim with Offset Drilled Holes

The trim consists of a plug modulating inside three concentric cages as shown in Figure 2. Each
cage has a number of drilled holes in which the holes are offset in order to produce a tortuous
path. Measurements of the holes and their offsets are shown in Table 3. Figure 2a shows the
variables used to find the intersection area of the circles. Assuming a flow of 300,000 lbm/h of
ambient temperature water (?1 = 62.4 lbm/ft3 ), a flow coefficient of 40, find the outlet flow area
of the trim and the outlet velocity of the water jets.

Figure 2 Concentric Cage Trim Figure 2a Variables for Finding the


Intersecting Area
Table 3. Hole Dimensions and Offset

Geometry Variable Dim Units


Inner Hole Radius ri 0.125 inch
Middle Hole Radius rm 0.15 inch
Outer Hole Radius ro 0.18 inch

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Inner to Middle Centerline Offset cim 0.15 inch
Middle to Outer Centerline Offset cmo 0.18 inch
Inner Hole Area ai 0.049 1 in2
Inner to Middle Hole Area aim 0.020 1 in2
Middle Hole Area am 0.070 7 in2
Middle to Outer Hole Area amo 0.029 0 in2

The angles a and ß and the overlap area, a, are defined by the following equations.

 ri2 + ci2 − ri2+1 


−1
αi = 2 cos  
 2 ri ci 
−1  ri+1 + ci − ri 
2 2 2
βi = 2cos   
 2 r c
i+1 i 
ai =
2
[
1 2
]
ri (αi − sin αi ) + ri2+1 (βi − sin βi )

These equations are repeated for every set of overlapping flow openings. The area between the
inner and middle hole works out to 0.0201 in2 and the area between the middle and outer hole
works out to 0.0290 in2 .

The flow coefficient for the intersecting holes is a series of sudden expansions and contractions.

1. The sudden contraction to the inner hole


2. The sudden contraction to the area between the inner and middle hole
3. The sudden expansion to the middle hole
4. The sudden contraction to the area between the middle and outer hole
5. The sudden expansion out of the area between the middle and outer hole

The resistance coefficient for the sudden contraction into the inner hole, K1 , is 0.5 based on the
inlet hole area. The resistance coefficient for the sudden expansion out of the area between the
middle and outer hole, K5 , is 1.0 based on this outlet area.

Since the contraction and expansion angles are all sudden (? = 180°), the resistance coefficients
for the sudden contractions, based on the smaller area, are found using (Reference 6):

 a 
K c = 0.5 1 − i+1 
 Ai 
K ci = 0.5
 a   0.020 1 
K cim = 0.5 1 − im  = 0.51 −  = 0.295
 ai   0.049 1 
 a   0.029 0 
K cmo = 0.5 1 − mo  = 0.51 −  = 0.295
 am   0.070 7 
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The resistance coefficient for the sudden expansion based on the throat area is found using
(Reference 6):

2
 a 
K e =  1 − i 
 Ai+1 
2 2
 a   0.0201 
K em = 1 − im  = 1 −  = 0.512
 Am   0.070 7 
K emo = 1

The resistance coefficient is the sum of all of the individual coefficients normalized to the same
area, which in this case is the intersection area between the middle and outer holes. Normalizing
the loss coefficients to this outlet area and adding yields:

2 2 2
 0.029 0   0.029 0   0.029 0 
K o = 0.5  + 0.295  + 0.512  + 0.295 + 1 = 3.14 9
 0 . 049 1   0 . 020 1   0 . 020 1 

Equation 5 can be rearranged to find the outlet flow area,

Cv Ko 40 3.14 9
ao = = = 1.87 in 2
N5 37.99

The exit velocity of the water jets is found from Equation 2:

W 300 000
Vo = = = 103 ft/s
N 2 ?o a o 25 (62.4 )1.87

Example 3: Trim with Expanding Right Angle Turns

Develop an equation for the resistance coefficient based on outlet area for the flow channel with
constantly expanding passages consisting of closely coupled right angle turns as shown in Figure
3.

Figure 3. Closely couple Right Angle Turns with Expanding Area.

This trim will have a resistance coefficient for the sudden contraction at the inlet, a right angle
turn coefficient for every turn and a sudden expansion at the outlet. The sudden contraction and

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expansion coefficients are 0.5 and 1, respectively, and the right angle turn coefficient is given by
Reference 6 for Mitre Bends with an angle of 90 degrees. The turbulent friction factor in the
Mitre Bend equation would vary depending upon the surface associated with the flow channel
however a good estimate of the resistance coefficient is 1.2. All of the coefficients would need to
be normalized to the outlet area thus accounting for an expansion of the flow area after each turn.
If the ratio of the flow area downstream of the turn to upstream of the turn is Ec and constant,
then the equation for the resistance coefficient is given by Equation 11.

K o = 0.5 Ec8 + 1.2 Ec6 + 1.2Ec4 + 1.2 Ec2 + 1.2 + 1.0 (11)

If there are no expanding channels then Equation 11 would also work with Ec equal to one. The
equation would be applicable to a combination of expanding turns and non-expanding turns with
proper corrections for normalizing to the outlet area.

Conclusion:
A method for calculation the trim exit fluid velocity has been developed. Examples have been
provided and a table of common valve trims developed showing reasonable values of the
resistance coefficients to be used in calculating trim outlet area. These calculations will allow a
user to quickly judge whether a valve’s trim can successfully ha ndle a problem application in the
field or help to judge if it is the root cause of an existing problem.

References:

1. “Control Valve Aerodynamic Noise Prediction, ISA Standard 75.17-1989,” Instrument


Society of America, Research Triangle Park, N. C.,1989
2. “Control valve aerodynamic noise prediction method,” International Standard CEI/IEC
534-8-3:1995. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995.
3. Bauman, H. D, and Page Jr., G. W., “A method to predict sound levels from
hydrodynamic sources associated with flow through throttling valves,” Noise Control
Engineering Journal, Vol. 43, September-October, 1995.
4. Borden, Guy, Jr., “Control Valves – Practical Guides for Measurement and Control”,
Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, N. C., 1998, Chapter 12,
“Control Valve Applications”, pg. 411-477.
5. Miller, H. L., and Stratton, L. R., “Fluid Kinetic Energy as a Selection Criteria for
Control Valves”, ASME Fluids Engineering Division, Summer Meeting, Paper
FEDSM97-3464, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 22-26, 1997.
6. “Flow of Fluids through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe - Publication 410,” Crane Co.,
Stanford, CT, 25th printing 1991, Appendix A, “Physical Properties of Fluids and Flow
Characteristics of Valves, Fittings, and Pipe,” pg A26 & A27.

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