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The research focuses on comparing packing density between two grain shapes of propellant
to get the one with highest packing density.

utilization all spaces area in propellant charges to give high performance for generate huge
gases and heat

1 Introduction


1.1 Problem statement

In computational geometry, packing problems ask whether a set of rigid pieces can be
placed inside a target region such that no two pieces overlap. The utilization of all spaces in
propellant charges will provide higher performance which will generate increases gases and

Furthermore, the shapes of these extrusions for propellant play crucial roles in gun
performance and charge packing density

1.2 Aim of the research

aims to design new propellant grain that have higher packing density while retaining good
propellant ignition.

1.3 Research Objective

This research is advantageous since it facilitates getting high packing density for the
propellant chargers and using the spaces within a propellant charger to optimize
combustion efficiency.
1.4 Method of investigation

In the previous chapter, the researcher presented the focus of this paper including the
contributions it will add to the existing literature once it is completed. In this chapter,
however, a review of relevant literature in order to assess the state of research on the topic.

2.1 Modular charge system

As stated above, the indirect firing artillery systems, such as 155mm artillery, use the
modular charge system (MCS) as their propulsion system of choice. It is incrementally
based and contains several distinct combustible cases (known as charge or zone)
bound together in unique fashion. Each case is filled with varying amounts of
propellant. The range of the projectile can be accustomed by manipulating the amount
of charges used in the system’s chamber. Increasing the number of charges increases
the muzzle velocity of the projectile thus increasing the range and vice versa. When
the MCS is attuned with the elevation angle of the barrel, it offers wider range
coverage. However, MCS requires complex igniting devices that ensures optimal
ignition. If the igniting system fails to carry proper ignition to MCS, it could lead to the
development of an axial pressure wave, which might destroy the system (Minor, 1985
). Figure (3.1) shows a typical example of MCS of mortar as well as 155mm heavy
artillery systems (operation manual 155mm MCS for M71S). The number of charges
per system normally ranges from one to six charges:
Figure 3.1: (MCS) modular charge system

As demonstrated in Figure 3.1 they are missing spaces in the packing. This chapter
will later offer a solution to the utilization of this area inside the charge.

Components of a c502 module:

- Propellant Retaining Device (PRD)

- Bore Wear Reduce Liner (BWRL)
- Combustible Cartridge Case (CCC)
- Igniter
- Propellant Grains (Triple Base Propellant)
- Decoppering Agent
- Flash Tube
- Flash Reducing Disc (FRD)
- Migration Barrier
- Length of C502 module charger 167mm
- Length of zone 6 around 902 mm

2.2 Performance data of the C502

The performance data of the C502 charge with the M71S, FH88 and FH2000 guns, as
well as the combination of ammunition used for firing at each zone, are summarized
in the table below.

Range (km)
Zone Gun Primer Projectile
MV (m/s)
Min Max
M107 HE; M110A2
554 7.2 14.5
M71S M82G
P108 ICM HB 533 6.2 13.9

M107 HE; M110A2

555 7.3 14.5
3 FH88 M82G
P108 ICM HB 544 6.4 14.2

M107 HE; M110A2

573 7.7 15.1
FH2000 M82G
P108 ICM HB 559 6.7 14.6

M107 HE; M110A2

692 9.9 18.4
M71S M82G
P108 ICM HB 668 8.9 17.9

M107 HE; M110A2

694 10.0 18.4
4 FH88 M82G
P108 ICM HB 681 9.2 18.3

M107 HE; M110A2

704 10.2 18.8
FH2000 M82G
P108 ICM HB 684 9.2 18.4

823 16.0 33.1
FH88 M82G
P108 ICM HB 815 12.0 22.7

P109 ICM BB 813 14.4 29.4

814 15.9 32.3
FH2000 M82G
P108 ICM HB 808 11.9 22.5

P109 ICM BB 801 14.1 28.6

925 19.3 40.7
6 FH2000 M82G
P108 ICM HB 917 15.2 27.1

P109 ICM BB 909 17.0 36.1

2.3 Packing Density

Packing density plays vital roles in the occupied volume. The implication is if propellant
grains have high packing density, it applies smaller occupied volume. Smaller occupied
volume means smaller charge cases, which implies smaller gun chamber. Another
advantage, propellant grain with high packing density might eases the passage of gases
generated during ignition. In other words, it is preferred to have propellant charge with high
packing density rather than propellant grain with low packing density.
(The United States of America Patent No. US4094248A, 1977) invent high packing density
propellant grains. Error! Reference source not found. below shows the invented
hexagonal configuration extruded with longitudinally grooved polygonal shaped. It provides
nearly full utilization of the circular volume of a combustible case. Illustrates that this
invention aims to provide high packing density, which minimizes ullage in a weapon.
Furthermore, it eases the passage of gases generated during ignition. Thus, it can be seen
that there are numerous advantages of having propellant grain with high packing density.
Another research aim is to improve the packing density of propellant grains. Thus, grains
can occupied smaller volume and perform much higher.

Figure 2-1: high packing density propellant grains

2.4 Commercial Nesting Packages for Performance Testing Commented [AA1]: Could you please write review. The
file attached
3 Design and measurement

3.1 Propellant charger

Achrge = 17376.27 mm

h = 163.68 mm

3.2 Hexa 7 multi-perfs propellant grain shape

The second proposed shape is a complex geometry After drawing the 3D shape, it will
consist of 36 heads and 54 edges and 20 faces. The faces on either side are a complex
geometric shape, while all other faces are rectangular.
Figure 3-1:Hexa 7 multi-perfs propellant grain shape

The following table shows the ideal measurements of the proposed geometric shape. We
observe the approximate results of the surface area to the reference, which is 73.52 mm.
Face area = 73.52

3.3 Rosette

Face area = 72.52 mm2

4 Metholedgy
After we determine the optimum the web grain for all the candidate become easier to find
which one of them achieves the highest packing density for the charger and then compare it
with the reference.

During this chapter we will explain that software to nesting or another software
propellant grains to get the maximum packing density for propellant inside the
charges for all proposed grain propellant shapes. How many grains will fit in the charge
if we assume the grain same length (20.43 mm) as reference. The surface area for charge

13776.27 mm2
4.1 Verify
Use two software for packing (nesting) or matlab software

4.2 Result

After run MyNesting v5 software I found this result following:

4.2.1 Hexa 7 multi-perfs

Packing efficiency = 0.01353/0.01738 = 0.7784

4.2.2 Rosette

Packing efficiency = 0.01353/0.01738 = 0.7784

5 Conclusion

5.1 Recommendation

5.2 Future work

5.3 Summery