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Aerial Triangulation

GE 154

Additional Parameters and Self-Calibration

Definition of Additional Parameters

Principles when Applying Additional Parameters

Definition of Self Calibration

Definition of a Mathematical Modelling

Modelling of causes of Image Deformation Example

Modelling of Image Deformation Example

Additional Parameters with Independent Models

Accuracy Improvement when using Additional Parameters

The difference between physical situation and mathematical model has led to the use of
additional parameters:
Additional Parameters- one that can help improve a mathematical model with its collinearity
equations that expresses actual physical situation.

Examples of physical situations are:

A light path from object point via lens to image plane that is not straight due to atmospheric
refraction and lens distortion

Image position distorted because of deformations within plane(film flatness) as well as during
processing and storage of film.

(𝑋 − 𝑋𝑜 )𝑚11 + (𝑌 − 𝑌𝑜 )𝑚12 + (𝑍 − 𝑍𝑜 )𝑚13

𝑥 − 𝑥𝑜 + ∆𝑋𝑝 = −𝑐
(𝑋 − 𝑋𝑜 )𝑚31 + (𝑌 − 𝑌𝑜 )𝑚32 + (𝑍 − 𝑍𝑜 )𝑚33

(𝑋 − 𝑋𝑜 )𝑚21 + (𝑌 − 𝑌𝑜 )𝑚22 + (𝑍 − 𝑍𝑜 )𝑚23

𝑦 − 𝑦𝑜 + ∆𝑌𝑝 = −𝑐
(𝑋 − 𝑋𝑜 )𝑚31 + (𝑌 − 𝑌𝑜 )𝑚32 + (𝑍 − 𝑍𝑜 )𝑚33

∆𝑋𝑝 and ∆𝑌𝑝 = Functions of several unknown parameters

Self Calibration – yields improvements in cases of poorer control. Self Calibration has reached
a level that can compete with conventional terrestrial surveying.

Self Calibration is a condition wherein if:

A complete recovery of all parameters 𝑥𝑜 , 𝑦𝑜 , c is possible without the requirement for additional
ground control points.

Mathematical Modelling

Principles when applying Additional Parameters

1. The number of parameters should be as small as feasible to avoid over-parameterization

and to keep additional computational effort small
2. The parameters are to be chosen such that their correlations with the other unknowns are
negligible. Otherwise the normal equation matrix becomes ill-conditional or singular.

Block Invariant – same stable aerial camera is used to photograph the whole block in one flight
mission under stable atmospheric conditions (parameters are assumed to be the same for all

Block Variant – different cameras are used or if other conditions change (parameters are valid
for only a group of photographs)

Photo Variant – when using non-metric cameras ( new additional parameters have to be
determined for each individual photograph)
Modelling of Causes of Image Deformation

Film Shrinkage

Non-perpendicularity of comparator axes

Non-metric cameras

Symmetrical Distortion

Additional Parameters with Independent Models

Systematic Image deformation = model deformation

Additional Parameters improve independent models as well


For the test cases, independent models were formed analytically using photo coordinates
measured with comparator accuracy. However, for virtually all productions work, the
independent models are measured in an analogue plotter where the reading accuracy is less by a
factor of 10 or so.

Other Calibration Models:

Camera Calibration – to obtain better values for image refinement

Test field Calibration – photographing a targeted test field before and after the mission remained

Another technique was developed in France (Masson d’ Autume):

Where systematic error corrections are applied after block adjustment – the residuals of the tie
points are analyzed, and systematic errors are reduced using second degree polynomials.
Afterwards, the observed model of image coordinates are corrected and the block adjustments

Mikhail and Kraus (1972):

Proved that correlated residuals may exist on control points thus requiring interpolation at the tie
and pass points. Using a-priori variance-covariance matrix for correlated components, least
squares can be applied.

Accuracy improvement when using additional parameters

Bauer and Muller (1972) – first who demonstrated practically the accuracy improvement of
BAP( Bundle Adjustment with Additional Parameters) program

Using Additional Parameters in Bundle Block Adjustments:

In Edmunston Block – the object points were not targeted and accuracy of ground control though
is unknown – accuracy of 3-5 μm in planimetry, 8-12 μm in height were achieved.


This indicates that analytical photogrammetry is approaching the accuracies inherent in

photography, provided that the collinearity model is supplemented with additional parameters.


Wolfgang F. (1986) Aerial Triangulation and Digital Mapping. School of Surveying. The
University of New South Wales: Kensington, N.S.W., Australia.

Bauer, H and Muller, J. (1972) “Height Accuracy of Blocks and Bundle Adjustment with
Additional Parameters”, Fifth International Congress for Photogrammetry, Ottawa.