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Contents Table 1.2 Plan of adding new functions or conducting 1.2.3 Grain size prediction and experimental
improvements for AFDEX_V19
verification of hot forged bearing part
1. AFDEX_V18 and AFDEX_V19 New functions or improvements
1.1 Summary of improved and new functions The grain size was predicted during hot forging and the
1.2 Main features of AFDEX_V18 -Anisotropy of material
2D -Multi-function of blanking holding die or binder validity of the results was verified. The material constants
1.3 New features of AFDEX_V19 were obtained using AFDEX's unique optimization
or -Treatment of non-separation boundaries of multi-
3D body problem technique for the single stage upsetting process of the
2. Main events -Die less forming (Problem type 29)
2.1 Summary of 2018 three-stage process. When compared with the
2.2 First quarter of 2019 experimental results, it is concluded that the error is about
10%, which can be lowered using optimized material
1.2 Main features of AFDEX_V18 parameters.
1. AFDEX_V18 and AFDEX_V19 1.2.1 Elastoplastic finite element analysis of
riveting process in aircrafts
1.1 Summary of improved and new functions
The experimental results (Amarendra.A, GIT, Ph.D.
AFDEX_V18R01 was released for trial in April 2018. thesis, 2006, experiment and ABAQUS comparison)
AFDEX_V18R02 was finally updated in September 2018
after verification from domestic and international experts.
were compared with our elastoplastic finite element A
analysis of the riveting process of an aircraft using 2D
The main functions are listed in Table 1.1 and some of multi-body function. As shown in the figure 1.1, the
them are detailed in Section 1.2. experimental results and the analytical results closely
match with each other. B
Table 1.1 New functions or improvements of AFDEX_V18
Functions or improvements
-Function for skin element generation .n
-Function for calculating flow stress depending on
compressive or tensile strain Fig. 1.3 Determination of grain size
-Quantification of grain flow lines
-Multi-body simulation for isothermal analysis 1.2.4 Quantification and visualization of metal
-Recursive motion of dies (Loading and unloading) flow lines
-Sophisticated material models
-Microstructural evolution prediction
-Heat treatment and carburization simulation Quantification of the flow lines is very important. This
-Local heating of material technique has been developed on the basis of AFDEX's
-Improved structural analysis of assembled dies unique metal flow line visualization capabilities, and 2D
-Improved complete simulation features have already been introduced. Recently, three-
-3D local remeshing (a) Deformation history dimensional functions have been added. This function
-Solution of computationally large process like allows the evaluation of the quality of the metal flow lines
coining, etc.
by a numerical value, which is effective in arriving at an
-Spring back analysis
2D -Hammer open-die forging optimal process design and preventing mistakes. Fig.
and -New shearing, piercing, trimming and blanking 1.4(a) shows the decisive defect of the short-circuited
3D -Flow stress coupled with damage lines while forging a connecting rod, which can be hardly
-Removing a part of material at once observed from strain distribution in Fig. 1.4(b).
-Improved open-die forging
-Varying heat transfer coefficients
-Varying frictional condition
-Non-penetration die-gap treatment
-Two step Coulomb friction
-Supplying state variables at the final stroke at the
specified points
-Continuous prediction of grain(metal) flow lines in
2D/3D combined simulation
-Improved unloading prediction
-Penetration of material into dies allowed, one for
just allowance and the other for a kind of complete (b) Comparison of prediction and experimental results
-Simultaneous simulation of heat transfer and Fig. 1.1 Elastoplastic FE analysis of riveting process
structural analyses of assembled die in aircrafts
2D -Improved contact treatment after remeshing
1.2.2 Elastoplastic finite element analysis of ball-
-Improved spring-attached die bearing contact problems
-Improved function for imposing boundary
conditions The contact and local plastic deformation analysis of
-Layered mesh system of plate/sheet and pipe the ball bearing assemblies were carried out using the (a) Metal flow lines and overlapping index
-Function for stabilizing unstable material three-dimensional multi-body elastoplastic finite element
-Improved acceleration/deceleration function
analysis function.
-Contact analysis of two moving materials including
a pair of bevel gears
-Removing tail of material
-Improved multi-contact node treatment
-Problem type 1 for special problems of all fixed die
-Function for imposing boundary condition in the
longitudinal direction
-Improved contact treatment at the interface of two (b) Effective strain distribution
Fig. 1.4 Quantification of metal flow lines
The release of AFDEX_V19R01/beta is planned to be
released for APA test purpose in January 2019. Its key
1.2.5 Solving computationally large problems
functions are listed in Table 1.1 and some of them are
(a) Mesh (b) Time= 0.09s (c) Time = 0.12s The ability to solve large-scale problems has been
described in detail in Section 1.3. Some of the new
improved to expand the various capabilities and analysis
features have been provided through AFDEX_V18 with Fig. 1.2 Elastoplastic structural analysis
functions to multi-body processes in recent years. Fig.1.5
improvements, but they will be officially available in of ball bearing assembly
shows the results of the analysis of the crankshaft hot
forging process and 500,000 tetrahedral elements were 1.3 Some examples of AFDEX_V19 Figure 1.10. shows an example of optimal design to
used. We plan to progressively improve functions for prevent the local sinking of grain flow lines. In
computationally expensive problems according to 1.3.1 Application of optimal design considering consideration of the characteristics of local sinking of
demand from the users. grain flow lines, the objective function is defined using
grain flow lines
the grain flow density and overlapping index, which are
defined in two directions. In the objective function, the
Figure 1.8 shows an optimal design for the forging
Initial effective strain and maximum forming load are also given
process of a first-generation hub bearing's outer ring. The
weights and constraint equation is used to maintain the
objective function is the difference of grain flow line
gap of the flash unit constant.
function values calculated at two symmetric points.
Stage 1
Figure 1.8 compares the grain flow lines of the initial and
optimal designs. As shown in this figure, the grain flow
lines satisfying the up-down symmetry condition was
obtained by performing optimal design without user
intervention (KSTP Fall Conference, Jeju Island,
Stage 2


Stage 3

(a) Initial design

(a) Initial design

Fig. 1.5 Analysis of large-scale problems

1.2.6 Analysis of multi-stage hollow shaft

swaging process
(b) Optimal design
An analysis of the 5-stage hollow shaft swaging process
was made. In this process, the change of the thickness is Fig. 1.8 Optimal process design of the first-generation
very high in the first and second stages. The position of hub bearing outer ring
the workpiece is controlled by the mandrel in the first and
second stages and pusher controlled the workpiece motion Figure 1.9 shows the outer ring of a tapered roller
in the third stage. Fig. 1.6 shows the final deformed bearing with a flange. The grain flow lines of the inner
workpiece and the process consisted of totally 5310 blows. inclined surface of the outer ring to which the taper roller
contacts, should be parallel to the surface which would be (b) Optimal design
formed by cutting. This can be done by taking the inner Fig. 1.10 Optimal process design considering local
product of the grain flow density vector (the gradient of
the grain flow function) and the unit normal vector on the 1.3.2 Optimal design of clinching process
surface as the objective function. Figure 1.9 compares the
considering joining strength
initial design with the optimal design (KSTP Fall
Conference, Jeju Island, 2018.10.11).
Fig.1.6 Swaging process

1.2.7 A Study on axial forming of thin walled

hollow shaft

AFDEX can be used for recursive axial shaping of tube

shaped parts (P. Grupp, 2012, ICFG 2012, Nagoya Japan,
9-12). An example is a case in which the end of a pipe is
extruded to form a shape or to form a spline with
minimum forming load exerted on the material. If the pipe
or hollow shaft material is long and its wall thickness is
small enough to be locally deformed, it may be necessary
to fix the unsupported region of the material during
forming. In this case, the influence of the material
clamping force cannot be ignored. Because, in order to
support the axial forming force, a frictional, tangential
force must act and in order to maintain it, exerting radial
force is essential and this force, together with the axial
forming load, can cause plastic deformation of the
material around the end of the clamping tool. Fig. 1.7 (left)
shows the experiments of a recursive axial forming
process after a swaging process (See Fig. 1.6) and Fig.
1.7(right), the predictions of the process. Note that
oscillatory motion or vibration is applied onto the punch
to reduce the forming load.
Fig. 1.11 Process setup and design variables

Figure 1.11-1.13 shows process optimal design of the

clinching process considering the joint strength. Figure
1.11 summarizes the process setup and the design
variables. As shown in Figure 1.12, the joint strength was
calculated by adding another stage with two dies. The
upper die of the second stage will exert a tensile force on
the clinched joint to evaluate the joint strength. The
effective strain and effective stress distributions as a
result of the analysis of the forming and separation
Fig. 1.7 Splined end in a recursive axial forming Fig. 1.9 Outer ring of a tapered roller bearing with flange processes are plotted in Figure 1.12.
The forming load of the second stage, which physically that the cut material can be used for the analysis of
means the joint strength, is defined as the objective subsequent process. In other words, as shown in the
function. The goal is to maximize the objective function, figure, the overall analysis results are in good agreement
thereby getting a stronger clinched joint. Through this with the experimental results, but the surface treatment
optimization process, the initial joint strength of 1.61 kN has been performed for the success of the analysis of
was increased up to 2.20 kN as can be seen in Figure 1.13. subsequent process (KSTP Fall Conference, Jeju Island,
2018.10.11). Application to hot forging processes can be
made with additional research work in 2019.

(a) Process schematic (a) Side view

Fig. 1.12 Optimization of joining strength

(b) FE Prediction

Left Right
(b) Experiment (b) Bird’s eye view
Fig. 1.16 Analysis result of trimming process
Fig. 1.14 Analysis of cold cutting process of bar and
comparison with experiment results 1.3.4 Remesh in 3D multi-body process analysis
Figure 1.15 shows the predictions of the piercing
(a) Effective strain predictions
process, and Figure 1.16 shows those of the trimming
process. Both examples used dense elements at the
cutting area, and the element quality was good enough at
the cut surface.
Figure 1.15 shows the piercing process in the thick
plate, where the cross section is visualized.
Figure 1.16 shows the trimming process in which
material separation occurs in most of the regions in a
short time, but trimmed shape near the corner of the
material showed very sharp edge. (KSTP Fall Conference,
Jeju Island, 2018.10.12).

(b) Effective stress predictions (a) Global view

Figure 1.13 FE Predictions of the process
(a) Initial condition

1.3.3 3D shearing, piercing and trimming

process analysis
3D analysis of shearing, piercing, and trimming
processes is not easy because of complicated fracture
theory and mesh generation problem. However, the
analysis of shearing, piercing, and trimming in the actual
metal forming process is very important. Especially,
when the sheared blank shape is greatly affected by
shearing condition of plate forging process, the analysis
like shearing process is very important. Recently,
AFDEX developed the analysis technique for shearing,
piercing, blanking and trimming process, which is
(b) Local view
theoretically based on the ductile fracture theory and
element degradation technique. Also, extreme mesh
density control for remeshing is applied to minimize the
deterioration in surface smoothness after removing
damaged element.
Here, three typical applications are introduced. (KSTP
Fall Conference, Jeju Island, 2018.10.11).
Figure 1.14 compares FE predictions with experiments (c) Detailed view
of the material cutting process in a multi-stage automatic
cold forging process. A characteristic of this analysis is (b) Simulation result
that the cut surfaces have been appropriately refined so Fig. 1.15 Analysis result of piercing process
Fig. 1.17 Assembly process of virtual three objects
The rigid or elasto-plastic finite element analysis of 3D Recently, a flow stress model and a method of acquiring 2.1.2 Hannover Messe
multibody processes has already been introduced in the its associated material constants have been developed by
second quarter of the 2018 newsletter. This module is not the research team of Gyeongsang National University of MFRC exhibited AFDEX at Hannover Messe
integrated with the automatic remeshing function, which Korea to improve the metallographic prediction ability. exhibition from 23rd to 27th of April. Many visitors
is constrained in utilization and is not yet open to the users As shown in Fig. 1.20, it can be observed that the enquired about the functions of AFDEX, the difference
for that reason. experiments (solid lines) and the new flow stress model between AFDEX and other SW and showed immense
Recently, the module for the analysis of 3D multi-body equation (dotted line) are in excellent agreement with each interest in using it. The ease of using AFDEX at first look
process has been connected with remeshing so that the other. was very appealing to majority of our stall visitors.
automatic analysis of the whole process is possible This result will enhance the reliability between user and
without user intervention. Also, the usability was developer and will be of great help to future metallurgical
improved by generalizing the input data structure. Fig. research and application.
1.17 shows a typical application example.
Figure 1.17 is a virtual process of assembling three
objects. The axisymmetric process is analyzed by using
the 3D multibody analysis function. A total of 7
remeshings were performed due to the characteristics of
the process. This example can be simulated by a 2D
analysis function, and the 2D analysis result is
quantitatively similar to the 3D analysis result.
The 3D multibody analysis function is essential for the
prediction of the clamping force during the assembly Fig. 2.3 Hannover Messe
process with the already announced 2D multibody
analysis function. In the case of the special process, it can 2.1.3 Education program in Malaysia
be simulated under the same treatment conditions for die
Mr. Kaswandee attended IJCAMTS 2018 to present a
and material. Fig 1.20. New flow stress model
This function will be available to users of the AFDEX paper in the international conference held in Malaysia in
Oct. 2018 and also held an educational program for
/ Pro version starting with V19R01 (to be released on 1.3.6 Hardness prediction of hot forged bearing AFDEX on behalf of MFRC.
March 1st, 2019).
1.3.5 Material identification at elevated
A phase transformation analysis was performed to
temperatures calculate the fractions by state. The hardness and the grain
size were predicted using this value. From the prediction
One of the basic AFDEX flow stress models for hot results, we can confirm the influence of the grain size and
materials is as follows: phase fraction of the quenched material (see Fig. 1.21).
 = C ( , T ) m ( ,T ) Continuous efforts are being made to progress the
research further in this area.
on which material properties of AFDEX for hot/warm
metal forming simulation has been based. Although this
This example is designed only for
model looks simple, since C and m values are stored at the research on the grain size and Fig. 2.4 IJCAMTS 2018
sampling temperatures and strains, the number of material hardness as the metallurgical
constants is large, which is most effective for expressing process after forging is different
from the actual process. 2.1.4 MFCAE 2018
experimental data directly. These material constants can
be easily obtained using AFDEX MAT, one of the
MFCAE 2018 was held at Pearl MBC Convention on
modules of AFDEX, and stored in AFDEX material DB.
16,17 August 2018. At this event, undergraduate sessions,
Figs. 1.18 and 1.19 show examples of this application. In
graduate student sessions, developer sessions, and
the figures, the solid line is the experimental data by hot
professional training sessions were held. MFCAE was
cylinder compression test, and the points are the material
started to be held in 1996 when AFDEX was not
property of AFDEX. As shown in this application
examples, AFDEX MAT provides almost exact flow
Fig 1.21. Prediction of hardness
stresses in an engineering sense.
2. Main events

90 2.1 Summary of 2018

Stress (MPa)

2.1.1 IMTEX Participation and seminars



Fig. 2.5 MFCAE 2018

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Strain 2.1.5 Altair Technology Conference 2018 Korea
Fig 1.18. Hot flow stress of Aluminum A6082
Dr. Suk-hwan Chung attended the ATC 2018 held on
250 September 14, 2018 organized by Altair Korea in Conrad
Hotel, Yeouido, Seoul. This event introduces various
Fig. 2.1 IMTEX, Bengaluru customer cases using digital twin, which is emerging as a
big issue in recent manufacturing industry with the theme
of "product development and digital twin". (Link:
Stress (MPa)

He presented the subject of 'optimal design of grain
flow lines in forging process for bearings using AFDEX
and HyperStudy ' in Manufacturing Session.


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Fig 1.19. Hot flow stress of alloy steel SCM 420 Fig. 2.2 Seminars in Bengaluru, Pune, and Delhi

On the other hand, a lot of research and applications MFRC participated in the IMTEX 2018 exhibition held
have been made on the widely used flow stress models in Bengaluru, India for five days from January 25 to 30,
including Voce model, Hansel-Spittel model and 2018. IMTEX 2018 is an international exhibition held in
Johnson-Cook model. The problem is about the accuracies India and is a major event in the Indian metal forming
and generalities of these flow stress models and their industry. MFRC also held technical seminars and practice
applicability. sessions in Bengaluru, Pune and Delhi. Fig. 2.6 ATC 2018 Korea
2.1.6 EATC

Altair's European Technology Conference was held in

Paris, France from October 16 to 18 for three days. The
show is a major PLM technology exhibition in Europe
attended by experts from various fields. MFRC introduced
some new features of AFDEX during this event.

Fig. 2.10 Toronto, Canada Fig. 2.13 GISPAM participants in MFCAE 2018

2.1.10 AEPA 2018

AEPA 2018 (Organized by KAIST, PNU, KNU, and

SNU) was held from Dec. 3 to 7 in Jeju island, Korea.
Fig. 2.7 EATC in Paris, Oct. 2018 MFRC participated this event as one of the sponsors and
the recent improvements of AFDEX were highlighted to
2.1.7 EuroForge conFAIR 2018 the booth visitors.
EuroForge conFAIR 2018 was held for three days from
November 13 to 15 in Berlin, Germany. It consists of
exhibitions of industrial companies in forging industry,
presentations on latest forging technology, light weight,
Industry 4.0 and global market trends. MFRC participated
into this conference as a platinum sponsor. Dr. ManSoo
Joun presented the importance of process optimal design
and share some interesting industrial examples at the Fig. 2.11 UPVM

Fig. 2.14 Asia-pacific symposium on Engineering

Plasticity and its Applications

Fig. 2.8 EuroForge conFAIR 2018

2.2 First quarter of 2019
Fig. 2.12 Ciudad Juarez 2.2.1 Asia Forging Meeting 2019 in India
2.1.8 North American event

Recently, the number of users of AFDEX in North 2.1.9 GISPAM 2018 The 7th ASIAFORGE Meeting 2019 will be held
America has been increasing, and about 250 people visit in India this year on January 19,20 at
AFDEX homepage in North America every day. To meet GISPAM 2018 was held at Gyeongsang National
University for five weeks starting from July 16. It is an
Mahabalipuram. MFRC would be participating in
these North American interests, we held active marketing this event as a sponsor and our team looks forward
events and education and/or user-meeting events at the international educational event in which 25 distinguished
students from Mexico, 10 Korean university students and to interacting with the Asian forging community.
Altair's headquarters in Troy, Detroit, Toronto in Canada
and Mexico City, State of Mexico (UPVM) and Juarez 2 university students from Malaysia participate. All
Ciudad in Mexico around late October and early Mexican participants' budgets are supported by the State
November this year. of Mexico government.
GISPAM is the fifth international event of the year,
started by the government of the State of Mexico five
years ago, requesting AFDEX training for the best
scholarship students in the State of Mexico (within the top
The subjects that were lectured consisted of mechanics
Fig. 2.15 AFM 2019
with some fundamentals including mathematics, statics
and solid mechanics, engineering plasticity, finite element
method, CAD practice, AFDEX practice and creative
application, technical writing and presentation. All 2.2.2 The first version of V19
lectures are conducted in English. In addition, we The first version of V19 will be released in the early
provided students with useful training experiences by March. Early birds can use it at the end of January
visiting companies and experiencing traditional Korean of this year.
Fig. 2.9 Troy, Detroit culture.