Circuit Analysis II
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Steven T. Karris
Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com
Circuit Analysis II
with MATLAB® Computing and Simulink® / SimPowerSystems® Modeling
Steven T. Karris
Orchard Publications, Fremont, California www.orchardpublications.com
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Computing and Simulink® / SimPowerSystems® Modeling
Copyright 2009 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in USA. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A. URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com
Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks, Inc., and Microsoft Corporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Library of Congress Control Number: 2009930247
ISBN10: 1934404201 ISBN13: 9781934404209
TX 5745064
Disclaimer
The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text.
This book was created electronically using Adobe Framemaker.
Preface
This text is written for use in a second course in circuit analysis. It encompasses a spectrum of subjects ranging from the most abstract to the most practical, and the material can be covered in one semester or two quarters.The reader of this book should have the traditional undergraduate knowledge of an introductory circuit analysis material such as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB®Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems®Modeling, ISBN 9781934404171. Another prerequisite would be a basic knowledge of differential equations, and in most cases, engineering students at this level have taken all required mathematics courses. Appendix H serves as a review of differential equations with emphasis on engineering related topics and it is recommended for readers who may need a review of this subject.
There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers, especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas.
Chapter 1 is an introduction to second order circuits and it is essentially a sequel to first order circuits discussed in the last chapter of Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB®Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems®Modeling, ISBN 9781934404171. Chapter 2 is devoted to resonance, and Chapter 3 presents practical methods of expressing signals in terms of the elementary functions, i.e., unit step, unit ramp, and unit impulse functions. Accordingly, any signal can be represented in the complex frequency domain using the Laplace transformation.
Chapters 4 and 5 are introductions to the unilateral Laplace transform and Inverse Laplace transform respectively, while Chapter 6 presents several examples of analyzing electric circuits using Laplace transformation methods. Chapter 7 is an introduction to state space and state equations. Chapter 8 begins with the frequency response concept and Bode magnitude and frequency plots. Chapter 9 is devoted to transformers with an introduction to self and mutual inductances. Chapter 10 is an introduction to one and twoterminal devices and presents several practical examples. Chapters 11 and 12 are introductions to threephase circuits.
It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical introduction to MATLAB, Appendix B is an introduction to Simulink, and Appendix C introduces SimPowerSystems. The pages where MATLAB scripts, Simulink / SimPowerSystems models appear are indicated in the Table of Contents.
The author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive Student Versions of The MathWorks™ Inc., the developers of these outstanding products, available from:
The MathWorks, Inc. 3 Apple Hill Drive Natick, MA, 01760 Phone: 5086477000, www.mathworks.com info@mathworks.com.
Appendix D is a review of complex numbers, Appendix E is an introduction to matrices, Appendix F discusses scaling methods, Appendix G introduces the per unit system used extensively in power systems and in SimPwerSystems examples and demos. As stated above, Appendix H is a review of differential equations. Appendix I provides instructions for constructing semilog templates to be used with Bode plots.
In addition to numerous examples, this text contains several exercises at the end of each chapter. Detailed solutions of all exercises are provided at the end of each chapter. The rationale is to encourage the reader to solve all exercises and check his effort for correct solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was written to serve as a selfstudy or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a resource to test his knowledge.
The author is indebted to several readers who have brought some errors to our attention. Additional feedback with other errors, advice, and comments will be most welcomed and greatly appreciated.
Orchard Publications 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway Suite 315 Fremont, California 94538 www.orchardpublications.com info@orchardpublications.com
Table of Contents
1 
Second Order Circuits 
11 

1.1 Response of a Second Order Circuit 
11 

1.2 Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation 
12 

1.2.1 Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation 
13 

1.2.2 Response of Series RLC Circuits with AC Excitation 
111 

1.3 Parallel RLC Circuit 
115 

1.3.1 Response of Parallel RLC Circuits with DC Excitation 
117 

1.3.2 Response of Parallel RLC Circuits with AC Excitation 
126 

1.4 Other Second Order Circuits 
130 

1.5 Summary 
136 

1.6 Exercises 
138 

1.7 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
140 

MATLAB Computing: Pages 16, 17, 19, 113, 119, 1through 123, 125, 126, 128, 129, 132 through 134, 142, 144, 145 

Simulink/SimPowerSystems Models: Pages 110, 114, 129, 153 

2 
Resonance 
21 

2.1 Series Resonance 
21 

2.2 Quality Factor Q _{0}_{s} in Series Resonance 
24 

2.3 Parallel Resonance 
26 

2.4 Quality Factor Q _{0}_{P} in Parallel Resonance 
29 

2.5 General Definition of Q 
29 

2.6 Energy in L and C at Resonance 
210 

2.7 HalfPower Frequencies Bandwidth 
211 

2.8 A Practical Parallel Resonant Circuit 
216 

2.9 Radio and Television Receivers 
218 

2.10 Summary 
221 

2.11 Exercises 
223 

2.12 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
225 

MATLAB Computing: Pages 25, 26, 225, 227, 230, 231 

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 215, 216 

3 
Elementary Signals 
31 

3.1 
Signals Described in Math Form 
31 
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
i
3.2 The Unit Step Function
3.3 The Unit Ramp Function
3.4 The Delta Function
3.4.1 The Sampling Property of the Delta Function
3.4.2 The Sifting Property of the Delta Function
3.5 Higher Order Delta Functions
3.6
3.7
3.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
Simulink model: Pages 37, 38
Summary
Exercises
4 The Laplace Transformation
4.1 Definition of the Laplace Transformation
4.2 Properties and Theorems of the Laplace Transform
4.2.1 Linearity Property
4.2.2 Time Shifting Property
4.2.3 Frequency Shifting Property
4.2.4 Scaling Property
4.2.5 Differentiation in Time Domain Property
4.2.6 Differentiation in Complex Frequency Domain Property
4.2.7 Integration in Time Domain Property
4.2.8 Integration in Complex Frequency Domain Property
4.2.9 Time Periodicity Property
4.2.10 Initial Value Theorem
4.2.11 Final Value Theorem
4.2.12 Convolution in Time Domain Property
4.2.13 Convolution in Complex Frequency Domain Property
4.3 Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time
4.3.1 Laplace Transform of the Unit Step Function
u _{0} t
4.3.2 Laplace Transform of the Ramp Function 
u _{1} t 

4.3.3 Laplace Transform of 
t 
^{n} u _{0} t 

4.3.4 Laplace Transform of the Delta Function 
t 
4.3.5 Laplace Transform of the Delayed Delta Function
t – a
4.3.6 Laplace Transform of 
e 
^{–} ^{a}^{t} u _{0} t 
4.3.7 Laplace Transform of 
t 
^{n} e ^{–} ^{a}^{t} u _{0} t 
4.3.8 Laplace Transform of
4.3.9 Laplace Transform of
4.3.10 Laplace Transform of
4.3.11 Laplace Transform of
sin
cost u _{0} t
_{e}
e
t u
0
t
– at
^{–} ^{a}^{t}
t u
0
sin
cost u _{0} t
t
4.4 Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms
32
39
311
311
312
313
319
320
321
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
45
46
47
48
49
410
411
411
412
412
412
414
417
417
418
418
419
419
420
420
421
ii
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
4.4.1 Laplace Transform of a Pulse 
422 
4.4.2 Laplace Transform of a Linear Segment 
422 
4.4.3 Laplace Transform of a Triangular Waveform 
423 
4.4.4 Laplace Transform of a Rectangular Periodic Waveform 
424 
4.4.5 Laplace Transform of a HalfRectified Sine Waveform 
425 
4.5 Using MATLAB for Finding the Laplace Transforms of Time Functions 
426 
4.6 Summary 
427 
4.7 Exercises 
430 
Laplace Transform of a Sawtooth Periodic Waveform 
431 
Laplace Transform of a FullRectified Sine Waveform 
431 
4.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
432 
MATLAB Computing: Page 437 

Simulink Model: Page 438 

5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation 
51 
5.1 The Inverse Laplace Transform Integral 
51 
5.2 Partial Fraction Expansion 
51 
5.2.1 Distinct Poles 
52 
5.2.2 Complex Poles 
55 
5.2.3 Multiple (Repeated) Poles 
58 
5.3 Case where F(s) is Improper Rational Function 
513 
5.4 Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion 
514 
5.5 Summary 
518 
5.6 Exercises 
519 
5.7 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
520 
MATLAB Computing: Pages 53 through 56, 58, 510 512 through 514, 520 

6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms 
61 
6.1 Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency 
61 
6.1.1 Resistive Network Transformation 
61 
6.1.2 Inductive Network Transformation 
61 
6.1.3 Capacitive Network Transformation 
62 
6.2 Complex Impedance Z(s) 
611 
6.3 Complex Admittance Y(s) 
613 
6.4 Transfer Functions 
616 
6.5 Using the Simulink Transfer Fcn Block 
620 
6.6 Summary 
623 
6.7 Exercises 
624 
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
iii
6.8 
Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
627 
MATLAB Computing: Pages 66, 68, 615, 619 through 621, 629 through 632, 637 

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 68 through 611, 620 through 622 

7 State Variables and State Equations 
71 

7.1 Expressing Differential Equations in State Equation Form 
71 

7.2 Solution of Single State Equations 
76 

7.3 The State Transition Matrix 
78 

7.4 Computation of the State Transition Matrix 
710 

7.4.1 Distinct Eigenvalues (Real of Complex) 
711 

7.4.2 Multiple (Repeated) Eigenvalues 
715 

7.5 Eigenvectors 
718 

7.6 Circuit Analysis with State Variables 
722 

7.7 Relationship between State Equations and Laplace Transform 
729 

7.8 Summary 
737 

7.9 Exercises 
740 

7.10 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
742 

MATLAB Computing: Pages 74, 76, 78, 712, 713, 715, 717, 721 730, 744, 745, 746, 748, 750 

Simulink models: Pages 79, 710 

8 Frequency Response and Bode Plots 
81 

8.1 Decibel Defined 
81 

8.2 Bandwidth and Frequency Response 
83 

8.3 Octave and Decade 
84 

8.4 Bode Plot Scales and Asymptotic Approximations 
85 

8.5 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Real 
86 

8.6 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex 
812 

8.7 Corrected Amplitude Plots 
824 

8.8 Summary 
835 

8.9 Exercises 
837 

8.10 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
838 

MATLAB Computing: Pages 819, 820, 822, 823, 833, 840, 843, 845 

9 Self and Mutual Inductances Transformers 
91 

9.1 
SelfInductance 
91 
iv
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
9.2 The Nature of Inductance 
91 

9.3 Lenz’s Law 
93 

9.4 Mutually Coupled Coils 
93 

9.5 Establishing Polarity Markings 
911 

9.6 Energy Stored in a Pair of Mutually Coupled Inductors 
914 

9.7 Circuits with Linear Transformers 
919 

9.8 Reflected Impedance in Transformers 
924 

9.9 The Ideal Transformer 
927 

9.10 Impedance Matching 
930 

9.11 Simplified Transformer Equivalent Circuit 
931 

9.12 Thevenin Equivalent Circuit 
932 

9.13 Autotransformer 
936 

9.14 Transformers with Multiple Secondary Windings 
937 

9.15 Transformer Tests 
937 

9.16 Efficiency 
942 

9.17 Voltage Regulation 
946 

9.18 Transformer Modeling with Simulink / SimPowerSystems 
949 

9.19 Summary 
957 

9.20 Exercises 
962 

9.21 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
965 

MATLAB Computing: Page 913, 914, 922, 944 

Simulink / SimPowerSystems model: Page 949 through 956 

10 
One and TwoPort Networks 
101 

10.1 Introduction and Definitions 
101 

10.2 OnePort DrivingPoint and Transfer Admittances 
102 

10.3 OnePort DrivingPoint and Transfer Impedances 
107 

10.4 TwoPort Networks 
1011 

10.4.1 The 
y 
Parameters 
1011 

10.4.2 The 
z parameters 
1017 

10.4.3 The 
h Parameters 
1022 

10.4.4 The 
g Parameters 
1026 

10.5 Reciprocal TwoPort Networks 
1031 

10.6 Summary 
1035 

10.7 Exercises 
1040 

10.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
1042 
MATLAB Computing: Page 1049
Simulink / SimPowerSystems model: Page 1050
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
v
11 Balanced ThreePhase Systems 
111 

11.1 Advantages of ThreePhase Systems 
111 

11.2 ThreePhase Connections 
111 

11.3 Transformer Connections in ThreePhase Systems 
114 

11.4 LinetoLine and LinetoNeutral Voltages and Currents 
115 

11.5 Equivalent Y and Loads 
119 

11.6 Computation by Reduction to Single Phase 
1119 

11.7 ThreePhase Power 
1120 

11.8 Instantaneous Power in ThreePhase Systems 
1122 

11.9 Measuring ThreePhase Power 
1125 

11.10 Practical ThreePhase Transformer Connections 
1128 

11.11 Transformers Operated in Open Configuration 
1129 

11.12 ThreePhase Systems Modeling with Simulink / SimPowerSystems 
1131 

11.13 Summary 
1136 

11.14 Exercises 
1138 

11.15 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
1141 

MATLAB Computing: Pages 1146, 1151 

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 1132, 1143 

12 Unbalanced ThreePhase Systems 
121 

12.1 
Unbalanced Loads 
121 
12.2 
Voltage Computations 
123 
12.3 
PhaseSequence Indicator 
124 

Y Transformation 
127 
12.5 
Practical and Impractical Connections 
128 
12.6 
Symmetrical Components 
1210 
12.7 
Cases where ZeroSequence Components are Zero 
1216 
12.8 
Summary 
1220 
12.9 
Exercises 
1222 
12.10 
Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises 
1223 
MATLAB Computing: Page 1227 

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Page 1228 

A Introduction to MATLAB 
A1 

A.1 
Command Window 
A1 
A.2 
Roots of Polynomials 
A3 
A.3 
Polynomial Construction from Known Roots 
A4 
A.4 
Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values 
A5 
vi
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
A.5 
Rational Polynomials 
A8 
A.6 
Using MATLAB to Make Plots 
A9 
A.7 
Subplots 
A18 
A.8 
Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation 
A19 
A.9 
Script and Function Files 
A26 
A.10 Display Formats 
A31 

MATLAB Computations: Entire Appendix A 

B Introduction to Simulink 
B1 

B.1 
Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB 
B1 
B.2 
Simulink Demos 
B20 
Simulink Modeling: Entire Appendix B 

C Introduction to SimPowerSystems 
C1 

C.1 
Simulation of Electric Circuits with SimPowerSystems 
C1 
SimPowerSystems Modeling: Entire Appendix C 

D Review of Complex Numbers 
D1 

D.1 
Definition of a Complex Number 
D1 
D.2 
Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers 
D2 
D.3 
Multiplication of Complex Numbers 
D3 
D.4 
Division of Complex Numbers 
D4 
D.5 
Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers 
D4 
MATLAB Computing: Pages D6 through D8 

Simulink Modeling: Page D7 

E Matrices and Determinants 
E1 

E.1 
Matrix Definition 
E1 
E.2 
Matrix Operations 
E2 
E.3 
Special Forms of Matrices 
E6 
E.4 
Determinants 
E10 
E.5 
Minors and Cofactors 
E12 
E.6 
Cramer’s Rule 
E17 
E.7 
Gaussian Elimination Method 
E19 
E.8 
The Adjoint of a Matrix 
E21 
E.9 
Singular and NonSingular Matrices 
E21 
E.10 
The Inverse of a Matrix 
E22 
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
vii
E.11 
Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices 
E24 
E.12 
Exercises 
E31 
MATLAB Computing: Pages E3, E4, E5, E7, E8, E9, E10, E12, E15, E16, E18, E22, E25, E6, E29 

Simulink Modeling: Page E3 

Excel Spreadsheet: Page E27 

F Scaling 
F1 

F.1 
Magnitude Scaling 
F1 
F.2 
Frequency Scaling 
F1 
F.3 
Exercises 
F8 
F.4 
Solutions to EndofAppendix Exercises 
F9 
MATLAB Computing: Pages F3, F5 

G Per Unit System 
G1 

G.1 
Per Unit Defined 
G1 
G.2 
Impedance Transformation from One Base to Another Base 
G3 
H Review of Differential Equations 
H1 

H.1 Simple Differential Equations 
H1 

H.2 
Classification 
H3 
H.3 Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) 
H6 

H.4 Solution of the Homogeneous ODE 
H8 

H.5 Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response 
H10 

H.6 Using the Method of Variation of Parameters for the Forced Response 
H20 

H.7 
Exercises 
H24 
MATLAB Computing: Pages H11, H13, H14, H16, H17, H9, H22, H23 

I Constructing Semilog Paper with Excel® and with MATLAB® 
I1 

I.1 
Instructions for Constructing Semilog Paper with Excel 
I1 
I.4 
Instructions for Constructing Semilog Paper with MATLAB 
I4 
Excel Spreadsheet: Page I1 

MATLAB Computing: Page I4 

References 
R1 

Index 
IN1 
viii
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 1
Second Order Circuits
T his chapter discusses the natural, forced and total responses in circuits that contain resis tors, inductors and capacitors. These circuits are characterized by linear secondorder dif ferential equations whose solutions consist of the natural and the forced responses. We will
consider both DC (constant) and AC (sinusoidal) excitations.
1.1 Response of a Second Order Circuit
A circuit that contains energy storage devices (inductors and capacitors) is said to be an nth order circuit, and the differential equation describing the circuit is an nthorder differential equa tion. For example, if a circuit contains an inductor and a capacitor, or two capacitors or two inductors, along with other devices such as resistors, it is said to be a secondorder circuit and the differential equation that describes it will be a second order differential equation. It is possible, however, to describe a circuit having two energy storage devices with a set of two firstorder dif ferential equations, a circuit which has three energy storage devices with a set of three firstorder differential equations and so on. These are called state equations and are discussed in Chapter 7.
As we know from previous studies, ^{*} the response is found from the differential equation describ ing the circuit, and its solution is obtained as follows:
1. We write the differential or integrodifferential (nodal or mesh) equation describing the circuit. We differentiate, if necessary, to eliminate the integral.
2. We obtain the forced (steadystate) response. Since the excitation in our work here will be either a constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC) in nature, we expect the forced response to have the same form as the excitation. We evaluate the constants of the forced response by substitu tion of the assumed forced response into the differential equation and equate terms of the left side with the right side. The form of the forced response (particular solution), is described in Appendix H.
3. We obtain the general form of the natural response by setting the right side of the differential equation equal to zero, in other words, solve the homogeneous differential equation using the characteristic equation.
4. We add the forced and natural responses to form the complete response.
5. Using the initial conditions, we evaluate the constants from the complete response.
n
* The natural and forced responses for firstorder circuits are discussed in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems® Modeling, ISBN 9781934404171.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink ^{} / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
11
Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
1.2 Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
Consider the circuit of Figure 1.1 where the initial conditions are
i _{L} 0
=
I
0
u _{0} t
is the unit step function.
*
We want to find an expression for the current
,
v _{C} 0
it
for
=
V 0
t 0
.
, and
R L
v _{S} u _{0} t
C
Figure 1.1. Series RLC Circuit
For this circuit
and by differentiation
Ri
di
++ L 
dt
1

C
t
idt
0
+
V 0
=
v S
_{R}  di + dt
^{2} i
L 
dt ^{2}
d
i
+ 
C
dv
S
= 
dt
t0
t0
(1.1)
To find the forced response, we must first specify the nature of the excitation AC.
If
ponent . If is AC ( , the right side of (1.1) will be another sinusoid
and therefore
, that is DC or
v S
v S
is DC (
i _{f}
=
v _{S} = cons tant
0
v _{S}
), the right side of (1.1) will be zero and thus the forced response com
v _{S} = V cost +
. Since in this section we are concerned with DC excitations, the
i _{f} = I cost +
right side will be zero and thus the total response will be just the natural response.
The natural response is found from the homogeneous equation of (1.1), that is,
whose characteristic equation is
or
from which
_{R}  di + dt
L
d
2
i
i

dt ^{2}
+ 
C
Ls ^{2} +
Rs
1
+ 
C
s ^{2} +
R
s
L
1
+ 
LC
=
=
=
0
0
0
(1.2)
* The unit step function and other elementary functions used in science and engineering are discussed in Chapter
3.
12
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink ^{} / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
Damped Natural
Frequency
(1.3)
(1.4)
where the subscript
s stands for series circuit. Then, we can express (1.3) as
or 

Case I: 
If 
2
S 0
2
s 1
s
2
s 1
s
2
=
=
, the roots
–
S
–
S
if
if
2
S
2
0
2
0
2
S
(1.5)
(1.6)
s 1
and
s 2
are real, negative, and unequal. This results in the over
damped natural response and has the form
i _{n} t
=
s _{1} t
k e
1
s _{2} t
+ k _{2} e
(1.7)
Case II: If
2
=
S 0
2
, the roots
s 1
and
s 2
are real, negative, and equal. This results in the critically
damped natural response and has the form
i _{n} t
=
Ae
– t
S
k
1
+
^{k} 2
t
(1.8)
Case III: If
2
0 S
2
, the roots
s 1
and
s 2
are complex conjugates. This is known as the under
damped or oscillatory natural response and has the form
i _{n} t
=
– t
S
e
k cos
1
nS
t
+
k 2
sin
nS
t
=
k 3
– t
S
e
cos
nS
t +
(1.9)
Typical overdamped, critically damped and underdamped responses are shown in Figure 1.2, 1.3,
and 1.4 respectively where it is assumed that
i _{n} 0 =
0
.
1.2.1 Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation
, is excited by a DC source, may be overdamped, critically damped or underdamped. In this section
circuit which
Depending on the circuit constants
R
L
, and
C
, the total response of a series
RLC
we will derive the total response of series
RLC
circuits that are excited by DC sources.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink ^{} / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
13
Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
Figure 1.2. Typical overdamped response
Figure 1.3. Typical critically damped response
Figure 1.4. Typical underdamped (oscillatory) response
Example 1.1
, resistance of the inductor. Compute and sketch
For the circuit of Figure 1.5,
i _{L} 0 =
5 A
v _{C} 0 =
it
2.5 V
, and the
for
t 0
.
0.5
resistor represents the
Solution:
This circuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation
Ri
di
1
++ L  
dt
C
t
0
idt
+
v
C
0 = 15 t 0
(1.10)
14
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink ^{} / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
0.5
1 mH
15u _{0} t V
100 6 mF
Figure 1.5. Circuit for Example 1.1
Differentiating and noting that the derivatives of the constants the homogeneous differential equation
di L d  ^{2} i 
i 

 + dt dt ^{2} 
C 

^{2} i R 
di i 

 
 

L 
dt +  LC 

R , L 
, and 
C 
R
d
 +
dt ^{2}
+  = 0
=
0
or
and by substitution of the known values
v _{C} 0
and
15
are zero, we obtain
d ^{2} i dt ^{2}

+
500 ^{d}^{i} + 60000i = 0

dt
(1.11) 

s _{2} = –300 
. The total 
The roots of the characteristic equation of (1.11) are and
response is just the natural response and for this example it is overdamped. Therefore, from (1.7),
s _{1}
= –200
s
t
it
=
k 2
=
5 A
i
n
(1.12)
can be evaluated from the initial conditions. Thus from the first initial
t
=
s
k e
1
1
t
+
k 2
e
2
=
–200t
k e
1
+ k _{2} e
–300t
The constants
k 1
and
condition 
i _{L} 0 = 
i0 
or 
and (1.12) we obtain
i0
k 1
=
+
0
k e
1
k 2
=
+
k 2
5
0
e
=
5
(1.13)
. This equation will make
We need another equation in order to compute the values of
k 1
and
k 2
use of the second initial condition, that is,
v _{C} 0 =
2.5 V
. Since
i _{C} t
=
it
=
_{C} dv _{C} dt

, we differ
entiate (1.12), we evaluate it at
t
=
0 ^{+}
, and we equate it with this initial condition. Then,
Also, at
t
=
0 ^{+}
,
di
 =
dt
–200k e
1
–200t
–
300k _{2}
–300t
e
and
^{d}^{i}

dt
t
=
0 ^{+}
=
–200k _{1} –300k _{2}
(1.14)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink ^{} / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
15
Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
and solving for
di

dt
t
=
0 ^{+}
Ri 0 ^{+}
+
we obtain
_{L} di

dt
t
=
0 ^{+}
+
v
c
0 ^{+}
=
15
di

dt
t
=
0 ^{+}
=  15–0.5 5 – 2.5 = 10000
10 ^{–}^{3}
(1.15)
Next, equating (1.14) with (1.15) we obtain:
–200k _{1} –300k _{2} = 10000
–k _{1} –1.5k _{2} = 50
Simultaneous solution of (1.13) and (1.16) yields (1.12) we find the total response as
k _{1}
=
115
and
k _{2} = –110
(1.16)
. By substitution into
it
=
i
n
t
Check with MATLAB ^{*} :
syms t;
R=0.5; L=10^(3); C=100*10^(3)/6;
y0=115*exp(200*t)110*exp(300*t);
=
115e –200t –110e –300t
% Define symbolic variable t
% Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
% Circuit constants
% Let solution i(t)=y0
(1.17)
y1=diff(y0); 
% 
Compute the first derivative of y0, i.e., di/dt 
y2=diff(y0,2); 
% 
Compute the second derivative of y0, i.e, di2/dt2 
% 
Substitute the solution i(t), i.e., equ (1.17) 

% 
into differential equation of (1.11) to verify that 

% 
correct solution was obtained. We must also 
% verify that the initial conditions are satisfied.
y=y2+500*y1+60000*y0;
i0=115*exp(200*0)110*exp(300*0);
vC0=R*i0L*(23000*exp(200*0)+33000*exp(300*0))+15;
fprintf(' \n'); disp('Solution was entered as y0 = '); disp(y0); disp('1st derivative of solution is y1 = '); disp(y1); disp('2nd derivative of solution is y2 = '); disp(y2); disp('Differential equation is satisfied since y = y2+y1+y0 = '); disp(y); disp('1st initial condition is satisfied since at t = 0, i0 = '); disp(i0); disp('2nd initial condition is also satisfied since vC+vL+vR=15 and vC0 = ');
disp(vC0);
fprintf(' \n')
* An introduction to MATLAB is presented in Appendix A.
16
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink ^{} / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
Solution was entered as y0 =
115*exp(200*t)110*exp(300*t)
1st derivative of solution is y1 =
23000*exp(200*t)+33000*exp(300*t)
2nd derivative of solution is y2 =
4600000*exp(200*t)9900000*exp(300*t)
Differential equation is satisfied since y = y2+y1+y0 = 0 1st initial condition is satisfied since at t = 0, i0 = 5 2nd initial condition is also satisfied since vC+vL+vR=15 and vC0 = 2.5000
We denote the first term as
current
i _{1} t
115e –200t
, the second term as
i _{2} t
110e –300t
=
=
, and the total
it
as the difference of these two terms. The response is shown in Figure 1.6.
Figure 1.6. Plot for
it
of Example 1.1
In the above example, differentiation eliminated (set equal to zero) the right side of the differen tial equation and thus the total response was just the natural response. A different approach how ever, may not set the right side equal to zero, and therefore the total response will contain both the natural and forced components. To illustrate, we will use the following approach.
The capacitor voltage, for all time t, may be expressed as
cuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation
and as before, the cir
1

C
t
–
idt
v _{C} t
=
and since
Ri
+
di
L 
dt
1
+ 
C
t
–
_{i}_{d}_{t}
=
15u _{0} t
(1.18)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB ^{} Computing and Simulink ^{} / SimPowerSystems ^{} Modeling Copyright © Orchard Publications
1
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