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PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2 (CPE553)

GROUP : EH2414 (GROUP1)

EXPERIMENT : LAB : SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

DATE : 30 OCTOBER 2015

PROG/CODE : EH241

SUBMIT TO : MDM LIM YING PEI

1 Abstract 5

2 Introduction 5

3 Objectives 5

4 Theory 5

5 Procedures/Methodology 10

6 Apparatus 5

7 Results 10

8 Calculation 10

9 Discussion 20

10 Conclusion 10

11 Recommendations 5

12 References 5

13 Appendices 5

TOTAL 100

Remarks:

Date: Date:

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and tube

heat exchanger heat load and heat balance, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient, Reynolds

shell side and tube side, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop at shell side and tube side.

Every run will be using different flow rate. From the result, the pressure drop depends on the

flow rate not the temperature. Heat exchanger is a device that are design to transfer or

exchange heat from one matter to another in efficiently. There are several types of heat

exchanger and one of it that are mostly use in industrial applications is a shell and tube heat

exchanger. Fluids that flow in this device are in counter-current flow where two fluids flow

against each other, maintaining a maximum temperature difference between the hot and cold

streams which allows for maximum heat transfer. We assumed that internal, potential and

kinetic energy was negligible in this process, so QH must be equal to QC. In experiment 1, FT1

was constant at 10LPM. The highest efficiency of heat transfer was 99.58% at FT1=10 and

FT2=6. It means that heat transfer occur efficiently at equal volumetric flowrates of hot and cold

water. the results was different than the basic theory where the amount of heat release by hot

water was not equal to the amount of heat absorb by cold water, QH ≠ QC due to some errors

and the recommendation and precautions were made to improve this experiment.

INTRODUCTION

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are commonly used in oil refineries and other large-scale

chemical processes. Heat exchanger is a device that are design to transfer or exchange heat

from one matter to another in efficiently. It means that matter that release heat will decrease in

temperature while the other matters that gain heat will increase in temperature. A heat

exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy between two or more fluids,

between a solid surface and a fluid a fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid at different

temperatures and in thermal contact In this model, two separated fluids at different

temperatures flow through the heat exchanger: one through the tubes (tube side) and the other

through the shell around the tubes (shell side).

Heat exchangers can be in cross-flow, parallel-flow or countercurrent. Cross flow is the flow

where the cold and the hot fluid flow axis is at an angle to each other. Hence, the fluids will

cross each other in this arrangement. Mostly, this type of flow has the angle between axes as

90 degree. Parallel flow or co-current flow is the flow where the hot and the cold fluid is flow in

the same direction. The most effective flow in the heat exchanger is a countercurrent flow where

the fluid paths flow in opposite directions, with exiting and the other enters. This results in faster

heat exchange.

Heat exchangers are classified according to transfer process, number of fluids, degree of

surface contact, design features, flow arrangements and heat transfer mechanism. Several

design parameters and operating conditions influence the optimal performance of a shell-and-

tube heat exchanger. The main purpose of this model is to show the basic principles for setting

up a heat exchanger model. It can also serve as a starting point for more sophisticated

applications, such as parameter studies or adding additional effects like corrosion, thermal

stress, and vibration. . There are several types of heat exchanger and one of it that are mostly

use in industrial applications is a shell and tube heat exchanger.

Figure 1: Shell and tube heat exchanger

It contain a large number of tubes (sometimes several hundred) packed in a shell with their axes

parallel to that of the shell. Heat transfer takes place as one fluid flows inside the tubes while the

other fluid flows outside the tubes through the shell. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are further

classified according to the number of shell and tube passes involved.

OBJECTIVES

1. To evaluate and study the heat load and head balance, LMTD and overall heat

transfer coefficient.

3. To measure and determine the shell and tube sides pressure drop.

THEORY

The main function of heat exchanger is to either remove heat from a hot fluid or to add heat to

the cold fluid. The direction of fluid motion inside the heat exchanger can normally categorized

as parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow. In this experiment, we study only counter-current

flow. For counter-current flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow in the opposite direction. Both

the fluids enter and exit the heat exchanger on the opposite ends. In this experiment, we

This part of the calculation is to use the data in Table 1 to check the heat load QH and

HW )

QH = FH CpH (t1 t 2 )

CW

Hot water flow rate ( )

QC = FC CpC (T2 T1 )

Where:

LMTD

(t1 T 2) (t 2 T1 )

LMTD

(t T2 )

ln 1

(t 2 T1 )

(t1 T2 )

R

(t2 t1 )

(t2 t1 )

S

(T1 t1 )

Both equations would determine the value of correction factor FT . Practically, FT value

obtained from the graph with respect to R and S value. In this case, the correction factor would

apply to enhance the LMTD value. So, equation below show the corrected LMTD can be

determined.

LMTD FT LMTD

Overall heat transfer coefficient at which equivalent to U D can be calculated by using equation

below. In this case, the value of total heat transfer area A has been given and equal to 31.0 ft2

Q

U

A LMTD FT

Where:

FT Correction factor

Reynolds Number Calculation

C

Shell-side Re(s ) for W

De.Gs

Re( s)

Where:

de

De

12

2

do

4(1 / 2 PT 0.86 PT 1 / 2 . )

de 4

1 / 2 .do

At which:

PT Pitch = 0.81inch

Ws

Gs

As (lbmft-2hr-1)

As 0.029 ft2

H

Tube-side Re(t ) for W

D.Gt

Re(t )

Where:

D Tube ID = 0.04125 ft

Wt

Gt

At (lbmft-2hr-1)

At 0.02139 ft2

Pressure drop

𝐻𝑤 : The measured tube-inside pressure drop DP (tube) which will be corrected and is expected

CW : The measured shell-inside pressure drop DP (shell) which will be corrected and is

Notice that, both calculated pressure and also measured pressure are considered in unit

mmH2O. In this case, since calculated pressure drop in both of shell and tube side have been

obtained during the experiment, so it’s only required conversion factor to change the value into

unit of mmH2O.

Conversion factor:

1 105 Pa 1mmH2O

x.bar

1bar (9.81) Pa .

APPARATUS

PROCEDURE

1. A quick inspection is performed to make sure that the equipment is in a proper working

condition.

3. Hot water tank is filled up via a water supply hose connected to valve V27. The valve is

4. The cold water tank is filled up by opening valve V28 and leaves the valve opened for

6. Main power is switched on and heater for the hot water also switched on and set the

7. The water temperature in the hot water tank is allowed to reach the set point.

General Shut-down

1. The heater is switched off. The hot water temperature drops is wait until below 40°.

4. All the water in process lines is drain off. All valves is closed.

Experiment 1: Counter-current Concentric Heat Exchanger

4. The valve V3 and V14 is opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flowrates for hot

7. The pressure drop measurement for shell-side and tube side also recorded for pressure

drop studies.

8. The steps 4 to 7 is repeated for different combination of flowrates FT1 and FT2 as in the

result sheet.

RESULTS

Experiment 1

FT 1 FT 2 TT 1 TT 2 TT 3 TT 4 DPT 1 DPT 2

(LPM) (LPM) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)

Experiment 2

FT 1 FT 2 TT 1 TT 2 TT 3 TT 4 DPT 1 DPT 1

(LPM) (LPM) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)

6 10 32.2 28.9 43.5 48.8 28 212

CALCULATIONS

Hot Water

Cold Water

1. Calculation of heat transfer and heat lost

Hot Water Flowrate = 10.0 LPM Cold water flowrate = 2, 4, 6, 8 & 10 LPM

1)

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆𝑇

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 10.0 × × × 988.18 3 × 4175 × (48.8 − 47.5)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 893.89𝑊

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆𝑇

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 2.0 × × × 995.67 3 × 4183 × (44.7 − 29.5)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 2110.21𝑊

𝑄 893.89

𝜀= = × 100% = 42.36%

𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥 2110.21

2)

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 10.0 × × × 988.18 3 × 4175 × (50.0 − 46.9)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 2131.59𝑊

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆𝑇

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 4.0 × × × 995.67 3 × 4183 × (37.5 − 27.5)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 2776.59𝑊

𝑄 2131.59

𝜀= = × 100% = 76.77%

𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥 2776.59

3)

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 10.0 × × × 988.18 3 × 4175 × (49.1 − 45.3)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 2612.91𝑊

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆ = 6.0 × × × 995.67 3 × 4183 × (34.9 − 28.6)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 2623.88𝑊

𝑄 2612.91

𝜀= = × 100% = 99.58%

𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥 2623.88

4)

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 10.0 × × × 988.18 3 × 4175 × (49.5 − 44.8)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 3231.76𝑊

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆𝑇

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 8.0 × × × 995.67 3 × 4183 × (33.8 − 28.5)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 2943.19𝑊

𝑄 2943.19

𝜀= = × 100% = 91.07%

𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥 3231.76

5)

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 10.0 × × × 988.18 3 × 4175 × (49.5 − 44.2)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 3644.33𝑊

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 (𝑊) = 𝑚ℎ 𝐶𝑝 ∆𝑇

𝐿 1𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝐽

= 10.0 × × × 995.67 3 × 4183 × (33.2 − 29.2)℃

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60 𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

= 2776.59𝑊

𝑄 2766.59

𝜀= = × 100% = 75.91%

𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥 3644.33

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 =

(𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

ln[ ]

(𝑇ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛 )

1)

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = = 9.40℃

(48.8 − 44.7)

ln[ ]

(47.5 − 29.5)

2)

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = = 15.70 ℃

(50.0 − 37.5)

ln[ ]

(46.9 − 27.5)

3)

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = = 15.42℃

(49.1 − 34.9)

ln[ ]

(45.3 − 28.6)

4)

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = = 16.00 ℃

(49.5 − 33.8)

ln[ ]

(44.8 − 28.5)

5)

[(49.5 − 33.2) − (44.2 − 29.2)]

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = = 15.64 ℃

(49.5 − 33.2)

ln[ ]

(44.2 − 29.2)

𝐿 1𝑚3 ̇

1𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚3

𝑉̇ = 10 × × = 1.67 × 10−4

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60𝑠 𝑠

𝜋𝑑2 𝜋 × (0.02664)2

𝐴= = = 0.000557𝑚2

4 4

𝑉̇ 1.67 × 10−4 𝑚

𝑣= = = 0.299

𝐴 0.000557 𝑠

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

𝜌𝑣𝑑 988.18 𝑚3 × 0.299 𝑠 × 0.02664𝑚

𝑅𝑒 = = = 14327 (𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤)

𝜇 0.0005494𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠

𝐽

𝜇𝐶𝑝 (0.0005494𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠) × (4175 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾 )

𝑃𝑟 = = = 3.564

𝑘 𝑊

0.6436 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾

𝑊

𝑁𝑢𝑘 73.55 × 0.6436 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 𝑊

ℎ= = = 1776.91 2

𝑑 0.02664𝑚 𝑚 ∙𝐾

At shell side (cold water-heating process): 𝑁𝑢 = 0.023 × 𝑅𝑒 0.8 × 𝑃𝑟 0.4

𝐿 1𝑚3 ̇

1𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚3

𝑉̇ = 2 × × = 3.33 × 10−5

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60𝑠 𝑠

𝐴= = = 0.0048𝑚2

4 4

𝑉̇ 3.33 × 10−5 𝑚

𝑣= = = 0.0069

𝐴 0.0048 𝑠

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

𝜌𝑣(𝑑𝑠 − 𝑑𝑜 ) 955.67 𝑚3 × 0.0069 𝑠 × (0.085 − 0.0334𝑚)

𝑅𝑒 = =

𝜇 0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠

𝐽

𝜇𝐶𝑝 (0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠) × (4183 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾 )

𝑃𝑟 = = = 5.49

𝑘 𝑊

0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾

𝑊

𝑁𝑢𝑘 5.76 × 0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 𝑊

ℎ= = = 68.68 2

𝑑 (0.085𝑚 − 0.0334𝑚) 𝑚 ∙𝐾

𝐿 1𝑚3 ̇

1𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚3

𝑉̇ = 4 × × = 6.67 × 10−5

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60𝑠 𝑠

𝐴= = = 0.0048𝑚2

4 4

𝑉̇ 6.67 × 10−5 𝑚

𝑣= = = 0.0139

𝐴 0.0048 𝑠

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

𝜌𝑣(𝑑𝑠 − 𝑑𝑜 ) 955.67 𝑚3 × 0.0139 𝑠 × (0.085 − 0.0334𝑚)

𝑅𝑒 = =

𝜇 0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠

𝐽

𝜇𝐶𝑝 (0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠) × (4183 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾 )

𝑃𝑟 = = = 5.49

𝑘 𝑊

0.6155

𝑚∙𝐾

𝑊

𝑁𝑢𝑘 10.80 × 0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 𝑊

ℎ= = = 120.26 2

𝑑 (0.085𝑚 − 0.0334𝑚) 𝑚 ∙𝐾

𝐿 1𝑚3 ̇ 1𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚3

𝑉̇ = 6 × × = 1 × 10−4

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60𝑠 𝑠

𝐴= = = 0.0048𝑚2

4 4

𝑉̇ 1 × 10−4 𝑚

𝑣= = = 0.0208

𝐴 0.0048 𝑠

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

𝜌𝑣(𝑑𝑠 − 𝑑𝑜 ) 955.67 𝑚3 × 0.0208 𝑠 × (0.085 − 0.0334)

𝑅𝑒 = =

𝜇 0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠

𝐽

𝜇𝐶𝑝 (0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠) × (4183 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾 )

𝑃𝑟 = = = 5.49

𝑘 𝑊

0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾

𝑊

𝑁𝑢𝑘 12.35 × 0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 𝑊

ℎ= = = 166.03 2

𝑑 (0.085𝑚 − 0.0334𝑚) 𝑚 ∙𝐾

𝐿 1𝑚3 ̇

1𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚3

𝑉̇ = 8 × × = 1.333 × 10−4

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60𝑠 𝑠

𝐴= = = 0.0048𝑚2

4 4

𝑉̇ 1.333 × 10−4 𝑚

𝑣= = = 0.0278

𝐴 0.0048 𝑠

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

𝜌𝑣(𝑑𝑠 − 𝑑𝑜 ) 955.67 𝑚3 × 0.0278 𝑠 × (0.085 − 0.0334)

𝑅𝑒 = =

𝜇 0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠

𝐽

𝜇𝐶𝑝 (0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠) × (4183 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾 )

𝑃𝑟 = = = 5.49

𝑘 𝑊

0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾

𝑊

𝑁𝑢𝑘 17.55 × 0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 𝑊

ℎ= = = 209.38 2

𝑑 (0.085𝑚 − 0.0334𝑚) 𝑚 ∙𝐾

At the shell side: 10 LPM

𝐿 1𝑚3 ̇

1𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚3

𝑉̇ = 10 × × = 1.667 × 10−4

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60𝑠 𝑠

𝐴= = = 0.0048𝑚2

4 4

𝑉̇ 1.667 × 10−4 𝑚

𝑣= = = 0.0347

𝐴 0.0048 𝑠

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

𝜌𝑣(𝑑𝑠 − 𝑑𝑜 ) 955.67 𝑚3 × 0.0347 𝑠 × (0.085 − 0.0334)

𝑅𝑒 = =

𝜇 0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠

𝐽

𝜇𝐶𝑝 (0.0008007𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠) × (4183 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾 )

𝑃𝑟 = = = 5.49

𝑘 𝑊

0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾

𝑊

𝑁𝑢𝑘 20.96 × 0.6155 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 𝑊

ℎ= = = 250.02 2

𝑑 (0.085𝑚 − 0.0334𝑚) 𝑚 ∙𝐾

Overall heat transfer coefficient:

1.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 893.89𝑊 𝑊

𝑈= = 2

= 1901.89 2

𝐴∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 0.05𝑚 × 9.40℃ 𝑚 ∙𝐾

2.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 2131.59𝑊 𝑊

𝑈= = 2

= 2715.40 2

𝐴∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 0.05𝑚 × 15.70℃ 𝑚 ∙𝐾

3.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 2612.91𝑊 𝑊

𝑈= = 2

= 3388.99 2

𝐴∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 0.05𝑚 × 15.42℃ 𝑚 ∙𝐾

4.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 3231.76𝑊 𝑊

𝑈= = 2

= 4039.7 2

𝐴∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 0.05𝑚 × 16.00℃ 𝑚 ∙𝐾

5.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 3644.44𝑊 𝑊

11𝑈 = = 2

= 4660.41 2

𝐴∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 0.05𝑚 × 15.64℃ 𝑚 ∙𝐾

DISCUSSION

This experiment is conducted by using SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training apparatus which is

used as cooling devices. Some of the purposes of this experiment are to cool the hot streams

until both cold and hot streams have the same temperature, to study the working principle of

counter flow heat exchanger and to evaluate and study the overall heat transfer coefficient,

LMTD and heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance. In this shell and heat pump

exchanger, cold water flows through the outer pipe (the shell) while hot water will flows through

the inner pipe (in the tube). Heat will be transfer from high temperature (hot water stream) to low

temperature (cold water stream). This causes hot water to decrease in temperature while cold

water to increase in temperature until both hot and cold water streams have the same

temperature. We need also calculate Reynolds’s number at the shell and tube heat exchanger

and measure and determine the shell and tube side pressure drop. During the experiment, we

carried out Run III and Run IV experiment. Every run consist of three set of data which need to

be considered.

It is found that the calculated values of QH and QC are not really satisfied the theory since

supposedly, the ratio of QC/QH is unity means the ideal condition is the value of QC should be

closed to the value of QH. But in the calculated results, it is found that there are some

deviations in the value but it is normal because it is impossible to have an ideal system in real

life. For LMTD, the calculations consist of the use of graph which called as correction factor

graph. This graph is used to obtain a more accurate LMTD as the calculated LMTD values may

deviated from the actual one. The correction factor, FT is obtained from the graph by finding the

values of R and S.

In the experiment, volumetric flowrates of hot water is constant which is 10 LPM while

volumetric flowrates of cold water is change every 10 minutes from 2 LPM to 10 LPM. Heat

transfer of hot water, QH is higher than heat transfer of cold water, QC. However, QH keep

decreasing while QC keeps increasing as volumetric flowrate of cold water increases. The

highest efficiency in experiment is 99.58% at FT1=10 LPM and FT2=6 LPM where its

QH=2612.91 W, QC=2623.88 W, heat loss rate is 10.97 W, LMTD=15.42° and heat transfer

coefficient, U=3388.99 kg/s2. It means that heat transfer occur efficiently at almost equal

volumetric flowrates of hot and cold water.

At the end of the experiments, all objectives are met although maybe there are some errors.

Presence of air bubbles in the tube also is one of the factors that cause inaccurate results.

CONCLUSION

Based on the experiment, the main objective is to evaluate and study the overall heat transfer

coefficient, LMTD, heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance as well as to evaluate and

study the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger at various operating condition. . In this

shell and tube heat exchanger, the fluids flow in counter-current flow which results in faster heat

exchange. The experiment shows that the flow rate of one of the stream is directly proportional

to the rate of heat transfer since the rate of heat transfer is increases as the flow rate of fluid

increases. The basic theory in this experiment is QH=QC, which the amount of heat release by

hot water is equal to the amount of heat absorb by cold water. However, the results is different

than the basic theory where the amount of heat release by hot water is not equal to the amount

of heat absorb by cold water, QH ≠ QC. This is due to some errors during conducting this

experiment which are the presence of bubbles in tube where the hot water flows. The presence

of these bubbles can cause corrosion and disturb the process of heat transfer. Although the

results are not following the basic theory, this experiment can be said as successful because

objectives of this experiment were already achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS

There are a few recommendations and precautions that need to be taken during conducting this

experiment in order to get an accurate value and success results. Make sure that the equipment

is in good condition so that the flow of the experiment does not disturb by the inconstant data.

To ensure the data obtained is accurate, make sure there is no air bubbles in the tube during

experiment. The readings of FT1, FT2, DPT1, and DPT2 must be taken when the system is

stabilized and reach its steady state to get good results in calculations. The eye must be

perpendicular to the reading scale of volumetric flowrates of hot and cold water to avoid parallax

error during changing this flowrates. Besides that, the heat exchanger must be well insulated in

order to reduce the heat loss to the surroundings. The last set of temperature readings should

be taken when all the temperatures are fairly steady. While recording the data, make sure that

the pressure and temperature is at constant value because this can affect the calculation made.

Lastly, to improve the system of shell and tube heat exchanger, it is recommended that the shell

and tube heat exchanger have alert sign or alarm that can give a sign to the engineer who

handles the equipment to take the readings at the correct time in order to get accurate readings.

REFERENCES

https://www.scribd.com/doc/27156908/CONCENTRIC-TUBE-HEAT-EXCHANGER

Coulson and Richardson. Chemical Engineering; Volume 1, 6th edition.

Kessler, D.P., Greenkorn, R.A. (1999). Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer

Fundamentals, New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., pp (768-828).

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger(2015) retrieved from

http://www.ejbowman.co.uk/products/ShellandTubeHeatExchangers.html

Yunus A.Cengel, 2006, Heat and Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach. Mc Graw Hill,,

3rd Edition

Yunus A. Cengel, Afshin J. Ghajar.(2011). Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals &

Applications Fourth Edition McGraw-Hill.

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