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Bangladeshi Leather Industry: An Overview of Recent Sustainable


Developments

Article  in  Journal- Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists · January 2013

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Volume 97 Page 25

Bangladeshi Leather Industry: An Overview of


Recent Sustainable Developments
H. L. PAUL1, A. P. M. ANTUNES1, A. D. COVINGTON1, P. EVANS1 and P. S. PHILLIPS2
1
Institute for Creative Leather Technologies, School of Science and Technology,
University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton, NN2 7AL, U.K.
2
Environmental and Materials Sciences, School of Science and Technology,
University of Northampton, Avenue Campus, Northampton, NN2 6JD, U.K.

Abstract
The Government of Bangladesh has indentified the leather sector as one with considerable growth
and investment potential ranked fifth in the export earning sector. Currently Bangladesh produces and
exports quality bovine and ovine, caprine (buffalo and cow; sheep and goat) leathers that have a good
international reputation for fine textured skins. However, the entire leather sector meets only 0.5% of
the world’s leather trade worth US$75 billion. There are about 113 tanneries in Bangladesh that
produce 180 million square feet of hides and skins per year. In addition there are about 30 modern shoe
manufacturing plants engaged in the production of high-quality footwear, with over 2500 smaller
footwear manufacturers also present in the sector. There are around 100 small-to-medium leather
goods manufacturers, and a small number of niche larger manufacturers. The sector directly employs
approximately 558 000 people.
Most of the tanneries do not have proper effluent plants and generate 20 000m3 tannery effluent and
232 tonnes solid waste per day. Tannery liquid and solid wastes are a potential pollutant but also have
a potential value. Specific technologies to convert wastes are required. These vary from crude and
simple to highly sophisticated and complex.
A proposed new leather park is expected to bring a clear transformation to the leather industry with
a marked increase in production, product diversification and new product lines with increased
sustainability of the sector. Sustainable and cleaner production will be a key issue for the development
without placing burdens on the environment.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Leather in Bangladesh


Bangladesh is a developing country with a population Leather is the basis of one of the oldest industries in
of about 152.5 million in a total area of 147 570sq.km., Bangladesh and plays a significant role in the national
making it one of the most heavily populated countries of economy with a good reputation worldwide. This is an
the world. Dhaka has been the capital city of agro-based by-product industry with locally available
Bangladesh since it achieved independence in 1971. indigenous raw materials having a potential for export
The overall economy of Bangladesh has registered a development and sustained growth over the coming
steady improvement with more than 6% average years. Bangladesh leather is widely known around the
growth during the last five years. The industrial sector world for its high qualities of fine grain, uniform fibre
has been an important contributor to the country’s structure, smooth feel and natural texture. Real
GDP,1 its share standing at 28.6% in 2011. progress in terms of product development with respect

500
450
US$ US$

400
350
in Million

300
Millions

250
Amount

200
150
100
50
0
2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010- (July to
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 March)
YEAR
Year
Leather Footwear Leather Products Total
Figure1. Bangladesh's export of leather, footwear and leather goods.6

25
to crust and finished leather commenced in the 1990s 1.3 Livestock in Bangladesh
following the ban on export of wet-blue hides from
Bangladesh has a fairly large livestock population to
Bangladesh.2
support a strong and growing tanning industry. Table II
1.2 Tanning in Bangladesh shows that cow hides account for 56% of the
production, goat skins for 30% and buffalo makes up
A number of tanneries took the opportunity in 1990s the rest.5 The current output in Bangladesh is about 200
for the production of crust and finished leather. There million sq.ft. of leather annually. Apart from bovine
are reportedly around 220 tanneries in Bangladesh but, hides, buffalo, goat and sheep; a good quantity of
in fact, only 113 tanneries are in effective operation, out kangaroo hides (pickled condition/wet-blue) are
of these 20 units are reported to be fairly large (7 units imported from Australia and finished in Bangladesh,
very large), around 45 units are considered of medium shoes are made of this kangaroo leather for export,
size and around 48 units are considered small groups mostly to Japan. Some ostrich leather is also imported
as detailed in Table I.3 105 of the tanneries are from Australia for production of high quality and high
positioned arbitrarily in the Hazaribagh area in Dhaka priced bags and wallets for re-export to Australia.
where 84 per cent of the total supply of hides and skins
are processed in a highly congested area of only 29 1.4 Leather export performance
hectares of land as in Figure 2.4
The contribution of the leather industry to the
Bangladesh economy was about US$500 million,
accounting for 3% of country’s exports6 in 2010-11.
Recent export trends indicate that the footwear sector
(value added merchandise), is growing the fastest.
Figure 1 shows that the performance with regard to
footwear is increasing substantially. Further progress
in this regard is expected in the years to come.
Currently there are about 30 mechanized footwear
companies in the country, most produce leather
footwear for global export. A large number of semi-
mechanized and non-mechanized footwear units are
also operating for the domestic market. Some 5 or 6
companies produce quality leather goods which are
regularly exported in appreciable volume. Export
performance can be anticipated to increase in the next
five years with at least 12-15% growth in turnover per
annum.
In the next two years the existing footwear factories
are likely to export more shoes. The new capacity
[expanded and new factories] that will come on stream
from late 2012 will give increased growth. The Export
Processing Zones (throughout Bangladesh) at present
have 18 shoe and leather goods factories and there are
Figure 2. Bangladesh (inset – tannery locations). at least seven large factories under construction. The
TABLE I
Structure of tanneries in Bangladesh3
Number of Typical annual production Total installed Total actual Share of actual
tanneries capacity/tannery capacity/ annum for production/annum for production (%)
all tanneries all tanneries
7 >5 million sq.ft 40 million sq.ft 30 million sq.ft 17
13 2–5 million sq.ft 60 million sq.ft 52 million sq.ft 29
45 <2 million sq.ft 70 million sq.ft 60 million sq.ft 33
48 <1 million sq.ft 60 million sq.ft 38 million sq.ft 21
Total: 113 230 million sq.ft 180 million sq.ft 100

TABLE II
Livestock population for leather industry5
Sl. No Category Annual kill in Average Total annual production Average area
millions weight/piece in kg in tonnes per piece (sq.ft)
1 Cow/calf 4.00 12 48 000 (56%) 20-22
2 Goat/sheep 15.00 1.5–2 26 000 (30%) 3.75
3 Buffalo 0.50 20-25 11 000 (14%) 32-35

26
factories under construction include the Korean Annually about 85 000 tonnes of raw material are
company ‘Young ones’ footwear complex which will be processed in Bangladesh. The estimated quantity of
the largest in Asia. tanned and untanned waste from the processing of one
The leather products sub-sector is ideal for youth, tonne of salted hides/skins according to various authors
women and micro entrepreneurial start-up businesses, and Bangladeshi leather industries is shown in Table III.9,11
based on the low costs and capital investment. It can
also provide the opportunity to gain experience to 3. CASE STUDY PROJECT: UNIDO – RE-TIE
transfer to footwear or other creative sub sectors. BANGLADESH
1.5 Professional Associations The reduction of environmental threats and increase
of the export portential of Bangladeshi leather products
There are large number of associations such as
(Re-Tie Bangladesh) is a project co-funded by the
Bangladesh Finished Leather, Leather Goods and
European Commission. This is under the SWITCH Asia
Footwear Exporters Association (BFLLFEA) which
programme and implemented by the project partners:
operates with over 80 members. The Bangladesh
SEQUA (lead partner), BFZ, BFLLFEA, BTA, DCCI and
Tanners Association (BTA) with over 150 members
UNIDO for three years with total budget €2 071 000
engages in export trade. The Institute of Leather
(EU contribution 90%).
Engineering and Technology (ILET) is the only
The overall objective of Re-Tie Bangladesh is the
educational institution in Bangladesh covering human
provision of employment and income-opportunities for
resources development in the field and new technology.
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the leather
sector in Bangladesh, the SMEs to work economically
2. CURRENT METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF and ecologically more sustainably using advanced
SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE FROM THE
technologies and practices. Table IV shows the project
BANGLADESH LEATHER INDUSTRY
activities of Re-Tie Bangladesh.12
Only 255kg of finished leather (grain and embossed The objectives of Re-Tie Bangladesh are:
split) is obtained for every 1000kg wet salted hides I. More efficient use of natural resources and
processed, i.e. just 25.5% of the raw material becomes significantly reduce environmental pollution and
finished leather.7 Around 40m3 of water (process and waste in the Bangladeshi leather sector;
technical water) is required for this and out of 452kg of II. More efficient use of energy and implementation of
process chemicals used only 72kg are retained in and measures for consumption reduction;
on the leather thus, 380kg are wasted and discharged III. Improved occupational safety and health and other
in various forms.8,9 international standards to enhance the exportability
The estimated amount of tannery effluent is 20 000 of Bangladeshi leather products;
m3/day in the Hazaribagh area. All wastewater IV. A strengthened institutional structure and an
generated is discharged untreated to the sewer passing outreach to SMEs for the promotion of sustainable
through the area leading to the Buruganga River, the production in Bangladeshi tannery/leather industry.
main river through Dhaka which is shown in Figure 2.4
The sewers in the area do overflow causing health
4. CASE STUDY OF RECENT RESEARCH
problems. Hazardous wastes pollute the surrounding
environment and, finally reaching the river Buriganga,
4.1 Materials and methods
destroy its ecosystem and make its water unusable.
The river is now on the verge of ecosystem destruction To further develop an insight into tannery pollution a
and is a major health hazard. chemical analysis was carried out in four tanneries in
A substantial quantity of the solid waste generated Dhaka (A, B, C, D) to measure the effluent characteristics
by tanneries is dumped by the roadside in Hazaribagh, of the composite waste (raw to finish) water from
so the environmental challenges are significant and tanneries with and without effluent treatment plant. The
present a danger to human health. The living conditions results are shown in Tables V and VI respectively.
in those areas are far from satisfactory.2,10 Composite wastewater (waste streams from different

TABLE III
Solid waste generated (kg) during processing of 1 tonne hides and skins9,11

Solid waste Alexander11 Buljan9 Bangladesh Quantity generated


tonnes per annum
Untanned waste
Raw trimmings 120 100 100 8500
Fleshings 70-230 300 250 21 250
Tanned waste
Split 115 107 100 8500
Shavings 100 99 100 8500
Crust/finished cutting 32 25 30 2550

27
TABLE IV
Project activities: Re-Tie Bangladesh12

G Training of Bangladeshi experts to coach others


G Implementation of cleaner production facilitated by those experts (e.g. strict water management systems, float recycling,
segregation of streams (especially chrome bearing), segregation of solid waste, avoidance and monitoring of
banned/hazardous substances, desalting of wet salted hides and skins, hair-save unhairing, low ammonium salts
deliming, full-scale chrome management, low-energy drying, solar appliances, water-based finishing and simple energy
saving methods)
G Institutionalisation of Outreach: Establishment of ca. 15–18 companies, each lead by one facilitator who will be trained,
coached and employed. One sector unit comprises up to 25 entrepreneurs/enterprises
G Dissemination of innovation, results through those companies to approx. 400 SMEs (supported by campaigns,
conferences etc.)
G Training of Bangladeshi experts and factory staff, including shop-floor level, practical demonstration of OHS
(Occupational Health and Safety) methods and documentation in various guides and videos
G Capacity strengthening of Business Membership Organisations (BMOs) in the leather sector (organisational
development)
G Contributing to the design of the relevant physical infrastructure of the new industrial site for the leather industry (Savar)

process steps are combined, homogenized and treated 150gms of KI and dissolve it in about 150ml of distilled
as a single sample) was collected by composite water. Add this solution to the caustic solution prepared
sampling and collected in sealed bottles from the earlier. Dissolve 10gm of sodium azide in 40ml distilled
selected tanneries at different sampling points and water and add it to the alkali-iodide mixture, with
stored at approximately 4°C until analysed. This was constant stirring. Make up the volume to one litre.
carried out within 24 hours to ensure that the oxygen MnSO4 + NaOH = Mn(OH)2 + Na2SO4 then add H2SO4
concentration remained constant to inhibit growth of Mn(OH)2 + O(DO) + H2O = Mn(OH)4
micro-organisms prior to analysis. Mn(OH)4 + 2HI = Mn(OH)2 + I2 (equal to DO) + H2O
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) was then titration
determined by DIN 38409T51 (Simple Determination I2 + Na2S2O3 = Na2 S4O6 + 2NaI
of BOD5) by using an Oxitop measuring system,
inductive stirring system and a thermostatic incubator Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) was measured using a
(temperature 20°C ± 1°C). The sample was incubated meter (Hanna Instruments Ltd, Italy, model No.HI
within 48 hours of sampling. 96302,DiST®2) and the pH was determined by SLC –
The pH of the sample was adjusted for analysis. The 13 method13 (Determination of pH value and difference
desired pH for this procedure is between 6.5 and 7.5 so figure of an aqueous extract) using a pH meter
that bacterial growth is possible. After five days the (ORION, Model 370).
value was converted into the BOD5 value with the Total chromium (method EN-7 – the chromium is
following equation: Value x Factor = BOD5 (mg/l) chelated and extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone) and
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was determined sodium (method-EN-4) were determined using Atomic
by DIN 38401(Method: H 41.1,) using the Open Reflux Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) using Perkin Elmer
Method with heating at 148 ± 3°C; all chemicals were AAnalyst 300 model.
of analytical grade (sulphuric acid, = 1.84g/ml; standard
4.2 Results and discussion
potassium dichromate solution (K2Cr2O7), ferrous
ammonium sulphate (FAS), mercuric sulphate, silver COD, BOD5, TDS, DO, total chromium, sodium
sulphate, ferroin indicator solution). The sample is values have been used as indicators of effluent quality.
refluxed with a known excess of potassium dichromate The effluent found was blackish/dark brown/dark grey
in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid for 2.5 hours and heavily turbid with a bad smell. It contained a high
and the excess dichromate is back titrated with ferrous concentration of solids (mainly organic matter) that
ammonium sulphate. The amount of oxidisable matter, precipitated with inorganic coagulants – these are
measured as oxygen equivalents, is proportional to the deposited when the flow rate is lowered. It may be
potassium dichromate consumed. assumed that the drains become filled with such
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) was estimated using the matters. Table V shows a very high concentration of
Iodometric method with 0.025(N) Na2S2O3, MnSO4, chromium (average 1012mg/l) and sodium (average
H2SO4 and sodium azide – dissolved oxygen present 824mg/l).
in the sample is quantitatively converted to an It can be seen that at an elevated pH, the chromium
equivalent amount of manganese(IV) hydroxide, which ion coagulates with sulphide and settles as sediment
liberates iodine from iodide upon acidification; this is in the drain.14 Wastewater from different tanneries
titrated using standard thiosulfate solution. accumulates in the drain and the overflow runs onto
Method: Alkali iodide-azide solution: Dissolve agricultural fields on the opposite side of the Dhaka
500gms of sodium hydroxide in about 800ml distilled flood protection dam. It has been reported that
water and cool to room temperature. Weigh separately discharge of tannery wastes into surface waters like

28
channels and tanks has increased their salinity. Pre- the equalization tank is transferred into the flash mixer
treatment techniques such as chrome recovery and tank. Lime, alum and polymer are added according to
sulphide oxidation are recommended in order to avoid the proper requirements for sedimentation of sludge.
the detrimental effect. The effluent from the flash mixer then transfers to the
It has been suggested that waste streams are clariflocculator (primary clarifier) for settling of the
segregated according to their characteristics to avoid solids. Inorganic substances (chromium) are
possible safety risks. DO results (nil) indicate the precipitated here (Fig. 3).
stabilization action (degradation of organic matter). COD The settled solids are then transferred to the sludge
(average 3407mg/l) and BOD5 (average 1388mg/l) thickener. The overflow of the clariflocculator is
values show the presence of a very high concentration transferred to the aeration tank for biological treatment.
of dissolved organic matter in the wastewater. These The target of biological treatment is to convert soluble
values indicate depletion of oxygen from the receiving organic matter and non-soluble colloidal solids into inert
water. The high oxygen demand of tannery wastes is solids and other simple end products. Nutrients such
due to proteins, fatty matter, tannins and inorganic as urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) are added
pollutants present in significant quantities. High pH, to support the micro-organisms. Oxygen is added by a
excessive alkalinity (average 824mg/l), very high fixed aerator. After biological treatment the overflow
dissolved solids (average 7100mg/l) are injurious to fish from the aeration tank (Fig. 3) is transferred to the
and other aquatic life. Their presence will affect physical, secondary clarifier. The biological mass is then
chemical and biological characteristics and can make separated and settled in the lower part of the clarifier.
the receiving water less acceptable for drinking, If the bio mass is above 25% it will be transferred to the
industrial and agricultural purposes. However Table VI sludge thickener. The overflow from the secondary
shows that the values for the treated effluent (except clarifier is then transferred into a tube settler through a
Cr/Na) are within the limits as set by the Department of baffled channel.
Environment15 standards of Bangladesh. The overflow from the tube settler is collected in
sump-I and sludge is transferred to the sludge
5. CASE STUDY: EFFLUENT TREATMENT thickener. The treated water is pumped through a
PLANT (ETP) pressure sand filter to remove any fine solids that may
have been carried over with the water. The water from
The Effluent Treatment Plant changes pollutants into the sand filter is collected in sump-II (Fig. 3). Lightly
something which is environmentally more acceptable coloured water passes through the activated carbon
and is designed to meet a specific need because of filter and is then discharged into inland water. Sludge
variation of effluent from tannery to tannery and from from the sludge drying beds goes to landfill within the
process to process. Figure 3 shows the structure of one factory area and in the rainy season, a centrifuge is
ETP plant in Bangladesh which has a multi-stage used to form the sludge cake. There are about 1095
process to purify wastewater before it is discharged. individual companies in Bangladesh and in about 709
The purpose is to reduce or remove organic matter, of them ETP is required for pollution containment but,
solids, nutrients, chromium and other pollutants. The only 186 ETPs are in operation.15
raw effluents emanating from the process section (wet-
blue-finish) pass through the screen chamber to the
equalization tank. The suspended solids are separated 6. CASE STUDY: IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY
from wastewater by the bar screen. The equalization OF POLLUTION
tank is equipped with three ejectors to homogenize the About 0.5 million residents of the Bangladesh capital,
waste and to prevent settling of solids. The effluent from Dhaka are at risk of serious health issues due to

TABLE V
Tannery without an effluent treatment plant (raw to finishing; composite effluent)

Parameter Tannery A Tannery B Tannery C DOE standard for Bangladesh


(Discharge to inland surface water)
pH 8.70 8.12 9.3 6-9
Colour Blackish/dark grey Dark brown Dark grey Absent
Odour Pungent Foul Pungent Absent
DO Nil Nil Nil 4.5-8mg/l
BOD5 1250mg/l 1435mg/l 1478mg/l 50mg/l
COD 3010mg/l 3460mg/l 3750mg/l 200mg/l
TDS 6850mg/l 6920mg/l 7530mg/l 2100mg/l
TSS 1910mg/l 1720mg/l 1850mg/l 150mg/l
Na 800mg/l 770mg/l 901mg/l 60mg/l
Cr (total) 1210mg/l 1150mg/l 675mg/l 2mg/l
Effluent Flow >40m3 / >40m3 / >40m3 / 30m3 /1000kg hides/skins (H/S)
1000kg H/S 1000kg H/S 1000kg H/S

29
Figure 3. Simplified flow diagram for an effluent treatment plant in Bangladesh.

TABLE VI have very little knowledge about their short, medium


Tannery D with effluent treatment plant and long term impact on humankind and the
(wet-blue-finishing; composite effluent)
environment. Legislation must also be developed to
Parameter Raw Treated DOE standard take account of the combined effects of chemical
effluent effluent for Bangladesh substances. Tannery effluent in Bangladesh has
(Discharge to
inland surface water)
reached such an alarming level that it poses a
significant threat to public health and economic growth
pH 8.90 7.30 6-9
Colour Blackish Absent Absent of surrounding areas.
/dark grey
Odour Pungent Not present Absent 7. POSSIBLE TANNERY RELOCATIONS:
DO Nil 4.6mg/l 4.5-8mg/l TANNERY ECONOMIC ZONE
BOD5 370mg/l 44mg/l 50mg/l
COD 935mg/l 115mg/l 200mg/l The unplanned tanneries at Hazaribagh in Dhaka do
TDS 3870mg/l 140mg/l 2100mg/l not have supporting infrastructure facilities. Hazaribagh
TSS 1800mg/l 30mg/l 150mg/l itself is surrounded by thickly populated localities of the
Na 560mg/l 90mg/l 60mg/l city. Relocation of the tanneries to a more spacious
Cr(total) 150mg/l 3mg/l 2mg/l location with appropriate infrastructure for efficient and
Effluent flow =<30m3/1000kg H/S 30m3/1000kg H/S cost effective treatment of solid and liquid wastes is an
obvious need. To set up a Central Effluent Treatment
chemical pollution from tanneries near their homes, Plant (CETP) has thus become a prerequisite for the
according to a report released by the Bangladesh survival and growth of this vital export-oriented sector
Society for Environment and Human Development. The of the country. The Government of Bangladesh has
report says large numbers of the 8 000-12 000 workers decided to move the whole tannery operation to a new
at the tanneries suffer from gastrointestinal, location of 200 acres at 20km from Dhaka city.
dermatological and other diseases that could be related According to the present plan, 144 acres (72%) of the
to pollution and that 90% of them die before the age of land are to be developed as industrial plots. The balance,
50 as compared 60% for the country as a whole.16 56 acres (28%), will be utilized for infrastructure for the
It is imperative that the non-sustainable techniques estate that includes a Central Effluent Treatment Plant
for tannery solid waste disposal in Bangladesh must be (CETP), disposal yard, administrative building, drainage,
improved. The ‘open’ disposal of solid tannery waste electricity sub-station and others. After the relocation of
must be terminated and the workers should be tanneries from Hazaribagh, the project envisages
provided with health and safety equipment. Major relocation of tannery units from other parts of the country;
efforts need to be made both to reduce direct exposure and also hopes to attract fresh investment from within
and the spread of substances hazardous to health from and outside the country for establishment of new tannery
the leather industry. units. A total of 195 developed industrial plots in 4
The development of sustainable leather technologies categories will be created from the 200 acres of the
is rapid and areas of use are increasing, however we estate as in Table VII.17

30
TABLE VII
Categories of newly developed industrial plots17

SI No Category of Size of Approx indicative Number of Number of Total


plots plot (Ha) cost per plot US$ plots units to be set up revenue US$
1 ‘A’ type 0.72 103,000 26 26 2,674,000
2 ‘B’ type 0.36 51,5000 39 39 2,006,000
3 ‘C’ type 0.18 25,750 114 114 2,931,000
4 ‘S’ type 0.27 – 16 16 –
Total 195 195 7,611,000

Bangladesh’s leather sector is deemed competitive


because of its low labour cost differentiation, local
availability of hides and a favourable business
environment. This is complemented with the existence
of organizations and institutional arrangements like the
Export Processing Zone (EPZ) etc. and duty free
access to major international markets.
There are about 49 300 tonnes of solid waste
generated every year from tanneries in Bangladesh.
The government should try to facilitate growth in
industries which can use these wastes to make other
value added products. A by-product manufacturing unit
(chrome and protein recovery) and energy generation
could be useful options.
Bangladeshi leather products will have no access to
Figure 4. The site for the Savar leather park.
developed countries, including those of European
Union if the government fails to set up the CETP by
June 2014. The industry in Bangladesh as a whole,
An Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) for the
faces considerable concerns with regard to end-of-life,
CETP and other industrial installations in the proposed
recycling and re-use of leather and leather products.
tannery estate was completed by Bangladesh
To make progress, the Government is keen to relocate
Engineering and Technological Services Ltd. (BETS)18
tanneries from Hazaribagh to Savar, this gives the
in 2005. If operations are conducted according to
unique opportunity to adopt sustainable practice in a
international standards and if appropriate mitigation
suitable environment.
measures are put in place, the proposed project is likely
to cause a minimal impact and will comply with (Received September 2012)
Bangladesh national standards and other
environmental requirements. It is a clear move towards
Industrial Ecology (IE).
References
1. Bangladesh Country Report, Homepage of Global Finance.2010,
8. CONCLUSIONS Dhaka, Bangladesh.
2. UNIDO Expert Team, Technical Report, United Nations Industrial
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Development Organization (UNIDO). TF/BGD/05/001, (2005).
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3. Bangladesh Tanners Association (BTA), Survey Report. 2010,
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Leather Technol. Chem., 1992, 76, 17. Mitigation measures. SEHD, 1998, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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