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Ar.Nanditha - Nitte School of Architecture

Ar.Nanditha - Nitte School of Architecture

ORIGIN OF GARDENS Hebrew word GAN (Protect or Enclose) + EDEN (Paradise or Pleasure) •
ORIGIN OF GARDENS
Hebrew word GAN (Protect or Enclose) + EDEN (Paradise or Pleasure)
• In ancient times gardens were rarely used for pleasure – always served a
purpose
• Did not have any economic benefit
• There were kitchen garden, temple garden or a tomb garden
JOURNEY OF GARDENS
• Garden required time, money and space
• Developed when people started settling down
• From functional in ancient times – large gardens during the Renaissance,
for strolling, exhibitions, tea parties, etc.
• Driven by change in lifestyle – flourishing trade and commerce.
• Extravagant and luxurious lifestyles – status symbols
• Small back yard kitchen garden
• Pleasure gardens for relaxation
EVOLUTION OF GARDENS • EGYPTIAN GARDENS TIMELINE • GREEK AND ROMAN GARDENS • PERSIAN GARDENS
EVOLUTION OF GARDENS
• EGYPTIAN GARDENS
TIMELINE
• GREEK AND ROMAN GARDENS
• PERSIAN GARDENS
• HANGING GARDENS OF
CONCEPT
BABYLON
• SPANISH, MEXICAN, AND
INFLUENCESM
CALIFORNIA GARDENS
• CHINESE GARDENS
ELEMENTS
• JAPANESE GARDENS
• ITALIAN RENAISSANCE
GARDENS
CHARACTERISTICS
• FRENCH GARDENS
TYPES
• ENGLISH GARDENS
• MODERN GARDENS – USA
EXAMPLES
• GARDENS OF INDIA
GARDEN • It is a planned customized landscape • An area of land, usually planted
GARDEN
• It is a planned customized landscape
• An area of land, usually planted with grass, trees, flowerbeds, etc,
adjoining a house
• Usually outdoors
• Set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other
forms of nature.
• The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials
• Space for social gatherings
GARDENS – THREE MAIN CATEGORY • Formal gardens • Informal gardens • Free style gardens
GARDENS – THREE MAIN CATEGORY
• Formal gardens
• Informal gardens
• Free style gardens
FORMAL GARDEN • Represent harmony and order • Central axis and secondary axes • Orderly
FORMAL GARDEN
• Represent harmony and order
• Central axis and secondary axes
• Orderly and symmetrical appearance
• Straight lines or simple geometrical patterns
• Balance and repetition
• Defined edges
• Symbolic use of plants
• Characterized by planting beds, or Parterres
• Use of fountains and cascades to animate the
garden
• Grottos and labyrinths and statuary on
mythological themes.
• Expensive construction and maintenance
• Examples: Mughal gardens, Spanish gardens,
English formal gardens, French gardens etc.
• Versailles garden, Villa Lante, Paleis Het
• Loo and Villa d'Este.
Vaux-le –Vicomte - created by Nicholas Fouquet and Andre Le Notre to create the gardens
Vaux-le –Vicomte - created by Nicholas Fouquet and Andre Le Notre to
create the gardens in 1656. A grand perspective of 1500 meters extended
from the foot of the chateau to the statue of the Hercules
Mughal gardens, India
Mughal gardens, India
INFORMAL GARDEN • No stark Central Axis, renders natural look • Asymmetrical Appearance • Free
INFORMAL GARDEN
No stark Central Axis, renders natural look
• Asymmetrical Appearance
Free flowing or Simple Geometrical
patterns
• May or may not have defined edges
• Balance achieved by grouping of plants,
plant shape, color, size, and texture
Plants can be used in their natural forms
(not topiaried).
Construction is easy, can make use of the
natural landforms.
Examples: • English Gardens, Japanese Zen
Gardens, Contemporary Gardens, etc.
INFORMAL GARDEN
INFORMAL GARDEN
FREE STYLE GARDENS • It is a combination of formal and informal elements. • Generally
FREE STYLE GARDENS
It is a combination of formal and
informal elements.
• Generally free flowing patterns.
• Use of symmetry and geometrical
patterns not only along central axis but
in individual elements also
• Blends with the topography.
• Could have various themes.
Generally used in urban landscape
designs
TYPES OF GARDENS
TYPES OF GARDENS
FLOWER GARDEN • Flowers bring color in a garden – different types of plants can
FLOWER GARDEN
• Flowers bring color in a garden –
different types of plants can be
used.
• Arranged to form a balanced and
pleasing design.
• Seasonally flowering, biennial,
perennial plants.
• Ornamental flowering plants.
• Plants with coloured foliage
• Plants with texture – smooth, rough
edges, velvety, paper, etc.
• Fragrant flowering plants, etc
ROSARY • Not a very good looking plant – very beautiful flowers • Rosaries should
ROSARY
• Not a very good looking plant –
very beautiful flowers
• Rosaries should preferably be
separate areas in gardens – they
require clean soil, large
quantities of water and good
amount of sunlight
• Rose climbers are better options
in rosaries.
• Lawns should be avoided with
rose plants – gives a patchy look
Ooty rose garden - Exclusively only rose plants are grown
Ooty rose garden - Exclusively only rose plants are grown
COTTAGE GARDEN • The cottage garden is a distinct style. • English in origin. Informal
COTTAGE GARDEN
• The cottage garden is a distinct style.
• English in origin. Informal design
• Traditional materials
• Dense plantings
• Mixture of ornamental and edible
plants
• Depends on grace and charm rather
than grandeur and formal structure.
• Eg : Suburb and village environment
ROOF / TERRACE GARDEN • Rooftop gardens are great alternatives for urban gardeners. • A
ROOF / TERRACE GARDEN
• Rooftop gardens are great
alternatives for urban gardeners.
• A rooftop garden is sometimes
challenging due to hot, windy
rooftop conditions
• Requires a proper design and plant
selection
• The layers of water proofing and
drainage holds maximum
importance.
• Quantity of soil varies from 3” -
4” for flower beds to 3’ – 4’ for
trees – dead load.
• Can be used for vegetable gardens
or for small functions
KITCHEN GARDEN • A garden or area where vegetables, fruit, or herbs are grown for
KITCHEN GARDEN
• A garden or area where
vegetables, fruit, or herbs are
grown for domestic use.
• Located in the backyard.
• Utilitarian garden.
• Vegetables
and
fruits
are
grown.
• Mental
happiness
and
satisfaction
CHILDREN’S GARDEN • A fairly large recreational space for kids to play and interact with
CHILDREN’S GARDEN
• A fairly large recreational space for
kids to play and interact with
nature.
• Themes can be based on a favorite
game, story character, place,
animal, hobby or even an
educational focus.
• Curious plants to create interest
• Elements like hammocks, playing
equipment, sand pits, shallow
pools, sculptures, etc.
• Playground , sandpits, miniature
garden
• Combination of sun and shade
• Parents watching area.
CONTAINER / POT GARDENING It is a practice of growing plants, including edible plants, exclusively
CONTAINER / POT GARDENING
It is a practice of growing plants, including edible
plants, exclusively in containers instead of planting
them in the ground.
Pots, traditionally made of terracotta, plastic, and
window boxes where the soil or climate is unsuitable
for the plant or crop container is also used for
houseplants
Various shapes, sizes and colors of containers also
add to the landscape element
Choice of materials for the containers can add texture
to the composition
Can be created indoors or outdoors or can even be
accommodated in balconies

HEALING GARDEN – MAKING A DIFFERENCE Therapeutic Garden • It is an outdoor garden space
HEALING
GARDEN
MAKING
A
DIFFERENCE
Therapeutic Garden
• It is an outdoor garden space that has been
specifically designed to meet the physical,
psychological, social and spiritual needs of
the people
• Variety of settings
• Hospitals, skilled nursing homes, assisted
living residences, continuing care
retirement communities, out-patient cancer
centers, hospice residences, and other
related healthcare and residential
environments.
Incorporating plants and friendly ecology into the space. The settings can be designed to include
Incorporating plants and friendly ecology into the space.
The settings can be designed to include active uses such as raised planters
for horticultural therapy activities programmed for passive uses such as
quiet private sitting areas next to a small pond with a trickling waterfall.
VERTICAL GARDEN • Also known as green wall or living wall. • Partially or completely
VERTICAL GARDEN
• Also known as green wall or living wall.
• Partially or completely covered with
vegetation that includes a growing
medium, such as soil.
• Have an integrated water delivery
system.
• May be indoors or outdoors
• Freestanding or attached to an existing
wall,
• They come in a great variety of sizes
TOPIARY GARDEN • Topiaries are plants pruned or shaped into certain forms. • These forms
TOPIARY GARDEN
Topiaries are plants pruned or shaped
into certain forms.
These forms can be as simple as a
pyramid or as complicated as animal
shapes.
Can be created by pruning the plants,
by training a plant over a frame.
The best plants to choose for a stand-
alone topiary are those with small,
dense foliage.
Plants trained over a frame should be
vines with dense foliage that will fill
empty spots forming a dense mat.
It is completely built of industrial and home waste and thrown-away items Area - 40
It is completely built of industrial and home waste and thrown-away items
Area - 40 acres (161874.25 m²).
Nek Chand's Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Nek Chand's Rock Garden, Chandigarh
BOG GARDEN • A bog garden employs permanently moist (but not waterlogged) soil to create
BOG GARDEN
• A bog garden employs
permanently moist (but
not waterlogged) soil to create a
habitat for plants and creatures
which thrive in such conditions.
• It may exploit existing poor
drainage in the garden.
• It may be artificially created
using pond liners to trap water in
the area.
RAIN GARDENS • Rain gardens not only protect the quality of water but also welcome
RAIN GARDENS
• Rain gardens not only protect
the quality of water but also
welcome wildlife.
• A rain garden is a naturally
shallow or dug out depression in
the ground designed to catch
rain that would otherwise turn
into runoff; and with the addition
of native plants, a rain garden
can be an attractive landscaping
feature
XERISCAPE GARDENS • Xeriscape gardens use low- maintenance, drought-tolerant plants grouped together to form natural-
XERISCAPE GARDENS
• Xeriscape gardens use low-
maintenance, drought-tolerant plants
grouped together to form natural-
looking landscapes
• Conserve energy and water.
• Plants range from annuals and
perennials to grasses, shrubs and trees
Xeriscapes can be of 3 types:
• Rock gardens
• Desert or succulent gardens.
• Zen Gardens
ROCK GARDEN • A mound or bank built of earth and stones, a garden in
ROCK GARDEN
• A mound or bank built of earth and
stones, a garden in which rocks form
the chief feature.
• Plants can be introduced in crevices
• Selection of plants should be natural/
pleasing Interesting and eye-
catching.
• Many perennials, low-lying shrubs,
bulbous plants and annuals thrive in a
rock garden • Rocks are partially
buried in the soil for a natural feel.
DESERT AND SUCCULENT GARDENS Can be created by adding a variety of cacti, succulents, ornamental
DESERT AND SUCCULENT
GARDENS
Can be created by adding a variety
of cacti, succulents, ornamental
grasses and other drought-tolerant
plants to the garden
ZEN GARDEN • Japanese rock garden/ dry garden. • Creates a miniature stylized landscape •
ZEN GARDEN
Japanese rock garden/ dry garden.
Creates a miniature stylized landscape
Composed arrangements of rocks
Water features, moss, pruned trees and
bushes. Inspired by simplicity of
nature itself.
All elements used in the
Zen gardens are symbolic of natural
elements.
Use of gravel or sand that is raked to
represent ripples in water
Relatively small, surrounded by a
wall, and is usually meant to be seen
while seated from a single viewpoint
outside the garden
The basic principles of the Zen
garden are simplicity, symbolism,
tranquility and minimalism.
Ryōan-ji(late 15th century) in Kyoto, Japan, a
famous example of a zen garden
Softscaping •Softscape is the soft, growing stuff, like perennial flowers, shrubs, succulents, and trees.
Softscaping
•Softscape is the soft, growing stuff, like
perennial flowers, shrubs, succulents, and
trees.
•Softscape is living and natural
Softscape
Plants are available in a variety of colors,
shapes, textures, and sizes. When selecting
softscape:
Consider these the "soft" horticultural
(living, growing) components of the
landscape. These might include flowers,
trees, shrubs, ground covers, etc.
Change and evolve constantly, as they grow
and adapt to climate and other conditions.
Hardscaping: •Design with material"hard," yet movable, parts of the landscape, like gravel, paving, and
Hardscaping:
•Design with material"hard," yet movable,
parts of the landscape, like gravel, paving,
and stones.
•They are inanimate objects.
•Hardscape is solid and unchanging.
•Other examples of hardscape include
retaining walls, pavers for paths or
patios, outdoor kitchens, water
features, gazebos decks, and driveways.
•It can be natural, like stone, or manmade,
like an outdoor structure or a planter.
•Hardscape materials have different effects
on the environment. Pavement, which is
hardscape,
•Porous materials allow water to soak into
the soil.
Assignment for next class: • Design a garden for your own residence •This assignment will
Assignment for next class:
• Design a garden for your own residence
•This assignment will help us learn how to do landscape drawing.
•Thank you