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Spotlight on Trends and Issues:

Spotlight on Trends and Issues: Robust Design technology improves designs by reducing their sensitivity to real-world

Robust Design technology improves designs by reducing their sensitivity to real-world variabilities

by reducing their sensitivity to real-world variabilities Create high-quality shell models with the ANSYS Advanced

Create high-quality shell models with the ANSYS Advanced Mesher suite

shell models with the ANSYS Advanced Mesher suite Simulation provides insight into critical operating

Simulation provides insight into critical operating parameters of this emerging class of MEMS devices

Contents

Spotlight on Trends and Issues

6
6

Meeting the Challenges of Global Product Development

A continuing series on the role of engineering simulation in product development processes

Features

simulation in product development processes Features 10 Developing Robust Designs Improve designs by
10
10

Developing Robust Designs

10 Developing Robust Designs

Improve designs by reducing their sensitivity to real-world variabilities

13
13

Midsurfacing Tools for Meshing Complex Geometries

13 Midsurfacing Tools for Meshing Complex Geometries

Create high-quality shell models

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16

Finite Element Modeling of Capacitive Micro- machined Ultrasonic Transducers

16 Finite Element Modeling of Capacitive Micro- machined Ultrasonic Transducers

Analysis provides insight into critical operating parameters of this emerging class of MEMS devices

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Departments

Editorial Harnessing the Power of Technical Talent 2 Industry News Recent announcements 4 CFD Update
Editorial
Harnessing the Power of Technical Talent
2
Industry News
Recent announcements
4
CFD Update
Computational Fluid Dynamics
20
Simulation at Work
Fewer prototypes with up-front analysis
27
Managing CAE Processes
The value of simulation-driven design
29
Tech File
Restarting ANSYS
33
Tips and Techniques
More ways
to reduce run times
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Guest Commentary
The next generation of innovators
37
Hardware Update
High-performance cluster development
39

About the cover

Our cover article describes how the role of simulation- driven design in developing products on a worldwide scale is expanding.

in developing products on a worldwide scale is expanding. For ANSYS, Inc. sales information, call 1.866.267.9724

For ANSYS, Inc. sales information, call 1.866.267.9724, or visit www.ansys.com. Go to www.ansyssolutions.com/subscribe to subscribe to ANSYS Solutions.

Editorial Director

Designers

Ad Sales Manager

Editorial Advisor

John Krouse

Miller Creative Group

Beth Mazurak

Kelly Wall

jkrouse@compuserve.com

info@millercreativegroup.com

beth.mazurak@ansys.com

kelly.wall@ansys.com

Managing Editor

Art Director

Circulation Manager

CFD Update Advisor

Jennifer Hucko

Dan Hart

Elaine Travers

Chris Reeves

jennifer.hucko@ansys.com

dan.hart@ansys.com

elaine.travers@ansys.com

chris.reeves@ansys.com

ANSYS Solutions is published for ANSYS, Inc. customers, partners, and others interested in the field of design and analysis applications.

The content of ANSYS Solutions has been carefully reviewed and is deemed to be accurate and complete. However, neither ANSYS, Inc., nor Miller Creative Group guarantees or warrants accuracy or completeness of the material contained in this publication. ANSYS, ANSYS Workbench, CFX, AUTODYN, and any and all ANSYS, Inc. product and service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries located in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark licensed by ANSYS, Inc. All other trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. POSTMASTER: Send change of address to ANSYS, Inc., Southpointe, 275 Technology Drive, Canonsburg, PA 15317, USA.

©2005 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Editorial

2 Harnessing the True Power of Technical Talent

Get whopping business gains by leveraging corporate intellectual capital with simulation-driven design.

intellectual capital with simulation-driven design. By John Krouse Editorial Director ANSYS Solutions

By John Krouse Editorial Director ANSYS Solutions jkrouse@compuserve.com

Simulation technology continues to advance, giving engineers and analysts increasingly powerful tools for a wide range of analysis tasks. The ANSYS Advanced Mesher suite, for example, has unparalleled functionality for quickly building models, as explained in Simon Pereira’s article “Midsurfacing Tools for Meshing Complex Geometries” starting on page 13 of this issue. The DesignX- plorer TM software can be used

in efficiently optimizing designs to minimize failures due to uncertainties such as manufac- turing variabilities, as Ray Browell discusses in his article “Developing Robust Designs” on page 10. These are part of a spectrum of advanced technolo- gies that serve as the foundation for performing simula- tion faster and more accurately than was previously practical. In many cases, they automate and streamline manual tasks that drag down engineering productivity when users have to slog through these procedures by hand. In this respect, analysis tools are extremely powerful time savers and cost cutters that yield very respectable returns on investment. Beyond these productivity benefits, however, lie much broader order-of- magnitude gains made possible by using the technology to develop better, more innovative products that enhance brand value and grow top-line revenue. Xerox Corp., for example, used up-front analysis with DesignSpace in the development of their new iGen3, an innovative digital printing system for penetrating the commercial printing market and the most complex product ever developed by the company. As described in the article “Fewer Prototypes with Up-Front Analysis” on page 27, the machine is regarded as one of the firm’s flagship products and is projected to be a major revenue- generator to lift profits and strengthen the company’s market leadership position. Products such as this that are developed through simulation-driven design aren’t necessarily successful because engineers worked quickly but because they worked intelligently, using their engineering know-how with the aid of simulation to study product performance, spot potential problems, evaluate alternatives and refine

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the design. In this manner, companies can use early simu- lation in achieving product performance targets that incor- porate “voice of the customer” market requirements into the design process, as discussed by Dr. Jason Lemon in his article “The Value of Simulation-Driven Design” begin- ning on page 29. Lemon is founder and chairman of ANSYS partner ITI, which has used the approach in helping numerous companies over the years to develop innovative winning products. They worked with Murray, Inc., for example, in using ANSYS to develop an innovative tractor mower with all-wheel steering capability that turns easily without the usual hydraulic power-assist systems that add complexity and cost to a product. Organizations around the world are using simulation- driven design processes to compete more effectively in global markets, with the role of technology shifting to a means of product development process change and a critical part of companies’ business strategies. See the article “Meeting the Challenges of Global Product Development” on page 6 to learn how this expanding role of simulation-driven design is helping companies develop products on a worldwide scale. The role of simulation at companies competing in this global market is addressed in the guest commentary “The Next Generation of Innovators” by Dr. Michael Lovell on page 37, which discusses the challenges faced by engineers when competing with those in countries where labor costs are considerably lower. Lovell describes how engineers can bring considerable value to the workplace beyond their technical skills, most notably in using simula- tion to develop truly innovative products that enhance the competitive positions of their companies. The articles cited above highlight profound corpo- rate benefits that are possible with simulation-driven design, which enables engineers to do what they do best:

creatively design innovative, winning products. After all, the greatest worth of engineers and other technical professionals is not that they perform individual tasks faster or cheaper than their counterparts at other companies. Rather, their real value to the enterprise is the tremendous inventiveness, knowledge, artistry and expertise they draw upon in product development. By harnessing the power of this valuable intellectual capital, simulation can play a key role in helping companies thrive amid the challenges and opportunities of today’s global economy.

companies thrive amid the challenges and opportunities of today’s global economy. ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Take a look at the future of product development a process that's more automated, more

Take a look at the future of product development

a process that's more automated, more integrated, more

innovative and truer to life. That's where ANSYS is taking engineering simulation. ANSYS 9.0 combines technologies like industry-leading meshing, nonlinear analysis and computational fluid dynamics, reducing costs and bringing innovative products to market quicker.

Bring your products and processes to life with ANSYS. Visit www.ansys.com/innovate/sol or call 1.866.267.9724 for more information about ANSYS 9.0.

Industry News

Recent Announcements

4

and Upcoming Events

ANSYS Awarded General Services Administration

Contract for CFX Products

The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) has

awarded ANSYS a contract to sell its CFX ® products

and services, joining the other ANSYS tools available

to Federal customers through the GSA program. The

contract augments ANSYS’ ability to provide a full

range of products to Federal customers enabling them

to quickly and effectively purchase the products and

services that they need using pre-established rates. Federal customers can access information about ANSYS products and services through the GSA Schedules e-Library at www.gsalibrary.gsa.gov by searching the contract number GS-35F-0639N.

ANSYS Northern California User’s Group Meeting

The Northern California ANSYS User’s Group meeting

will be held on May 26 & 27, 2005, at the Santa Clara

Marriott Hotel in Santa Clara, Calif. There will be

workshops on Ball Grid Array, MEMS, Fluid Structure

Interaction, CFD Fundamentals and ANSYS CFX,

and

using ANSYS. In addition, users are encouraged

simulations

Fracture

Mechanics

Fatigue

to submit and present papers on biomedical, semiconductor, high performance computing and general simulations applications. Exhibition space is also available. For further information, please visit www.ozeninc.com/ugmeeting.asp or contact (408) 732-4665 and info@ozeninc.com.

ANSYS Acquires Century Dynamics

In January, ANSYS, Inc. acquired Century Dynamics,

Inc., a leading provider of sophisticated yet easy-to-

use simulation software for solving linear, nonlinear,

explicit and multi-body hydro-dynamics problems.

Century Dynamics' main product, AUTODYN ® , can

solve many types of problems with its extensive solver

library. Solvers include computational structural

dynamics finite element solvers (FE),finite volume solvers for fluid dynamics (CFD), mesh-free particle solvers for high velocity, large deformation and frag- mentation problems (SPH), and multi-solver coupling for multiphysics solutions including coupling between FE, CFD and SPH methods.

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The acquisition of Century Dynamics will support ANSYS' continued global expansion and will provide new opportunities for both organizations to further develop breakthrough and innovative CAD/CAE solu- tions that accelerate the application of CAE simulation results to design decisions. Century Dynamics will continue to operate as a separate subsidiary, maintaining its products, sales channels and other partner relationships. For more information visit www.ansys.com.

Durability & Fatigue Seminars Exploring the

Modern Theories and Practical Application of

Fatigue and Durability

Noted fatigue and durability authority, professor John

Draper of Safe Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

will present a series of fatigue and durability seminars.

These courses will provide an introduction to modern

theories of metal fatigue and their practical application

through worked examples and interaction/discussion. There is a strong emphasis on what is possible and the pitfalls to avoid. A professional volume of course notes forms a self-contained reference book. For more infor- mation, please visit www.safetechnology.com.

Only Pittsburgh CEO to Ring Opening

NASDAQ Bell

In January, ANSYS president and CEO, James E.

Cashman, III, rang the Opening NASDAQ Bell. Of the

currently listed NASDAQ companies, ANSYS is the

only Pittsburgh-based company to participate in this

event twice. Additionally, ANSYS rang the Opening Bell

in January 2004. The invitation to ring the Opening Bell

is further validation of ANSYS' strong performance and signals the growing importance of computer-aided simulation for businesses -- ANSYS' sole focus for over three decades.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

HP Technology Gives BMW WilliamsF1 Team

Flying Start to 2005 Season

At the launch of the 2005 BMW WilliamsF1 Team car,

the FW27, HP announced that the WilliamsF1 design

team was able to assess twice as many aerodynamic

models in computational fluid dynamics this year than

ever previously possible, thus allowing the team to

investigate the optimal design for the car.

The aerodynamic and structural characteristics of the FW27 were modeled on a powerful HP supercomput- ing infrastructure with flexible capacity provided by a utility computing system at HP Labs Bristol. This facility, which provides enterprise customers with a pay-as-you-go resource, allowed the WilliamsF1 team to manage peaks in workload.

HP technology enabled the team to perform design simulation of 1.3 terabytes of aerodynamic data. (One terabyte is a billion bytes, equivalent to 69,333 volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica.) The results of the simulations have allowed the team to optimize solutions for front and rear wings, brake ducts and radiator ducts without the expense and time of fabrication or wind tunnel testing.

The utility computing facility at HP Labs and the installation of a new HP cluster platform 4000 Super- computer system as WilliamsF1's primary computing resource at their Grove, UK, headquarters have increased the team's computer modeling capabilities in 2005 by more than a factor of three.

ANSYS Earns Desktop Engineering’s Readers

Choice Award

ANSYS, Inc. announced that its ANSYS CFX-5.7

product received the Desktop Engineering's Readers'

Choice Award for October 2004. Desktop Engineering

selected the winner by determining the number of

reader service inquires received in response to the

product announcements published in the July 2004

issue of Desktop Engineering.

The ANSYS CFX-5.7 announcement received the most inquiries. As the latest release in the powerful CFX-5 series, ANSYS CFX-5.7 offers further integra- tion into the ANSYS family of analysis technologies, providing better performance, enhanced interoperabil- ity with other ANSYS tools and more accessible complex physics and multiphase simulations. In addition, CFX-5.7 introduces true fluid-structure interaction (FSI) capability. A simple, one- way transfer of data from a CFX(R) solution to ANSYS enables CFX-5.7 to pass information between a fluid and structural simulation. This capability, as part of ANSYS 9.0, will evolve to full bi-directional dynamic coupling within the ANSYS Workbench environment.

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ANSYS Unveils Technology for Integrated Product

Development Environment

ANSYS, Inc. announced ANSYS 9.0, the first software

release featuring electromagnetic, computational fluid

dynamics (CFD) and mesh creation technologies

integrated within the ANSYS Workbench™ product

development environment, making simulation more

powerful and more accessible to a broader range of

users.

A major upgrade for the CAE industry's leading

simulation software, ANSYS 9.0 is an important stride toward the continued evolution of Workbench as a more productive and collaborative engineering tool for simulation-driven, integrated product develop- ment. Workbench's easy-to-use modern architecture allows companies to be more productive by eliminating manual file transfer, result translation and reanalysis, saving time and money.

Ideal for companies utilizing simulation in their product development processes, ANSYS 9.0 extends core features and provides powerful robust design capabilities as well as impressive developments in the areas of mechanics, computational fluid dynamics, high-frequency electromagnetics and multiphysics.

In addition, new breakthrough technology for large-

scale parallel computing allows users to analyze complete systems without unnecessary approxima- tions to their models.

To learn more about the integrated capabilities within ANSYS 9.0, visit http://www.ansys.com/product/ newfeatures.

Upcoming Events

Offshore Technology Conference Houston, Texas, USA May 2 – 10

NAFEMS World Congress St. Julians, Malta May 17 – 20

Electronic Components & Technology Conference Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA May 31 – June 3

ASME Turbo Expo 2005 Reno, Nevada, USA June 6 – 9

AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference & Expo

To

ronto, Ontario, Canada

June 6 – 9

ASME Fluids Engineering Houston, Texas, USA June 19 – 23

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

5

Spotlight on Trends and Issues

6 Meeting the Challenges

of Global Product Development

Globalization is a major trend, sweeping across industry and changing forever the way companies operate.
Globalization is a major trend, sweeping across industry and changing forever the way
companies operate. According to a survey by the Foundation for the Malcolm Baldrige
National Quality Award, 95% of CEOs indicated that their top challenge over the next five
years is moving their companies to become more global.
Cost savings is generally the number one driver in the shift toward international suppliers
and outsourcing, with companies in China, India and other regions able to develop and
fabricate products generally at 30% to 50% below that of the United States, for example.
Cost alone may not be the only driver in the shift toward globalization, however. Compa-
nies often work with international strategic partners and joint ventures in co-developing
products. Moreover, manufacturers increasingly have worldwide divisions and business
units that often must collaborate in the development process. Developing products inter-
nationally also can take advantage of specialized
technical expertise elsewhere in customizing
designs to meet specific regional requirements,
and in locating design centers close to international
customers. Beyond manufacturing, engineering
software companies also may leverage program-
ming skills at operations in other countries for
efficiently
developing
highly
effective
and
innovative packages that professionals around the
world can use productively in their work.
ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

The role of simulation-driven design in developing products on a worldwide scale is expanding.

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A recent survey of manufacturers indi-

cated that more than 24% have shift- ed to foreign suppliers or moved into global sourcing this past year, representing a 40% increase over just

two years ago. In particular, this rapidly growing reliance on worldwide supply chains leads to increased levels of global product development, with OEMs delegating growing levels

of design responsibility to international

subcontractors. In the automotive industry, for example, designers for the overall vehicle might be based in Detroit, while suppliers with design responsibility for their individual parts and assemblies are located around the world, developing and building the

braking system in Japan, the steering assembly in Germany, the trim in China and the engine in Mexico. “At a growing number of companies, the days of products designed entirely by a small group of engineers working side-by-side in the same facility are drawing to a close. The shift is now toward globally dispersed product development teams, with members

collaborating around the clock and around the world on various parts of an overall product design,” explains Charles Foundyller, president of market research and technology assessment firm Daratech Inc.

“In a rapidly growing number of enterprises, product development is by necessity becoming more collaborative, and this collaboration transcends national boundaries. It brings together departments, groups, suppliers, customers and strategic partners from around the world,” says Foundyller. “In many respects, CAE simulation-based technologies coupled with the Internet overcome differences in time, distance, culture and process and, in many cases, this potent combination leverages these differences to create a winning competitive advantage.”

7

The ANSYS user interface is available in Japanese and various other languages, making simulation technology easier to use for analysts and engineers around the world.

example, engineers in the field need ready access to sophisticated simulation performed at a central location. This was a challenge faced by Fläkt Woods Group, a ventilation system manufacturer based in Finland with representatives in 95 countries around the world. Their new Elea air treatment system is a break- through solution to provide improved air quality in a wide range of facilities, including hospitals, airports, office buildings and educational institutions. To optimize the performance of the Elea system for every customer installation, the company has implemented a unique Web-enabled design and analysis tool with ANSYS CFX simulation software for performing challenging HVAC calculations, including mixed convection and transitional turbulence. Submissions of the simulations and management of results are managed by the EASA Web-enabled user interface from AEA Technology plc. “Our sales and application engineers securely access the system via the Internet from anywhere in the world, often while they are together with potential customers,” explains Reijo Kohonen, vice president of technology at Fläkt Woods Group. “They set up the customer’s individual design case, including room layout and heat sources, device selection, etc. They submit the analysis, via the Web, directly to our central CFD simulation environment, and the results are returned to them later over the Internet in a clear and concise report. The system provides control, visualization, help and feedback for engineers in the field to readily perform simulations.” He notes that CFD experts at headquarters in Finland are available to provide support as needed but are not required to process every case end-to-end.

Analysis Anytime, Anywhere

The Internet is becoming an indispensable tool for companies operating on a global scale. The technology enables communication to take place almost instantaneously and provides the capability for individuals in remote sites to perform tasks as if they were all co-located. Using Internet technology to its full advantage in these global activities entails considerably more than merely bouncing e-mails back and forth, however, particularly in cases when, for

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Spotlight on Trends and Issues

8 “The ability to employ powerful CFD analysis at the proposal and design stages of every new Elea project around the world allows engineers to demonstrate clearly the performance and value of the Elea product, and to optimize its deployment,” says Kohonen. “This drives increased customer satisfaction and profitability for Fläkt Woods.”

Taking Advantage of Time Zones

Just about every company working on a global scale uses some form of electronic communication network such as the Internet to overcome the challenges of long distances separating individual sites. And a growing number of organizations find that these time-zone differences can actually be leveraged to their advantage in performing simulation as part of a collaborative effort. Syncrude Canada Ltd., for example, the world’s largest producer of crude oil from oil sands and the largest single-source producer in Canada, is working to improve the operation of its petroleum processing operations based on ANSYS CFX simulations being performed overnight at Australia’s CSIRO (Common- wealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, one of the world’s largest and most diverse global research organizations). The software is used extensively by CSIRO for complex CFD modeling of multiphase, combustion and reacting processes in the mineral processing, chemical and petrochemical industries. By using such simulations to gain a better understanding of the fluid coker stripper operation, it is anticipated that design changes will be identified to improve efficiency, reduce deposits and optimize stripper operation. “To most efficiently perform the simulations and utilize the results, the two companies are leveraging the distance separating their facilities,” says Dr. Peter Witt, research scientist at CSIRO. “When it is night in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, where Syncrude Research is located, CSIRO staff are hard at work in Australia performing analyses and posting results, including pictures and animations, on their extranet. The next morning, the group in Canada can view progress of the modeling work and provide feedback for a quick turnaround.”

When Oceans Separate Facilities

Even when operations are performed within the same four walls, design problems found late in product development are expensive and time-consuming to correct, and hurried late-stage corrections often do not result in optimal product performance. These

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problems are greatly magnified when groups are widely dispersed in different countries around the world. The challenge is further complicated when manufacturing, as well as some product development activities, is moved overseas. “This global footprint can lead to situations where

a product is conceived and its performance

requirements specified in country A, and it is then designed and tested in country B and mass-produced

in country C. Therefore, development centers have to

be flexible enough to respond to the needs of their

local market as well as be able to develop products for different, distant markets,” explains Fereydoon Dadkhah, mechanical analysis and simulation engineer at Delphi Electronics & Safety. In addressing this challenge, Delphi has equipped engineers at design centers in different countries with DesignSpace ® software as a first-order analysis tool, with engineers involved in the design process from the moment contracts are awarded. Even while some of the system features are being finalized, com- ponent designs can be analyzed and evaluated, and up-front simulation is used extensively to evaluate component performance. In many cases, the early analysis indicates that modifications are necessary. The modifications are made and assessed until all problems are eliminated. “Shortened design schedules in globally dispersed product development makes the use of CAE simulation mandatory, especially in the early stages,” says Dadkhah. “Because of the distributed product development process, it is important that all the engineers and designers use the same processes and techniques. Using analysis as an integrated part of product development enables engineers from around the world to collaborate in unprecedented ways.”

Standardizing Worldwide Processes

When different groups and departments around the world are trying to work together on projects, differences in processes, procedures, terminology and convention can cause significant problems that hamper effective collaboration, productivity and accuracy. Facilities in China, Europe and the United States, for example, may have operated independently for years, and in many cases might have been separate companies until a merger or acquisition brought them together. Ways of modeling parts, performing simulation, displaying data and evaluating results can vary widely among these diverse groups and generally are deeply engrained in their structure and culture.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

A major U.S.-based multi-national agricultural equipment manufacturer is meeting this challenge by standardizing its unique simulation-based processes through the use of templates in the ANSYS Work- bench™ environment. Process automation capabili- ties are provided by the software through wizards and templates that automate repetitive operations to han- dle simulation problems faster and make the develop- ment process consistent from project to project and group to group across the company. The firm’s project manager for computer-aided engineering explains that this template approach enables the company to capture the core competencies of and invaluable specialized expertise of particular skilled individuals in these different groups, while at the same time providing a consistent methodology for performing these tasks and collaborating across multiple groups on projects. Templates also provide a way to ensure that company processes follow industry-standard best practices. Automatic checkpoints in the simulation workflow ensure that the standardized processes are being followed. Also, automatic report generation capabilities within Workbench provide valuable documentation needed by the company for project histories and accountability for compliance with relevant standards. “In the past, engineers here could perform simulations however they wanted so long as they obtained accurate results,” notes the manager. “Now the process is standardized company-wide, allowing engineers to collaborate more effectively.” The manager also points out that capturing and standardizing the process enables the company to better assess and evaluate their overall product development process for shifting operations from time-intensive and costly multiple prototype testing cycles to higher levels of up-front analysis early in design. “Old habits are difficult to break,” he says. “The template approach gives us the tools we need to effectively institute these changes, provide consistent ways of working and enable us to move to simulation-based product development that companies must adopt to compete on a global scale.”

Leveraging Global Intellectual Capital

In these and other innumerable examples of simulation-driven design implemented on a global scale, companies are gaining a competitive edge with innovative products and processes by tapping

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ANSYS, Inc. supports customers around the world with more than 25 sales offices on three continents and a network of 150 channel partners in more than 40 countries.

into their global intellectual capital — the collective knowledge, expertise and insight of workers in multiple disciplines around the world. Through the ability to quickly perform what-if studies and evaluate alternative configurations, simulation provides insight into product behavior and gives free reign to the imagination of product team members. They can all see the way a proposed product would function if it existed in hardware and have the freedom to investigate alternative ideas. In these implementations, the Internet becomes the conduit for rapidly exchanging critical data while simulation guides the design process and serves as the knowledge driver that channels everyone’s ideas and insights into the problem. In this sense, simulation is a tremendous collaborative tool, allowing engineering to demonstrate to others — no matter where they are located or in what discipline they work — how various designs perform, and enabling cross-functional team members at dispersed facilities to provide valuable input into product design. In the early stages of development, when changes are most easily made, a marketing manager in Chicago could suggest a slimmer case for a consumer product, for example, or a manufacturing planner in Tokyo might see ways to reduce the parts count with a single injection-molded assembly. Analysis results can quickly show the entire team the impact of such ideas on stress, deformation, vibration and other aspects of product behavior. Through these capabilities, simulation-driven design enables multiple disciplines at sites around the world to work together in product development and facilitates the creativity that comes from such synergy. In that respect, the approach leverages valuable global intellectual capital at progressive companies that will likely be among the world’s superstars in the coming years.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

9

10

Robust Design allows you to define both Design Variables and Uncertainty Variables and then optimize to a set of goals

ANSYS technology improves designs by reducing their sensitivity to real-world variabilities.

By Raymond Browell, P.E., Product Manager, ANSYS, Inc.

Designs are traditionally developed based on exact specifications that define structural loads, temperature distributions or other conditions that products must withstand. Unfortunately, production processes used to manufacture the product, materials used in the product and the environment in which the product operates are seldom that exact. Rather, real-world variables fall within a range of possibilities that can cause rejections during quality inspection or failures in the field. The Robust Design capability in ANSYS mini- mizes such failures by allowing engineers to develop the design to perform its intended function regardless of these variations. In this way, users can quantify projected failure rates and therefore compensate in the design for uncertainties, including material varia- tions, environmental changes during the product’s usage, manufacturing variations and component deterioration. The Robust Design method is central to improving engineering productivity. Pioneered by Dr. Genichi Taguchi (see the sidebar “Understanding the Taguchi Method”) after the end of the Second World War, the method has evolved over the last five decades. Many companies around the world have saved hundreds of millions of dollars by using the method in diverse industries, including automotive, aerospace, business equipment, telecommunications, electronics and software. Robust Design can be applied to nearly any process or product, even financial processes. For ANSYS, the capability operates around the simulation solution to determine the extent to which uncertainties in the model affect the results of an analysis in terms of stress, deflection and so on. In this context, the approach is based on a probabilistic characterization (see the sidebar “Characterizing Product Behavior”) that quantifies the reliability or quality of the product by means of statistical analysis of uncertainties. Robust Design goes one step further than a prob- abilistic characterization by allowing you to optimize design variables to achieve a particular probabilistic

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level, such as Six Sigma, which corresponds to 3.4 failures in one million parts. Six Sigma initiatives are focused primarily on the production cycle and there- fore try to optimize the manufacturing process such that it automatically produces parts conforming to Six Sigma quality.

Design for Six Sigma

Design directly impacts a huge portion of product life- cycle costs beyond manufacturing, however, so a broader initiative called Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) optimizes the design itself such that the part conforms to Six Sigma quality even with variations in manufac- turing. A popular set of methodologies addressing these issues is based on early work at GE. For Robust Design and Design for Six Sigma, quality is an explicit goal of the optimization, and Robust Design may therefore be a valuable tool at companies implementing DFSS initiatives.

The Design for Six Sigma approach is focused on 1) increasing engineering productivity so that new products can be developed rapidly and at low cost, and 2) value-based management techniques that minimize product failure rates. DFSS methods impact the final product quality from two opposite perspectives. First, variation is studied and reduced in manufacturing processes with a goal of having +/-6 standard deviations of dimensional, material and performance characteristics controlled within the design tolerance. This method requires extra continuous effort to identify and resolve variations resulting from process randomness and trends. The second perspective involves designing prod- ucts that can meet the operating requirements and be subjected to greater variation at the same time. In other words, there is value in knowing what variation is important to control and in maximizing variational allowance for the sensitive design characteristics. This is the solution focus of the ANSYS Robust Design initiative and the DesignXplorer family of products.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

DesignXplorer can work with all types of input parameters such as CAD parameters, APDL parameters,

DesignXplorer can work with all types of input parameters such as CAD parameters, APDL parameters, ParaMesh parameters, and Design Simulation parameters. Here we see the scoped Equivalent Stresses for a given set of geometry input parameters. This scoped Equivalent Stress will be used for determining the fatigue life of a turbine blade under cyclic rotational loads.

life of a turbine blade under cyclic rotational loads. DesignXplorer contains both Goal Driven Optimization and

DesignXplorer contains both Goal Driven Optimization and Six Sigma Analy- sis capabilities. Goal Driven Optimization and Six Sigma Analysis combined together results in Robust Design. A design optimized to provide higher level of reliability (or conversely, a minimum failure probability). In this image, DesignXplorer has calculated the histogram and cumulative distribution func- tion for the turbine blade's fatigue life that result from the natural variations created in the manufacturing process. Robust Design within DesignXplorer allows use to then optimize the input parameters to provide for both a higher fatigue life and the probability of the fatigue life being achieved.

Understanding the Taguchi Method

Pioneered by the work of Dr. Genichi Taguchi after the end of the Second World War, the Robust Design method has evolved over the last five decades. The Taguchi Method is a design-of-experiments technique based on the assumption that the input-output relationship is only linear and does not have any interactions between the input parameters. It is also based on the assumption of discrete distributions for the input parameters, i.e., every input variable can have values only at the design-of-experiment levels, but nothing in between.

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levels, but nothing in between. www.ansys.com Response surfaces generated with DesignXplorer allow users

Response surfaces generated with DesignXplorer allow users to readily see the influence of input variables on design performance: the way stress or deflection is impacted as design geometry or material properties vary, for example. The technology provides insight into product behavior by quickly arriving at a range of results that would otherwise be impractical to generate using individual single analysis runs. In this example, our response surface shows the variation of fatigue life with respect to 2 geometry input parame- ters. As we can see the function is rather sharp, so significant gains in the fatigue life can be made by having DesignXplorer optimize the geometry input parameters.

having DesignXplorer optimize the geometry input parameters. DesignXplorer can also work with all types of output

DesignXplorer can also work with all types of output parameters such as deflection, stress, mass, frequency, or fatigue life. The scoped Equivalent Stresses from the preceding image were used to determine the fatigue life of this turbine blade under cyclic rotational loads.

In general, it is now an outdated method for the most part, but was a “better-than-nothing” solution in the days when the computational effort was prohibitively expensive. It still remains a popular method in cases where the effort is still highly expensive, such as in crash testing. With modern and efficient computer tools available, however, the gross simplifi- cations and assumptions of the method for most applications are no longer adequate and no longer needed.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

11

Characterizing Product Behavior Characterizing the behavior of a product (a part or an assembly of

Characterizing Product Behavior

Characterizing the behavior of a product (a part or an assembly of parts) under operational conditions can be done in three ways. Whereas empirical and deterministic characterizations are pass/fail in nature, probabilistic characterization on which Robust Design is based quantifies the reliability or quality of the

12 product by means of statistical analysis of uncertainties influencing product behavior.

Empirical Characterization refers to creating a prototype (or prototypes) of the product, hopefully replicating the manufacturing steps that are to be used in a production run of the product. The product is then tested to determine its behavior and to make final judgment on whether the product will perform successfully in the field. Typically, this judgment is of a yes/no nature. In other words, the product will fail or not, hence its design is acceptable or not.

Deterministic Characterization typically refers to an analysis of the product without testing it. This analysis could range from simple engineering handbook calculations to elaborate finite element analysis (FEA). Once again, the typical judgment is of a yes/no nature.

Probabilistic Characterization quantifies the reliability or quality of the product by means of a statistical analysis. Probabilistic characterization combines the deterministic characterization, either handbook or FEA analysis, with statistical analysis tools to address the effect of statistical variability and uncertainty influenc- ing the products behavior. Probabilistic analysis typically involves four areas of statistical variability: the geometric shape, the material properties, the loading and the boundary conditions. For example, the statis- tical variability of the geometry of a product would try to capture the product-to-product differences due to manufacturing imperfections quantified by the manu- facturing tolerances. Because the statistical analysis typically requires many data points, a combination of computer-based FEA analysis with statistical analysis is the most time- and cost-efficient method in practice. Unlike the first two methods, probabilistic characterization provides a probability of success or failure and not just a simple yes/no evaluation. For instance, a probabilistic analysis could determine that 1 part in 1,000,000 would fail or what the probability is of a product surviving its expected useful life.

ANSYS Tools for Robust Design

DesignXplorer VT and DesignXplorer provide you with the ability to create a Robust Design by allowing you to define both Design Variables and Uncertainty Vari- ables and then optimize to a set of goals (such as min- imizing failure probability or maximizing reliability or quality of a product) where each of these goals could be related to stress, deflection, fatigue life and so on. Robust Design combines Probabilistic Character- ization with optimization. Additionally, due to the power of our optimization techniques, a variety of objectives may be combined, even deterministic objectives with probabilistic objectives. A common desire would be to have minimum weight to reduce manufacturing costs, while also maintaining a low probability of failure rate to minimize warranty costs.

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Robust Design allows for and provides this type of deterministic as well as probabilistic optimization quantities. In keeping with industry nomenclature, we would describe the method of achieving the optimal solution as Multi-Objective Optimization. Robust Design is a new capability of the ANSYS DesignXplorer Family at 9.0. Robust Design can be used with CAD parameters or any Design Simulation parameter from within the Workbench Environment. Robust Design can be used with parameters contained in ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)–based files, which may contain ParaMesh parameters as well, to perform Robust Design on existing or new ANSYS analyses. Just like DesignSpace made it possible for companies to expand their use of simulation, DesignXplorer will allow companies to take extensive advantage of Robust Design techniques by allowing them to expand deployment of DFSS initiatives.

by allowing them to expand deployment of DFSS initiatives. What’s Six Sigma? Robust Design optimizes design

What’s Six Sigma?

Robust Design optimizes design variables to achieve a particular probabilistic level such as Six Sigma, which translates into 3.4 failures in one million parts. This probably is achieved when the performance target is 4.5 standard deviations away from the mean value. The additional 1.5 standard deviations leading to a total of 6 standard deviations are used as a safety margin to allow for “drift of the mean value” in the properties and environment which the product can experience over its lifetime.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Midsurfacing Tools for Meshing Complex Geometries

13

Create high-quality shell models with the ANSYS Advanced Mesher suite.

By Simon Pereira Senior Technical Support Engineer ANSYS, Inc.

Using shell elements to model solid parts is a popular technique in finite element analysis. Shells lower the number of nodes in the model, solve times are relatively fast and results are generally very reliable — provided the model does not oversimplify actual part geometry. So, as shell mesh solvers improve, users are continually trying to apply the widening scope of the technology to more complicated models while maintaining as much reality as possible in the models. The bottleneck for most analysts using shell elements for solids has been in simplifying the geometry to a reasonable midsurface. Sometimes the geometry is “simplified” to the point that it barely represents the original geometry, and in many cases this is a long and tedious process that takes up valuable time. ANSYS can support real-world geometry with t-sections, variable thickness and other complexities that engineers know are important design considera- tions. CAD interfaces are available to import the geometry directly from the design system, saving the analysts from duplicating this effort. The challenge is to simplify and midsurface the geometry as accurately and as quickly as possible. The ANSYS ICEM CFD™ Advanced Mesher is at the forefront of this effort. The majority of midsurfacing is done on stamped sheet metal parts. Some of these parts may have variable thickness, but the physics of stamping limits the complexity, so there are no t-sections or other surprises. The advanced mesher powers through these parts with many useful features. The standard process involves minimal user inter- action and uses two primary functions: “build diagnostic topology” and “midsurface.” The “build diagnostic topology” function can be run on a part-by-part basis. This uses a tolerance to establish connectivity informa- tion between the surfaces of a part. The user does not first need to sew any poorly fitting edges together; these gaps and overlaps are allowed for by the tolerance.The midsurface tool can also be run on a part-by-part basis and uses the diagnostic topology information to effectively match opposite surfaces and determine the

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F-1
F-1
F-1 Zoom
F-1 Zoom

Stamped sheet metal parts such as this floor panel can be midsurfaced in an automatic mode with minimal user input.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

14

A-14

A-14
14 A-14 (Image A-15) To create a midsurface of an extended geometry (see A-14), use original

(Image A-15) To create a midsurface of an extended geometry (see A-14), use original geometry as construction lines to draw a mid-curve (see A-15).

midsurface location. The user enters a maximum part thickness to be midsurfaced and selects the parts to be midsurfaced. There are also advanced options that can be set to further control the midsurfacing process. It is usually run as an automatic process that creates the new midsurfaces and automatically removes the original surfaces and side-surfaces. Connectivity between the new midsurfaces is maintained. The thickness of the original thin solid, even variable thickness, is automatically transferred to the new mid- surfaces. Once the shell mesh has been generated, the (variable) thickness shell element properties can be calculated directly from the midsurface. This is a highly automated process, and, once begun, it can work through a stamped sheet metal assembly, one part at a time, with no further user interaction. The assembly process can be handled with auto- matic seam-weld detection or automatic non-confor- mal contact setup. Manual or scripted connector setup is also available and easy to use. The Advanced Mesher produces a high- quality mesh, with the ability to ignore slivers and internal surface edges. The exceptional and easy-to-use mesh editing tools allow for element-level control. After the model is prepared, the mesh, loads, constraints and properties, including variable shell thickness, can be written out to a number of advanced FEA solvers, including ANSYS, LS-DYNA, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. Not all midsurfacing is so simple. More and more analysts are using shell mesh to model cast,

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analysts are using shell mesh to model cast, www.ansys.com (Image A-18) Original surfaces and midsurface with

(Image A-18) Original surfaces and midsurface with variable thickness.

Original surfaces and midsurface with variable thickness. (Image A-19) Shells displayed with variable thickness.

(Image A-19) Shells displayed with variable thickness.

machined, extruded or injection-molded parts. These parts are more difficult and may contain T-sections, webs, cylinders, routered edges, grooves, mis- matched surfaces, etc. For these more complicated models, automatic “quiet” midsurfacing methods are insufficient. However, ANSYS ICEM CFD advanced mesher’s geometry tab, including other midsurfacing options, provides the tools to get the job done. The midsurface geometry can be created using the original geometry as construction lines. There are a number of point, curve and surface creation tools that can be used to create a representative midsur- face. For instance, if a portion of your midsurface geometry could be created with an extrusion, create a “mid-curve” along one side of the thin solid and then use one of the curves in the perpendicular direction to create a curve-driven midsurface. The “modify surface thickness” tool has an auto- matic option to calculate the midsurface thickness or variable thickness from the original solid geometry. This tool also has manual options to set the variable surface thickness. Again, when the mesh is generated on these midsurfaces, the thickness can easily be transferred to the elements and nodes. The shells can be written out to a number of solvers, including ANSYS, LS-DYNA, ABAQUS and NASTRAN, with the thickness calculated at each node or averaged over each shell. Most other advanced shell properties are also available.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Meshing T-Sections

A common complication in many geometries is a T-section. This could be a traditional “T” shape, or any situation that results in a multiple edge between two or more mesh planes. The usual approach is to generate as much of the midsurface as possible. The final step of connecting the midsurfaces is done by extending one of the surfaces to the intersection. In ICEM CFD, the intersection curve is colored blue to indicate a multiple edge. When the mesh is generated, a row of nodes will form along this multiple edge to connect the shells through the T-section. The accompanying images demonstrate how this approach is used in modeling a support bracket having two T-sections.

is used in modeling a support bracket having two T-sections. (Image T-1) 1. Initial geometry with

(Image T-1) 1. Initial geometry with two T-sections.

(Image T-1) 1. Initial geometry with two T-sections. (Image T-2) 2. Midsurface as much as possible.

(Image T-2) 2. Midsurface as much as possible.

T-sections. (Image T-2) 2. Midsurface as much as possible. (Image T-3) 3. Extend T-surfaces to base

(Image T-3) 3. Extend T-surfaces to base plate.

as possible. (Image T-3) 3. Extend T-surfaces to base plate. (Image T-4) 4. Mesh midsurface geometry.

(Image T-4) 4. Mesh midsurface geometry.

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Modeling Complex Thin Solids

For complicated thin solids, it may be easier to create the midsur- faces using the geometry creation and repair tools. Feature detection tools such as button and fillet detection make it easy to locate and remove these features from the model. Other tools such as “remove hole,” “re-approximate surface” and “un-trim surface” also help to simplify a model. Often, the geometry may have two sides that are so different that a true midsurface may be undefined or undesirable. If at least one side of the geometry is suitable, the “offset surface” tool can be used.

A_02

is suitable, the “offset surface” tool can be used. A_02 A_3 A_6 (Image A_02) Die-cast ashtray

A_3

the “offset surface” tool can be used. A_02 A_3 A_6 (Image A_02) Die-cast ashtray is a

A_6

(Image A_02) Die-cast ashtray is a complicated thin solid not easily midsurfaced without ICEM CFD.

(Images A_3 and A_6) Various tools help to simplify the model.

15

without ICEM CFD. (Images A_3 and A_6) Various tools help to simplify the model. 15 ANSYS

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Finite Element Modeling of

22 16

Capacitive Micromachined

Analysis provides insight into critical operating parameters of this emerging class of MEMS devices.

By Bradley J. Kirchmayer, Walied A. Moussa and M. David Checkel Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

Ultrasonic sensors have been developed for many applications, including flow sensing, non-destructive evaluation and medical imaging. Presently, the most popular ultrasonic transducers are piezoelectric crystals, which, although successful in these applications, still have problems associated with their design, including impedance mismatch, high temperature instability and manufacturing difficulties. The evolution of the MEMS (Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems) industry has led to the emerging of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) as an alternative to overcome many of the piezoelectric problems. A CMUT is an array of elements that either transmit or receive ultrasonic waves. Each element consists of a metal electrode embedded atop a thin silicon nitride membrane. The membrane is supported by silicon nitride walls, which suspend the membrane above the bottom electrode (silicon substrate). Transmitter CMUTs use a DC bias voltage and a driving AC voltage to induce capacitor forces between the two electrodes. This causes the membrane to vibrate, thus emitting ultrasonic waves

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into the medium. Conversely, receiver CMUTs detect the change in voltage when the membrane is appropriately deflected by incoming ultrasonic waves. One advantage of CMUTs over piezoelectric transducers is that the membrane’s small impedance accommodates ultrasonic sensing in gases without the use of matching layers. Other advantages include greater dynamic range, higher temperature thresholds, lower manufacturing costs and higher transmitting frequencies. Like all of MEMS development, finite element analysis is proving to be a virtually indispensable tool in CMUT design. The following study shows the value of various types of ANSYS FEA models in determining two critical operating factors relating to the performance of a CMUT: the collapse voltage and the resonant frequency.

Understanding the Operating Parameters

Both collapse voltage and resonant frequency rely upon the CMUT’s geometric configuration and material properties. The importance of these parameters will vary depending upon the sensing application. The electric potential between the two electrodes can be increased to the point where the electrostatic force between the electrodes overcomes the membrane’s stiffness, causing the membrane to collapse onto the bottom electrode. This electric potential is called the collapse voltage or pull-in voltage, and it governs the maximum applied voltage for a working CMUT. For a CMUT to produce ultrasound waves in gases, the impedance caused by the CMUT’s membrane must be properly matched to the impedance of the surrounding medium. To produce the required membrane amplitudes for accurate impedance matching and receiver detection, the membrane must generally be operated at its resonant frequency. Because of its ability to couple these many interrelated electrical and structural factors, ANSYS software is a powerful tool in studying these complex phenomena.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Ultrasonic Transducers

17

Building the Finite Element Models

Three separate models were created using ANSYS to illustrate CMUT behavior: a 2-D axisymmetric model was used to investigate the collapse voltage, a 3-D solid model coupled with a TRANS 126 element demonstrated the resonant frequency of a pre-stressed membrane, and a reduced-order model developed with the ROM144 element also depicted the resonant frequency. All three models utilized identical materials, listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Material Properties for Finite Element Models.

 

Component

Membrane (Si 3 N 4 )

Air

Substrate

Electrode

(Material)

Gap

(Si)

(Al)

Young’s Modulus

3.20E+11

-

1.69E+11

6.76E+1

(Pa)

0

Density (kg/m3)

3270

-

2332

2700

Poisson’s Ratio

0.263

-

-

0.3555

Permittivity

7.6

1.04

11.8

-

The two-dimensional model is the electrostatic- structural model first presented in [4] to model an unstressed circular CMUT element. It was evaluated against the thermal-structural analogy found in [3]. Figure 1 depicts the geometry of the axisymmetric model.

Figure 1. Cross-Sectional View of 2-D CMUT Model. 2D Model Axis of Symmetry Aluminum Top
Figure 1. Cross-Sectional View of 2-D CMUT Model.
2D Model Axis
of Symmetry
Aluminum Top Electrode
Silicon Nitride Membrane
R
E
T E
T M
G
AirGap
R M
Silicon Substrate (Electrode)

The purpose of this analysis was to verify the relationship between varying electrode radius (R E ) and collapse voltage. All other geometric parameters were held constant and are listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Geometric Constants for 2-D Model.

 

Parameter

T

M

R

M

G

T

E

R

E

Dimension (µm)

0.6

25

1

0.1

Variable

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The model was created using PLANE 82 and

PLANE 121 elements. To simulate the loading due to a

DC bias voltage, a potential difference was applied

between the substrate and the metal electrode. Physics environments were used to model the static membrane deflection caused by the capacitive force, as shown in

Figure 2a and b. The solution using a built-in iterative solver (ESSOLV) was obtained when the membrane displacement or electrical field strength converged to within 5%. The collapse voltage was found when the solution diverged, causing the displacement to exceed

the model’s structural limitations.

displacement to exceed the model’s structural limitations. Figure 2a. Two-dimensional axisymmetric static deflection.

Figure 2a. Two-dimensional axisymmetric static deflection. ( 1 / 2 expansion)

axisymmetric static deflection. ( 1 / 2 expansion) Figure 2b. Two-dimensional axisymmetric static deflection.

Figure 2b. Two-dimensional axisymmetric static deflection. ( 3 / 4 expansion)

A three-dimensional solid model was created to investigate the relationship between membrane geometry and resonant frequency. The model’s membrane was loaded with a 60 MPa (tension) pre-stress and a 30V DC bias voltage. Table 3 lists the model’s geometry.

Table 3. 3-D Model Geometry.

Parameter

Dimension (µm)

Membrane Radius

50

Membrane Thickness

1

Electrode Radius

50

Electrode Thickness

0.2

Air Gap

1.4

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

18 Figure 3. Three-dimensional Trans126 model static deflection. The 3-D model reduced the CMUT to

18

Figure 3. Three-dimensional Trans126 model static deflection.

The 3-D model reduced the CMUT to the membrane, electrodes and air gap. SOLID45 and SOLID95 elements were used to model the membrane and top electrode. The air gap was modeled with TRANS126 elements that coupled the electrostatic and structural domains. Since the bottom electrode has no displacement, it was simply modeled by the bottom nodes of the TRANS126 elements. The membrane’s residual stress, σ thermal, was induced by constraining its edges and subjecting it to a uniform temperature change, T uniform. The required temperature change was calculated using the following equation, where Y O , α, and v were the membrane’s Young’s modulus, coefficient of expansion and Poisson’s ratio, respectively.

T uniform = σ thermal (1-v)

Y O α

An electric potential of 30VDC was then applied across the TRANS126 element, and the membrane’s static deflection was observed, as shown in Figure 3. From the static solution, a partial block lanczos solver calculated the first five modal frequencies. Finally, a harmonic analysis was solved for a 1 Volt AC load applied over a range that encompassed the first resonant (modal) frequency.

The reduced order model using ROM144 ele- ments simplifies 2-D and 3-D models by developing gov- erning equations for predetermined master nodes, and uses these relationships to create reduced order ele- ments. The reduced order elements have a fraction of the nodes of the full model, greatly reducing computational time. This model was created using the same constraints as the 3-D model. The ROM144 element was generated from a 3-D model defining the membrane, electrodes and air. The electrode and membrane were modeled similar to the 3-D solid model while the air was modeled using SOLID122 elements. Physics environments coupled the system as in the 2-D model.

Figure 4. ROM model-mapped in 3-D with 60MPa Membrane prestress.

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Next, a generation-pass defined the master nodes, applied static loads and calculated the modal frequencies of the CMUT. Governing equations were developed from static force-displacement solutions and the first modal frequency. When the structural response had been properly defined, ANSYS created the ROM144 element. A use-pass was then utilized to perform an electrostatic-structural analysis on the ROM144 model. The use-pass consisted of a harmonic analysis for a 60 MPa pre-stressed membrane with a 30VDC bias and a 1VAC driving voltage, as shown in Figure 4.

Looking at the Results

The three ANSYS FE models were validated using results previously reported in the literature. The analysis for the 2-D axisymmetric model was verified with the thermal-structural analogous solutions obtained in [3]. The resonant frequencies modeled by the 3-D solid model and the ROM144 element were verified using the impedance model of [6].

The 2-D axisymmetric model had the advan- tage in its ability to calculate static deflection and col- lapse voltage. The axisymmetric nature also reduces computational time. The disadvantages of the 2-D model, however, include the weak coupling forces and the inability to perform a harmonic or modal analysis. The 2-D model was used to calculate the collapse voltage for varying electrode radius with the results shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Collapse voltage for varying.
Figure 5. Collapse voltage for varying.

Comparing the results with those obtained in [3], it is seen that both models demonstrate similar behavior for electrode radii greater than or equal to half the mem- brane radius. As the electrode radius decreases, the two results diverge. At an electrode radius of 2µm, the results from the electrostatic-structural modal are double those of the thermal-structural analogy. Due to inaccuracies in both models, the actual collapse voltage for small electrode radius is likely to fall between these two values.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

For instance, ESSOLV uses weak coupling and may not have included the full capacitor force. Conversely, the thermal-structural analysis did not include the stiffness of the top electrode. Bozkurt et al. [3] defined the optimal electrode radius to be half of the membrane radius (12.5µm in this case), so the 2-D model can be used to calculate the collapse voltage for an optimized CMUT design.

The 3-D solid model coupled with the TRANS126 element was used to calculate the resonant frequency for

a pre-stressed membrane. By varying the radius by 2%,

a shift in resonant frequency was observed, as shown in

Figure 6. While the resonant frequencies are in a reasonable range, the displacements are high because there is no damping in the model. By comparing the results obtained in the current study with those in [6], the 3-D model was verified to accurately represent the resonant frequency of a CMUT. Other advantages of this model include the strong coupling nature of the TRANS126 element, and the ability to model pre-stress. The main disadvantage of this 3-D model is the large amount of computational time required for the harmonic analysis.

Figure 6. Resonant frequency shift with 2% change in membrane radius.
Figure 6. Resonant frequency shift with 2% change in membrane radius.
Resonant frequency shift with 2% change in membrane radius. Figure 7. Resonant frequency of ROM144 element.

Figure 7. Resonant frequency of ROM144 element.

The ROM144 element was also used to calculate the resonant frequency for a pre-stressed CMUT membrane. Results are shown in Figure 7. The results appear to be in good agreement with those published by X. Jin et al. [6]. While the ROM144 element is inherently less accurate and more complex to generate than the 3-D model, computational savings allow a refined mesh, which enhances accuracy. Also, the air elements provide realistic damping, so the displacements are considered correct. Overall, the ROM144 model can include a residual stress; can calculate static, modal, harmonic and transient solutions; and converges within reasonable computational time, providing a significant advantage over the other models.

Conclusions

Previously reported findings validated the results of the ANSYS models. The relationship between collapse voltage and electrode radius for a CMUT membrane with

a radius of 25µm and a thickness of 0.6µm was

investigated using a 2-D axisymmetric model. The collapse voltage agreement was within 15% for electrode radius greater than half the membrane radius. For smaller

electrode radii, the collapse voltage was shown to increase greatly. A reduced order model and a 3-D solid model were used separately to calculate the resonant frequency of a CMUT with 1µm thick, 50µm membrane radius. For a membrane with a 60 MPa pre-stress and biased at 30 VDC, the ROM144 and the 3-D model produced resonant frequencies of 2.29 MHz and 2.32 MHz, respectively. This correlation of ANSYS simulation with empirical

data confirms that finite element analysis is a valuable tool

19

in this range of leading-edge MEMS applications. References and Resources for Further Reading
in this range of leading-edge MEMS applications.
References
and
Resources
for
Further
Reading

[1]

W. P. Mason, Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

[2]

Filters. New York, NY: Van Nostrand, 1942. I. Ladabaum, X. C. Jin, H. T. Soh, A. Atalar, and B. T.

[3]

Khuri-Yakub, “Surface micromachined capacitive ultrasonic transducers,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 678-690, 1998. A. Bozkurt, I. Ladabaum, A. Atalar, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub,

[4]

“Theory and analysis of electrode size optimization for capacitive microfabricated ultrasonic transducers,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1364-1374, 1999. B. Bayram, G. G. Yaralioglu, A. S. Ergun, and B. T. Khuri- Yakub, “Influence of the electrode size and location on the

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[5]

performance of a CMUT,” Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085. I. Ladabaum and D. Spoliansky, “Micromachined ultrasonic

[6]

transducers: 11.4 MHz transmission in air and more,” American Institute of Physics, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 (1),1996. X. Jin, I. Ladabaum, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “The microfabri-

cation of capacitive ultrasonic transducers,” IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 295-302,

1998.

[7]

X. Jin, I. Ladabaum, F. L. Degertekin, S. Calmes, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Fabrication and characterization of surface micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducers,” IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 100-114, 1999.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

20

CFD Update: What’s New in Computational Fluid Dynamics Bosch Common Rail Injection System.
CFD Update: What’s New in Computational Fluid Dynamics
Bosch Common Rail Injection System.

Simulation of Cavitating Flow in Automotive Injection Systems

Bosch uses CFX in analyzing its high-pressure Common Rail Injection system for fuel efficiency, sporty vehicle performance and low emissions in increasingly popular diesel engines.

By Uwe Iben and Martin Voß, Robert Bosch GmbH and Wolfgang Bauer, ANSYS Germany GmbH

Injection system components are required to operate properly at highly different operational conditions over their lifetime. A modern injection system provides a rail pressure up to 1600 bar. Because of the design and high-speed valves, the pressure drops locally below the vapor pressure and the fluid cavitates. Vapor subsequently condenses in regions of higher pressure values, which may lead to cavitation erosion. Cavitation erosion may cause fuel injection systems to fail, so the geometry and operating conditions have to be carefully designed. An experimental check of all operating conditions is extremely time-consuming and, due to the material and the small geometric size, is often impractical. Simulation has to support the complex engineering process from the beginning, so reliable simulation methods are essential for the design process.

Predicting Local Flow Field

Various test configurations have been investigated at Robert Bosch GmbH. Besides global integral quanti- ties such as the mass flow rate as a function of a given pressure drop, the prediction of the local flow field is necessary for the prevention of cavitation erosion. Taking the small geometric size and the high fluid velocities (up to 300 m/s) into account, a highly transient flow field can be analyzed by high-speed visualization technique. In addition to the well-known cavitation at the throttle inlet, a strong interaction of turbulence and cavitation inside the shear layers down- stream of the constriction was observed. The highly transient dynamic caused erosion on the sapphire glass windows as well as on the impingement body are eroded due to cavitation within 45 minutes opera-

Test section geometry of fuel injector. Cavitation erosion with vapor is shown in black. Erosion
Test section geometry of fuel injector. Cavitation erosion with vapor is shown in black. Erosion of impingement body is illustrated in circle.

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

tional time. The initially sharp corners of the aluminum impingement body are eroded due to cavitation within 45 minutes operational time. Although the standard engineering practice in CFD computations is to use statistical turbulence models (such as the Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes equations, or “RANS”), it was expected that the transient large-scale turbulent eddies predicted by

a Detached Eddy Simulation (“DES”) would improve the accuracy of cavitation simulations.

Validating Circular Throttle Flow

As a first step, the basic cavitation simulation was

tested for a circular throttle flow. The outlet pressure of the circular throttle is varied with respect to the fixed inlet conditions. Once the outlet pressure drops below

a certain value, the mass flow rate is limited due to

cavitation inside the throttle. A further decrease of the outlet pressure does not increase the mass flow rate.

This choked flow is purposely designed into fuel injection systems in order to guarantee a nearly

independent mass rate of the servo valve independent

of the pressure level of the return passage.

The steady state flow was simulated by using the steady RANS SST turbulence model. The Rayleigh Plesset model was used within ANSYS CFX-5 software’s homogeneous multiphase framework. The chart compares the computed mass flow rate to measured data. The flow was computed on a series of successively refined grids to distinguish between numerical and model errors. The choking characteristic was predicted well.

Simulating Cavitation Erosion

Next, a series of simulations was set up to model the “planar” throttle flow, still with a RANS approach. A two-dimensional approach based on the equations missed the physics completely, because it could not resolve the two counter-rotating vortices that form on either side along the impinging body. A three- dimensional simulation predicted the global flow behavior well, but failed to mimic the cavitation inside the free shear layers and above the impingement body. With an unsteady RANS approach (URANS), the solution converged towards the steady state result and could not improve simulation results. These results show that even when the mass flow rate is in line with the experimental data, a simulation based on the RANS form — even with advanced statistical turbulence models — could not represent the cavitation zones and erosion areas.

Using the DES Model

Finally, a simulation was conducted with the DES model. The concept of the DES approach is to switch between a statistical turbulence model and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model in regions where the

turbulent length scale predicted by the URANS model

is larger than the local grid spacing. The shear stress

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21

Comparison between experimental data and simulation of circular throttle flow.

transport (SST) turbulence model is employed inside the boundary layer, while the large-scale turbulent structures inside the free shear layer downstream of the constriction are resolved by the LES method. The DES simulation predicted the complex transient cavitation in good agreement with the experiments, as shown in the figure with the vapor volume fractions. The momentum loss inside of the free shear layers downstream of the throttle was much smaller with the DES model than with the RANS method. Due to the smaller losses, the total pressure of the impinging jet was higher, and the pressure fell below the vapor pressure inside the two counter- rotating vortices in the impingement region upstream of the stagnation point. The cavities inside the free shear layers were forced to collapse and cause the observed erosion on the sapphire glass windows.

Conclusion

CFX-5 is extensively used for the design of fuel injection systems in order to guarantee proper behavior at very different operation points over the lifetime of the device. Advanced statistical turbulence models provide an efficient approach to simulate the global dependency of the mass flow rate on the pressure difference. The DES method, however, is needed to successfully predict cavitation erosion in injection systems because the complex transient interaction of large-scale turbulent structures and cavitation is resolved.

This article was excerpted from Bauer, Iben, Voss: Simulation of cavitating flow in injection systems, Conference Proceedings: Berechnung und Simulation im Fahrzeugbau, VDI-Berichte 1846, VDI-Verlag, 2004.

im Fahrzeugbau, VDI-Berichte 1846, VDI-Verlag, 2004. D a t a Vapor volume fraction 3D-RANS DES ANSYS

Data

Vapor volume fraction

VDI-Berichte 1846, VDI-Verlag, 2004. D a t a Vapor volume fraction 3D-RANS DES ANSYS Solutions |

3D-RANS

VDI-Berichte 1846, VDI-Verlag, 2004. D a t a Vapor volume fraction 3D-RANS DES ANSYS Solutions |

DES

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

CFD Update: What’s New in Computational Fluid Dynamics

22 Pollen Flow Study Improves Crop Production

Predicting pollen capture efficiency helps grow larger kiwifruit in New Zealand’s most important horticultural export.

By Michael Hii, John Abrahamson and Patrick Jordan, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

and Patrick Jordan, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Po llen collection efficiency (collected/fed by jet) by

Pollen collection efficiency (collected/fed by jet) by a full-open green kiwifruit flower targeted by a pollen-laden jet from the front. The jet exits a φ30-mm nozzle placed 200 mm away from the flower. The experimental range refers to mean ± one standard deviation.

Kiwifruit is the most important horticultural export from New Zealand, with crop value relying heavily on the size of the fruit to sell at premium prices in international markets. Growers recognize that the single limiting factor for a good-sized fruit is the number of pollen grains fertilizing its flower. Sufficient fertilization must be completed in the annual eight-day flowering period, when the flowers are receptive. Often bees are used to transfer pollen from male flowers to female flowers, but bees are unreliable. Wind also assists in this transfer, but this natural pollination is found by growers to be insufficient for commercial purposes. Growers can now blow pre-collected pollen onto kiwifruit flowers with an air jet and choose the time for optimal flowering. However, before this study, no one had measured or estimated the pollen capture efficiency by kiwifruit flowers from airflow. CFX-5, incorporating particle trajectories (calculated using the Lagrangian framework) around a full-scale rigid flower, has provided a sound prediction of the efficiency of pollen capture onto the critical area for fertilization —

(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)

(a), (b) and (c) are the CFX predicted trajectories of a cloud of pollen around a single half-open kiwifruit flower under 1 m/s air current from the front, side and back respectively (as shown by the arrows). The separation between pollen along a trajectory is 0.01 s.

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

(a) (b) 23 (a) Smoke visualization of flow field around a single full-open green kiwifruit
(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)

23

(a) Smoke visualization of flow field around a single full-open green kiwifruit flower under a uniform 1.2 ± 0.1 m/s flow from the front in a glass wind tunnel. The CFX simulated flow field is shown in (b). The arrows indicate the flow direction.

the stigma. This prediction is adequate for air velocities below those where petal flutter begins (3 m/s). For example, the predicted pollen collection efficiency indicated that wind pollination alone is insufficient, in agreement with growers’ experience. The use of CFX has enabled a more fundamental understanding of the capture mechanism of airborne pollen onto the stigma. The predicted flow fields exhibit at least two recirculation regions, a larger recirculation downstream of the flower and some small eddies in the airspace between the stigma and the petals. The spiralling large downstream vortices direct the pollen backwards to the stigma area for a second pollen collection after the first collection by the approaching flow. The eddies near the filament and stigma bushes trap the pollen, increasing their chances of being captured by the stigma. Using the smoke visualization around a real kiwifruit flower in a wind tunnel confirmed the airflow patterns. This flower model enables the recommendation of optimum ways of spraying pre-collected pollen, which is expensive and sometimes in short supply. This includes the effect of jet direction onto the flower, nozzle-to-flower distance, the diameter of the nozzle and initial jet velocity. Selected CFX simulations were confirmed with experiment and found to be in good agreement. Furthermore, the use of user-Fortran in CFX also allowed the assessment of the enhancement of pollen collection by electrostatically charging the pollen. The results here provide valuable insight for manufacturers to improve operating conditions and improve design of air jet sprayers for effective and economic delivery of pollen onto the flowers.

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economic delivery of pollen onto the flowers. www.ansys.com Fr ont and side views of a full-open

Front and side views of a full-open female kiwifruit flower (cv Hay- ward). More than 200 female kiwifruit flowers were photographed and studied to extract the detailed geometry for a model flower in CFX simulations.

the detailed geometry for a model flower in CFX simulations. A close-up look of the meshed
the detailed geometry for a model flower in CFX simulations. A close-up look of the meshed

A close-up look of the meshed flower model.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

CFD Update: What’s New in Computational Fluid Dynamics

24 Simulating Combustion Processes

Software tools help meet often-conflicting legislative and market requirements in power generation, aviation, automotive and other industries.

By Dr. Jorge Carregal Ferreira, ANSYS Germany GmbH

Combustion remains one of the most important energy conversion processes worldwide. In fact, more than 80% of the global primary energy demand is based on combustion. It is used in many important industrial applications, such as gas and steam turbine combustors, internal combustion (reciprocating piston) engines, furnaces, boilers and gasifiers. These devices are key components in power generation, aviation and automotive industries. In addition, in the oil, gas, glass, minerals, chemical and process industries, chemically reacting flows are critical to many large production processes. Due to limited resources of fuels and ever-tougher environmental constraints, there is a strong financial incentive to improve combustion devices in order to enhance the overall efficiency of fuel consumption and to reduce pollutant formation. An increasing number of industries have found that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a cost- effective tool for accelerating the design and development process in order to meet these often- conflicting legislative and market requirements. This

Comparison of Models with Real-World Data

As part of the ongoing model testing process at ANSYS, predictions of the implemented combustion models are compared with laboratory and industrial-scale flames for which extensive experimental data exists. One example is the Sandia Flame D, which is one of the standard benchmark flames of the internationally recognized TNF workshop. ANSYS, Inc. sponsors the activities of the TNF workshop and therefore benefits from the latest model developments of leading groups in the combustion research community. A large amount of experimental data that was obtained for specific laboratory flames can be used to verify whether the applied combustion models can predict, for instance, the local concentra- tion of minor species or temperature fluctuations.

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A gas turbine combustor is an industrial example where combustion plays a key role in the energy conversion process.

Courtesy of MTU Aero Engines GmbH.

has been achieved by optimizing designs through simulation and by reducing the number of experiments through virtual prototyping. In addition, CFD can provide detailed in-flame information, which, in many cases, is difficult or even impossible to measure. For example, the heat release in a combustor, which is determined by the magnitude of chemical source terms, is a property that cannot be measured directly but is immediately available from a CFD calculation.

Analyzing Complex Interactions

Combustion is a complex interaction of flow and mixing comprising a large number of elementary chemical reactions and species, heat release and heat transfer, turbulent flow and occasionally multiple phases with mass transfer, for example when the fuel is a liquid like oil or a solid like coal. CFD models must address all these physical processes and their interactions. With ANSYS CFX software, ANSYS Inc. offers an advanced general- purpose CFD package that is well suited to the analysis of combustion devices and processes. At the core of CFX is leading and unmatched solver technology which is used to solve accurately all required transport equations for mass, momentum, energy, turbulence quantities, and chemical species.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Advanced turbulence models in CFX allow an excellent prediction of the flow and the mixing between fuel and oxidizer, which is a prerequisite of any combustion process. In addition, flexible handling and generation of unstructured meshes provides a high efficiency in discretizing and modeling of often complex geometries.

Combustion Modeling Strategies

In most industrial applications, combustion and chemical reactions are strongly coupled to turbulent fluctuations. This represents a modeling challenge that is addressed in CFX by the implementation of two complementary turbulent combustion modeling strategies. In the first of these, the user is allowed to specify single or multiple-step chemistry and the chemical reaction rates are calculated by an Arrhenius expression or by the Eddy Dissipation Model (EDM), which sets the reaction rate proportional to a turbulent mixing time scale, or by a combination of both. The graphical user interface of CFX allows very intuitive and fast selection of chemical species and reaction steps, which can be taken from the library provided or defined by the user. The EDM represents a quick and efficient way of predicting overall heat release, and the distribution of major species and temperature. This method is commonly applied to gas turbine combustors to predict temperature distributions and associated heat loads, which can then be used to calculate and optimize the required cooling flow. If the fuel is liquid or solid, one can use one of the Eulerian or Lagrangian-based models, which are available in CFX to simulate the multiphase mass and energy

25

Modern laser measuring techniques are used to provide a reliable experimental data set which covers mean and fluctuating values of velocity, temperature, and chemical species. This data is used to validate combustion models. Visit http://www.ca.sandia.gov/TNF/abstract.html for more information on the TNF workshop. Picture shows the piloted Sandia Jet Flame, one of the standard benchmark flames of the internationally recognized TNF workshop.

transfer in combination with the combustion process. For example, pulverized coal can be used as a fuel in large power generation furnaces where, as part of the simulation, the release of volatiles, their subsequent gas-phase oxidation, and heterogeneous oxidation of the residual solid char are taken into account. The second combustion modeling strategy can be classified as a presumed PDF method combined with tabulated chemistry. PDF stands for “Probability Density Function” and is a powerful procedure to incorporate the statistical nature of turbulent fluctuations of all variables, in particular, of species and temperature on the chemical source terms. As part of this methodology, mixing of the fuel and oxidant is represented by the mixture fraction, which can be seen as a normalized equivalence ratio. The location of the premixed flame front is determined by a reaction progress variable, where the turbulent burning velocity is used as an input parameter. Finally,

This CFX analysis shows paths of coal particles in a coal-fired furnace. The particle paths can be colored with the variable of choice. Residence time can be used to determine if coal particles have sufficient residence time to react before they leave the reactor chamber.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

leave the reactor chamber. ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005 P article Temperature [K] Residence Time [s]

Particle Temperature [K]

leave the reactor chamber. ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005 P article Temperature [K] Residence Time [s]

Residence Time [s]

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CFD Update: What’s New in Computational Fluid Dynamics

26

CFD Update: What’s New in Computational Fluid Dynamics 26 Axial distribution of mean temperature and mean

Axial distribution of mean temperature and mean mass fraction of CO is shown on these charts. The flamelet libraries include data for radicals such as OH and O which are needed for the prediction of NO.

the local thermochemical state is obtained from flamelet libraries, which are pre-calculated by CFX-RIF, an easy-to-use flamelet library pre-processor. This modeling strategy can be applied to all types of flames, including non-premixed, partially premixed, and fully premixed flames. The first advantage of this approach is that it takes account of detailed chemistry more rigorously than the EDM and with less computational effort because the chemistry is tabulated in advance. The second advantage is that it models the complex interaction between flame

is that it models the complex interaction between flame This ANSYS CFX analysis demonstrates the ratio

This ANSYS CFX analysis demonstrates the ratio between turbulent and molecular viscosity on a surface of constant vorticity of the swirl flow entering a generic combustor. This information can be used to identify the local and instantaneous intensity of turbulence which has a strong impact on the mixing process between fuel and oxidizer and on the propagation and position of the flame front.

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propagation and turbulence in premixed or partially premixed combustion more realistically than the EDM model.

Accurate Predictions

Both the previously mentioned combustion modeling strategies and their sub-models are continuously improved. For instance, the ability to use the combustion models with new turbulence models such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), and Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS). SAS is a new method currently under development, which dynamically switches between LES and RANS depending on the required mesh size that is needed to resolve the energy containing turbulence length scales. The advantage of these computationally more demanding simulation methods is that large-scale turbulence can be predicted more accurately, which in turn, gives better predictions of heat release and temperature distribution. The use of CFX provides an improved under- standing of the overall behavior of combustion devices, the impact of operating parameter settings and of details of the combustion processes in industrial applications. Specifically, CFX can be used to analyze the flow, mixing, heat release and heat transfer, required cooling flows, and formation and production of chemical species including pollutants. In combination with its superior models for multiphase flow, CFX can be used to analyze liquid and solid fuels, such as gasoline, diesel, coal and biomass. ANSYS CFX can help to accelerate the development and design cycle by optimizing the performance of combustion equipment of all types.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Simulation at Work

Fewer Prototypes

with Up-Front Analysis

27

Xerox refines the design of their new iGen3 digital printing system early in the design cycle.

Overview

Xerox Corporation is a $15.7 billion technology

and services enterprise that helps businesses

deploy smart document management strategies

and find better ways to work. Its intent is to

constantly lead with innovative technologies,

products and solutions that customers can

depend upon to improve business results.

The company provides the document industry’s

broadest portfolio of offerings. Digital systems

include color and black-and-white printing and

publishing systems, digital presses and “book

factories,” multifunction devices, laser and solid

ink network printers, copiers and fax machines.

Xerox services include helping businesses

develop online document archives, analyzing

how employees can most efficiently share

documents and knowledge in the office,

operating in-house print shops or mailrooms, and

building Web-based processes for personalizing

direct mail, invoices, brochures and more.

Headquartered in Stamford, CN, Xerox is number

130 among the Fortune 500 and has 60,600

employees worldwide, including 35,100 in the

United States.

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Challenges

To expand its business beyond conventional office copiers, Xerox embarked on a strategy to penetrate the commercial printing market currently dominated by traditional offset presses. The company set out to develop the iGen3: a toner-based digital printing system with image-quality “look and feel” comparable to offset presses - yet with a faster speed of 100 pages per minute, greater economy for short-run press jobs, and the ability to customize each page with variable information to create personalized brochures, tailored catalogs, on-demand books, newsletters and direct-mail pieces. Over $1 billion was poured into the R&D project, which resulted in more than 400 patents on a product that was the most complex system ever developed by Xerox. The payoff, hoped company executives, would be a major revenue-generator in the years to come that would lift Xerox’s profits and strengthen the company’s leadership position in the fiercely competitive printing and copying market. The challenges for the engineers developing the iGen3 were immense. The product pushed the limits of the technology for speed and performance, and every one of the thousands of interconnected parts and assemblies had to operate flawlessly for years of reliable service that is the hallmark of Xerox’s brand value. Moreover, design work had to be completed quickly so that the product launch could take advantage of the window of opportunity in the rapidly evolving market.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Solution

Xerox met these challenges with a simulation-based design approach in which analysis is performed up

28 front in development. This process enables engineers to find and correct potential problems earlier in the cycle as compared with the traditional method of building and testing numerous physical prototypes near the end of development. The company performs much of the structural analysis on parts and assemblies during conceptual design with ANSYS DesignSpace. Full CAD associativity with CAD allows the system to build analysis models automatically and enables users to easily modify designs based on simulation results. Also, wizards and a range of other automated features for meshing control, convergence checking and multi-body contact permit engineers to analyze their own designs on Sun Blade workstations. For more detailed simulation, models can be re-used in full ANSYS by a central group of dedicated analysts for fluid flow, vibration, heat transfer, multiphysics and other advanced analyses. In development of the iGen3, DesignSpace was particularly useful in quickly simulating the many interconnected parts and assemblies that are welded, glued, press-fit or otherwise joined. In the analysis of welds in a support pin, for example, DesignSpace imported the geometry directly from I-DEAS, automatically recognized bonded contact between the welds joining the individual parts (the pin, baseplate and a reinforcing gusset), and allowed for different material properties and dissimilar meshes of contacting parts. The analysis allowed engineers to determine structural deflection and weld stresses much faster than would have been possible with other simulation packages, which would have required the user to manually define bonded contact and build separate models for each of the parts — including the six welds holding the assembly together.

— including the six welds holding the assembly together. Baseplate Displacement Benefits Simulation-based design has

Baseplate Displacement

Benefits

Simulation-based design has enabled Xerox to significantly reduce the number of physical prototyping cycles late in development, when making design changes is costlier and more time-consuming. By shifting engineering efforts up front in development with a heavy emphasis on early analysis, engineers can more readily study product performance, spot potential problems, evaluate alternatives and refine the design in the conceptual stage of development. By using this approach, Xerox was able to bring the iGen3 to market on time while keeping costs in line and maintaining quality and reliability. The machine is now regarded as one of the premier flagship products at Xerox and sales have been strong. A growing number of commercial printers and in-house company printing departments are now taking advantage of the machine’s high speed in producing impressions almost 50% faster than other competitive toner-based digital presses. Since its introduction, the iGen3 has won numerous prestigious awards, including the industry’s Gold Ink Award, the Gallery of Superb Printing Award from the International Association of Printing House Craftsmen and the InterTech Technology Award from the Graphic Arts Technical Foundation for design innovation and production efficiencies.

for design innovation and production efficiencies. Weld Stresses “DesignSpace is an ideal tool in early

Weld Stresses

“DesignSpace is an ideal tool in early product development for conceptual simulation-based design and was instrumental in the success of developing the iGen3 digital printing system. Also, full ANSYS is one of our primary analy- sis tools for advanced simulation, particularly in multiphysics applications where multiple physical factors must be evaluated. In typical product devel- opment programs at Xerox, simulation-based methods using these types of predictive tools have definitely helped reduce the number of prototype testing iterations, each costing tens of thousands of dollars and weeks of time. In the end, development time and costs are reduced. But more significantly, our high-quality standards are met and time-to-market is shortened in developing innovative winning new products such as the iGen3, enabling Xerox to grow top-line revenue and increase market share.”

Dr. Korhan Sevenler Director, Product Lifecycle Management Xerox Corp.

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Managing CAE Processes

The Value of

Simulation-Driven Design

29

Analysis-led product development is a paradigm shift that could save a growing number of manufacturers.

By Dr. Jason Lemon Founder and Chairman International TechneGroup Incorporated

Founder and Chairman International TechneGroup Incorporated In a project to develop a new all-wheel–steering mower for
Founder and Chairman International TechneGroup Incorporated In a project to develop a new all-wheel–steering mower for

In a project to develop a new all-wheel–steering mower for Murray, Inc. ITI used ANSYS in the conceptual phase of design to study critical mower parts such as this inner pivot bracket and cam plate.

Conventional ways of developing new products can be long, arduous and costly. Companies rush to
Conventional ways of developing new products can be long, arduous and costly. Companies rush to
create designs so they can analyze, build and test physical prototypes to verify that the product per-

forms as required. Problems are detected late in development, when they are expensive and time-con-

suming to correct, and frequent design changes inevitably occur along the way. Consequently, costs

skyrocket, schedules slip and products often fall short of market demands, customer expectations and

business requirements. What started out as a good idea often flops in the market because of outdated

product development methods.

Few companies can continue to operate successfully in today’s world using these outdated methods. Indeed, many such manufacturers will have a difficult time competing in tough markets if they fail to update their product development processes to take advantage of the latest technology and best-practice know-how. Some companies have improved upon conven- tional processes by using what can be termed digital engineering, where CAD models replace paper draw- ings and some level of computer analysis is performed after designs are created. This results in incremental time and cost savings, mostly due to increased engi-

neering productivity. But this savings does not even come close to offsetting the enormous time and expense required for multiple physical prototypes in the traditional design-analyze-build-test approach. To break this cycle, successful manufacturers are adopting simulation-driven approaches that represent a paradigm shift in product development. Simulation is performed first in the concept stage to explore alterna- tives, spot flaws and optimize product performance before the detailed design is created and the first prototype is built. In this way, important decisions can be made on functionality, geometry and materials early in the cycle based on simulation results. Moreover,

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Managing CAE Processes

rather than doing multiple operations serially, as in conventional development, companies work concur- rently in performing many phases of product develop-

30 ment, from initial product planning to completion of detailed design. Hardware prototypes then are built and tested to validate these virtual prototypes. Of course, some changes still occur during physical testing, but the number of costly and time-consuming changes is reduced by orders of magnitude. Likewise, risk/recall programs are substantially less. In this way, designs satisfy engineering and business objectives much more closely than those developed using the old design-analyze-build-test cycle.

Tools and Technologies

A wide range of technologies are used in simulation- driven product development, including multiphysics simulations, electromagnetics, fluid dynamics, struc- tural finite element analyses, failure analyses and design optimization. Technologies from ANSYS, Inc. are of significant value in implementing simulation- driven design, particularly those tools that facilitate up-front simulation, efficient evaluation of alternative designs, iterative modification of designs based on simulation results and collaboration throughout the product development process. DesignSpace, for example, enables engineers with minimal finite element experience to perform first- pass analysis right on their desktops in studying the performance of conceptual ideas. DesignXplorer is a tool for exploring product performance using response surfaces to graphically depict analysis results over an entire range of multiple input variables. Workbench has the ability to control simulation variables as well as CAD parameters, thus providing bi-directional asso- ciativity with CAD software. Also, simulation wizards and templates in Workbench automate repetitive oper- ations to make the product development process

Analysis in Action In one recent project utilizing simulation-driven design, ITI consultants used ANSYS technology
Analysis in Action
In one recent project utilizing simulation-driven design, ITI
consultants used ANSYS technology in a collaborative product
development program with lawn and garden equipment
manufacturer Murray, Inc. to design a tractor mower with all-

wheel steering capability.

One of the primary goals was to minimize steering forces so the mower could be turned easily without hydraulic power-assist systems that add complexity and cost to the design. The manufacturer also wanted the mower to have a tight turning radius. High reliability was mandatory, as the Murray brand image is built on product quality and value. Staying on schedule was paramount for the mower to be introduced before the peak selling season.

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faster and more consistent throughout the company. In this way, process automation enables companies to embed best practices into the design cycle and facili- tates collaboration between separate groups. Using these and other types of analysis tools in up-front development, simulation guides the direction of the design to optimally satisfy performance, struc- tural integrity, reliability, durability, cost and other requirements. Most important, simulation guides criti- cal trade-off decisions to balance competing product objectives — reliability, cost and weight requirements, for example. Usually hundreds of concept alternatives are evaluated before detailed design is begun.

Where the Approach Pays Off

An ANSYS partner, International TechneGroup Incor- porated (ITI) has helped hundreds of clients for over two decades implement simulation-driven processes, which we call more specifically Systems Engineer- ing/Analysis Leads Design (SE/ALD™). Using this process and simulation tools such as ANSYS, ITI has helped numerous companies achieve significant benefits in the development of a wide range of products in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronic equipment and consumer prod- ucts. An agricultural tractor manufacturer developed a new product in half the time of conventional methods at a 30% cost reduction, with the tractor setting best- in-class performance standards in noise reduction and turning radius. Similarly, an aircraft engine manufacturer got to market a full year before its closest competitor by evaluating more than a thou- sand concept alternatives using simulation-driven design. A power tool manufacturer produced a cord- less driver on its initial simulation-driven development program that increased market share 63% and is now being implemented throughout the company.

Early in conceptual design, ANSYS Structural™ software was used to study 12 critical components that were identified as contribut- ing most to mower performance and reliability. The software determined stress distributions over a range of operating conditions for these components and was used as an input for fatigue-life predictions based on a typical customer duty cycle measured in the field on an existing two-wheel-steering mower.

Performing simulation up-front in mower development allowed engineers to study several alternative configurations and optimize the final design. As a result, the new Murray mower was introduced on time and has maintained good reliability. Turning force was minimized so that costly, complex hydraulic power- assist systems were not required. Moreover, a tight turning radius of only 14.25 inches was achieved, well below the original goal of 18.5 inches.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Paradigm Shift in Product Development Traditional Process Design Evaluate then Create geometry Analyze, build and
Paradigm Shift in Product Development
Traditional Process
Design
Evaluate
then
Create geometry
Analyze, build and test
– Layout drawings
– Geometry layouts
– CAD wireframe and surfaces
– Experience, management
– Solids packaging
opinion
– Test prototypes
Simulation-Driven Design
Simulate
Design
then
Modify and optimize
validated baseline
computer models
Define and create geometry
and material requirements
that achieve targets
Traditionally, companies rush to create
designs so they can analyze, build and test
physical
detected
prototypes. Problems thus are
late in development, when they are
– Virtual layout/parametrics
– Virtual concept layouts that
expensive and time-consuming to correct. In
the simulation-driven approach, analysis is
– System engineering and
analysis-led design
satisfy targets
performed in the concept stage to optimize
– Multiple iterations until design
– Active QFD target setting
concepts satisfy targets
product performance, then detailed design is
created and the first prototype is built.
– Tradeoffs and target cascading

In these types of applications, most of the benefit of simulation-driven development is derived from the fewer number of engineering changes made after detailed design begins, as compared with conventional methods. Building multiple physical prototypes is rarely practical or cost-effective. Conversely, validated virtual models representing a number of design alter- natives can be modified, analyzed and evaluated to lead design decisions at a fraction of the time and cost. With simulation-driven methods, overall design costs are cut because changes in the latter stages are reduced with successful products assured at the beginning of detailed design.

Setting Targets for Product Performance

The simulation-driven process relies heavily on setting targets for overall product performance requirements deemed necessary to strengthen market share and brand image. Targets are cascaded from system to subsystems and assemblies to individual compo- nents. In automobile design, for example, dynamic motions that characterize ride and vibration targets are translated into resulting forces and displacements in the vehicle suspension, which in turn are used to establish design targets for shock absorbers and indi- vidual bushings and connectors in terms of stress and deformation determined from structural analysis. The product can then be designed from the component level up to satisfy these various levels of requirements, with much greater assurance of overall product success. Ta rget setting often involves establishing a base- line consisting of your own existing product, or that of

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one or more competitors. Products are tested to compile a quantitative knowledge base of information on product behavior that will be critical in correlating the analytical and the physical, and in providing empir- ical data where computer modeling is impractical. In this case, hybrid models may be created combining virtual models and test data to accurately represent the system. Once this baseline is established, various components and subsystems then can be modified to evaluate multiple alternatives before beginning the detailed design process. Customer Usage Profiling (CUP) and related load and duty cycle definitions serve as a foundation for overall product target setting. In a typical CUP program, products fitted with instrumentation and data-collection gauges are provided to customers for use over an extended period of time. This indicates, often with surprising results, how products are actually used (and abused) in the real world. For example, the armrest in a car is designed to support the weight of an arm, but will it safely support the weight of a child climbing into the back seat? CUP saves warranty, liability and material costs by making sure components are neither under nor over designed.

Stepping Outside the Comfort Zone

Achieving the orders-of-magnitude gains possible with simulation-driven product development requires a major shift in priorities at many companies. Because greater engineering effort is expended up-front, companies must focus more resources earlier in the process, with as much as two-thirds of their engineering budget spent before detailed design begins.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

31

32

Managing CAE Processes

Reducing Time to Market and Risk LAUNCH Design
Reducing Time to Market and Risk
LAUNCH
Design

Traditional “Design/Build/Test” Development Environment

PLANNED ACTUAL RELEASE RELEASE Build Minimal Too much risk exists here Test (Development) development occurs
PLANNED
ACTUAL
RELEASE
RELEASE
Build
Minimal
Too much risk
exists here
Test (Development)
development
occurs here
Design
Companies struggle
to meet market
and business
requirements
Too much
Build
development
occurs here
Test (Verification
Fully Implemented “Analysis Leads Design” Environment
LAUNCH
Much lower
PLANNED
& ACTUAL
risk exists
Simulation-Driven Design
RELEASE
here
Build
Much more
Test (Verification)
development
occurs here
Companies lead in
time-to-market and
productivity
Some development, but
focus is on verification
Schedules slip and unexpected
problems arise in traditional product
development that relies on numerous
design/build/test cycles with physical
prototypes. Simulation-driven
development yields breakthroughs in
reducing time-to-market and product
risk by considering multiple design
alternatives and refining product
performance early in the cycle.

This can represent a tremendous readjustment of rewards and objectives for mid-level managers, whose performance has been traditionally evaluated on rushing to final design in the least amount of time and at minimal expense. In this respect, commitment from top management is critical in providing sufficient funding early enough in the program to make simula- tion-driven design as it should. True paradigm shifts represent drastic, sometimes uncomfortable, change. It’s not surprising, therefore, that they often are met with organizational resistance as leaders and workers step outside their comfort zone.

Key Best Practices Achieving the greatest gains in moving from traditional design- build-test development programs
Key Best Practices
Achieving the greatest gains in moving from traditional design-
build-test development programs to simulation-driven design
processes often requires companies to change the way they
operate. Key best practices that facilitate these changes include

many of the following:

• Concurrent product development processes optimize overall time-to-market and development productivity.

• Incorporating the “Voice of the Customer” (customer demands and expectations) into the product content as measurable and predictable customer-focused targets ensures that the product meets or exceeds market expectations.

• Full application and integration of systems engineering assure that the customer-focused targets are methodically managed from all system levels through component levels.

• The integration of simulation-based analysis and problem solving within the systems engineering discipline virtually

The key to making these changes is under- standing the enormous value of simulation-driven design to a company’s business potential, brand image and profitability. Companies willing to make the necessary changes and investments to achieve these benefits will likely emerge as leaders in the coming years, while less perceptive competitors will fade away.

International TechneGroup Incorporated (www.iti-global.com) consults with a wide range of manufacturing companies on implementation of simulation-driven development and other processes related to engineering analysis and concurrent product and manufacturing process development.

designs out problems and validates new designs before expensive prototypes and tooling are built. This includes the use of CAD/CAE models to make design decisions during concept selection.

• Product testing is performed ahead of and concurrent with development programs to understand and quantify current product behavior and applied in simulation-based validation (such as competitive benchmarking, current product baselining, and customer usage profiling).

• Effective global collaboration, communication and data management to support development, including shared use of information and solutions for analysis, testing, and data management.

• Disciplined optimization and integration of the above items is achieved through applying best practices in cross-functional teams, and product, project and risk management.

www.ansys.com

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Tech File

Restarting ANSYS LSREAD Quickly /POST1 recover from a mistake, avoid a nonconvergence problem or try
Restarting
ANSYS
LSREAD
Quickly
/POST1
recover
from
a
mistake,
avoid a
nonconvergence
problem
or
try
different
/SOLU
loads
without
re-running
the
entire analysis.
RESCONTROL
By
John
Crawford
Consulting Analyst
Here’s
an
all
too familiar scenario.
You look
at the
results
of compli-
cated
nonlinear
analysis
and
discover
that
you
placed
a
load
If you have run several load steps and reviewed
them in /POST1, be sure the one read into /POST1
using the SET command is the one with the boundary
conditions you wish to use as the basis for doing a
restart. When ANSYS reads a result set, it also reads in
the loads that correspond to that result set. Once you
are certain that the desired boundary conditions are
on
a
wrong
node.
Oops.
The
good
news
is
that you
detected
the
problem
and
identified
the
cause.
The
bad
news is that
it
will
take
another
three
days to
rerun
the
entire
analysis.
active, you can make any changes you wish and
restart the analysis. Alternatively, if you have written
the original loads to load step files before you ran the
solutions, you can use the LSREAD read to retrieve the
boundary conditions you wish to use as the basis for
Don’t
panic.
There’s
still
hope
if you
told
the restart. As with all analyses, it’s always good prac-
ANSYS
before
you
ran
the
solution
to
save the
results
for
each
load
step so
you
could
do a
restart from
any
one of
them.
This
means
that instead
of rerunning
the
tice to review the boundary conditions before you run
the solution and make sure that they really are what
you think they are.
entire
analysis you can restart
the analysis
from the
end
of
a
load
step,
apply
the proper load,
and
continue on.
Multi-frame Restarts
This
won’t
take nearly
as much
time.
The
day is
saved.
Multi-frame restarts are the default restart method for
Restarting
an
analysis
is
a
great
way
of
recovering
from
a
mistake
or a
nonconvergence
nonlinear static and full transient analyses, and offer
the ability to restart from any previous converged solu-
problem,
or
for just trying
a
different
loading
scenario.
ANSYS offers
two
types
of
restarts — single-frame
and multi-frame
—that can be used
for all
static analy-
ses,
2-D
electromagnetic
harmonic
analyses and
tran-
sient analyses
that use
the
full solution
method.
Single-Frame
Restarts
tion. Before running the solution, you can use the
RESCONTROL command to identify how many solu-
tions you would like to save data for to use for
restarting. The default value is to only save the data for
the last solution.
There are some pretty neat applications for multi-
frame restarts. For example, let’s say you are analyzing
A
single-frame restart is
a
continuation
of
a
prior
solution,
picking up where
the
last
solution left
off.
It’s
an assembly held together with bolts that has contact
elements with friction between the components, has a
useful
for
recovering
from
a
nonconverged
solution
or
continuing
an
analysis
with another set
of
boundary
conditions.
Single-frame restarts
are
available
for
all
temperature applied to it, and has operating loads
imposed by applying forces to some of the nodes. The
load step history for this problem might go like this:
analyses
that
support restarts and
are
the default
restart
method
for all solutions
except
nonlinear
static
or
full
transient analyses.
To
do a
restart,
return to the
solution
processor (/SOLU)
and
use
the
ANTYPE
Load Step 1: Use pre-tension elements to “tighten”
the bolts.
Load Step 2: Apply temperatures to the assembly.
command
to
tell
ANSYS
to,
instead
of
doing
a
new
Load Step 3: Apply operating forces to nodes.
analysis,
do
a
restart
of
the
current
analysis
(ANTYPE,,REST).

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

33

Tech File

   

ANSYS

   

writes

 

a

 

number

   

of

 

files

   

(such

LSREAD

jobname.rnnn) that

allow a

multi-frame

these

files might consume more

disk

available.

You

may

wish

to

do

away

multi-frame

restarts

for nonlinear

static

solutions

by

using RESCONTROL,

solving.

This

will

force

ANSYS

to

files

that

are

needed

for a

single-

and

multi-frame

restarts

to

make

to

get

the

behavior

you

are

looking

would

be

adjusting

contact

element

satisfied

with

the

results.

You

can

run

view

the

results

in

/POST1

to see

how

taking

place

and

how

the

stress

and

look

in

the

zones

you

are

particularly

return

to

/SOLU,

change

the contact

the

analysis

and

solve

it

again.

done,

go

back

to

/POST1

and

review

in

the

stress

and

displacement

to

be

acceptable,

you

can

consider

for

your

needs.

If you’re not

sure,

change

the

contact element

the

analysis

and

solve

it

again.

technique

for

getting

contact

element

because

“soft”

contact elements

more

quickly

than

“hard”

contact

contact

elements

usually

provide

By

progressing

through

a

series

of

with

a

soft contact stiffness

to

get

then

increase

its stiffness

through

you

are satisfied

with

the

results.

used

for

single-frame

restarts

as

long

creep

and

other

phenomena

that

dependent

are

not

present.

If

the

you

must

use

multi-frame

analysis

from

a

load

step

that

ends

phenomena

occur.

As

always,

it

the

analyst

to

ensure

that

the

results

to

what

nature

already

knows.

Restarts

the

restart

features

available in

to

work

more

efficiently.

The

details

the

Basic

Analysis

Procedures

Guide

at.

Build

yourself

a

simple

model

to

try

different

features.

A macro

called

at

the

ANSYS

Solutions Web

that will

allow

you

to

try

and

practice

doing

single-frame

and

ANSYS

Solutions

|

Winter

2005

/POST1

34 If the model is fairly large, it could take several days to

get through all three load steps. It might be wise to use the RESCONTROL command to save the restart data for each load step so you can restart the analysis from any of them. This would save time when you want to apply different

multi-frame restarts. as jobname.rdb and

restart to be done, and

space than you have with the ability to do

loads (restart from load step 2) or different temperatures

(restart from load step 1).

/SOLU

and transient structural

DEFINE, NONE before

Another benefit offered by multi-frame restarts is that you can restart an analysis that has had trouble converging. You can restart from an earlier load step, change some convergence parameters, and try solving it again. Keep in mind when using multi-frame restarts that when you tell ANSYS you want to do a multi-frame restart from a specific load step, the software will immediately remove data for subsequent load steps from the working directory. For example, suppose you ran an analysis that had 25 load steps and used RESCONTROL to tell ANSYS to write out data for each load step so you can restart from any one of them. When the analysis is done running, you will have restart files in the working directory ranging from jobname.r001 through jobname.r025. After reviewing the results in /POST1, you decide that you want to restart the analysis from load step 20. You return to /SOLU and use the ANTYPE command to tell ANSYS you want to do a restart, but you accidentally type in 2 instead of 20. When ANSYS executes the ANTYPE command, it will remove the files jobname.r003 through jobname.r025 from the working directory. So if you accidentally tell ANSYS to restart from load step 2 instead of load step 20, you can’t go back and correct your mistake. You’ll only have the option to restart from load step 2 or an earlier solution for which restart files still exist. (Helpful Hint:

If your operating system has a trash can, you might find the deleted files there.) There is a price to be paid for the ability to perform

revert back to writing the frame solution.

RESCONTROL

Other Uses for Restarting

You can use single

adjustments to a model for. An example of this

stiffness until you are

a solution and then

much penetration is displacement results

interested in. You then

element stiffness, restart

When the solution is

the results. If the changes

results are small enough

the results to be adequate

you can return to /SOLU,

stiffness again, restart

This is a useful

problems to converge

tend to converge

elements, but “hard”

more accurate answers. analyses, you can start the solution going, and

subsequent solutions until

This approach can be

as friction, plasticity, make an analysis path

problem is path- dependent

restarting to restart the

before the path-dependent

is the responsibility of

are realistic and true

Practice Doing

Learning and using ANSYS will allow you

Restarting an analysis is a great way of recovering from a mistake or a nonconvergence problem

are discussed in

and are worth looking

that will allow you

runcontact.mac is available

site at www.ansyssolutions.com

different settings

multi-frame restarts.

www.ansys.com

Tips and Techniques

SolidWorks Support

Assembly.

Efficient Power Spectral Density Techniques

Part 2 of 2:

35

More ways to reduce run times — expand only significant modes, limit result calculation to one area of interest, use the less rigorous single point spectrum method.

By ANSYS, Inc. Technical Support

Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis is a statistical dynamic analysis dealing with the effects of a random excitation: a base excitation (displacement, velocity, acceleration) or nodal excitation (force, pressure.) Details on performing PSD analyses in ANSYS are given in Chapter 6 of the Structural Analysis Guide as well as Section 17.7 of the ANSYS Theory Reference. Two CAD models were used to quantify the efficiencies of some sample PSD analyses: a Solid- Works support assembly meshed with SOLID92 elements and connected with TARGE170 and CONTA174 contact elements, and an Inventor oilpan part meshed with SHELL181 elements. Part one of this article discussed how total run times in a PSD analysis can be greatly reduced by using the covariance significance ratio on the PSD- COM command. Now we’ll take a look at ways to save additional time by expanding only significant modes, limiting result calculation to one area of interest, and using the less rigorous single point spectrum method. Some of the suggested short cuts may be valuable simply to obtain initial result estimates.

Reducing Number of Modes with MXPAND

Reducing the number of modes that are expanded will speed up the expansion itself and make the PSD mode combination and the calculation of a response PSD faster as well. A technique for reducing the num- ber of expanded modes is to run a dummy Single Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) with a significance level specified with the MXPAND command. A sample set of APDL commands is shown. During the modal analysis (first SOLVE), mode expansion is not requested. Instead, a response spectrum analysis is specified with a base excitation direction (SED) the same as the PSD analysis to be run later. The second SOLVE performs a mode expansion for only the modes with a significance level greater than what is specified with the SIGNIF parameter of the MXPAND command. In a response spectrum analyses, the significance level is defined as the ratio of the mode coefficients, so this process will result in only modes with significant mode coefficients being expanded.

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! Sample APDL to only

! expand significant

! modes (> SIGNIF)

/solu

antype,modal

modopt,lanb,MODES

spopt,sprs

svtyp,TYPE

freq,FREQB,FREQE

sv,0,1,1

sed,X,Y,Z

allsel,all

solve

finish

/solu

expass,on

mxpand,,,,yes,SIGNIF

solve

finish

There is no way to quantify the error introduced by this technique, but in most structures there are many modes that are not excited at all by excitation in a certain direction. Therefore, this technique is espe- cially well suited to single direction base excitation problems.

Table 1: Solution Times vs. Expanded Modes.

Element Types

Number of

   

Modes

Modal + PSD CP-Time/ Total Time (sec.)

UX

UY

UZ

 

Expanded

 

SOLID92 Test Model

77

5570

/ 6560

7.74e-03 2.17e-02 1.69e-03

SOLID92 Test Model

22

1870

/ 2400

7.73e-03 2.17e-02 2.44e-03

SHELL181 Test Model

200

36100

/ 42800

9.20e-04 1.16e-02 8.16e-04

SHELL181 Test Model

86

14300

/ 14700

8.87e-04 1.15e-02 1.74e-03

As shown in Table 1, a significance level of 1e-3 for MXPAND in the solid92 model resulted in 22 modes being used instead of 77. In the shell181 model, a significance level of 1e-3 reduced the number of modes from 200 to 86. The significance level was based on participation factors in the Y direction, so the maximum 1-sigma UX and UZ values vary with the number of modes, but the UY values compare closely. The dummy spectrum could have excited all three directions (SED,1,1,1) to produce better results, but the savings would have been less.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Tips and Techniques

Reducing File Size with OUTRES

The size of the results file can also be reduced by only

calculating the result types of interest in only the regions

of interest. Typical input is

36

OUTRES,ALL,NONE

OUTRES,NSOL,1

OUTRES,STRS,1,Cname

! Cname is the name of an

element component

Faster PSD with SPRS

A less rigorous, but much faster PSD analysis can be

performed using Single Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) with SVTYP,4. A type 4 spectrum analysis utilizes simplified PSD calculations, which may be suitable for single PSD base excitations with a relatively flat spectrum. The procedure for SVTYP,4 is the same as for a regular Response Spectrum analysis. The user does not specify which of the constrained DOF are to be used for the base excitation — all constrained DOF are assumed to be excited. The PSD curve is input via FREQ and SV commands, and it must take the form of acceleration 2 /Hz rather than g 2 /Hz. Lastly, mode com- bination is done with a method such as SRSS, CQC or GRP. A comparison between the rigorous PSD method as well as the alternative SPRS-type PSD method is outlined in Table 2.

Table 2: Comparing Standard and SPRS PSD.

Types of Calculations

Standard PSD

SPRS PSD

Non-Uniformnode excitation

Yes

No

PSDSpecification

Various

Acceleration only

Graph PSDCurve

Yes (PSDGRAPH)

No

Damping Specification

Various

MP,DAMP

Mode Combination

PSDCOM

SRSS, CQC, GRP, …

Multiple Correlated PSD’s

Yes

No

Spatial Correlation

Yes

No

Wave Propagation Excitation

Yes

No

1 sigma results

Results File (LS 3-5)

Load Case Combination

Relative or Absolute Results

Yes

Relative Only

Segalman-Reese SEQV

Yes

No

Response PSD

Yes

No

Covariance Results

Yes

No

The mode coefficients of an SPRS analysis are comparable to the square root of the PSD Covariance diagonal. Modes can be combined by one of the various mode combination methods, SRSS, GRP or CQC depending on whether it is desired to combine closely spaced modes. The cross term mode coefficients generated by the CQC combination method for different modes are

comparable to the square root of the off-diagonal terms

of the PSD covariance matrix.

Using the SOLID92 and SHELL181 models dis- cussed in this article, two cases were run to compare SRSS and CQC with PSDCOM using default values for the significance factors. Run times and memory are listed in Table 3.

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Inventor Oilpan Part.
Inventor Oilpan Part.

There was no attempt to use any of the techniques previously discussed to make the PSDCOM solution more efficient, so the memory and computation time is larger than necessary. Still, the SPRS-type of PSD analysis with SRSS mode combination method will

Table 3: Run Times and Memory for Standard vs SPRS PSD.

Element

Method /

Memory

Total

UX

UY

UZ

SX

SY

SZ

SEQV

Types

No. of

(MB)

Time

   

Modes

(sec.)

SOLID92

Modal

380

38,400

8.33e-03 2.34e-02

1.80e-03

3350

4060

2670

10,400

Model

139

1640

93,300

8.33e-03 2.34e-02

2.06e-03

3780

4430 3110

10,000

PSDCOM

130

970

8.33e-03 2.34e-02

1.82e-03

3470

4160 2760

10,000

SRSS

12

130

2350

     

CQC

12

SHELL181

Modal

260

19,500

9.20e-04 1.16e-02

8.16e-04

1830

1190 2040

1940

Model

200

470

29,300

9.36e-04 1.16e-02

7.78e-04

1610

1190 1660

1580

PSDCOM

31

530

9.15e-04 1.16e-02

8.04e-04

1910

1190 2230

2110

SRSS

49

31

11,000

   

CQC

49

always be much faster and use less memory. The response in the direction of excitation (UY) is captured well with SRSS. The CQC combination method includes the ‘coupling’ effect of modes at the expense of increased computation time. It is still much faster than PSDCOM if the number of included modes is not too high. The case of 12-13 modes is fast, but with 49 modes the extra load case combinations result in a much slower solution. In the SHELL181 model, the maximum RMS SEQV values do not match as well as the displace- ments. This is due in part to the calculation of SEQV using the Segalman-Reese technique versus direct combinations from 1-sigma component values in an SPRS analysis. The introduction of the Segalman- Reese technique in ANSYS 8.1 for computing statisti- cally meaningful values of SEQV was an important improvement in PSD post processing (Ref: ANSYS Theory Manual, Section 17.7.12.4.) Even for an analysis in which the more rigorous PSD analysis is required, an SPRS type analysis can be used to establish a “first-pass” preliminary solution.

 

Part one of this article appearing in the last issue of ANSYS Solutions discussed use of the covariance significance ratio on the PSDCOM command to reduce total run times.

ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Guest Commentary

Guest Commentary The Next Generation of Innovators Integrating simulation technology into coursework promotes design

The Next Generation of Innovators

Guest Commentary The Next Generation of Innovators Integrating simulation technology into coursework promotes design

Integrating simulation technology into coursework promotes design innovation among future engineers.

By Dr. Michael Lovell Associate Dean for Research Director, Swanson Institute for Technical Excellence University of Pittsburgh School of Engineering

Engineers and the companies they work for in regions such as North America and Europe are becoming hard-pressed to compete with the growing number of highly skilled technical professionals in countries where labor costs are considerably lower. Consider the following facts. The equivalent cost of a $70,000 U.S. engineer is approximately $15,100 in China, $14,400 in Russia and $13,500 in India. Moreover, whereas U.S. schools presently grant approximately 60,000 B.S. engineering degrees per year, substantially less than the 270,000 in India, 195,000 in China, 103,000 in Japan and 84,000 in Russia. Only 5% of all post secondary degrees awarded in the U.S. were granted in engineering fields. This is in dramatic contrast to China, India, Japan and Russia with 44%, 31%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The result has been unprecedented levels of offshoring of professional services, particularly from the U.S. Forrester Research recently predicted that 3.3 million U.S. technical service jobs will be relocated abroad in the next 15 years, and Goldman Sachs estimates that job loses in technical fields could reach $6 million over the next 10 years.

These challenges in the industrial sector are reflected in higher education. Unlike industry, however, a university’s primary product is human capital and intellectual property rather than goods and services. Clearly, the engineering field has been dramatically altered over the past decade and traditional education practices must be modified to address the changing needs of society. In this light, several fundamental questions are being asked in the academic community. What new skills and capabilities do engineering graduates need to compete in today’s world? How can we assure that engineering graduates will bring value to the workplace beyond their technical skills? How will graduates function in an international, interdisciplinary team setting?

The Spirit of Design Innovation

At the University of Pittsburgh, we are attempting to meet these challenges by embedding a spirit of design innovation and entrepreneurship into our engineering coursework. These activities are specifically focused on interdisciplinary engineering activities through virtual product development and prototyping.

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

37

Guest Commentary

42 38

We have been very fortunate to be able to focus our educational efforts within the Swanson Institute for Technical Excellence (www.engr.pitt.edu/SITE) established through a generous gift from ANSYS founder John Swanson. Within the institute is the Swanson Center for Product Innovation (SCPI): the epicenter of the innovative design activities within our engineering curriculum. Originally opened in April of 2001, the mission of the Swanson Center is to provide a mechanism for training students in the latest product development techniques while fostering economic growth and development of partnering industries. Simply stated, we are trying to nurture an environment that promotes innovative discovery in an educational experience that is as close to industry practice as possible. The foundation of the educational programs of the SCPI lies within the formation of interdisciplinary teams of engineering and business students that produce working prototypes of new products or processes for industry sponsors.

In the case of our engineering innovation focus, the virtual environment critical to our educational efforts is provided by ANSYS, Inc. through their Workbench product simulation platform that includes an intuitive, integrated tool set for carrying out performance assessments rapidly across design alternatives. ANSYS’ development priorities have allowed us to move virtual design and analysis into the classroom at much earlier stages of a student’s career. The metrics in the capstone Product Realization course taught in the SCPI indicate that the present approach has been very successful. Over the past three years, student projects in the Product Realization course have resulted in the formation of four companies, the selection of five student teams for the prestigious March Madness for the Minds Competition sponsored by the National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance (NCIIA), and the submission of more than 10 invention disclosures that are moving toward patents.

Weaving Technology Into Coursework

The most recent release of the ANSYS Workbench product has allowed the Swanson Center to take its educational activities to a new level. Each summer, the School of Engineering conducts a six-week program for high school sophomore and juniors that are predominantly from underrepresented groups. The goal of the program is to promote interest and discovery in the areas of science, technology and mathematics. This past summer program culminated with a student soap box competition in which the high school students virtually designed their cars using SolidWorks, analyzed and optimized their performance within ANSYS Workbench and fabricated them using the prototyping facilities of the SCPI. Upon exiting the summer program, more than 90% of the high school participants indicated that they planned on pursuing a college degree in the technical fields of science, mathematics or engineering, which is more than double the proportion of a representative group of high school students planning on attending college. In addition, nearly all of the students stated that the virtual design and analysis tools that they learned increased their interest in technology, which may be the most important aspect of the summer program. Traditionally, manufacturing companies that are the most successful in the long run are those that develop innovative products with high brand value. In today’s world, their future success also depends on their ability to quickly adapt to technological change, a process that is accelerating at a dizzying pace. By providing software tools that allow design innovation to be woven into the fabric of higher education, ANSYS, Inc. is helping recruit and produce the next generation of innovators who will generate winning new products, create employment opportunities, enhance the competitive position of their companies and ultimately strengthen the national economy.

Virtual Product Development in the Classroom

Although innovation is easily recognizable, it is often difficult to quantify and measure, especially in an academic setting. As instructors of the courses in the SCPI where new products are being developed, we have been trying to understand how some groups of students develop highly innovative new products while others do not. Do some students have learning experiences in their academic career that lead them down a different design path than other students? How can we as educators synthesize a scientific approach for learning innovative design? Since starting the Swanson Center, we have come to believe that focusing on virtual product development activities has enabled our students to be more innovative. This belief has been verified by learning scientists such as Barbara Tversky at Stanford who have directly linked student innovation with the ability to design and analyze concepts in a virtual environment.

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ANSYS Solutions | Winter 2005

Hardware Update

cluster

Hardware Update cluster 39 Reducing the Pain of High-Performance Cluster Deployment Better integration and management of
Hardware Update cluster 39 Reducing the Pain of High-Performance Cluster Deployment Better integration and management of

39

Reducing the Pain of High-Performance Cluster Deployment

Better integration and management of system components overcomes major problems.