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CHAPTER I

PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction

Food acceptance is the problem of food service administrators. An important


predictor of acceptance is food preference. Residence hold dietitian are
responsible not only for the high-quality service, palatable, attractive food at an
economical price, but also for its acceptance. The purpose of school food service
is to maintain and improve students’ health through nutritious meal and to help
students establish good dietary habit throughout lifetime.

Food preference plays a very important role in the formation of undesired


eating habits for students and reported that people took approximately 0.92 times
the serving volume for food that they liked, 0.54 times the serving volume for food
that they neither liked nor disliked too, and 0.11 times the serving volume for food
they disliked. Thus, the food preference has a quantitative relationship to the
amount of food intake, and may greatly effect on nutrient intake (Baxter et.,al,
2002).

Additionally, Fetzer et.,al (1985) reported that food preference is one of the
main factors affecting the intake of important nutrients, as well as the selection of
foods and is dependent on colors, shapes, tastes, test and texture of the food. For
this reason, the serving of school foods without consideration of students’
preference may be a cause of a poor intake of nutrients.

Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the quality of food preferences
of Senior High School students of General Santos Doctors’ Medical School
Foundation Inc. during the second semester of school year 2018-2019. The
results of this study may be used for preliminary information in the field of nutrition
education, which seeks to improve the health and eating habits of students.

Statement of the Problem

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This study aimed to determine the quality of food preferences of Senior High
School students of General Santos Doctors’ Medical School Foundation Inc.
during the second semester of school year 2018-2019.

Specifically the researchers sought answers to the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the Senior High School students of GSDMSFI


in terms of:
a. Age;
b. Sex; and
c. Socioeconomic status?
2. What are the quality of food preference of the senior high school
students of GSDMSFI in terms of:
a. Age;
b. Sex; and
c. Socioeconomic status?

Significance of the Study

This study gives benefits to the following people:

To the students, this study may help them realize that it is important to eat
healthy and grow up healthy and to maintain a healthy weight to prevent obesity.

To the administrators, this study may help them as they would have the
knowledge to address healthy eating problems within the school since students
spend a large part of their day in school.

To the teachers, this study may help them gain more information to influence
students and encourage them about healthy eating behaviours.

To the future researchers, this study may help them to establish data that
can be a reference to the future studies.

Scope and Delimitation

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This study examined the quality of food preferences of Senior High School
students General Santos Doctors’ Medical School Foundation Inc. who were
officially enrolled during the second semester of school year 2018 - 2019. The
respondents of the study were delimited to the randomly selected grade 11
students from Stem A Fleming and Stem B Mendel. Researchers adapted a
questionnaire that was made by Andrea Smith entitled Food Preference for
adolescents and adults.

Theoretical Framework

This research is anchored to the Theory of T. Furst et.,al (1996) the Food
choice process model, a grounded theory model portraying many factors and
processes shaping a person’s thoughts, feelings, and actions related to food and
eating. Based on life course events and experiences and in the context of many
types of influences, a person constructs a personal food system as well as the
influences and the person’s life course.

A basic and universal factor that provided the groundwork for food choices
was the life course, which included past influences of personal experiences and
historical eras, current involvement in trends and transition and anticipations of
future events. Several participants referred to ways their upbringing, as members
of a given culture during a particular historic period and as participants in a family
life course, exerted an influence upon how they made food choices.

Sensory physiological and psychological mechanisms are reviewed that


underlie emotional influences on food choice. Both moods and emotions are
considered. Eating a meal will reliably alter mood and emotional predisposition,
typically reducing arousal and irritably, and increasing calmness and positive
effect. However, this depends on the meal size and compositions being close to
the eater’s habit, expectation and needs (Gibson, 2006).

Definition of Terms

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The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally for clarification
and better understanding.

Healthy Food Preference. This term refers to the foods that give people
proper nutrients to the body such as fruits, vegetables, protein and grains.

Unhealthy Food Preference. This term refers to the food that does not give
people proper nutrients to the body such as junk foods, carbonated drinks and
processed foods.

Quality. This terms refers to the characteristics of food that are acceptable to
the consumers which include more aspects than appearance and taste; whether
it is fresh or old.

Senior High School Students. This term refers to the respondents of the
study; the Grade 11 Fleming and Grade 11 Mendel who answered several
questions in the present study to determine the results.

CHAPTER II

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the related literature, studies, and concepts. The
purpose of this chapter is to examine the contribution of the different authors and
short overview of their ideas based on theories on problems on the quality of food
preferences that is essential in developing a healthy lifestyle.

Related literature

Quality of Food Preferences

The main basic determinants of food choice are caused by our physiological
needs. People need food to provide the body with essential elements of protein,
carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals on order to stay alive and maintain
good health (Johnston et. al., 2015).

According to the study of Drewnoski (2016), on taste preference and food


intake, he emphasized that sensory responses to the taste, smell, and texture of
foods help determine food preferences and eating habits. However, sensory
responses alone do not predict food consumption. Taste responses are influenced
by a range of genetic, physiological, and metabolic variables. The impact of taste
factors on food intake further depends on sex and age and is modulated by
obesity, eating behaviours. Food preferences and food choices of populations are
further linked to attitudinal, social, and probably most important economic
variables such as income.

Furthermore, in the study of Mennella J.A. et.al (2001), it has been reiterated
that humans desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures.
Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to
orient feeding behaviour towards foods providing both energy and essential
nutrients. However, the use has led to further concerns that dissociating
sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response appetite
and consumption patterns, especially during development.

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Moreover, Mingjie J. et.,al (2015) proposed a framework of tourist food
experiences that leads from food-related personality traits, novel consumption,
and satisfaction to travel outcomes. While the results support the baseline model,
the moderating effect of novelty seeking demonstrates that novelty seeking does
not moderate the relationship between personality traits and consumption of novel
food. It does, however, moderate satisfaction with food.

Also, Wright J.D. (2015) added an idea that human food choice is influenced
by biological, psychological, and cultural factors. Because humans are food
generalist, and because the food environment in the first world is so different from
the ancestral human environment, innate the predispositions play a minimal role.
Humans principally learn to eat and like certain foods, and avoid others, with
traditions being the main influence. As a result, the pleasures of eating, have
become tempered by a fear of fat and food.

In addition, Moore et. al (2013), pointed out that an increasing focus on


legislation, policy and guidance on the nutritional content of school food has been
in response to the limited impact of more behavioral or educational approaches.
However, there is a risk that a sole focus on policy-level action may lead to neglect
of the important contribution that more behavioral approaches can make as
components of effective, coordinated, multilevel action to improve the dietary
intake of school children.

Based on the study conducted by A. McKeon & R. Nelson (2018), the


adolescent’s period is the stage in the life cycle in which individuals begin to
develop independent decision making related to their social environment including
their dietary intake. When adolescents are given free choice they tend to follow an
unbalanced diet with some diets raising concerns for their current and future
health. Fifty-seven percent of respondents displayed serious concerns in their
dietary choice of which 18% were identified as requiring immediate intervention.
The most noticeable factors affecting dietary choice were the desire to eat foods
high in fat and carbohydrates and low in fruit and vegetable consumption.

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Generally, it has been always been emphasized that food habits and
preference of adolescents of 10 to 20 years old. Show that food habits and tastes
are mostly related to age and gender. Girls pay more attention to dietetics and
snack less than boys. Young adolescents ages 10 to 16 prefer bland and familiar
foods whereas older ones 17 to 20 learn to appreciate ‘adult’ foods. As they grow
older, children snack more, skip more meals and seem interested in foreign foods.
Before puberty teenagers reject many foods they previously liked. After puberty
they begin to appreciate some foods they didn’t like before. Their food repertoire
widens at this period because of social and cognitive influences (C, T. Nu, P.,
Macleod & Barthelme n.d,).

Gender- based

The association between certain foods and masculinity or feminity has been
widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to
clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food
and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of
food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the
gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the
intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods.
We manipulated the three features in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2
(portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial
design.

Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the


small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the
big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered “feminine food”,
and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. Based
on the overview of (N., Cavazza, M., Guidetti & F., Buterra 2015).

Vegetables and other core food groups

The study shows that vegetables, relative to other food groups, have
sensory properties that are known to predispose to low acceptance based on

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innate likes and dislikes or preferences acquired within the first few months of life.
High hardness of vegetables implicates a slow eating rate, which is generally
beneficial from a public health perspective, but may make it difficult to meet
recommended vegetable intake. To increase children’s acceptance and intake for
vegetables, either vegetables sensory properties can be modified, or children’s
acceptance for vegetables can be modified through sensory learning strategies
(Delahunty C.M., 2017).

Socioeconomic classes

According to the report of National Economic and Development Association -


NEDA (2018), the socioeconomic bracketing of the Filipinos are based on factors
such as, the ability of the home, indoor quality house maintenance, neighborhood
location of the house, education of the household, occupation of the household
head, facilities of the house and the estimated household monthly income. NEDA
categorized the estimated household monthly income by class. Class E’s monthly
income is P8,000 and below, while Class D ranges from P8,001 - P15,000. The
Broad C class ranges from P15,001 - P30,000, while the Upper C Class ranges
from P30,001 - P50,000. The elitist are the Class AB. As for Class B, the estimated
household monthly income ranges from P50,001 - P99,000 whereas for Class A’s
income range, it is from P100,000 and above Filipinos aged 15 - 50 in 2015,
around 0.6% were class AB; 5% were of class Upper C; 17% were part of class
Broad C, and around 48% were class D lastly, around 29% were class E.

Related Studies

According to the study of McLeod and Ton Nu (1996) on effects of age and
gender on adolescents food habits and preferences, the results show that food
habits and tastes are mostly related to age and gender. Girls pay more attention
to dietetics and snack less than boys. Young adolescents prefer bland and familiar
foods whereas older ones learn to appreciate ‘adult’ foods. As they grow older,
children snack more, skip more meals and seem more interested in foreign foods.

8
Before puberty teenagers reject many foods they previously liked. After puberty
they begin to appreciate some foods they didn't like before. Their food repertoire
widens at this period because of social and cognitive influences.

Interestingly, in the study of Mensik et.al (2013), the impact of the environment
on peoples, food choices and eating behavior is dependent on the way in which
people make their food decisions. Specifically, decision-making and choice
behavior usually results from one or two distinct cognitive processes: reflective or
impulsive processes. When decision making is powered by the reflective system.
When we apply these insights to the current topic of eating behavior, it is to be
expected that the environment strongly influences such behavior when people
make food choices via impulsive system. At the same time, school cafeterias offer
great potential to improve students eating behavior. When taken into consideration
that most students tend to engaged impulsive decision making.

Additionally, in the study of Mela (2001), the development and acquisition of


food likes the anticipation sensation of pleasure derived from food consumption
are critical influences on food acceptance and selection. Domestically,
agriculturally, and industrially, a high proportion of food development and
production resources are invested and ensuring the products will be highly liked
when eaten.

Meanwhile, in the study of Kovisto and Sjoden n.d, they believed that
compared to young children, adolescents experience greater autonomy and, thus,
their food choices may be influenced by growing independence. Some researches
have shown stability in food consumption patterns and/or neophobia throughout
childhood and adolescence.

Sizer et.al (2016) also believes that eating is an intentional act. Each day,
people choose from the available food, prepare the food, and decides where to
act, which customs to follow and with whom to dine many factors influence food
related choices.

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The preferences for certain foods is one aspect of food habits, and its
importance as an expression of the consumer’s interests in different foods. Food
habits are not always as stable as one may expect. Many factors influence food
preferences, such as the availability of food, the price, customs and educate at
home, taste, consistency and colour of the food, and also nutrition education
(Ahmed, 2013).

In the study of Carnell & Wardle (2018), the authors emphasized that appetite
training is one of most important factors that play a role in children food
preferences, which can determine children food choice. Taste plays an influential
role on the selection of food. Different sensory receptors in the tongue are
responsible for sensory tasting plays an important role to draw a conclusion for
each type of food. when the child is introduced to complementary foods, many
factors determine the direction of human preferences to certain type of food. (
Booth, Sharpe & Conner, 2014)

In addition, the study of Furst et,.al (2017) discussed about the appearance of
food is the key factor that affects food preferences. We eat what our eyes like to
see (Rouby, Schaal & Dubois, 2014). Research has shown that serving plays an
important role in food preferences (Wilbur, 2013). Contrast in colours when
serving food is preferred (Wilbur, 2013) and different colours are important to
attract attention.

Also, in the study of Nederkoorn, A. Jansen & R, C. Havermans, it has been


stated that children who are very picky in eating frequently refuse the intake of
foods. This rejection is not only based on the evaluation of taste, but also on tactile
qualities of foods. It matters whether food is crispy or slimy, consistent, or with bits
and pips. It is hypothesized that children who are more sensitive to touch and
dislike the feel of various tactile stimuli in general, are also more dismissive
of tactile stimulation in their mouth and therefore more selective in their eating. In
the present study, 44 children between the ages of 4 and 10 were asked to feel
different tactile stimuli with their hands and to taste different foods. Results
showed a significant positive correlation between the evaluations of the two

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modalities, especially for the younger subjects. This suggests that tactile
sensitivity might play a role in the acceptance of food.

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Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, research locale, respondents


and sampling techniques, statistical treatment, research instrument, research
procedure, and the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.

Research Design

This research utilized a descriptive survey. Descriptive research design


involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates depicts
and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It often uses visual
aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data
distribution. The researchers used this method because the aim of the study was
to determine the quality of food preference of senior high school students of
General Santos Doctors medical School Foundation Inc.

Research Locale

This study was conducted in General Santos City particularly in General


Santos Doctors’ Medical School Foundation Inc., located at Bulaong Subdivision
Barangay West, General Santos City. General Santos Doctors’ Medical School
Foundation Inc., is a private non- sectarian educational institution. It offers
undergraduate programs in Medical Technology, Nursing, Pharmacy, Midwifery,
Psychology, Physical Therapist and Radiologic Technology. It also offers STEM
strand for the Senior High School program.

Research Respondents

The respondents of the research were the randomly selected Grade 11


students from the Senior High School Department of General Santos Doctors’
Medical School Foundation Inc. for SY: 2018-2019. From the total population of
all students in two sections, only 44 students were chosen through random
sampling technique and Slovin’s formula.

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Table 1

Distribution of Respondents

Grade Section Population Number of Respondents

11 Fleming 39 22

11 Mendel 40 22

Total 79 44

Research instrument

The researchers used a research-adapted questionnaire. The research-


adapted questionnaire is composed of six categories which are the vegetables,
fruits, meat/fish, dairy, snacks and starches. The vegetables and meat/fish
categories were composed of ten (10) items while the fruit, dairy, snacks and
starches categories were composed of five (5) items. The respondents have
answered the questionnaires by using the Five Point Likert Scale: Five (5) means
like a lot, Four (4) means like a little, Three (3) means neither like nor dislike, Two
(2) means dislike a little, and One (1) means dislike a lot.

Validity and Reliability

The research-adapted questionnaire was made by Andrea Smith entitled


Food Preference for adolescents and adults. Andrea Smith, an MRC-funded PhD
student who joined the HBRC in September 2014. The focus of her PhD is to
understand genetic and environmental contributions to food and drink preferences
and their relationship with weight. The reason why the researchers used this
questionnaire is because it is affiliated and relevant to the present study. The
questionnaire comprises different food categories and items in which it is useful to
gather to answer the research problem. In addition, this questionnaire is valid
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because Andrea Smith used this to her own study entitled Food Preference for
adolescents and adults.

Data Gathering Procedure

The research covered the following procedure in conducting the study: First,
the researchers wrote a letter of request asking permission to conduct the study
addressed to the principal of General Santos Doctors’ Medical School Foundation
Inc. As soon as the letter was approved, the researchers set the date and time to
conduct the study to the respondents. Second, on the assumed date and time, the
researchers approached the class advisers and presented the approved request
signed by the school principal. When permission was granted, the researchers
personally administered the questionnaires to the randomly selected respondents
per section which is grade 11 Mendel and Fleming. Finally, when the respondents
were already done answering; the researchers retrieved and gathered all
answered survey questionnaires for the tallying of data.

Statistical treatment

To solve the sub-problems, the following statistical tool were used

Frequency counts and weighted mean were used to answer sub problem 1
and 2.

Hence:

Where,

X (sometimes called the X-bar) is the symbol for the mean.

𝚺 (The Greek letter sigma) is the symbol for summation.

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X is the symbol for the scores

N is the symbol for the number of scores

Chapter IV

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Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation Of Data

In this chapter, the presentation of the findings, analysis, and interpretation of


the date collected from the respondents is presented. The primary objective was
to investigate the quality of food preference of senior high school students. This
chapter explains and discusses the results of the questionnaire responded by 44
students. The respondents of the study were given the assurance that all the data
gathered shall be used for the research purpose and the identities of the
respondents would be kept with utmost confidentiality. This section also wants to
achieve particular goals and objectives of the study - which is to answer the
research questions and problems stated in Chapter 1.

Quality of Food Preference based on Age

The table 2 discusses and presents the analysis and interpretation of data
about the quality of food preferences based on the respondents’ age group 16,
17, and 18. In Table 2A, the results show that the students who are 16 years old
like eating vegetables a little (3.853), dislike eating fruits a lot (2.439), like eating
meat/fish a little (3.81), dislike eating dairy (2.027), snacks (2.14) and starches
(2.26) a lot.

Overall, the quality of food preferences of the respondents with the age of 16
years old got a weighted mean of 3.853 described as like a little. This means that
the respondents with the age of 16 like the listed food a little and that they
preferred eating vegetables at their age.

On the other hand, table 2B shows the quality of food preference of the
respondents with the age of 17 years old. The results appeared that the
respondents like eating vegetables a little (4.07) and like eating fruits (4.68),
meat/fish (4.21), dairy (4.58), snacks (4.64) and starches (4.58) a lot.

Overall, the quality of food preferences of the respondents with the age of 17
years old got a weighted mean of 4.68 described as like a lot. This means that the

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respondents with the age of 17 like the listed food a lot and that they preferred
eating fruits at their age.

In table 3C, the results appeared that the respondents with the age of 18 years
old like eating vegetables a little (4.36) , like eating fruits (4.64), and snacks (4.60)
a lot and also like eating meat/fish (4.16), dairy (4) and starches (4.48) a little.

Overall, the quality of food preferences of the respondents with the age of 18
years old got a weighted mean of 4.64 described as like a lot. This means that the
the respondents with the age of 18 like the listed food a lot and that they preferred
eating fruits at their age.

Table 2

Age Group

STATEMENTS WM DESCRIPTION

A. 16 years old

1. Vegetables 3.853 Like a little

2. Fruits 2.439 Dislike a lot

3. Meat/Fish 3.81 Like a little

4. Dairy 2.027 Dislike a lot

5. Snacks 2.14 Dislike a lot

6. Starches 2.226 Dislike a lot

Weighted Mean 3.853 Like a little

B. 17 years old

1. Vegetables 4.07 Like a little

2. Fruits 4.68 Like a lot

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3. Meat/Fish 4.21 Like a lot

4. Dairy 4.58 Like a lot

5. Snacks 4.64 Like a lot

6. Starches 4.58 Like a lot

Weighted Mean 4.68 Like a lot

C. 18 years old

1. Vegetables 4.36 Like a little

2. Fruits 4.64 Like a lot

3. Meat/Fish 4.16 Like a little

4. Dairy 4 Like a little

5. Snacks 4.60 Like a lot

6. Starches 4.48 Like a little

Weighted Mean 4.64 Like a lot

Food Preference in terms of Sex

The Table 3 presents the result in the quality of food preference in terms of
sex group; Male and Female.

The table 3A shows the quality of food preference with respect to the Male
category. The results appears that the Male grade 11 senior high school students
like eating vegetables (4.28) a little, like eating fruits (4.79) a lot, like eating
meat/fish (4.3) and dairy (4.23) a little, like eating snacks (4.63) and starches (4.5)
a lot.

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Overall, the quality of food preference on the Male category got a weighted
mean of 4.79 described as like a lot. This means that the Male respondents like
the listed food a lot and that they preferred eating fruits.

The table 3B the quality of food preference with respect to the Female
category. The results show that the Female grade 11 senior high school students
like eating vegetables (4.05), meat/fish (4.103), and dairy (4.11) a little, and like
eating fruits (4.72), snacks ( 4.548), and starches (4.574) a lot.

Overall, the quality of food preference on the Female category got a weighted
mean of 4.72 described as like a lot. This means that the Female respondents like
the listed food a lot and that they also preferred eating fruits.

Table 3

Sex Group

Statements WM DESCRIPTION

A. Male

1. Vegetables 4.28 Like a little

2. Fruits 4.79 Like a lot

3. Meat/Fish 4.3 Like a little

4. Dairy 4.23 Like a little

5. Snacks 4.63 Like a lot

6. Starches 4.5 Like a lot

Weighted Mean 4.79 Like a lot

B. Female

1. Vegetables 4.05 Like a little

2. Fruits 4.72 Like a lot

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3. Meat/Fish 4.103 Like a little

4. Dairy 4.11 Like a little

5. Snacks 4.548 Like a lot

6. Starches 4.574 Like a lot

Weighted Mean 4.72 Like a lot

Food Preferences based on Socioeconomic Status

The table 4 presents the results on the quality of food preference in terms of
Socioeconomic Status. The socioeconomic status is categorized by the estimated
house hold monthly income. The class A’s monthly income is from P100,000 and
above, while class B ranges from P50,001 to P99,000, and for the class C, it
ranges from P30,001 to P50,000. The class D ranges from P15,001 to P30,000,
the class E ranges from P8,001 to P15,000 and for the class F’s income range is
from P8,000 below.

In table 4A, the results show that the respondents in Class A preferred eating
a lot of vegetables (4.57), fruits (4.93), meat/fish (4.60), dairy (4.6), snacks (4.8),
and lastly starches (4.73).

Overall, the quality of food preference classified in class A got a weighted


mean of 4.93 described as like a lot. This means the respondents that belongs in
Class A like the listed food a lot and that they preferred eating fruits.

In table 4B, the results show that the respondents in Class B preferred eating
a little of vegetables (4.23), fruits (4.08), meat/fish (3.82), dairy (4.37), snacks
(4.37) and like eating starches (4.73) a lot.

Overall, the quality of food preference classified in class B got a weighted


mean of 4.73 described as like a lot. This means that the respondents in class B
like the listed food a lot and that they preferred eating starches.

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In table 4C, the results show that the respondents in class C preferred eating
a little of vegetables (4.1006), meat/fish (4.375), dairy (4.372), and then like eating
fruits (4.722), snacks (4.696) and starches (4.666) a lot .

Overall, the quality of food preference classified in class C got a weighted


mean of 4.722 described as like a lot. This means that the respondents in class C
like the listed food a lot and that they preferred eating fruits.

In table 4D, the results show that the respondents in class D preferred eating
a little of vegetables (3.927), meat/fish (3.893), dairy (4.1968), snacks (4.306), and
like eating fruits (4.674) and starches (4.60) a lot.

Overall, the quality of food preference classified in class D got a weighted


mean of 4.674 describes as like a lot. This means that the respondents in class D
like the listed food a lot and that they preferred eating fruits.

In table 4E, the results show that the respondents in class E preferred eating
a lot of vegetables (4.8655), fruits (4.6646), and like eating meat/fish (3.93), dairy
(3.996), snacks (4.464) and starches (3.996) a little.

Overall, the quality of food preference classified in class E got a weighted


mean of 4.8655 described as like a lot. This means that the respondents in class
E like the listed food a lot and that they preferred eating vegetables.

Table 4

Socioeconomic Status Group

Statement WM Description

A. Class A

1. Vegetables 4.57 Like a lot

2. Fruits 4.93 Like a lot

3. Meat/Fish 4.60 Like a lot

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4. Dairy 4.6 Like a lot

5. Snacks 4.8 Like a lot

6. Starches 4.73 Like a lot

Weighted Mean 4.93 Like a lot

B. Class B

1. Vegetables 4.23 Like a little

2. Fruits 4.08 Like a little

3. Meat/Fish 3.82 Like a little

4. Dairy 4.37 Like a little

5. Starches 4.37 Like a little

6. Snacks 4.73 Like a lot

Weighted Mean 4.73 Like a lot

C. Class C

1. Vegetables 4.106 Like a little

2. Fruits 4.722 Like a lot

3. Meat/Fish 4.375 Like a little

4. Dairy 4.372 Like a little

5. Starches 4.696 Like a lot

6. Snacks 4.666 Like a lot

Weighted Mean 4.722 Like a lot

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Implication based on the results of the study

The results of the study show that the quality food preference of the
respondents are mostly related to age, gender and socioeconomic. It shows that
in age 16 years old, they mostly prefer vegetables but still low with a mean average
of 3.853. And in 17 years old, they prefer fruits with a mean average of 4.68. While
in Male and Female category, they have the same preference which is fruits, with
mean averages of 4.79 and 4.72 respectively. And in socioeconomic status, the
Class A, C and D prefer fruits, while the Class B prefers starches and class E
prefers vegetables.

This result is related to the study of McLeod and Ton Nu (1996) of effects of
age and gender on adolescents food habits and preferences. The results of the
study show that food habits and tastes are mostly related to age and gender. Girls
pay more attention to dietetics and snack less than boys. Young adolescents
prefer bland and familiar foods whereas older ones learn to appreciate ‘adult’
foods. As they grow older, children snack more, skip more meals and seem more
interested in foreign foods. Before puberty teenagers reject many foods they
previously liked. After puberty they begin to appreciate some foods they didn't like
before. Their food repertoire widens at this period because of social and cognitive
influences.

This has also been highlighted on the study of Kovisto and Sjoden n.d that
compared to young children, adolescents experience greater autonomy and, thus,
their food choices may be influenced by growing independence. Some
researchers have shown stability in food consumption patterns and/or neophobia
throughout childhood and adolescence.

23
Chapter V

Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter deals with the summary of findings, conclusions and

recommendations of the study.

Summary

This study aimed to investigate the Quality of Food Preferences of Senior


High School students of General Santos Doctors’ Medical School Foundation Inc.
during the second semester of school year 2018-2019.

Specifically, the researchers sought answers to the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the Senior High School students of GSDMSFI


in terms of:
a. Age;
b. Sex; and
c. Socioeconomic status?
2. What are the quality of food preference of the senior high school
students of GSDMSFI in terms of:
a. Age;
b. Sex; and
c. Socioeconomic status?

The respondents of the research are chosen randomly from Grade 11 Senior
High School students of General Santos Doctors’ Medical School Foundation Inc.
for SY: 2018-2019. From the total population of all students in different sections,
only 44 students were chosen through random sampling technique and Slovin’s
formula. The data were collected using a research-adapted questionnaire and the
study employed a descriptive survey method. The statistical tools used in the
analysis were frequency count and weighted mean.

24
Findings

Based on the results of the data gathered, the researchers had come up with

these findings:

1. The respondents of this study were categorized according to their profile,

specifically it is classified into age, sex, and socioeconomic status. In age,

the respondents were classified into 16 years old, 17 years old, and 18

years old. In sex, the respondents were classified into Male and Female.

And in socioeconomic status, the respondents were classified according to

their family’s monthly income; Class A ranges from P100,000 and above,

while class B ranges from P50,001 to P99,000, and class C ranges from

P30,001 to P50,000. The class D ranges from P15,001 to P30,000, the

class E ranges from P8,001 to P15,000 and for the class F’s income range

is from P8,000 below.

2. It was found out that the Quality of Food Preferences of Senior High School

Students in terms of:

a. Age

The respondents with the age of 16 years old prefer eating vegetables at

their age. On the other hand, the respondents that ranges from 17 to 18

years old prefer eating fruits.

b. Sex

The findings show that on the category of male and female; the respondents

of the two categories both prefer eating fruits.

25
c. Economic Status

In class A, the respondents prefer eating vegetables, fruits, meat/fish dairy,

snacks and starches but the highest average among them is the fruits. In

class B, the respondents preferred eating starches. In Class C, the

respondents preferred eating fruits. In Class D, the respondents preferred

eating fruits. In Class E, the respondents preferred eating vegetables.

Conclusions

Based from the findings, the following conclusions were made:

1. At the age 17 and 18 years old in male category, the respondents preferred

eating fruits rather than the age of 16 years old that prefers eating

vegetables

2. Both male and female preferred eating fruits rather than vegetables,

meat/fish, dairy, snacks, and starches.

3. Class A, C, and D, preferred eating fruits rather than eating vegetables,

meat/fish, dairy, snacks and starches. And only class B and class C

preferred eating starches and vegetables.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following

recommendations were hereby given:

26
1. Canteens inside the school should use their creativity, resources, and full

range of marketing practices to promote and support more healthful diets for

children and youth.

2. The school should develop and implement nutrition standards for competitive

foods and beverages sold or served in the school environment.

3. The school should work with government, scientific, public health, and

consumer groups to establish and enforce the highest standards for the

marketing of foods, beverages, and meals to children and youth.

4. State and local educational authorities, with support from parents, health

authorities, and other stakeholders, should educate about and promote

healthful diets for children and youth in all aspects of the school environment.

27
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30
Appendix A
Letter of Permission to Conduct the Study

31
General Santos Doctors Medical School Foundation Inc.
Bulaong Subdivision, Brgy. Dadiangas West
General Santos City

March 4, 2019
Ms. Grace Joy Nietes, Rn. Man
College Dean
General Santos Doctors Medical School Foundation Inc.
General Santos City, 9500

Dear Ms. Grace Joy Nietes,

Greetings!

The undersigned is a Grade 11 Senior High School Student of General Santos Doctors
Medical School Foundation Inc. We are currently processing and pursuing our research
study for this school year entitled “QUALITY OF FOOD PREFERENCE OF SENIOR
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF GENERAL SANTOS DOCTORS MEDICAL SCHOOL
FOUNDATION INC.”

In connection to this, we would like to ask permission from your good office to allow us to
conduct a classroom visitation to gather the needed data for our study. The survey will
only take 10 minutes and we will assure that the data collected will remain secured and
confidential.

I am hoping for positive response from your office. Thank you so much and God Bless!

Respectfully yours, Noted by:


REYNALDO F. CORTEZ MARIA TREXIA O. MATIVO
Research Representative Research Teacher

Approved by:

MS. GRACE JOY NIETES, RN. MAN


College Dean

32
General Santos Doctors Medical School Foundation Inc.
Bulaong Subdivision, Brgy. Dadiangas West
General Santos City

March 4, 2019
Dr. Monina M. Duqueza Ph.D.
Principal
General Santos Doctors Medical School Foundation Inc.
General Santos City, 9500

Dear Dr. Monina M. Duqueza,

Greetings!

The undersigned is a Grade 11 Senior High School Student of General Santos Doctors
Medical School Foundation Inc. We are currently processing and pursuing our research
study for this school year entitled “QUALITY OF FOOD PREFERENCE OF SENIOR
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF GENERAL SANTOS DOCTORS MEDICAL SCHOOL
FOUNDATION INC.”

In connection to this, we would like to ask permission from your good office to allow us to
conduct a classroom visitation to gather the needed data for our study. The survey will
only take 10 minutes and we will assure that the data collected will remain secured and
confidential.

I am hoping for positive response from your office. Thank you so much and God Bless.

Respectfully yours, Noted by:


REYNALDO F. CORTEZ MARIA TREXIA O. MATIVO
Research Representative Research Teacher

Approved by:
DR. MONINA M. DUQUEZA PH.D.
Principal

33
Appendix B
Questionnaire

34
Curriculum Vitae

35
Personal Data

Name: Alyanna Marie U. Baldoquin

Age: 17 years old

Adress: Barangay Apopong, Yu Village, General Santos City

Date of Birth: October 31, 2001

Place of Birth: Yu Village, Barangay Apopong, General Santos City

Father’s Name: Tirso B. Baldoquin

Mother’s Name: Cheril U. Baldoquin

Civil Status: Single

Education Background

Elementary: Holy Trinity Colleges of General Santos City

Secondary: Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Colleges

36
Personal Data

Name: Reynaldo F. Cortez

Age:17

Address: Brgy. Conel General Santos City

Birthday: Oct. 13, 2001

Birthplace: Well Family Clinic. General Santos City

Fathers Name: Lorenzo Cortez

Mothers name: Haziar Cortez

Civil Status: Single

Education Background

Elementary: Dadiangas North Elem. School

Secondary: Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Colleges

37
Personal Data

Name: Felynn Zena L. Devaras

Age: 17 years old

Address: Prk. Mauswagon Labangal, General Santos City

Date of Birth: January 07, 2001

Place of Birth: Sacred Heart Hospital, Cebu City

Father’s Name: Felimon S. Alberca

Mother’s Name: Nora L. Devaras

Civil Status: Single

Education Background

Elementary: Seventh-Day Adventist Elementary School

Secondary: Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Colleges

38
Personal Data

Name: Viviene Aiza A. Jalani

Age: 16

Address: Prk. 2, Brgy. Batomelong General Santos City

Date of Birth: Sept. 28, 2002

Place of Birth: General Santos Doctors Hospital

Father's Name: Hassib S. Jalani

Mother's Name: Anady A. Jalani

Civil Status: Single

Education Background

Elementary Year Graduated: Lagao Alliance School

Secondary Year Graduated: Holy Trinity College of General Santos City

39
Personal Data

Name: Irish Shane G. Jalop

Age: 17

Address: Blk 22 Lot 16 Ph. VI Dona Soledad Subd.

General Santos City

Date of birth: April 11, 2001

Place of birth: General Santos City

Father's Name: Roland R. Jalop

Mothers name: Shallie G. Jalop

Civil Status: Single

Education Background

Elementary: Dadiangas West Central Elementary School

Secondary : Holy Cross Academy Inc.

40
Personal Data

Name: Reyzmar Faye E. Labao

Age: 17

Address: Prk. malipayon Brgy. San Isidro General Santos City

Date of birth: November 20 2001

Place of birth: General Santos City

Father's Name: Reyzinald A. Labao

Mothers name: Mary Grace E. Labao

Civil Status: Single

Educational Background

Elementary: General Santos City Sped Integrated School

Secondary: General Santos City Sped Integrated School

41
Personal Data

Name: Nur Haniefah R. Mamalimping

Age: 17

Address: Blk 5 Lot 4 Labus, Barangay Fatima, Uhaw General

Santos City

Date of birth: March 29 2001

Place of birth: Cotabato City

Father's Name: Pendatun Mamalimping

Mothers name: Annaliza Mamalimping

Civil Status: Single

Education Background

Elementary: Upper Bicutan Elementary School

Secondary: Holy Trinity College of General Santos City

42
Personal Data

Name: Chendie Shane B. Martinez

Age: 18

Address: blk. 03 lot 07 Crest Shelter Subdivision Barangay San

Isidro General Santos City

Date of birth: January 10, 2001

Place of birth: General Santos City

Father's Name: Vincent S. Martinez

Mothers name: Diana B. Martinez

Civil Status: Single

Educational Background

Elementary: Bula Christian School

Secondary: Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Colleges

43