Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Lec:1

19 th SEp.,2017

Internal Combustion Engines ME 4142

Dr. Saif ur Rahman Department of Mechanical Engineering

COURSE OVERVIEW

TEXT BOOK

FUNDAMENTALS of INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES by

H.N.Gupta

Reference Books:

1. Internal Combustion Engines: Applied

Thermosciences by Colin R. Ferguson

2. Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine (2nd Ed) by W.P Pulkrabek

3. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, by

Heywood, J. B.,

Calendar of Activities (tentative)

Week

Contents

Tasks/Activities

1

Session 1-2;

Thermodynamics review of IC engine related topics

2

Lectures

2

Session 3-4;

Chap 1; Introduction Engine types and Basic Operations

2

Lectures

3-4

Session 5-8;

Chap 2; Standard cycles and analysis, Operation parameters and characteristics

4

Lectures

5-6

Session 9-12; Chap 3; Thermo-Chemistry of fuel air Mixture

4

Lectures

7-8

Session 13-16; Chap 4; Fuel Cycles and Analysis

4

Lectures

9-10

Session 17-20; Chap 5; Models of Engine cycles

4

Lectures

11

Session 21-22; Chap 6; Combustion in spark ignition engine

2

Lectures

12

Session 23-24; Chap 7; Combustion in compression ignition Engine

2

Lectures

13-14

Session 25-28; Chap 8, 9, and 10; Fuels and Knocking Carburetors and fuel injectors

4

Lectures

15

Session 29-30; Misc. Chapters; Friction, Lubrication, and Pollution

2

Lectures

16

Session 31-32; Reports and Presentations

2

Lectures

Grading

Assignments

7%

Quizzes

13%

Term Project

10%

Midterm Exam

20%

Final Exams

50%

Course Learning Outcomes

CLO 1.

Demonstrate ability to apply and analyze various thermodynamic cycles to internal combustion engines.

Analysis of combustion in engines. (C4)

CLO 2.

Specify and interpret engine design parameters as well as performance data for a variety of internal combustion engine systems. (C5)

CLO 3.

Develop an ability to explain pollutant formation, its effect

on environment and control. (C3)

CLO to PLO mapping

CLO to PLO mapping

PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES

PLO2

 

Problem Analysis: An ability to identify, formulate, research literature, and

 

analyze complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using

first principles of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences.

PLO4

Investigation: An ability to investigate complex engineering problems in a methodical way including literature survey, design and conduct of experiments, analysis and interpretation of experimental data, and synthesis of information to derive valid conclusions.

 

PLO7

Environment and Sustainability: An ability to understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable development.

COURSE OVERVIEW

Review of ME-2123 Thermodynamics II

Important topics reviewed will be

Thermodynamic processes

Thermodynamic Cycles

Otto Cycle/ Diesel Cycle

Engines Requiring Combustion

External Combustion Engine

Steam Engine

Coal and Wood based transportation systems

Internal Combustion Engine

Petroleum based transportation systems

Compression Ignition Engine

Spark Ignition Engine

Gas Turbines

Discovery of Petroleum

Discovery of Petroleum

Petroleum and ICE

First major step towards the use of hydrocarbon fueled internal combustion engines was the discovery of “large” amounts of petroleum in

1859 at Drake’s Well, Titusville, Pennsylvania (Fig. left)

20 barrels per day of oil was produced

Transition from coal and wood fired transportation system to oil based engine was slow at first

A very important milestone in the evolution of internal combustion

engines was the discovery in 1901 of a vast reservoir of oil at Spindletop

Dome in east Texas. The Lucas #1 gusher (Fig. right) produced 100,000 barrels of oil per day

This made sure that the Second Industrial Revolution would be fueled by oil, not coal

THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES

A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic

evolution of a thermodynamic system proceeding from an initial state to a final state. Paths through the space of thermodynamic variables are

often specified by holding certain thermodynamic variables

constant.

Processes:

Isothermal

Isobaric

Iso-volumetric

Adiabatic

Thermodynamic Processes - Isothermal

Thermodynamic Processes - Isothermal To keep the temperature constant both the pressure and volume change to

To keep the temperature

constant both the

pressure and volume change to compensate. (Volume goes up, pressure goes down)

“BOYLES’ LAW”

constant both the pressure and volume change to compensate. (Volume goes up, pressure goes down) “BOYLES’

Thermodynamic Processes - Isobaric

Thermodynamic Processes - Isobaric Heat is added to the gas which increases the Internal Energy (U)

Heat is added to the gas which increases the Internal Energy (U) Work

is done by the gas as it

changes in volume.

The path of an isobaric process is a horizontal line

called an isobar.

∆U = Q - W can be used since the WORK is POSITIVE in this case

Thermodynamic Processes - Isovolumetric

Thermodynamic Processes - Isovolumetric
Thermodynamic Processes - Isovolumetric

Thermodynamic Processes - Adiabatic

Thermodynamic Processes - Adiabatic ADIABATIC- (GREEK- adiabatos- "impassable") In other words, NO HEAT can leave

ADIABATIC- (GREEK-

adiabatos-

"impassable")

In other words, NO HEAT can leave or enter the system.

- Adiabatic ADIABATIC- (GREEK- adiabatos- "impassable") In other words, NO HEAT can leave or enter the

Polytropic Process

When a gas undergoes a reversible process in which there is heat transfer, the process frequently takes place in such a manner that a plot of the Log P

(pressure) vs. Log V (volume) is a straight line. Or

stated in equation form

PV n = constant.

This type of process is called a polytropic process. An

example of a polytropic process is the expansion of

the combustion gasses in the cylinder of a water- cooled reciprocating engine

of a polytropic process is the expansion of the combustion gasses in the cylinder of a

The Polytropic process: PV n =Const.

Assumptions

Changes in KE and PE

Quasistatic process

Ideal gas

are zero

Quasi-Static processes are processes in which every state of the process is an equilibrium process. The process is carried out so slow such that when we look at the state it looks at equilibrium.

Expression for work: 2
Expression for work:
2

W

1

2,

b y

V

V

1

PdV

V

V

1

2

P V dV

(

)

Process equation:
Process equation:

n

P V C PV

1

1

1

n

p

State 1 State 2 V C V 2 1 W dV 1  2, b
State 1
State 2
V
C
V
2
1
W
dV
1
 2, b y
 
n
V
1
V
P V
P V
2
2
1
1

1 n

b y   n V 1 V P V  P V 2 2 1

Note that n cannot equal one, which is the general case.

b y   n V 1 V P V  P V 2 2 1

Polytropic Process

Particular Cases

Polytropic Process • Particular Cases

SUMMARY

SUMMARY