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BiT INTERNSHIP REPORT AND PROJECT 2010 E.

STUDENT DECLARATION
We, Melikamu Fekadu, Mequanent Gebeyaw And Natnael Fetene a fourth-year
mechanical engineering student, have undertaken our internship experience in Amhara
Water Works Construction Enterprise (AWWCE) From a period of February 2018 to
June 2018 under the guidance of Ms. Senayit (academic advisor) and Mr. Anteneh and
Reday (Formal mechanic guiders). We certify that our work is original and compiles with
the internship report writing guideline given by the institute.

Approval of the mentor

According to mentors called Mr. RedayBeyene and Anteneh contribute ways of training
the work by programming, advising and telling the working position of our work and our
advisor Ms. Senayit approved us and communicates with our mentor.

Approved by

Advisor and Mentor Name Signature

Mr. Anteneh

Ms. Senayit

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First of all, we would like to give a great praise to our God for the help to write and
complete this report. Secondly, we would like to thank our adviser Ms. Senayit (Msc.)
for her continuous support and advise to write and compile the report. Thirdly, we have a
great thanks to AmharaWater Work Construction Enterprise Company which gives the
opportunity to work with workers in the company. And also, we would like to thank all
of AmharaWater Work Construction Enterprise Company mechanics and electricians,
specially our supervisor Mr. Anteneh who helps us to know the practical activity in the
company.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report is written based on the internship program given from Bahir Dar University to fourth year
Mechanical engineering students while we were attended in Amhara Water Work Construction Enterprise
AWWCE Bahir Dar branch for last four months. This project contains four main chapters. The first
chapter is about the company background, like brief history main products or services, main customers and
end users, organizational structure and the work flow of the company. The second chapter deals with all
our internship experiences like section of working, work tasks we have been executing, engineering tools
methods and techniques, major challenges and problems that we have been faced and their proposed
solutions. And about over all benefits we gained from the internship in terms of improving practical skill,
theoretical knowledge, industrial problem-solving capability, team playing skills, leadership skills,
understanding about work ethics issues, industrial psychology and related issues, improving
entrepreneurship skills, improving inter personal communication skill and recommendation and conclusion
on our internship experience. The third chapter is about the internship project which is brake pad rivet
puncher machine. This chapter contains project title, introduction, problem statement, objective,
methodology, design analysis, result, discussion, cost analysis, part drawing, assembly drawing,
conclusion and recommendation. Finally, the fourth chapter deals general conclusion and recommendation.

The project ismechanically operated rivet puncher machine which is used to riveting the rivet to combine
two different objects. The problem of the company is the riveting mechanism of the brake liner with the
brake shoe, because they are combining of this project is to design mechanically operated rivet puncher
machine and the specific objective is designing the components of the machine such as base part,
supporting frame, punching rod, handle, pin, spring.

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he

Table of content

Contentspages
Table of content ............................................................................................................................................................... v
CHAPTER ONE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1
1. COMPANY BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. HISTORY OF AMHARA WATER WORKS CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISE ................................................................. 1
1.2. MISSION AND VISION OF THE COMPANY ...................................................................................................... 4
1.3. SERVICE OF THE COMPANY .............................................................................................................................. 5
1.4. INVESTMENT PROJECT OF A COMPANY ....................................................................................................... 5
1.5. COMPANY CUSTOMERS ...................................................................................................................................... 6
1.6. OVERALL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANY ............................................................... 7
1.7. OVERALL WORK FLOW IN EACH DEPARTMENTS OF THE COMPANY ................................................... 8
CHAPTER TWO ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9
2. OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE .................................................................................................................... 9
2.1. WORKING SECTIONS ........................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2. TASKS WE HAVE BEEN EXECUTING ............................................................................................................... 9
2.3. AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE STEPS ....................................................................................................................... 10
2.4. ENGINEERING TOOLS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES WE HAVE BEEN USED ..................................... 11
2.5. CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS, WE HAVE BEEN FACED ......................................................................... 18
2.6. MEASURES BEEN TAKEN FOR THE CHALLENGE &PROBLEMS WE HAVE BEEN FACED ................. 19
2.7. OVERALL BENEFIT GAINED FROM THE INTERNSHIP ............................................................................... 19
2.7.3. IN TERMS OF IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILL ............................................ 21
2.8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ...................................................................................................... 24
CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................................................................................... 26
PROJECT WORK ............................................................................................................................................................. 26
3. DESIGN OF BREAK SHOE RIVET PUNCHER MACHINE ................................................................................. 26
3.1. SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT ........................................................................................................................... 26
3.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION ............................................................................................. 27
3.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT............................................................................................................................... 28
3.3.1. MAIN OBJECTIVE............................................................................................................................................. 28

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3.3.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE ...................................................................................................................................... 28


3.4. METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................................... 29
3.5. DESIGN AND ANALAYSIS OF THE MACHINE COMPONENTS ...................................................................... 30
3.5.1. WORKING PRINCIPLE ..................................................................................................................................... 30
3.5.2. MATERIAL SELECTION .................................................................................................................................. 30
3.5.3. DESIGN OF HANDLE ....................................................................................................................................... 31
3.5.4. DESIGN OF PIN ..................................................................................................................................................... 35
3.5.5. DESIGN OF PUNCHING ROD .......................................................................................................................... 37
3.5.6. DESIGN OF SPRING ............................................................................................................................................... 39
3.5.7. DESIGN OF SUPPORTING FRAME ................................................................................................................ 42
3.5.8. DESIGN OF BASE .............................................................................................................................................. 47
MANUFACTURING AND MACHINING COST ....................................................................................................... 51
3.7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ...................................................................................................... 52
APPENDIX: ........................................................................................................................................................................... 55
PART AND ASSYMBLY DRAWING ............................................................................................................................. 55
PART DRAWING ......................................................................................................................................................... 55
ASSEMBLLY DRAWING ................................................................................................................................................... 62

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List of figures
Figure 1 . 1. Activities performed in the maintenance section ................................................................................................ 5
Figure 1 . 2 . Overall organizational structure of the company ............................................................................................... 7
Figure 1 . 3. Over all work flow of the company ...................................................................................................................... 8

Figure 2. 1. Automotive maintenance examples ...................................................................................................................... 9


Figure 2. 2. Different types of wrenches ................................................................................................................................ 12
Figure 2. 3. Types of screwdrivers......................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 2. 4. Different types of hammers ................................................................................................................................ 13
Figure 2. 5. Different types of pliers ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 2. 6. Different types of hydraulic jacks and safety stands .......................................................................................... 14
Figure 2. 7. Different types of punches and chisels ............................................................................................................... 15
Figure 2. 8. Electrical tools used in the maintenance shop .................................................................................................... 15

Figure 3. 1. Mechanically operated riveting and deriveting machine. ................................................................................... 30


Figure 3. 2. Handle................................................................................................................................................................. 31
Figure 3. 3. shear force and moment diagram........................................................................................................................ 34
Figure 3. 4. Pin ....................................................................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 3. 5. Punching rod ....................................................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 3. 6. Compression helical spring ................................................................................................................................ 40
Figure 3. 7 . Helical springs ................................................................................................................................................... 40
Figure 3. 8 . Compression spring nomenclature .................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 3. 9. Supporting frame ................................................................................................................................................ 42
Figure 3. 10. Force and stress distribution of the supporting frame ...................................................................................... 44
Figure 3. 11 .Base part ........................................................................................................................................................... 47

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List of tables
Table 1. 1. Human source growth of the company from 1993 up 2010 E.C ............................................................................ 2
Table 1. 2. Number of vehicles and machineries in AWWCE. ............................................................................................... 3

Table 3. 1. Properties of materials of rivet ............................................................................................................................ 33


Table 3. 2. Cost of component of the machine ...................................................................................................................... 51
Table 3. 3. Summary of result ................................................................................................................................................ 52

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CHAPTER ONE

1. COMPANY BACKGROUND
1.1. HISTORY OF AMHARA WATER WORKS CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISE
Amhara water works and construction enterprise (AWWCE) established in 1988 to fulfill the needs of a
society around the region and to solve the problem of the country. This company was established by
Amhara region government to work building constructions, irrigations and road constructions especially,
in the region. But it also works in different region in the field of construction. Special concentration is
given, to solve the problem and limitations or development gap of infrastructure of a country. The
development level of our country has direct relationship with AWWCE rather than other organizations.

In addition, AWWCE give job opportunity and qualify lots of employee in the region and in some extent in
other regions in the past years up to now. And also, AWWCE established football federation to
buildfootball club since 1998 E.C to record great contribution for the development of sport field in the
region up to now and job opportunity for youths.
In the year of(1988- 1994), the company did not do that much work in the region because of, skilled man
or women in technologies in different field of study were not found in the region and able to apply their
knowledge on required projects ,instead it try to use other skilled man and women from other country like
China and Japan as a guidance by paying un fair money, but after those years the company board-office
try to re- organized again and use regional professionals in a required technologies with appropriate
projects in the region.

In 2006 E.c, this huge company is selected in international qualification product evaluation, work order
and team works and took certificate and money award at Span. Regard to this, the board-office of a
company search, examine the current development level of the country and create modern organization and
improve its office in 2006 e .c such as, Bahir Dar main office old man’s helping building at G+3,south
Wollo at Commbolcha city in east Amhara construction office, G+5 building in west Amhara
Construction and machinery management and garage office at Bahir Dar Keble 14 which is built by itself.
The company’s Information, communication and documents center told us, the first transformation
anddevelopment plan of the region since (2003 -2006e.c) partially fulfill by the quality works of AWWCE.

For example, in 2006e.c, around 100 projects have been worked and in 2007e.c budget year, 76 clean
water projects, 20 building construction projects and 31 irrigation projects with tanabelles, totally 127
projects are in the working process. This number indicates that the growth of projects and society job skill

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and professions inyear to year. Here, are some projects working in Amhara construction office of
AWWCE that we are try to select as a sample project from listed projects (2007-2010 E.C) like;

In west Amhara construction office (Denbecha clean water work project, Tetum, Koga and Tanabelles
Irrigation project etc.) In east Amhara construction office (kobo and Sekota irrigation project, Desietishu
cultural project, Ayserawm and Gemera soil dam project).

The Information and communication center of AWWCE told us, one of the resource of AWWCE are
humans, for example, the human source growth as they recorded since 1993e.c. up 2007e.c from total
number of four office of company are tabulated below.

Table 1. 1. Human source growth of the company from 1993 up 2010 E.C

Year (E.C) Permanent worker Temporary worker Total


1993 176 6 182
1994 166 13 179
1995 170 16 186
1996 186 10 196
1997 280 44 324
1998 276 45 321
1999 301 48 349
2000 395 14 409
2001 438 82 520
2002 543 183 726
2003 761 237 998
2004 824 645 1469
2005 971 519 1500
2006 988 637 1625
2007 1058 721 1779
2008 1102 798 1900
2009 1254 843 2097
2010 1261 891 2156

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In addition to human resources, machinery resource growth of AWWCE is increased in year to year to
improve its working methods. For example, in 2006E.c numberof different type of construction equipment
were584 and number of machineries were 384 with a total number of 968 and in 2007E.c with additional
10 different type of machinery with total number of 1000 are involved in working projects. Even though,
this company has dead machinery in different construction site. For example, number of dead machinery is
above 34 which are found at Bahir Dar Keble 14 office of the company.

The enterprise has three main maintenance shop sites such as, Bahir Dar maintenance site, Commbolcha
maintenance site and Tan abeles maintenance site. We apply on Bahir Dar maintenance site. This site have
different maintenance shop such as, engine assembly and disassembly shop, body maintenance and
painting shop, welding shop and electrical system diagnosis shop. It also has machinery spare part shop,
light vehicle spare part shop and salvage store. When construction machinery is signs malfunction or stop
to work some different type of construction machineries found at Bahir Dar work office of AWWCE are
tabulated in below.

Table 1. 2. Number of vehicles and machineries in AWWCE.

No. Types of vehicles and Number of vehicles and


machineries. machineries
1 Bus 4
2 Light vehicle 101
3 Dump truck 99
4 Crane 15
5 Trailer 10
6 Grove crane 1
7 Lobed 5
8 High bed 3
9 Truck mounted excavator 5
10 Water bootee 12
11 Fuel bootee 7
12 Dozer 24
13 Grader 10

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14 Excavator 24
15 Wheel type excavator 3
16 Loader 22
17 Back hoe loader 2
18 Front dumper 4
19 Smooth foot compactor 12
20 Sheep foot compactor 12
21 Fork lift 1
22 Wagon drill 5
23 Tractor 12
24 Crusher 6
25 Mixer 3
Total 401
26 Roller 1
compactor Dead
27 Sheep food 2
Compactor Dead
28 Dump truck Dead 4
29 Excavator Dead 2

1.2. MISSION AND VISION OF THE COMPANY

1.2.1. MISSION
 To ensure satisfaction of the society by maintaining and overhauling differentmodels of Vehicles with
better efficiency, quality and at lower cost.
 To increase manufacturing capacity and capability for tools, spare parts andauxiliary required for
overhaul and Assembly activity.
 To be competent and enhance our Nation’s market share from the Global
 Automotive & Water source Industry

1.2.2. VISION
 To be one of the leaders in Africa in construction Industry for the coming 20 years.
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1.3. SERVICE OF THE COMPANY


Those activities are also being classified in different categories shown below:

1. Hydraulic structure such as water supply systems, dams and irrigation work.
2. Projects currently under taken;Addiskdam water supply project, Durbete water supply project,
Debretabor water supply project, Tanabeles sugar irrigation project and Rib dam for irrigation etc.
3. Building such as schools, institutes, hospitals, industrial buildings
4. Automotive maintenance

Figure 1.1. Activities performed in the maintenance section

 Provide any maintenance (painting and welding), part welding, assembling and disassembling for
construction machinery and vehicles
 Car body builder
 Simple general mechanical system checkup of the automotive
 Electrical system of the cars
4. Manufacturing area

 Gate ways components


 Dam and irrigation components
5. Machinery training center actions to be performed;
 Give training in heavy construction operators
 Give training for mechanics
 Other profession related training is heeled for the staff

1.4. INVESTMENT PROJECT OF A COMPANY


 Establish Amhara plastic factory with external investors
 It is a memberof; Abay bank association and Abay insurance S.C

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 Tana paper and pulp factory (in process)


 Built G+5 building and hauls can contain above 600 people for its own company
 Build automobile assembling, disassembling and diagnosis garage in the region (in process) and
 Establish construction machinery operator’s and garage technician’s school.
 Changing of different components of the automobile

1.5. COMPANY CUSTOMERS


The main visible end product of the company is expressed in terms of irrigation, water supply, construction etc.
But there are also other complimentary activities which are not considered as main product. Even though it
works for the final benefit of surrounding population, each activity is feed to each other for the successful
continuous work flow. Like maintenance and manufacturing they are primarily used for the proper function of
other field of activities. In maintenance section all vehicles are serviced for the proper function in different
project sites carried out by the company.

In order to maintain its market leadership & deliver the best customer service, the management of AWWCE
has developed a simple & compelling vision; to become full fill basic needs and machinery distribution &
Retail Company in the country”. The customers of the company, includes:

 Government agencies,
 Individuals,
 Private companies

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1.6. OVERALL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANY

Figure 1.2 . Overall organizational structure of the company

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1.7. OVERALL WORK FLOW IN EACH DEPARTMENTS OF THE COMPANY

Figure 1.3. Over all work flow of the company

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CHAPTER TWO
2. OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE

2.1. WORKING SECTIONS


During our internship period we have been working in the Automotive maintenance & work shop part of the
company. Because, it consists of all activities related to our theoretical knowledge that we have learnt for three
years as courses.

2.2. TASKS WE HAVE BEEN EXECUTING


In the manufacturing section, we are mainly involved in machining since the components of the Tanabeles
irrigation were produced. Different joining mechanism is manufactured in different ways. Example for the
internal threadsystem it can be carried out in two ways, those are by using working tools in the lathe
machineand the other new thing we are interested to perform by using a dais mechanism (mostly it
issuitable, accurate and appropriate for small diameter ) rather than in case of large diameter internal
threads. Simultaneously other tasks also carried out like cutting work piece by using electronic (automatic
machines), punching, pressing, facing, turning, etc. are performed before further activities being precedes.

Different activities are performed are performed in the maintenance shop. The following are some of the
activities that are performed in the section.Automobile parts are disassembled, servicedand finally
assembled. Different brake systems like pneumatic and hydraulic are checked and maintained.Examples of
brake maintenances are shown in the figure bellow.

Figure 2. 1. Automotive maintenance examples

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Generally, the following activities are performed in the maintenance shop.

 Check defective alternators and test charging voltage. This diagnosis is performed using a
multi meter. In this process, the parts of alternators that should be checked are regulator,
slip rings, carbons, diodes, windings and bearings.
 Weld body and broken parts of automobiles and paint car bodies (body maintenance).
Body of a car maintained using gas welding and arc or stick welding and painted by
required colors.
 Change engine, transmission and differential oils based on the manual of the
manufacturer.
 Replace oil, fuel and air filters based on the manual of the manufacturer or as their
defectiveness.
 Replace broken synchronizers and bearings during transmission servicing.
 Comment technicians when they face a problem

2.3. AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE STEPS


1. Safety6. Machining
2. Inspection7. Installing new or serviced parts
3. Diagnostic 8. Reassembling
4. Disassembling9. Adjusting
5. Measuring
1. Measuring: Before we start working on a vehicle, we must find out what’s wrong with it us
oftenbegan by measuring. We take measurements in millimeters and in centimeters as well as
meters. As when we listen to a running engine we measure engine knock.
 When we check the oil in an engine, we measure its level in the crank case by dipstick.
 When we check engine vacuum or compression, we measure engine performance.
 We use test instruments to measure battery condition. The result of this measurement tells to us
what sort of job we have to do.
2. Disassembling: Sometimes the measurement shows that there is trouble. If so we have to disassemble the
components and get all the trouble by removing parts from the engine like brake system transmission,

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gearbox, clutch etc.


3. Machining: removing metal from parts. Example: Valve and valve seats.
4. Install new or service parts: We might find that some parts are so warn that they must be thrown away
then new parts must be installed in their place. Example: engine bearing.
5. Reassembling or putting parts together. -after a repair, you might have to put some parts back to
gather. We put the parts back together to make a complete assembly. Example
 Water pump
 Crank shaft
 Camshaft etc.
6. Adjusting: -As vehicle operated, parts normally wear; this requires adjustment from time to time.
Also, adjustment may be required after a service job. After grinding the valves, we put everything back
together. Then we measure the valve action. If it is not right, adjustments must be made. This require
after service job.

2.4. ENGINEERING TOOLS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES WE HAVE BEEN USED

2.4.1 ENGINEERING TOOLS WE HAVE BEEN USED


Different mechanical tools are used in the maintenance shop to perform and accomplish different activities.
The tools used are generally listed below.

WRENCHES

A wrench is a tool for twisting and/or holding bolt heads or nuts. Nearly all bolt heads and nuts have six
sides; the jaw of a wrench fits around these sides to turn the bolt or nut. There are different types of wrenches
used in the automotive maintenance shop. These are listed below.

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Box wrenches Combination wrench

Adjustable wrench

Socket and Ratchet wrenches

Allen wrenches Tire wrench

Figure 2. 2. Different types of wrenches

SCREWDRIVERS

A screwdriver drives variety of threaded fasteners used in the automotive maintenance shop. Each fastener
requires a specific kind of screwdriver. Screwdrivers are defined by their sizes, their tips, and the type of
fasteners they should be used with. There are two types of screwdriver used in the automotive maintenance
shop. These are show in the figure below.

a) Phillips screwdrivers b) Flathead screwdrivers

Figure 2. 3. Types of screwdrivers

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HAMMERS

Hammers are identified by the material and weight of the head. There are two groups of hammer heads: steel and
soft faced. The head of steel-faced hammers are made from high-grade alloy steel. Soft-faced hammers have a
surface that yields when it strikes an object. Soft-faced hammers should be used on machined surfaces. The different
types of hammers used in the automotive maintenance shop are show in the figure below.

Figure 2. 4. Different types of hammers

PLIERS

Pliers are gripping tools used for working with wires, clips, and pins. Different types of pliers are used in the
automotive maintenance shop. These are: standard pliers for common parts and wires, needle nose for small parts,
and large, adjustable pliers for large items and heavy-duty work.

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Figure 2. 5. Different types of pliers


In addition to the tools listed above, the following tools are also used in the automotive maintenance shop.

a) Floor stand c) Hydraulic floor jack

b) Hydraulic or bottle jacks d) hydraulic lifter

Figure 2. 6. Different types of hydraulic jacks and safety stands

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a) Punches b) Chisels

Figure 2. 7. Different types of punches and chisels

a) Multi-meter b) Jumper cable

Figure 2. 8. Electrical tools used in the maintenance shop

2.4.2. TECHNIQUESAPPLIED IN OUR WORK TASKS

 To tighten and loose bolts and nuts extension levers are used to multiply force.
 To make brake adjustment count the number of threads (should be equal on each side of
front or rear wheel of the vehicle).
 Fitch fuel from the tank through tube by creating vacuum in it by using mouth.
 If tool is not available perform the activities by hand.
 Lubrication is made if bolt or nut is highly tightened to lose it.
 Use plastic hammer to not damage the parts.

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The essential stages in the repair of the vehicle are carried out by:

 Inspecting the damage and checking its alignment to locate the exact position and extent of the
damage.
 Correction is carried out by using alignment and repair equipment like Hydraulic pullingand
hydraulic pushing equipment but if the customer has agreed economic and he permit torepair can be
cut out and replaced with new sections by using a combination of power toolsand welding
equipment.
 The next stage of the repair is the realigning and reshaping of the body shell structure and is
normally known as roughing out the damage.
After alignment checks have been made, hydraulic equipment is used to push and pull thebody shell back to
its correct shape. It is advisable to tough out all damaged sections even though some of these may eventually
need replacing with new panels. The reason for this isthat the successful fitting of a replacement Section will
depend on the correct alignment of the surrounding areas, which can best be achievedby restoring them to as
near the true shape as possible before the removal or cutting away of the sections began repair. Carry out the
foundation tasks common to all procedures e.g. removing and replacing bolt, screws and clips, replacing seals,
extracting damaged fasteners, cutting, drilling, filling, using fabrication skills etc. Contribute to the
maintenance of a safe and efficient workshop and adhere to the dealership/garage’s business processes (e.g.
environmental awareness, servicing a vehicle, record keeping, customer contact) and standard workshop
operations.

 Access specific information e.g. vehicle repair information, wiring diagrams, maintenance tables,
technical production information and apply appropriately.
 Use diagnostic, mechanical and electrical measuring equipment.
 Inspect and prepare a vehicle to the required quality standard for handover to the customer e.g.
following a service, complex repair, pre-delivery inspection etc.
 Service and maintain a vehicle without supervision.
 Remove repair/replace components in line with manufacturer’s standards.
 Investigate symptoms of vehicle fault(s) and identify the likely underlying causes.
 Apply advanced diagnostic principles and logical problem-solving techniques, supported by
diagnostic tools and testing regimes, to establish electrical, mechanical and electronic faults.
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 Use current flow diagrams and electrical test equipment to carry out standard diagnostic.

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2.5. CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS, WE HAVE BEEN FACED

2.5.1. MAJOR CHALLENGES WE HAVE BEEN FACED


Behind every success, there is /are obstacles or challenges. Among the challenges we have been
faced, some of them are;

 Adapting the workers and the compound


 lack of team work
 lack of safety materials
 Absence of measuring devices
 Shortage of tools and equipment’s
 The working place is so rough and dusty, which exposes us for loss of
interest at the time of work

2.5.2. PROBLEMS WE HAVE BEEN FACED DURING OUR INTERNSHIP PERIOD


There are different problems we have been faced in the company during our intern ship
program.These problems are occurred at different sections of the company. The following are
some of the problems in the mechanical work shop and maintenance shop.

2.5.2.1. PROBLEMS IN MECHANICAL WORK SHOEP


 Sheet metal rolling machine needs more labor force; which needs high labor cost.
 Poor in Kaizen management.
2.5.2.2. PROBLEMS IN MAINTENANCE SHOP
 When air cleaners are dirty, they are cleaned directly to the environment.
 Old (wear) brake shoes are removed from their lining by hammering.
 Bolts are loosened or tighten by using wrenches acted by man force.
 Heavy tires (tires of loaders, Sino trucks, Nissans, etc.) are assembled with
the contributionof three or more technicians.
 Poor in Kaizen management.

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2.6. MEASURES BEEN TAKEN FOR THE CHALLENGE &PROBLEMS WE HAVE


BEEN FACED
Through time it is obvious that a good relation is important between automotive mechanics or
workers and internship students, because they give an important awareness and way to get a
desired knowledge. This good relationship between the automotive mechanics and us also helps
to know what measures have been taken for the challenges and problems we have faced during
the internship program. The following measures had been taken to overcome the problems and
challenges those occurred in the company.

 We try to make our own team.


 We use some measuring devices which are available for the required task

 As muchas possible, we try touse different materials in theplace of necessaryequipment’s and


by manufacturing our project which is engine and differential stand wetry to minimize one of
these absences
 Cleaning air cleaners directly to the environment pollutes materials around their and
alsodamage human beings due to dust and other tiny particles in it. To overcome this problem, it
is better to clean using in a closed container. The container should have water reservoir to suck
dusts, and air clear holder inside it.
 Removing wear brake shoesusing a hammer is enervating, consumes more time and causes
asbestosis. So, we recommend that using hydraulically or mechanically operated pressing tool
to remove the rivets connecting the lining and shoes is better.
 Loosening and tightening of bolts by man power is time consuming, enervating and also may
not tighten to the required torque. So, we recommend that using electrically assisted tool is
selected.

2.7. OVERALL BENEFIT GAINED FROM THE INTERNSHIP


As we have mentioned above the company widely works in manufacturing and maintenance sector, it
helps us to improve our theoretical skill related to those and other courses like internal combustionengine,
workshop, mechanism of machinery and other gained in compass life. Those benefits can be described
below in terms of different perspectives.
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2.7.1. IN TERMS OF OUR PRACTICAL SKILL


The internship program helps us for improving our theoretical knowledge to implement practically. It is so
interesting to face the real world; by this internship program we have try to relate the theoretical
knowledge with the practical part, technical, subject-specific knowledge and understanding. We knowthat
it is better to show some thing rather than teaching for some one. Psychologically we are good and we
gainconfidence how topractice something and how to change ideas practically. Generally, in thisinternship
we get the following practical skills.

 We can take off and install the engine from the vehicle
 We can differentiate the problems of the vehicle and give appropriate maintenances with the help of
formals and mechanics.
 We can differentiate the problem of the vehicle and maintain if it is necessary to do so with the
help of our coworkers.
 We can inspect problems around gearbox, transfer and differential, and come up with a
solution easily
 We can disassemble and assemble the wheel of the vehicle
 We know how to test fuel nozzle and adjust it
 We notice how to manipulate different kinds of car jacks and cranes
 Easily we can notice a problem around filters (air, oil and water) and adjust them in a
proper manner

2.7.2. IN TERMS OF THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE


There is a slight difference between what we have learned in class and the practical work
around industries. However, having a deep knowledge about the practical work makes us more
intensive for the theoretical knowledge. Moreover, we are upgraded what we have been learned
in the class. Among these:
 breaking system, axle shaft, and bearing
 Damping system: like shock absorber, coil spring, leaf spring, and different types of
bushes.
 fastening: like bolting, pin and welding ( metal inert gas and Oxygen)
 Thread, screw, gear, and differential
 Combustion process, crank shaft, connecting rod and cylinder

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 lubrication system: like different type of oil and greases


 Cooling of engine: like oil, coolant water and air for radiator.

2.7.3. IN TERMS OF IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILL


When we are working, communication was the important way of gaining knowledge or skills. As we
know, working in a shop is a team work that performed not only by one person rather than
cooperation with other. The success of the work is depending on the worker relation and this also
related with their communication. This success couldn’t be achieved without developing good
communication skill. During our internship period we have improved our communication skill by
communicating with different workers on shop from high level employee up to daily labor.
To know more technical knowledge, we listen and respect skilled and unskilled labors. Without
communication we all did not gain and received any information. Generally, we have developed
communication skills through:
 Adaptation of those different workers
 Most of the workers have practical knowledge rather than the theoretical one that makes a
barrier between us. But through time we can solve our problem by sharing ideas.
 Through working our project, we were having a deep connection with the company`s advisor,
our mentors and coworkers.

2.7.4. IN TERMS OF IMPROVING TEAM PLAYING SKILLS


Team playing skills are one of the basic requirements for the proper working of a good company,
regardless of its size and its service. A company with properly functioning dedicated working team
will always have a graph going up wards with different workers, working as different team.

However, they work to contribute same goal for the progress of the company. For the proper
functioning of a team, each member must be aware of its mission, vision, behavior, working style,
and goal. They must personally and organizationally dedicate to the team. Team members must
believe in one another and must be ready to work hand to hand in both adverse and favorable
situation. General skills such as; good communication, concentration, fast decision making, self-
confidence and a wellbeing feeling are important for all team members to engage profitable work.
For instance, during our project work we notice that team playing skill is very crucial.

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Because in our company any type of work or problem are accomplished with the co-operation of each other. This
situation helps us to develop a team playing skill, since we were one of the members of the company.

2.7.5. IN TERMS OF IMPROVING LEADER SHIP SKILLS


A leader ship is leading, managing, controlling and administering manpower and resources
in their profession. Problems in a given work can arise from different directions in different
period of time in order to solve this problem a good leader must be needed. A good and
effective leadership must have confidence, effective communication skill and devotion is
very important.
Leader ship is critical management and skill is being the ability to motive a group of people
towards a common goal. As a manager he must master to be successful and shows his
management skills to build a way towards success. The leader should have to control his
fear and forward his knowledge or an idea about what he going to do with a confidence. A
leader must have a communication skill that helps him to persuade his followers.
Leadership skills that we gained from this internship program were;
 To lead, motive, inspire and encourage workers, develop work ethics and values; like
accountability, which is answerable to the decision and acts we took and transparency,
which is our openness of activities that we done to the customers and works of the
company.
 The ability to transfer work orders: - it helps to control the work flow and make works to
be done at the desired period of time
 How the workers accept their work orders
 How to face the risk and manage it.
 The ability to inspire and motivate other workers-this increase the worker to do their
activity effectively and quickly.
 Respect and listen others opinions and needs: - accepting others peoples’ opinion will help in gaining
 knowledge and improve their experience
 How to decide around a management carrier and intended to do large projects.

2.7.6. WORK ETHICS SKILLS


Having a good work ethics is making good attitude and finishing their work on time people like to be around
someone who is positive and in turn helping them have a better working environment. During this program

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we improve the following work ethics.

 Punctuality  Responsibility
 Reliability  Tolerance
 Accountability  Respecting each other
 Honesty
 Arrive work on time

Some of the methods to develop strong work ethics are: -


 Respect our self and others, without regarding their religion, race, language and customs.
 Be confident and self- motivated in your ability to handle job responsibility
 The quality and quantity of work is a direct reflection of personal characters and integrity.
 Respect what others contribute to the work environment. Concentrate on your job and commitment
to proactive attitude.
 Work ethical employees are a key to productive. All of the employees have to be disciplined and
ethical in their working environment

2.7.7. IN TERMS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS


It is defined by their habit of innovation and redefines markets. It can be realized that when someone
engages or creates profitable job, which is/are significant for the society. From entrepreneur principle we
notice the following points.

If you have enough money, even if you have neither talent nor profession, you can make a business by
employee those educated or talented persons. To do so, you have to analyze the most needed demand in
the community. If you are not educated/have no profession and money, you may have talent. Therefore,
you can start a business regard to your talent. If you have not money and talent, but you are an
educated/you have profession, you can also make a business specially this is related to us. As we know,
our country is one of the developing countries in our entire planet earth.

Therefore, we have a chance to create a lot of things by using our resources. For instance, after finishing
our internship project successfully we understand thatwe can also make another problem solving and
profitable mechanisms for differentorganizations

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2.8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

2.8.1. CONCLUSION
From the overall internship experience, we can conclude that the internship program gives us tangible
advantage for improving practical skill as well as theoretical knowledge. We develop our knowledge
about how theoretical studies are related to practical applications and we are initiated to perform a better
effort for the future. Regarding this, we can say that we had a successful and interesting time during our
internship experience.

2.8.2. RECOMMENDATION
In AWWCE Company, there are some problems which can be categorized as major and minor.
Which are presented as follows: -
Major problems Minor problems
 Organizational arrangement  Time taking respond for requested spare
 Time appropriateness parts
 Resource supply and utilization  Shortage of tools and equipment’s
 Safety guarded materials  Lack of time correspondent courses
 Measuring devices  Shortage of sanitation for workers
 Un appropriate selection of working
place

Regarding to the above problems we recommend the company as follows:

 The company should have suitable organizational arrangement for the sake of productivity and
customer satisfaction.
 Every employee of the company should be punctual and accountable for his/her action.
 The company should fulfill basic tools and equipment’s in order to maintain quality and productive
service for the customers.
 In order to initiate and improve the knowledge of workers there should be time corresponding courses.
 Safety guard materials are very crucial for any company to protect their workers from injury and
sudden accidents.
 At last but not least, there should be scientific measuring devices and should give quick respond for
requested spare parts.

RECOMMENDATION TO THE UNIVERSITY

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Internship program offers a list of advantages to the students, as mentioned above, for instance it helps us
to upgrade not only practical experience and knowledge related to our academic lesson and career goals,
but also our social skills because it is known that we will meet different kinds of people in our profession
that help us for the future. Therefore, Bahir Dar University plays tremendous role on creating practice
oriented graduates on the field of their possessions by working with different infrastructures and by
creating good linkage with the outside industry. Therefore, we recommended that this program should be
continued for every summer of the year beside at 4th year student in order to improve the student’s ability.

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CHAPTER THREE

PROJECT WORK
3. DESIGN OF BREAK SHOE RIVET PUNCHER MACHINE

3.1. SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT


Brake shoe rivet puncher machine is a device which is used to punch rivets in order to hold brake shoe and break
liner together. Riveting machines are used to automatically set (squeeze) rivets in order to join materials together.
The riveting machine offers greater consistency, productivity, and lower cost when compared to manual riveting.
Riveting machines are used in a wide range of applications including brake linings for commercial vehicles,
aircraft, and locomotives, textile and leather goods, metal brackets, window and door furniture, latches and even
mobile phones. Many materials can be riveted together using riveting machines including delicate and brittle
materials, and sensitive electrical or electronic components .The rivet puncher, we are going to design is
mechanical which is portable and operated by one person.

Improper punching of break shoe rivets manually results serious problems to the break shoe, break liner and the
rivet it-self. For example punching of a rivet by using a hammer manually causes different problems. When we
use such improper method of riveting, the break shoe and break liner may crack and the surface of the rivet also
damaged.

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3.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION


In Amhara water works construction enterprise, different type of automobiles and construction
machineries are serviced and maintained within its own maintenance shop at different site. But the way
of maintaining and servicing method of those automobiles and machineries is mostly inappropriate and
tedious. Especially brakemaintenance is one of the major activities performed in the company. For the
proper functioning of the automobiles or vehicles, braking system is one of the vehicle systems which
play an important role for its functioning. Most of the time the brake liners are damaged due to
improper assembly or combining of liner with brake shoe (mostly in using hammer), due to
misalignment of the brake system, in rapidly applying brake.
As we observe in AWWCE there is no modernize machine for punching of rivets. They use different
manual and tedious methods to join the brake shoe and brake liner with the rivet. For example, they use
a hammer for this purpose. Such manual riveting method by using hammer causes the following.

 during hammering of the rivet, the brake shoe and break liner might be damaged
 the rivet might be damaged
 the process of riveting is tedious and
 hammering may take long time to accomplish the task

These are the problems which initiated us to do this project work.

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3.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT


3.3.1. MAIN OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this project work is to design a mechanically operated break shoe rivet
puncher machine to increase work performance and efficiency of the company, save work time
taken to accomplish the task, improve the safety of break lining and break shoe, prevent the
break lining and break shoe from damage, minimize man power and multiply force.

3.3.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE


The specific objectives of this project work are: -

 To design component part of the machine such as: handle, pin, supporting frame, spring,
punching rod and base.
 To determine cost of the machine
 Drawing the components and assembly of the machine

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3.4. METHODOLOGY
The methodologies or guidelines which must be followed to design this project are listed as
follows either in the note way or as the chart shown below: -

 First we identify and understand the problem in the company that is the problem of rivet
puncher machine for break line and clutch plate.

 And next having better awareness about rivet puncher machine basically its components,
importance, working principles from different data sources. The data sources are primary and
secondary data sources in which primary sources are find from technicians and professionals
of the company, while secondary data are find from internet books and lectures and different
journals of technology especially automotive.
 After having better information and awareness about the rivet puncher machine, the next step
is organizing the data in a way that we can understand it easily that means arranging or
ordering the information. This step includes :-
 Material selection,
 Different parameters identification,
 Justification of the components separately and other important issues.
 The next step after data organization is designing each component by using two steps. The
first is getting the dimensions by calculating manually and the stresses on the components of
rivet machinewhere the load is applied are checked by calculating analytically. Then after
calculating all of the necessary dimensions of the components, stress analysis and safety of the
components of the machine are checked. The detail drawing of the components and the
assembly drawing is drawn using SOLIDWORK modeling software. After modeling the next
step is assembling the modeled parts and components.
 Then finally the proper documentation is completed.

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3.5. DESIGN AND ANALAYSIS OF THE MACHINE COMPONENTS

3.5.1. WORKING PRINCIPLE


The mechanically operated rivet puncher machine is used to attach brake line with brake shoe
using rivet materials.

Figure 3. 1. Mechanically operated riveting and deriveting machine.

The working principle of the machine is mechanically operated by hand. It works based on lever
mechanism. When the force is applied on the handle, it moves down ward and pushes down the
punching rod. The force applied on the handle by the person is multiplied by the arm length of
the handle. This multiplied force of the person presses down the punching rod. The brake line
and brake shoe prepared for attachment are placed between the punching rod and the base
support. Finally, the punching rod presses down and deforms the rivet material over the surface
of the brake line or over the surface of the brake shoe and attaches them together.

3.5.2. MATERIAL SELECTION


The knowledge of materials and their properties is of great significance for a design engineer.
The machine elements should be made of such a material which has properties suitable for the
conditions of operation. Inaddition to this, a design engineer must be familiar withthe effects
which the manufacturing processes and heattreatment have on the properties of the materials.

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The selection of a proper material, for engineering purposes, is one of the most difficult problem
for the designer. The best material is one which serves the desired objective at the minimum cost.
The following factors should be considered while selecting the material:

 Casting  Cost
 Machining  Ductility
 Welding  Good bending, shearing, and
 Availability compressive and tensile strength.
 Suitability for the working conditions  toughness
in services
Accordingly, our material selection is accomplished by taking the above factors in to consideration.

3.5.3. DESIGN OF HANDLE


Handle is one of the components of the riveting machine which is used to multiply the force
applied by the person. The handle of this riveting machine is subjected to bending stress due to
the punching load of the rivet. In order to overcome this effect the the material for the handle
should have a good bending strength.

The material selected for the handle is mild steel. The reason why we select mild steel material is
that it has a good bending strength and moderate cost compared with stainless steel.

Assuming the dimensions of the handle like the length, the total length = 900mm, from human
hand up to the pivot the length =800mm, from the pivot to the pin is = 100mm, and

assuming the man force applied 370N ()

Figure 3. 2. Handle

Man applied force=370N

800mm FR 100mm Fpin

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Based on this concept the handle can be designed as the following:

Calculating the reaction forces on the pin and on the pivot that applies on the rivet to be deform
using equilibrium moment of equation

Man applied force Fh =370N

800mm FR 100mm Fpin

Summation of force along Y-axis Taking summation of moment at the pivot

∑FY = 0 ∑MPivot =0

Fh + Fpin = FR,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,(EQU) Fh*800mm + (-Fpin*100mm) =0

370N + Fpin = FR…………..1 Fh*800mm = Fpin*100mm

Then the reaction force is

FR =370N+ 2960N = 3330N 370N*800mm = Fpin*100mm, Fpin = 2960N

Now, in order to know whether this force is enough to deform the rivet, calculating the
maximum resistance force of the rivet and compare and contrasting these forces. The rivet
resistance force should be less than that of the force multiplied of man force.

The maximum resistance force of the rivet.

Material of Rivets from listed above;

The material of the rivets must be tough and ductile. They are usually made of steel (low carbon
steel or nickel steel), brass, aluminum or copper, but when strength and a fluid tight joint is the
main consideration, then the steel rivets are used.

Assume the maximum diameter of the rivet of the Trucks and Lorries brake lining is mostly
10mm.Then the outer diameter DO =10mm, and the thickness of rivet is usually t= 1mm.

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Table 3. 1. Properties of materials of rivet

Materials Ultimate tensile strength(Mpa) Yield strength(Mpa)


Nickel 350 170
Copper 220 70
Aluminum 330 55
Brass 500 200
SOURCE

From the materials listed above, brass has the maximum yield strength than the other, due to this
it has maximum resistance force and the resistance force of the rivet is determined based on this
material.

 Yield strength of brass = 200Mpa

 Outer diameter of rivet DO = 10mm

 Thickness t= 1mm

The maximum resistance force of rivet:

𝐹𝑅𝑡 𝜋
σy = A= (𝑑𝑜2 − 𝑑𝑖2 ) di = do -2t, di = 10mm-2*1mm = 8mm
𝐴 4

𝜋
𝐹𝑅𝑡 = 𝜎𝑦 ∗ 𝐴 A = 4 (102. − 82. ) = 14.27mm

𝐹𝑅𝑡 = 200N/mm * 14.27mm = 2984N

This resistance force is less than that of the load we have to punch the rivet FR = 3330N.

Therefore, using this force we can determine the dimensions of the handle as the follow.

As the material stainless steel is selected with its properties of

 Ultimate strength = 505Mpa


 Yield strength = 215Mpa

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 Youngus modulus =193-200Gpa


 Poisson’s ratio = 0.29

Depending on these material properties assume the factor of safety is F.S = 3

The handle is subjected to bending stress at the pivot.

Fh=370NB

A800mmFR=3330N10mmFpin =2960N

Shear force (v)

Diagram

Bending moment diagram

Figure 3. 3. shear force and moment diagram

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The maximum bending moment is at the pivot or at point B.

MB =Fh * 800mm = 370N*800mm = 296000Nmm

𝜎𝑢𝑙 215𝑀𝑝𝑎
The working stress or allowable stress 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = = 71.3𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝐹𝑆 3

Then, calculating the dimension of the handle using the working stress of the material and the
maximum bending moment. The cross section of the handle is rectangular rather than circular.

𝟏 ∗𝒃∗𝒉𝟑
The moment of inertia of rectangular cross section is,I = ,
𝟏𝟐

Where, b is width of handle

h =t is thicknessof handle

But width b is twice of thickness t, b=3t

𝟏 ∗𝟑𝒕∗𝒕𝟑 𝒕𝟒
I= =
𝟏𝟐 𝟒

𝜎 𝑀
From general equation of bending moment: = , y= h/2 = t/2
𝑦 𝐼

𝑀∗𝑦 𝑀∗𝑡/2 2𝑀 3 2𝑀 3 2∗296000𝑁𝑚𝑚


𝜎𝑏 = = = , t = √𝜎 = √ = 14.62𝑚𝑚, 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑎𝑠 15𝑚𝑚
𝐼 𝑡 4 /4 𝑡3 𝑏 72𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Thickness,t = 15mm and width,b= 3t = 3* 15mm = 45mm, (take as 50mm) are the dimensions of
the handle with total length of 900mm.

3.5.4. DESIGN OF PIN

Pins are the major parts of a mechanism which has an important function of supporting and
connecting of a machine parts. It is the part of the riveting machine which is used to connect the
handle with the supporting frame. The pin issubjected to shearing and slightly bending stresses
during punching operation. It is show in the figure bellow.

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Figure 3. 4. Pin

Material of the pin is cast iron with the following material properties:

 Yield strength =200Mpa


 Ultimate strength=700Mpa
 Shear strength =120Mpa

Assumptions;

Take factor of safety 2 depend on material properties.

 In order to determine the diameter of the pin, we have to consider the load applied on it
as concentrated load.
 During operation of the machine the pin is subjected to a shearing effect, and the design
shear stress of the pin material can be calculated as follow.

𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ


Shear stress= , Where, 𝜏 = 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦

𝜏𝑢𝑙𝑙 120𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝜏= = = 60𝑀𝑝𝑎𝜏𝑢𝑙𝑙 = 𝑆𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔ℎ𝑡
𝑓. 𝑠 2

Now, the design shear stress is given by:f.s =Factor of safety

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
𝜏= , The applied load as calculated previously is 2960N.
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝
∴ 𝜏=
𝐴
𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝
Thisimplies, A = , Where; A =Cross sectional area
𝜏

𝐷2 𝑃 𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝
𝜋∗ = 𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝 = 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
4 𝜏

2960𝑚𝑚2
= 𝐷 𝑃 =Diameter of pin
60

=49.33𝑚𝑚2

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Therefore, the diameter of the pin will be; 𝐷 𝑃 = √4 ∗ 49.33𝑚𝑚2=20.92mm

3.5.5. DESIGN OF PUNCHING ROD


Punching rod is the part of the riveting machine which moves up and down or vertically with in
the supporting frame. It is used for punching or riveting and deriveting of the rivets. The
punching rod is shown in the figure below.

Figure 3. 5. Punching rod

The material used for designing the punching rod is cast iron. The punching rod during operation
is subjected to compressive stress. This is the reason why cast iron material is selected for this
component. The properties of this material used for designing purpose are:-

 Tensile strength=200Mpa
 Compressive strength=700Mpa
 Shear strength=120Mpa

The dimension, diameter of the punching rod can be calculated by using the above properties.

 We take factor of safety 3 for cast iron material for the safety of the design.

The working compressive strength of cast iron is given by:

𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝜎𝑢𝑙𝑙


Compressive working strength = = 𝜎𝑐𝑤 = ,
𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝐹.𝑠

Where; 𝜎𝑐𝑤 =Compressive working strength

𝜎𝑢𝑙𝑙 =Ultimate compressive stress

𝐹. 𝑠 =Factor of safety

𝜎𝑢𝑙𝑙 700𝑀𝑝𝑎
That implies, 𝜎𝑐𝑤 = = = 233.33Mpa
𝐹.𝑠 3

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The maximum load applied on the punching rod is equivalent with the resisting load of the
handle.

That is, 𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 = 3330N

The diameter of the punching rod can be calculated from the following relation:

𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑𝐹
Compressive working strength =𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑢𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 ,
𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑑

𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑
𝜎𝑐𝑤 = = 𝜋∗𝐷2
, Where;𝐴𝑟 = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑢𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑟𝑜𝑑
𝐴𝑟
4

D = diameter of punching rod

Assume that the cross sectional area of the punching rod is circular.

𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 3330𝑁 𝜋∗𝐷 2


∴ 𝐴𝑟 = = 233.33𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 = , that implies, D =42.6mm
𝜎𝑐𝑤 4

To determine the length of the punching rod, we should assume:

 Total height of the rivet puncher machine= 70cm


 Height of brake shoe and lining support = 30cm
 The thickness of brake shoe and lining = 2cm

Therefore, the length of the punching rod is given by:

𝐿𝑝𝑟 = 𝐿𝑡𝑚 − 𝐻𝑠 − 𝑇𝑏𝑙 , Where; 𝐿𝑝𝑟 = 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑢𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑟𝑜𝑑

= 70cm – 30cm – 2cm 𝐿𝑡𝑚 = total height of the punching machine

= 38cm𝐻𝑠 = height of brake shoe and lining

𝑇𝑏𝑙 = thickness of the brake shoe and lining

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3.5.6. DESIGN OF SPRING


A spring is defined as an elastic body, whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its
original shape when the load is removed. Springs have various important applications. They are
used:-

To cushion, absorb or control energy due to either shock or vibration as in car springs,
railway buffers, air-craft landing gears, shock absorbers and vibration dampers.
To apply forces, as in brakes, clutches and spring loaded valves.
To control motion by maintaining contact between two elements as in cams and
followers.
To measure forces, as in spring balances and engine indicators.
To store energy, as in watches, toys, etc.

Springs are classified in to different categories based on different criteria. Springs based on their
shape are classified as helical, tensional, conical and laminated or leaf springs.

The type of spring we are going to design in our case is helical spring. The reason why we select
this type of spring is that it is used to store energy and release again that energy when it is
needed. The main advantage of this spring during punching operation is to store energy and
return the punching rod to its original position after the release of the handle and punching of
rivets. The compression spring is shown in the figure below.

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Figure 3. 6. Compression helical spring

Helical springs

The helical springs are made up of a wire coiled in the form of a helix andare primarily intended
for compressive or tensile loads. The cross-section of the wire from which the spring is made
may be circular, square or rectangular. The two forms of helical springs are compression helical
springs shown in Fig. 3. (a) and tension helical spring as shown in Fig. 3. (b).

Figure 3. 7 . Helical springs

The helical springs have the following advantages:

(a) These are easy to manufacture. (c) These are reliable.

(b) These are available in wide range (d) these have constant spring rate.

(e) Their performance can be predicted more accurately.

(f) Their characteristics can be varied by changing dimensions.

From the two types of helical springs described above, compression helical spring is selected for
our designing case, because during punching operation the punching rod moves down ward and
compresses the spring.

Analysis

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In the analysis part, we are going to select material for the spring and determine important
parameters of the spring.

Material for helical springs:-The material of the spring should have high fatigue strength, high
ductility, high resilience and it should be creep resistant. It largely depends upon the service for
which they are used i.e. severe service, average service or light service. The material selected for
the spring is cold worked stainless steel with light service. The allowable shear stress and wire
diameter of this material from standard table are:-

 Allowable shear stress =437.5Mpa


 Wire diameter = 2.125 to 4.625 mm
 Coil diameter = 48mm

The maximum load applied on the spring is the weight of the punching road which is 32N.

 We take 4mm wire diameter spring


 Assume the number of coil,n=8 and pitch length, p=4mm

Now we can calculate the important terms or necessary dimensions of the spring.

Figure 3. 8 . Compression spring nomenclature

Solid length, Ls= n*d = 8*4mm = 32mm

Maximum compression,𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (𝑛 − 1) ∗ 𝑝, 𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (8 − 1) ∗ 4𝑚𝑚 = 28𝑚𝑚

Total free length, LF = LS + 𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 + 0.15𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 32mm + 28mm + 0.15*28mm = 64.2mm


taking as 65mm.

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3.5.7. DESIGN OF SUPPORTING FRAME


Supporting frame is one main component of the punching machine which is used for supporting
or holding the handle and the punching rod.

Figure 3. 9. Supporting frame

The material of the supporting frame is cast iron. The reason why we select cast iron is due to its
high compressive strength. The properties of cast iron material used for designing purpose are
the following.

 Ultimate compressive strength = 700Mpa


 Ultimate tensile strength = 200Mpa
 Ultimate shear strength = 120Mpa

During punching operation the supporting frame is affected with a compressive stress at the outer
surface and a tensile stress at the inner surface. Based on these conditions we should follow the
concept of curved beam in bending.

The distribution of stress in a supporting column is determined by using the following


assumptions:

The cross section has an axis of symmetry in the plane of bending.

 Plane cross sections remain plane after bending.

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 The modulus of elasticity is the same in tension as in compression.

The determination or designing of the dimensions of the supporting column by applying the
concept of curved beams in bending is more complex and difficult. As a result, the design of the
supporting column is done by assuming its dimensions and checking the safety of the design by a
factor of safety.

The assumed dimensions of the supporting column are:

Width = b = 120mm
Thickness = t =30mm
Factor of safety = 2

The reason why we take a factor of safety of two is for the safety of the design. The distribution
of stress in a curved flexural member is determined by using thefollowing assumptions:

 The cross section has an axis of symmetry in the plane of bending.


 Plane cross sections remain plane after bending.
 The modulus of elasticity is the same in tension as in compression

From the properties of cast iron material selected for the punching rod supporting column, the
working or allowable stress is calculated as:

𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝜎𝑢𝑙𝑐 700𝑀𝑝𝑎


 Working/allowable stress = 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 , 𝜎𝑤𝑐 = = = 350𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝐹𝑠 2

𝜎𝑢𝑙𝑡 200𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝜎𝑤𝑡 = = = 100𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝐹𝑠 2

Where, 𝜎𝑤𝑐 𝑖𝑠𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

𝜎𝑤𝑡 𝑖𝑠𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

Now, we calculate the stresses occurred in the supporting column due to the load applied during
punching. Basically there are two types of stresses that occur in the supporting column. Theseare
tensile stress at the inner and compressive stress at the outer section. In addition to these stresses
there is also an axial stress due to the axial load of punching.

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Figure 3. 10. Force and stress distribution of the supporting frame

We shall find that the neutral axis and the centroidal axis of a supporting column, unlike the axes
of a straight beam, are not coincident and also that the stress does not vary linearly from the
neutral axis. The notation shown in Fig. is defined as follows:

Center of curvature

The notation shown in Fig. is defined as follows:

ro=radius of outer fiber

ri =radius of inner fiber

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h =depth of section

co =distance from neutral axis to outer fiber

ci =distance from neutral axis to inner fiber

rn =radius of neutral axis

rc =radius of centroidal axis

e =distance from centroidal axis to neutral axis

M=bending moment; positive Mdecreases curvature

Figure shows that the neutral and centroidal axes are not coincident.

The general expression for the bending stress (σb) in a curved beam at any fiber at a distance y
from the neutral axis, is given by

Where, M= Bending moment acting at the given section about the centroidal axis,

A= Area of cross-section,

e = Distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis = R– Rn,

R= Radius of curvature of the centroidal axis,

Rn = Radius of curvature of the neutral axis, and

y = Distance from the neutral axis to the fiber under consideration. It ispositive for

the distances towards the center of curvature and negative forthe distances awayfrom the center
of curvature.

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Since the supporting column or the section has an axial load of punching in addition to bending,
then the axial or direct stress (σd) must be added algebraically to the bending stress, in order to
obtain the resultant stress on the supporting column or on the section.Resultant stress

𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝 𝑀 𝑦
𝜎 = 𝜎𝑑 ± 𝜎𝑏 = ± ( )
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴 ∗ 𝑒 𝑅𝑛 − 𝑦

Now we can calculate the direct and bending stress by using the given dimensions of the
supporting column.

𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝 3330𝑁
Direct stress = 𝜎𝑑 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = = 1.01𝑀𝑝𝑎
110∗30

In order to calculate the bending stress of the supporting column, we should determine the
following parameters. First we assume:

 the radius of outer fiber, ro = 600mm.


 width b =110mm
 thickness t = 30mm
 Bending, M is given by: M = Fapp*rc, where; rc is radius of centroidal axis and
given by rc =ro – b/2 =600mm – 110/2mm = 545mm and Fapp = 3330N.

∴ M = Fapp* rc = 3330N*545mm =1814850Nmm

𝑏 110𝑚𝑚
 Radius of neutral axis, rn = 𝑟
= 600𝑚𝑚 = 543.14𝑚𝑚, 𝑟𝑖 = 𝑟𝑜 − 𝑏
ln( 𝑜 ) ln(
490𝑚𝑚
)
𝑟𝑖

 The eccentricity is e=rc−rn = 545mm - 543.14mm = 1.86mm


 And y =co for the outer surface and y = ci for the inner surface and can be determined as
follow:
 y = -co =ro – rn=600mm – 543.14mm =56.86mm
 y = ci =rn – ri = 543.14mm – 490mm = 53.14mm
 Area = A = 110mm*30mm =3300mm2

The critical stresses that occur at the inner and outer surfaces now can be determined as follow:

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𝑀∗𝐶 1814850𝑁𝑚𝑚∗53.14𝑚𝑚
 Stress at the inner section: 𝜎𝑖 = 𝐴∗𝑒∗𝑟𝑖 = 3300𝑚𝑚2 ∗1.86𝑚𝑚∗490𝑚𝑚 = 32.07𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝑖

𝑀∗𝐶 1814850𝑁𝑚𝑚∗56.86𝑚𝑚
 Stress at the outer section: 𝜎𝑜 = 𝐴∗𝑒∗𝑟𝑜 = = 28.02𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝑜 3300𝑚𝑚2 ∗1.86𝑚𝑚∗600𝑚𝑚

Then, the resultant stress at the inner section:

𝜎𝑟𝑖 = 𝜎𝑑 + 𝜎𝑖 = 1.01𝑀𝑝𝑎 + 32.07𝑀𝑝𝑎 = 33.08𝑀𝑝𝑎

The resultant stress at the outer section:

𝜎𝑟𝑜 = 𝜎𝑑 + 𝜎𝑜 = 1.01𝑀𝑝𝑎 + 28.02𝑀𝑝𝑎 = 29.03𝑀𝑝𝑎

Finally, the safety of the design is checked by comparing the working compressive and tensile
stresses with the calculated value of stress based on the assumed dimensions. The maximum
working compressive stress of the material is 𝝈𝒘𝒄 = 𝟑𝟓𝟎𝑴𝒑𝒂 which is greater than that of the
compressive stress at the outer section occurred due to the applied load,𝟑𝟓𝟎𝑴𝒑𝒂 > 𝟐𝟗. 𝟎𝟑𝑴𝒑𝒂
and the maximum working tensile stress of the material is 𝝈𝒘𝒕 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝑴𝒑𝒂which is greater than
that of the tensile stress at the inner section occurred due to the applied load 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝑴𝒑𝒂 >
𝟑𝟐. 𝟎𝟕𝑴𝒑𝒂 . Due to these results the design is safe and our dimensional assumption is
acceptable.

3.5.8. DESIGN OF BASE


The base is the part of the punching machine which used to support the punching rod, supporting
frame and the brake shoe and brake line. The base is the part of the punching machine which is
subjected to a compressive stress due to the punching load. The base is shown in the figure
bellow.

Figure 3. 11 .Base part

For this reason, the material for the base should have high compressive strength in order to resist
the maximum applied load.

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Therefore, thematerial of the base should be cast iron. The reason why we select cast iron is due
to its high compressive strength rather than the other. The properties of cast iron material used
for designing purpose are the following:

Ultimate compressive strength = 700Mpa

Ultimate tensile strength = 200Mpa

Ultimate shear strength = 120Mpa

The effect of the compressive force on the base material is very small compared to the effect of
this force on the handle and punching road since its cross-sectional area is larger than that of the
handle and the punching road.

The design of the base is done like that of the supporting column. This is performed by assuming
its dimensions and checking the safety of the design by comparing the design or working stress
with the stress due to the punching load.

The assumed dimensions of the base are:-

Length = l =510mm

Width = w =260mm

Thickness = t =15mm

We take factor of safety 3 for the safety of the design.

Now we can determine the working or design stress of the base material based on the factor of
safety.

The effect of the punching load on the base material is a compressive stress. As result, the
working or design compressive stress of the base material is determined as follow.

𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠


𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 =
𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦

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𝜎𝑢𝑐 700𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝜎𝑤𝑐 = = = 233.33𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝐹. 𝑠 3

The compressive stress due to the punching load is determined by dividing the load applied or
the punching load to the cross sectional area of the base. It can be determined as follow:

𝑝𝑢𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝 3330𝑁


𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 = = =
𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴 2400𝑚𝑚2
= 1.38𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

The stress occurred on the base due to the applied load is less than that of the working stress of
the material. That is, 𝜎𝑤𝑐 > 𝜎𝐹𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 , 233.33𝑀𝑝𝑎 > 1.38𝑀𝑝𝑎. Due to this, the design is safe.

Therefore, our dimensional assumption for the base is acceptable.

COST ANALYSIS
The cost analysis of this project work includes material, and manufacturing costs.

MATERIALS COST
Material cost is the cost which is paid for all materials used for designing the components of the
riveting machine. The cost of each material depends up on the size or volume of the material.

COST OF SUPPORTING FRAME


Size or volume of the supporting frame: -the dimension of the supporting frame is rectangular.
Therefore, the volume of the supporting frame is calculated as follow:

Length of supporting frame L = 510mm= 0.51m


Width of supporting frame w = 60mm = 0.06m
Thickness of supporting frame t = 20mm =0.02m

Vsupp.frame = L*w*t = 0.51m*0.06m*0.02m = 6.12*10-4 m3

Currently in the market the cost of cast iron material with sizes 2m x 1m x 25mm or
volume(v)=0.05m3 is 35000Birr. The cost of the supporting frame with dimensions 0.51m x
0.06m x 20mm can be determined from this relation.

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6.12∗10−4 𝑚3 ∗35000𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟
Cost of supporting frame, 𝐶𝑠𝑓 = = 452.90𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟
0.05𝑚3

COST OF BASE
The material of the base component or part is similar to that of the supporting frame. It is rectangular in
shape and the dimensions of the base are:-

 Length of the base, L = 510mm = 0.51m


 Width of the base, w = 260mm = 0.26m
 Thickness of the base, 25mm = 0.025mm

The volume of the base can be determined as follow:

Volume of base, Vb =L*w*t = 0.51m*0.26m*0.025m = 3.315*10-3m3

The cost of the base material can be calculated by using the above relation.

3.315∗10−3 𝑚3 ∗37000𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟
Cost base, 𝐶𝑏 = 0.05𝑚3
= 2453.10𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟

COST OF THE HANDLE


The material used for designing the handle is mild steel. The handle is rectangular in shape with
dimensions 900mm x 50mm x 15mm.

Currently in the market the cost of mild steel material with dimensions 2m x 1m x 25mm or
volume(v)=0.05m3 is 37000Birr.

The size or volume of the handle = Vh = 0.9m*0.05m*0.015m=6.75*10-4m3


6.75∗10−4 𝑚3 ∗37000𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟
Cost of handle, 𝐶ℎ = = 499.50𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟 = 500𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟
0.05𝑚3

COST OF PUNCHING ROD


The material used for designing the punching rod is cast iron. The punching rod is circular in shape with
diameter, d = 42mm and length, l = 330mm. The volume of the punching rod is given by;

𝜋∗𝑑 2 ∗𝑙 𝜋∗(0.042𝑚)2 ∗0.33𝑚


Volume of punching rod, 𝑉𝑝𝑟 = 4
= 4
= 4.57 ∗ 10−4 𝑚3 .

4.57∗10−4 𝑚3 ∗3500𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟
Cost of punching rod, 𝐶𝑝𝑟 = 0.05𝑚3
= 319.9𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟 = 320𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟

COST OF PIN
The material used for designing the pin is cast iron. The pin is circular in shape with diameter, d = 22mm
and length, l = 80mm. The volume of the pin material is given by:

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𝜋 ∗ 𝑑2 ∗ 𝑙 𝜋 ∗ (0.022𝑚)2 ∗ 0.08𝑚
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑛, 𝑉𝑝 = = = 3.041 ∗ 10−5 𝑚3
4 4
3.041∗10−5 𝑚3 ∗35000𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟
Cost of pin 𝐶𝑃𝐼𝑁 = 0.05𝑚3
= 121.30𝐵𝑖𝑟𝑟

COST OF SPRING
The material used for manufacturing the spring is stainless steel. The volume of the
spring material is 1.433*10-5m3.

The cost of the spring material by applying similar procedure with the above is 112.60Birr.

Table 3. 2. Cost of component of the machine

Part name Type of material Size or dimension(mm) Cost (Birr)


Supporting frame Cast iron 510x60x20 452.90
Base Cast iron 510x260x25 2453.10
Handle Mild steel 900x50x15 500.00
Diameter(mm) Length(mm)
Punching rod Cast iron 42 350 320.00
Pin Cast iron 21 80 121.00
Wire Coil Solid
diameter diameter length
Helical spring Stainless steel 4 44 30 112.60
Total cost 3959.60

MANUFACTURING AND MACHINING COST


Manufacturing cost is a cost which is paid for the manufacturing process of the components in
order to get the desired shape of these components. This cost is paid for assembling, welding,
casting and other related processes. By taking these processes in to consideration the total
manufacturing and machining cost is assumed to be 8500Birr.

Now the total cost of this project work is the summation of material and manufacturing cost.

Total cost, Ctotal = material cost + manufacturing cost + 10% of the total cost for others

Ctotal = 3959.60Birr + 8500Birr + 1245.9Birr = 13706.00Birr.

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION

RESULT
The result of this project work is summarized as shown in the table below. Generally, it includes the
components of the machine, the materials used to design these components, the dimensions, and cost
of each component.

Table 3. 3. Summary of result

S.No. Part name Material Dimension Cost(Birr)


(L x w x t) (mm)
1 Supporting Cast iron 510 x 60 x 20 452.90
frame
2 Base Cast iron 510 x 260 x25 2453.10
3 Handle Mild steel 900 x 50 x 15 500.00
Diameter Length
4 Punching rod Cast iron 42 350 320.00
5 Pin Cast iron 21 80 121.00
Wire Coil Solid
diameter diameter length
6 Helical spring Stainless steel 4 44 30 112.60
7 Total material cost 3959.60
8 Machining and manufacturing cost 8500.00
9 Total 13706.00

3.7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

3.7.1. CONCLUSION
This project work is about a mechanically operated brake shoe and brake line riveting and
deriveting machine. It is completed in successful manner by designing all the components of the
machine with their necessary dimensions. The safety of the design of each component of the
machine is checked with different failure criteria. The machine so designed keeps accurate safety
of the brake shoe and brake line since the force applied is uniform and controlled by theoperator.
In addition, the machine is portable or movable and the task can be performed easily in the
desired place.

From this we can conclude that our project is ready for manufacturing process if we get the
appropriate fund and different facilities are available.

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4. General conclusion and recommendation

4.1. General conclusion

During our internship period we have been working in the garage part of the company. Because,
it consist of all activities related to our theoretical knowledge of different automobile models
thatwe had learned for three years as course. In addition to this, mostly the garage part of the
company is targeted on servicing of different types of cars having different models.

We have developed our communication skill with Amharic and English in the work place, at the
office and Italic language with technicians especially on tools and components. This experience
gives us a chance to communicate well with anyone in everywhere for the future. One of the
main skills that we acquired during our internship stay is the skill of leadership. The task of
facilitating a smooth operation of any work is appointed to the leaders. Generally, we learned
one of the key qualities on communication skill, leader ship, practical experience, team work
skills, work Ethics and disciplines.

By working together on one wider task we learned how to handle responsibility, working
diligently, and finishing the task on time.

In Amhara Water Works Construction Enterprise, different type of automobiles and construction
machineries are serviced within its own maintenance shop at different sites. During servicing,
inappropriate servicing methods may lead to series problems. Among problems we have seen a
problem at brake system service shop at Bahir dar which is unusual method of installing brake
pad rivet. In our project the design is safe and from this we can conclude that our project is ready
for manufacturing process if we get the appropriate fund and different facilities which is used to
accomplished manufacturing process, we can manufacture our design project and it will use for
specific task.

4.2 General recommendation

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Amhara water works and construction enterprise should fulfill the needs of internship students to
improve their innovation capacity and solving problem of the country. The company should
serve digital tools for technicians for searching their task of the problem. As the internship
program helps the students to have high efficiency to achieve a good entrepreneurship skill the
institute should deal on it. Students as well as employed technicians must follow safety rules to
avoid personal injury.

School advisor and company supervisors of the internship students must support strongly in
regular period of time to facilitate effectiveness of students.

It will be very important task if the institute and the company give special attention for prototype
of the project in addition to paper work to facilitate students in their creativity and innovation in
order to extend problem solving in the country.

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REFERENCE:

R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta. A text book of machine design, 14th edition. Eurasia Publishing
House, 2005.

Richard G. Budynas and J. Keith Nisbett. Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, 9 th edition.
Rochester Institute of Technology

Dr. R.K Bansal, A Text Book of Strength of Materials, 4th edition. Delhi college of Engineering.

Robert L. Norton. Machine Design an Integrated Approach, 3rd edition. Worcester Polytechnic
Institute.

APPENDIX:

PART AND ASSYMBLY DRAWING

PART DRAWING

Base part

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SUPPRTING FRAME

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PUNCHING ROD

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HANDLE

SPRING

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PIN

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ASSEMBLLY DRAWING

ASSEMBLE

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