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Circuit Analysis II

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Steven T. Karris

t t e e m m s s ® ® M M o o d d
t t e e m m s s ® ® M M o o d d
t t e e m m s s ® ® M M o o d d

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

Circuit Analysis II

with MATLAB® Computing and Simulink® / SimPowerSystems® Modeling

Steven T. Karris

Simulink® / SimPowerSystems® Modeling Steven T. Karris Orchard Publications , Fremont, California

Orchard Publications, Fremont, California www.orchardpublications.com

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Computing and Simulink® / SimPowerSystems® Modeling

Copyright 2009 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in USA. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A. URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com

Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks, Inc., and MicrosoftCorporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Library of Congress Control Number: 2009930247

ISBN10: 1934404201 ISBN13: 9781934404209

TX 5745064

Disclaimer

The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text.

This book was created electronically using Adobe Framemaker.

Preface

This text is written for use in a second course in circuit analysis. It encompasses a spectrum of subjects ranging from the most abstract to the most practical, and the material can be covered in one semester or two quarters.The reader of this book should have the traditional undergraduate knowledge of an introductory circuit analysis material such as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB®Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems®Modeling, ISBN 978-1-934404-17-1. Another prerequisite would be a basic knowledge of differential equations, and in most cases, engineering students at this level have taken all required mathematics courses. Appendix H serves as a review of differential equations with emphasis on engineering related topics and it is recommended for readers who may need a review of this subject.

There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers, especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas.

Chapter 1 is an introduction to second order circuits and it is essentially a sequel to first order circuits discussed in the last chapter of Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB®Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems®Modeling, ISBN 978-1-934404-17-1. Chapter 2 is devoted to resonance, and Chapter 3 presents practical methods of expressing signals in terms of the elementary functions, i.e., unit step, unit ramp, and unit impulse functions. Accordingly, any signal can be represented in the complex frequency domain using the Laplace transformation.

Chapters 4 and 5 are introductions to the unilateral Laplace transform and Inverse Laplace transform respectively, while Chapter 6 presents several examples of analyzing electric circuits using Laplace transformation methods. Chapter 7 is an introduction to state space and state equations. Chapter 8 begins with the frequency response concept and Bode magnitude and frequency plots. Chapter 9 is devoted to transformers with an introduction to self and mutual inductances. Chapter 10 is an introduction to one- and two-terminal devices and presents several practical examples. Chapters 11 and 12 are introductions to three-phase circuits.

It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical introduction to MATLAB, Appendix B is an introduction to Simulink, and Appendix C introduces SimPowerSystems. The pages where MATLAB scripts, Simulink / SimPowerSystems models appear are indicated in the Table of Contents.

The author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive Student Versions of The MathWorks™ Inc., the developers of these outstanding products, available from:

The MathWorks, Inc. 3 Apple Hill Drive Natick, MA, 01760 Phone: 508-647-7000, www.mathworks.com info@mathworks.com.

Appendix D is a review of complex numbers, Appendix E is an introduction to matrices, Appendix F discusses scaling methods, Appendix G introduces the per unit system used extensively in power systems and in SimPwerSystems examples and demos. As stated above, Appendix H is a review of differential equations. Appendix I provides instructions for constructing semilog templates to be used with Bode plots.

In addition to numerous examples, this text contains several exercises at the end of each chapter. Detailed solutions of all exercises are provided at the end of each chapter. The rationale is to encourage the reader to solve all exercises and check his effort for correct solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was written to serve as a self-study or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a resource to test his knowledge.

The author is indebted to several readers who have brought some errors to our attention. Additional feedback with other errors, advice, and comments will be most welcomed and greatly appreciated.

Orchard Publications 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway Suite 315 Fremont, California 94538 www.orchardpublications.com info@orchardpublications.com

Table of Contents

1

Second Order Circuits

11

1.1 Response of a Second Order Circuit

11

1.2 Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation

12

 

1.2.1 Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation

13

1.2.2 Response of Series RLC Circuits with AC Excitation

111

 

1.3 Parallel RLC Circuit

115

 

1.3.1 Response of Parallel RLC Circuits with DC Excitation

117

1.3.2 Response of Parallel RLC Circuits with AC Excitation

126

 

1.4 Other Second Order Circuits

130

1.5 Summary

136

1.6 Exercises

138

1.7 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

140

MATLAB Computing: Pages 16, 17, 19, 113, 119, 1through 123, 125, 126, 128, 129, 132 through 134, 142, 144, 145

Simulink/SimPowerSystems Models: Pages 110, 114, 129, 153

2

Resonance

21

2.1 Series Resonance

21

2.2 Quality Factor Q 0s in Series Resonance

24

2.3 Parallel Resonance

26

2.4 Quality Factor Q 0P in Parallel Resonance

29

2.5 General Definition of Q

29

2.6 Energy in L and C at Resonance

210

2.7 Half-Power Frequencies Bandwidth

211

2.8 A Practical Parallel Resonant Circuit

216

2.9 Radio and Television Receivers

218

2.10 Summary

221

2.11 Exercises

223

2.12 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

225

MATLAB Computing: Pages 25, 26, 225, 227, 230, 231

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 215, 216

3

Elementary Signals

31

3.1

Signals Described in Math Form

31

3.2 The Unit Step Function

3.3 The Unit Ramp Function

3.4 The Delta Function

3.4.1 The Sampling Property of the Delta Function

3.4.2 The Sifting Property of the Delta Function

3.5 Higher Order Delta Functions

3.6

3.7

3.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

Simulink model: Pages 37, 38

Summary

Exercises

4 The Laplace Transformation

4.1 Definition of the Laplace Transformation

4.2 Properties and Theorems of the Laplace Transform

4.2.1 Linearity Property

4.2.2 Time Shifting Property

4.2.3 Frequency Shifting Property

4.2.4 Scaling Property

4.2.5 Differentiation in Time Domain Property

4.2.6 Differentiation in Complex Frequency Domain Property

4.2.7 Integration in Time Domain Property

4.2.8 Integration in Complex Frequency Domain Property

4.2.9 Time Periodicity Property

4.2.10 Initial Value Theorem

4.2.11 Final Value Theorem

4.2.12 Convolution in Time Domain Property

4.2.13 Convolution in Complex Frequency Domain Property

4.3 Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time

4.3.1 Laplace Transform of the Unit Step Function

u 0 t

4.3.2 Laplace Transform of the Ramp Function

u 1 t

4.3.3 Laplace Transform of

t

n u 0 t

4.3.4 Laplace Transform of the Delta Function

t

4.3.5 Laplace Transform of the Delayed Delta Function

t a

4.3.6 Laplace Transform of

e

at u 0 t

4.3.7 Laplace Transform of

t

n e at u 0 t

4.3.8 Laplace Transform of

4.3.9 Laplace Transform of

4.3.10 Laplace Transform of

4.3.11 Laplace Transform of

sin

cost u 0 t

e

e

t u

0

t

at

at

t u

0

sin

cost u 0 t

t

4.4 Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms

32

39

311

311

312

313

319

320

321

41

41

42

42

43

43

44

44

45

46

47

48

49

410

411

411

412

412

412

414

417

417

418

418

419

419

420

420

421

4.4.1 Laplace Transform of a Pulse

422

4.4.2 Laplace Transform of a Linear Segment

422

4.4.3 Laplace Transform of a Triangular Waveform

423

4.4.4 Laplace Transform of a Rectangular Periodic Waveform

424

4.4.5 Laplace Transform of a HalfRectified Sine Waveform

425

4.5 Using MATLAB for Finding the Laplace Transforms of Time Functions

426

4.6 Summary

427

4.7 Exercises

430

Laplace Transform of a Sawtooth Periodic Waveform

431

Laplace Transform of a FullRectified Sine Waveform

431

4.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

432

MATLAB Computing: Page 4-37

Simulink Model: Page 4-38

5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation

51

5.1 The Inverse Laplace Transform Integral

51

5.2 Partial Fraction Expansion

51

5.2.1 Distinct Poles

52

5.2.2 Complex Poles

55

5.2.3 Multiple (Repeated) Poles

58

5.3 Case where F(s) is Improper Rational Function

513

5.4 Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion

514

5.5 Summary

518

5.6 Exercises

519

5.7 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

520

MATLAB Computing: Pages 53 through 56, 58, 510 512 through 514, 520

6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms

61

6.1 Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency

61

6.1.1 Resistive Network Transformation

61

6.1.2 Inductive Network Transformation

61

6.1.3 Capacitive Network Transformation

62

6.2 Complex Impedance Z(s)

611

6.3 Complex Admittance Y(s)

613

6.4 Transfer Functions

616

6.5 Using the Simulink Transfer Fcn Block

620

6.6 Summary

623

6.7 Exercises

624

6.8

Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

627

MATLAB Computing: Pages 66, 68, 615, 619 through 621, 629 through 6-32, 637

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 68 through 611, 620 through 622

7 State Variables and State Equations

71

7.1 Expressing Differential Equations in State Equation Form

71

7.2 Solution of Single State Equations

76

7.3 The State Transition Matrix

78

7.4 Computation of the State Transition Matrix

710

 

7.4.1 Distinct Eigenvalues (Real of Complex)

711

7.4.2 Multiple (Repeated) Eigenvalues

715

7.5 Eigenvectors

718

7.6 Circuit Analysis with State Variables

722

7.7 Relationship between State Equations and Laplace Transform

729

7.8 Summary

737

7.9 Exercises

740

7.10 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

742

MATLAB Computing: Pages 74, 76, 78, 712, 713, 715, 717, 721 730, 744, 745, 746, 748, 750

Simulink models: Pages 79, 710

8 Frequency Response and Bode Plots

81

8.1 Decibel Defined

81

8.2 Bandwidth and Frequency Response

83

8.3 Octave and Decade

84

8.4 Bode Plot Scales and Asymptotic Approximations

85

8.5 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Real

86

8.6 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex

812

8.7 Corrected Amplitude Plots

824

8.8 Summary

835

8.9 Exercises

837

8.10 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

838

MATLAB Computing: Pages 819, 820, 822, 823, 833, 840, 843, 845

9 Self and Mutual Inductances Transformers

91

9.1

SelfInductance

91

 

9.2 The Nature of Inductance

91

9.3 Lenz’s Law

93

9.4 Mutually Coupled Coils

93

9.5 Establishing Polarity Markings

911

9.6 Energy Stored in a Pair of Mutually Coupled Inductors

914

9.7 Circuits with Linear Transformers

919

9.8 Reflected Impedance in Transformers

924

9.9 The Ideal Transformer

927

9.10 Impedance Matching

930

9.11 Simplified Transformer Equivalent Circuit

931

9.12 Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

932

9.13 Autotransformer

 

936

9.14 Transformers with Multiple Secondary Windings

937

9.15 Transformer Tests

 

937

9.16 Efficiency

942

9.17 Voltage Regulation

 

946

9.18 Transformer Modeling with Simulink / SimPowerSystems

949

9.19 Summary

957

9.20 Exercises

962

9.21 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

965

MATLAB Computing: Page 913, 914, 922, 944

Simulink / SimPowerSystems model: Page 949 through 956

10

Oneand TwoPort Networks

101

10.1 Introduction and Definitions

101

10.2 One-Port Driving-Point and Transfer Admittances

102

10.3 One-Port Driving-Point and Transfer Impedances

107

10.4 Two-Port Networks

 

1011

10.4.1 The

y

Parameters

1011

10.4.2 The

z parameters

1017

10.4.3 The

h Parameters

1022

10.4.4 The

g Parameters

1026

10.5 Reciprocal Two-Port Networks

1031

10.6 Summary

1035

10.7 Exercises

1040

10.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

1042

MATLAB Computing: Page 1049

Simulink / SimPowerSystems model: Page 1050

11 Balanced ThreePhase Systems

111

11.1 Advantages of ThreePhase Systems

111

11.2 ThreePhase Connections

111

11.3 Transformer Connections in ThreePhase Systems

114

11.4 LinetoLine and LinetoNeutral Voltages and Currents

115

11.5 Equivalent Y and Loads

119

11.6 Computation by Reduction to Single Phase

1119

11.7 Three-Phase Power

1120

11.8 Instantaneous Power in Three-Phase Systems

1122

11.9 Measuring ThreePhase Power

1125

11.10 Practical ThreePhase Transformer Connections

1128

11.11 Transformers Operated in OpenConfiguration

1129

11.12 ThreePhase Systems Modeling with Simulink / SimPowerSystems

1131

11.13 Summary

1136

11.14 Exercises

1138

11.15 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

1141

MATLAB Computing: Pages 1146, 1151

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 1132, 1143

12 Unbalanced ThreePhase Systems

121

12.1

Unbalanced Loads

121

12.2

Voltage Computations

123

12.3

PhaseSequence Indicator

124



Y Transformation

127

12.5

Practical and Impractical Connections

128

12.6

Symmetrical Components

1210

12.7

Cases where ZeroSequence Components are Zero

1216

12.8

Summary

1220

12.9

Exercises

1222

12.10

Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises

1223

MATLAB Computing: Page 1227

Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Page 1228

A Introduction to MATLAB

A1

A.1

Command Window

A1

A.2

Roots of Polynomials

A3

A.3

Polynomial Construction from Known Roots

A4

A.4

Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values

A5

A.5

Rational Polynomials

A8

A.6

Using MATLAB to Make Plots

A9

A.7

Subplots

A18

A.8

Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation

A19

A.9

Script and Function Files

A26

A.10 Display Formats

A31

MATLAB Computations: Entire Appendix A

B Introduction to Simulink

B1

B.1

Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB

B1

B.2

Simulink Demos

B20

Simulink Modeling: Entire Appendix B

C Introduction to SimPowerSystems

C1

C.1

Simulation of Electric Circuits with SimPowerSystems

C1

SimPowerSystems Modeling: Entire Appendix C

D Review of Complex Numbers

D1

D.1

Definition of a Complex Number

D1

D.2

Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers

D2

D.3

Multiplication of Complex Numbers

D3

D.4

Division of Complex Numbers

D4

D.5

Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers

D4

MATLAB Computing: Pages D6 through D8

Simulink Modeling: Page D7

E Matrices and Determinants

E1

E.1

Matrix Definition

E1

E.2

Matrix Operations

E2

E.3

Special Forms of Matrices

E6

E.4

Determinants

E10

E.5

Minors and Cofactors

E12

E.6

Cramer’s Rule

E17

E.7

Gaussian Elimination Method

E19

E.8

The Adjoint of a Matrix

E21

E.9

Singular and NonSingular Matrices

E21

E.10

The Inverse of a Matrix

E22

E.11

Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices

E24

E.12

Exercises

E31

MATLAB Computing: Pages E3, E4, E5, E7, E8, E9, E10, E12, E15, E16, E18, E22, E25, E6, E29

Simulink Modeling: Page E3

Excel Spreadsheet: Page E27

F Scaling

F1

F.1

Magnitude Scaling

F1

F.2

Frequency Scaling

F1

F.3

Exercises

F8

F.4

Solutions to EndofAppendix Exercises

F9

MATLAB Computing: Pages F3, F5

G Per Unit System

G1

G.1

Per Unit Defined

G1

G.2

Impedance Transformation from One Base to Another Base

G3

H Review of Differential Equations

H1

H.1 Simple Differential Equations

H1

H.2

Classification

H3

H.3 Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE)

H6

H.4 Solution of the Homogeneous ODE

H8

H.5 Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response

H10

H.6 Using the Method of Variation of Parameters for the Forced Response

H20

H.7

Exercises

H24

MATLAB Computing: Pages H11, H13, H14, H16, H17, H9, H22, H23

I Constructing Semilog Paper with Excel® and with MATLAB®

I1

I.1

Instructions for Constructing Semilog Paper with Excel

I1

I.4

Instructions for Constructing Semilog Paper with MATLAB

I4

Excel Spreadsheet: Page I1

MATLAB Computing: Page I4

 

References

R1

Index

IN1

Chapter 1

Second Order Circuits

T his chapter discusses the natural, forced and total responses in circuits that contain resis- tors, inductors and capacitors. These circuits are characterized by linear secondorder dif- ferential equations whose solutions consist of the natural and the forced responses. We will

consider both DC (constant) and AC (sinusoidal) excitations.

1.1 Response of a Second Order Circuit

A circuit that contains energy storage devices (inductors and capacitors) is said to be an nthorder circuit, and the differential equation describing the circuit is an nthorder differential equa- tion. For example, if a circuit contains an inductor and a capacitor, or two capacitors or two inductors, along with other devices such as resistors, it is said to be a secondorder circuit and the differential equation that describes it will be a second order differential equation. It is possible, however, to describe a circuit having two energy storage devices with a set of two firstorder dif- ferential equations, a circuit which has three energy storage devices with a set of three firstorder differential equations and so on. These are called state equations and are discussed in Chapter 7.

As we know from previous studies, * the response is found from the differential equation describ- ing the circuit, and its solution is obtained as follows:

1. We write the differential or integrodifferential (nodal or mesh) equation describing the circuit. We differentiate, if necessary, to eliminate the integral.

2. We obtain the forced (steadystate) response. Since the excitation in our work here will be either a constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC) in nature, we expect the forced response to have the same form as the excitation. We evaluate the constants of the forced response by substitu- tion of the assumed forced response into the differential equation and equate terms of the left side with the right side. The form of the forced response (particular solution), is described in Appendix H.

3. We obtain the general form of the natural response by setting the right side of the differential equation equal to zero, in other words, solve the homogeneous differential equation using the characteristic equation.

4. We add the forced and natural responses to form the complete response.

5. Using the initial conditions, we evaluate the constants from the complete response.

n

* The natural and forced responses for firstorder circuits are discussed in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems® Modeling, ISBN 9781934404171.

Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits

1.2 Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation

Consider the circuit of Figure 1.1 where the initial conditions are

i L 0

=

I

0

u 0 t

is the unit step function.

*

We want to find an expression for the current

,

v C 0

it

for

=

V 0

t 0

.

, and

R L

+  it
+
it

v S u 0 t

C

Figure 1.1. Series RLC Circuit

For this circuit

and by differentiation

Ri

di

++ L -----

dt

1

----

C

t

idt

0

+

V 0

=

v S

R ----- di + dt

2 i

L -------

dt 2

d

i

+ ----

C

dv

S

= --------

dt

t0

t0

(1.1)

To find the forced response, we must first specify the nature of the excitation AC.

If

ponent . If is AC ( , the right side of (1.1) will be another sinusoid

and therefore

, that is DC or

v S

v S

is DC (

i f

=

v S = cons tant

0

v S

), the right side of (1.1) will be zero and thus the forced response com-

v S = V cost + 

. Since in this section we are concerned with DC excitations, the

i f = I cost + 

right side will be zero and thus the total response will be just the natural response.

The natural response is found from the homogeneous equation of (1.1), that is,

whose characteristic equation is

or

from which

R ----- di + dt

L

d

2

i

i

-------

------- dt 2
------- dt 2

dt 2

+ ----

C

Ls 2 +

Rs

1

+ ----

C

s 2 +

R

----s

L

1

+ --------

LC

=

=

=

0

0

0

(1.2)

* The unit step function and other elementary functions used in science and engineering are discussed in Chapter

3.

Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation

2 R R 1  = – -------  --------- – -------- s 1 s
2
R
R
1
=
– -------
---------
– --------
s 1
s 2
2L
LC
4L 2
We will use the following notations:
R
1
= -------
= ------------
2
2
0
S
=
2L
 0
LC
S
S
Beta
 or Damping
Resonant
Coefficient
Coefficient
Frequency
   
   
      
2 2 =  –   nS 0 S     
2
2
=
 nS
0
S
     

Damped Natural

Frequency

(1.3)

(1.4)

where the subscript

s stands for series circuit. Then, we can express (1.3) as

or

Case I:

If

2

S 0

2

s 1

s

2

s 1

s

2

=

=

, the roots

 

S

 

S

2 2  –  = –    S 0 S S 2
2
2
=
– 
S
0
S
S
2
2
=
– 
0
S
S
nS

if

if

2

S

2

0

2

0

2

S

(1.5)

(1.6)

s 1

and

s 2

are real, negative, and unequal. This results in the over-

damped natural response and has the form

i n t

=

s 1 t

k e

1

s 2 t

+ k 2 e

(1.7)

Case II: If

2

=

S 0

2

, the roots

s 1

and

s 2

are real, negative, and equal. This results in the critically

damped natural response and has the form

i n t

=

Ae

t

S

k

1

+

k 2

t

(1.8)

Case III: If

2

0 S

2

, the roots

s 1

and

s 2

are complex conjugates. This is known as the under-

damped or oscillatory natural response and has the form

i n t

=

t

S

e

k cos

1

nS

t

+

k 2

sin

nS

t

=

k 3

t

S

e

cos

nS

t + 

(1.9)

Typical overdamped, critically damped and underdamped responses are shown in Figure 1.2, 1.3,

and 1.4 respectively where it is assumed that

i n 0=

0

.

1.2.1 Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation

, is excited by a DC source, may be overdamped, critically damped or underdamped. In this section

circuit which

Depending on the circuit constants

R

L

, and

C

, the total response of a series

RLC

we will derive the total response of series

RLC

circuits that are excited by DC sources.

Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits

Typical Overdamped Response Time Voltage
Typical Overdamped Response
Time
Voltage

Figure 1.2. Typical overdamped response

Typical Critically Damped Response Time Voltage
Typical Critically Damped Response
Time
Voltage

Figure 1.3. Typical critically damped response

Typical Underdamped Response Time Voltage
Typical Underdamped Response
Time
Voltage

Figure 1.4. Typical underdamped (oscillatory) response

Figure 1.4. Typical underdamped (oscillatory) response Example 1.1 , resistance of the inductor . Compute and
Figure 1.4. Typical underdamped (oscillatory) response Example 1.1 , resistance of the inductor . Compute and

Example 1.1

, resistance of the inductor. Compute and sketch

For the circuit of Figure 1.5,

i L 0=

5 A

v C 0=

it

2.5 V

, and the

for

t 0

.

0.5

resistor represents the

Solution:

This circuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation

Ri

di

1

++ L ----- ----

dt

C

t


0

idt

+

v

C

0= 15t 0

(1.10)

Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation

0.5

1 mH

+  it
+
it

15u 0 tV

100 6 mF

Figure 1.5. Circuit for Example 1.1

Differentiating and noting that the derivatives of the constants the homogeneous differential equation

di

L d ------- 2 i

i

----- +

dt

dt 2

C

2 i

R

di

i

----

-----

L

dt

+ --------

LC

R

,

L

, and

C

R

d

------- +

dt 2

+ ---- = 0

=

0

or

and by substitution of the known values

v C 0

and

15

are zero, we obtain

d 2 i dt 2

-------

+

500 di + 60000i = 0

-----

dt

 

(1.11)

s 2 = –300

. The total

The roots of the characteristic equation of (1.11) are and

response is just the natural response and for this example it is overdamped. Therefore, from (1.7),

s 1

= –200

s

t

it

=

k 2

=

5 A

i

n

(1.12)

can be evaluated from the initial conditions. Thus from the first initial

t

=

s

k e

1

1

t

+

k 2

e

2

=

200t

k e

1

+ k 2 e

300t

The constants

k 1

and

condition

i L 0=

i0

or

and (1.12) we obtain

i0

k 1

=

+

0

k e

1

k 2

=

+

k 2

5

0

e

=

5

(1.13)

. This equation will make

We need another equation in order to compute the values of

k 1

and

k 2

use of the second initial condition, that is,

v C 0=

2.5 V

. Since

i C t

=

it

=

C dv C dt

---------

, we differ-

entiate (1.12), we evaluate it at

t

=

0 +

, and we equate it with this initial condition. Then,

Also, at

t

=

0 +

,

di

----- =

dt

200k e

1

200t

300k 2

300t

e

and

di

-----

dt

t

=

0 +

=

200k 1 300k 2

(1.14)

Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits

and solving for

di

-----

dt

t

=

0 +

Ri 0 +

+

we obtain

L di

-----

dt

t

=

0 +

+

v

c

0 +

=

15

di

-----

dt

t

=

0 +

= --------------------------------------- 150.5 5 2.5 = 10000

10 3

(1.15)

Next, equating (1.14) with (1.15) we obtain:

200k 1 300k 2 = 10000

k 1 1.5k 2 = 50

Simultaneous solution of (1.13) and (1.16) yields (1.12) we find the total response as

k 1

=

115

and

k 2 = –110

(1.16)

. By substitution into

it

=

i

n

t

Check with MATLAB * :

syms t;

R=0.5; L=10^(3); C=100*10^(3)/6;

y0=115*exp(200*t)110*exp(300*t);

=

115e 200t 110e 300t

% Define symbolic variable t

% Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed

% Circuit constants

% Let solution i(t)=y0

(1.17)

y1=diff(y0);

%

Compute the first derivative of y0, i.e., di/dt

y2=diff(y0,2);

%

Compute the second derivative of y0, i.e, di2/dt2

%

Substitute the solution i(t), i.e., equ (1.17)

%

into differential equation of (1.11) to verify that

%

correct solution was obtained. We must also

% verify that the initial conditions are satisfied.

y=y2+500*y1+60000*y0;

i0=115*exp(200*0)110*exp(300*0);

vC0=R*i0L*(23000*exp(200*0)+33000*exp(300*0))+15;

fprintf(' \n'); disp('Solution was entered as y0 = '); disp(y0); disp('1st derivative of solution is y1 = '); disp(y1); disp('2nd derivative of solution is y2 = '); disp(y2); disp('Differential equation is satisfied since y = y2+y1+y0 = '); disp(y); disp('1st initial condition is satisfied since at t = 0, i0 = '); disp(i0); disp('2nd initial condition is also satisfied since vC+vL+vR=15 and vC0 = ');

disp(vC0);

fprintf(' \n')

* An introduction to MATLAB is presented in Appendix A.

Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation

Solution was entered as y0 =

115*exp(-200*t)-110*exp(-300*t)

1st derivative of solution is y1 =

-23000*exp(-200*t)+33000*exp(-300*t)

2nd derivative of solution is y2 =

4600000*exp(-200*t)-9900000*exp(-300*t)

Differential equation is satisfied since y = y2+y1+y0 = 0 1st initial condition is satisfied since at t = 0, i0 = 5 2nd initial condition is also satisfied since vC+vL+vR=15 and vC0 = 2.5000

We denote the first term as

current

i 1 t

115e 200t

, the second term as

i 2 t

110e 300t

=

=

, and the total

it

as the difference of these two terms. The response is shown in Figure 1.6.

115e –200t –110e –300t it = 110e –300t i 2 t = 115e –200t i
115e –200t –110e –300t
it =
110e –300t
i 2 t =
115e –200t
i 1 t =
Time (sec)
Current (A)

Figure 1.6. Plot for

it

of Example 1.1

In the above example, differentiation eliminated (set equal to zero) the right side of the differen- tial equation and thus the total response was just the natural response. A different approach how- ever, may not set the right side equal to zero, and therefore the total response will contain both the natural and forced components. To illustrate, we will use the following approach.

The capacitor voltage, for all time t, may be expressed as

cuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation

and as before, the cir-

1

----

C

t

idt

v C t

=

and since

Ri

+

di

L -----

dt

1

+ ----

C

t

idt

=

15u 0 t

(1.18)