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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Acknowledgment
We would like to express our deep thanks and appreciation for GETACHEW. Where our
advisor at Mie for un forgotten supports and also for the workers at the factory who supported us
by giving all necessary information for succession of our study. Also we would like to thanks to
our advisors Mr. TARIKU.A and Mr. ZELEALEM and our respect ion and gratitude is high for
guiding and advising us through our work. Lastly, we would like to express our sincere thanks
and appreciations in advances for our friends who helped us in different ways to achieve our
target that we selected.

MIGBEY T. AND AGAZI L. Page i


REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Abstract
MIE is one of the leading competitive companies in Ethiopia which is found in Tigray region
(Mekelle city). The company is known by the production of fuel cargo trailer, dry cargo trailer,
hydraulic component, sugar plate components, cement plant components, petroleum reservoirs,
oxy-acetylene supply and others. The company uses, latest technology, different machines,
materials, human skills and methods to produce the above products. As the company uses two
types of machine (critical and non-critical machines) during the internship time we are more
specifically stress on the critical machine, because every activity of the production starts from it
and it has no alternative if it is idle. Example: CNC oxy-acetylene flame cutting machine,
bending machine. The aim of this study is to look the main problems of CNC oxy –acetylene
flame cutting critical machine foundation design at the material preparation shop. Those
problems include:- wastage of holder metal, difficult handling process, poor keeping quite safety
and cleaning (avoiding scrap, lift over and other) this affects the final product quality and
smooth flow production process on the company. Then we collect significant data through
primary and secondary data collection techniques and we solve the above problem based upon
the collected data using engineering design tools (Auto Cad, material strength force analysis) and
simple cost analysis.

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Contents
Chapter one ............................................................................................. 1
1. Introduction ....................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background of the company ........................................................... 1
1.1.1 Products of the company ............................................................. 3
1.1.2 Customer of the company or end user ......................................... 3
1.1.3Foreign Supply of the company .................................................... 3
1.2 The overall organizational structure of the company ...................... 4
1.3 Organizational work flow of the company ..................................... 5
1.4 Problem statement .......................................................................... 7
1.5 Objectives of the study ................................................................... 8
1.5.1 General objective ...................................................................... 8
1.5.2 Specific objective ..................................................................... 8
1.6 Significant of the study................................................................... 9
1.7 Limitation of the study ................................................................... 9
1.8 Scope of the study .......................................................................... 9
Chapter two........................................................................................... 10
2. Literature review ........................................................................... 10
2.1 Design........................................................................................... 10
2.2 Material selection......................................................................... 10
2.2.1 Material property ...................................................................... 11

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

2.2.2 Material availability ................................................................ 12


2.2.3 Material cost ........................................................................... 12
2.3 Flame cutting ................................................................................ 13
2.4 Ceramics ....................................................................................... 16
2.4.1 Ceramic Properties.................................................................. 16
2.4.2 Ceramic manufacture .............................................................. 19
2.4.3 Applications ............................................................................ 21
2.5 Brick ............................................................................................. 23
2.5.1 Manufacturing methods of bricks ........................................... 24
2.5.2Mud brick ................................................................................ 24
2.5.3 Properties of brick .................................................................. 25
2.6 Welded Joint Design ..................................................................... 25
2.7 Electrodes ..................................................................................... 26
Chapter three ......................................................................................... 28
3.0 Methodology and Data Collection Techniques ............................. 28
3.1 Primary data collection ................................................................ 28
3.2 Secondary data collection ............................................................ 28
3.3 Design procedure.......................................................................... 28
3.4 Methodology for data analysis and evaluation ............................ 28
Chapter four.......................................................................................... 29
4.0 Result and discussion ................................................................... 29
4.1Designing parts and cost Analysis process .................................... 29
4.2 Design of foundation floor ........................................................... 30

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

4.3Designing of foundation beam and beam aligner ......................... 32


4.4 Designing of reinforcement .......................................................... 33
Chapter five .......................................................................................... 39
5.0 Conclusion and recommendation................................................. 39
5.1 Conclusion .................................................................................... 39
5.2 Recommendation ......................................................................... 40
Reference .............................................................................................. 41
Appendix ............................................................................................... 42

MIGBEY T. AND AGAZI L. Page v


REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

What Is a Chop Saw Used for?


Answer
A chop saw is used for making accurate crosscuts and miters in a work piece. It is also known as
a miter saw and it is commonly used in framing operations and the cutting of molding. This saw
makes the cut by pulling a spinning circular saw blade down onto a work piece in a short,
controlled motion.

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2 Additional Answers

A power miter saw, also called a chop saw or drop saw, is a power tool used to make a quick,
accurate crosscut in a work piece. Fire-fighters used a chop saw to cut through the home's roof
to ventilate the space and get better access to the hotspots.

A chop saw is to all intents and purposes a lightweight circular saw mounted on a spring-loaded
pivoting arm, and supported by a metal base. Chop saws are well thought be the best saws to get
very exact, square cuts.

Q&A Related to "What Is a Chop Saw Used for"


how to use a chop saw?

Series Summary.

http://www.ehow.com/videos-on_4834_use-chop-saw.ht...

how to use a steel chop saw?

1. Familiarize yourself with the saw. A steel chop saw is used to cut pieces of steel and
other hard materials. Different than common saws that cut wood, chop saws use
abrasive disks

http://www.ehow.com/how_2330594_use-steel-chop-saw...

What are the uses of a chop saw?

MIGBEY T. AND AGAZI L. Page vii


REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

A chop saw as opposed to a mitre saw is one that has a simple up and down motion. It
can not cut angles or wedges like a mitre saw does. It's main use is in the steel industry
for

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_uses_of_a_c...

how to safely use a miter or chop saw?

1. Study the owners manual and with the saw unplugged become familiar with various
settings and movements. 2. With the miter saw still unplugged, set up a scrap piece of
wood for

http://www.ehow.com/how_5570743_safely-use-miter-c...

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What Is A Chop Saw?

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MIGBEY T. AND AGAZI L. Page viii


REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

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Miter saw

A miter saw (also spelled mitre) is a sawused to make accuratecrosscuts and miters in a
workpiece. The basic miter saw is the manual miter saw. It is a saw suspended on rollers...

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Types Of Circular Saw Blades?

MIGBEY T. AND AGAZI L. Page ix


REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Circular saw blades are used in numerous types of saws, including miter saws, also known
as chop saws; or cut off saws; radial arm saws; table saws; panel saws...

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A cold cut saw or a chop saw will help you cut a pipe saddle neatly. Adjust thesaw to about 33
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List of figure
The overall organizational structure of the company .................................................................................. 4
Organizational work flow of the company.................................................................................................... 5
CNC oxy-acetylene flame cutting machine and one of the Computerized Bending Machines-400 ton
capacities ...................................................................................................................................................... 6
Fuel tanker, dry cargo, and semi-trailer assembly shop ............................................................................... 7
CNC oxy-acetylene flame cutting machine ................................................................................................... 8
Clay brick .................................................................................................................................................... 24
hallow block stone ...................................................................................................................................... 31
clay brick ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
beam and beam aligner .............................................................................................................................. 33
u-channeland angle iron ............................................................................................................................. 34
reinforcement ............................................................................................................................................. 36

MIGBEY T. AND AGAZI L. Page x


REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Lists of Abbreviation

MIE = Mesfin industrial engineering

PLC = private limited company

CNC = computer numerical control

DGM = division of general manager

St = standard table

List of tables
the cost of standard dimension mild steel ................................................................................................. 29
the existing foundation design cost. ........................................................................................................... 30
New proposed cost of modified foundation design ................................................................................... 38

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Chapter one

1. Introduction
Mesfin Industrial Engineering is a famous and known company in Ethiopia and Africa by the
production of Liquid trailers, Solid trailers, Semitrailers, Cement plant components, Hydraulic
components and other new products using the latest technology. The company has two types of
machines with the different applications and consecutive operations, these machines are critical
and non-criticalmachines.

Critical machine is a machine which has no alternative if it is idle and it results a stoppage and
block on the whole production workstation,(example;CNC pantograph electrical shear
machine,electrical bending machine etc.) where as non-critical machine means it has an
alternative if it is idle (example; welding machine, lath machine, grid machine). Therefore, the
foundation design of the pantograph is the most economical and keeps the smooth flow process
of the production as the machine is critical machine. But the existing is not economical it results
a wastage of metals. Then it needs a modification or re design to get the expected output of the
production.

1.1 Background of the company


Mesfin Industrial Engineering was founded in 1992 and is a vast unrivalled metal construction
and electromechanical engineering complex in Ethiopia and Eastern Africa. It is located at some
780kms-North from the capital city Addis Ababa, at Mekelle in Tigray region. The company is
engaged in the production of metal equipment and components for energy, mining, construction,
transport, agricultural and other related sectors. MIE also carries out electro-mechanical erection
works such as power transmission and communication towers, high-capacity storage tanks,
piping works, factory machinery and equipment and erection of pre-engineered steel buildings
for factories, bridges, warehouses, gyms, etc. The company is situated in the city of Mekelle in a
modern and spacious campus with a 20,000M3 shaded premised on 200,000m2 Land. MIE
employs over 200 work forces.

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Vision
Become a ‘fully-fledged best in class’ engineering company in the electromechanical and
manufacturing sectors.
Mission
Create superior values to EFFORT, customers and employees and be a pioneer in the
industrialization of Ethiopia

Values
 We give full satisfaction to customers and strive to exceed their expectations
 We work hard to be best in class and leader in quality
 We build closer and long-lasting relationships with our stakeholders
 We always give maximum respect to our partners
We always ensure that employment, promotion and reward are based on merit,

competence and performance
We are only as good as our employees and our employees are the main sources of
 our competitive advantage. We always invest on employee development and
empowerment.
 We always ensure safe working conditions to our employees.

..Competitive Advantage
* Professional, highly skilled, and committed workforce
* Excellent reputation
Being partner of first choice
* Investment in employees
* up-to-date equipment and technology
Objectives of the company

 To increase profitability

 To satisfy customers

 To be competitor in the market

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

 To minimize cost of product etc.

1.1.1 Products of the company


Mesfin industrial engineering is produces different products such as:

- Sugar plate components


- Liquid trailers
- Solid trailers
- Semitrailers
- Cement plant components
- Hydraulic components and others.

1.1.2 Customer of the company or end user


The capacity of production for this company is increase time to time. The main customers for
this company are as follows:

- Trance Ethiopia
- Tikur abbey
- United alpha
- Shebelle
- Ministry of national defense
- Messobo building material
- Ethio-Djibouti Railway corporation
- Ethiopia Airports Enterprise and others.
- Sugar factory

1.1.3Foreign Supply of the company


Mesfin industrial engineering most of the material bought from foreign county such as:

- Germen
- China
- Turk
- And other country

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

1.2 The overall organizational structure of the company

Figure 1The overall organizational structure of the company

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

1.3 Organizational work flow of the company

Finance

Marketing and
sells Quality
Custo department assurance
mer
Design and Supply
technology depart
center ment Manufact
uring
Planning departme
department nt

Figure 2Organizational work flow of the company

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Mekelle manufacturing plant

Mesfin industrial engineering has implemented a new organizational structure in line with its
assessment of the opportunity available in the market and its future plan accordingly Mekelle
manufacturing plant localized 780km from Addis Ababa, among others is managed under DGM.
The Mekelle plant is composed of facilities and activities described below:

 Material preparation shop


 Machine shop(CNC lathe, conventional lathe, vertical lath, radial drill, universal
milling)
 Automotive assembly shop(CK,addis,Geely,saba,)
 Fabrication shop(fuel tanker, dry cargo, semi-trailer, building construction material)
production takes place
 AZMiE shop
 Oxy-acetylene shop

Material preparation shop: This is the shop where all the row materials for the
fabrication process are prepared. In this shop all the pre-welding and assembling activities are
carried out. The quality of production in this shop determines the precession and functionality
of final products. Therefore, MiE has acquired and has been using state of the art machinery
for material preparation i.e. shearing, cutting, bending and rolling machines. Machinery in the
material preparation include CNC Oxy-acetylene, cutting machine, CNC plasma cutting
machine NC operated hydraulic shearing and bending machines.

Figure 3CNC oxy-acetylene flame cutting machine and one of the Computerized Bending Machines-400 ton capacities

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Figure 4Fuel tanker, dry cargo, and semi-trailer assembly shop

1.4 Problem statement


As the oxy-acetylene flame cutting capacity increase for cutting thick(>10mm) thickness
metal, the life cycle of the holder metal decrease(undesirable cutting and welding takes place
on the jig, reinforcement, holder sheet metal, beam aligned supporter and beam itself). It is
difficult to handling of thick and piece of cutted metal that dropped from the upper holder
metal into the foundation floor.It is risk to clean and avoid scrap, leftover and melted droplets
of the flat metal from the jig (holder sheet metal, reinforcement, supporter beam) and
foundation floor. There is improper settlement (down) of flat plate and sheet metal during the
handling process using the forklift, overhead crane over the holder metal because of the
improper position of holder metal on the reinforcement.The main problems of the existing
design are:-

 Wastage of metal(like, checker or sheet metal, reinforcement, beam aligner).


 It is difficult handling process when thick piece metal is dropped in to the inside hollow
foundation).
 Poor keeping quit safety (removing of scrap, leftover and cleaning process).

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Figure 5CNC oxy-acetylene flame cutting machine

1.5 Objectives of the study

1.5.1 General objective


The main objective of the study is to improve or modify the existing design foundation stage of
the pantograph that results in the reduction of cost that is incurred for the wastage of holder
metal, good handling and keeping quite safety.

1.5.2 Specific objective


 To determine and analysis the wastage of metals on the jig and foundation of the
pantograph.
 To identify and solve the obstacle of handling and keeping of quite safety.
 To avoid the extra wastage cost by comparing the existing cost and new proposed design
cost

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

 To redesign or modify the existing foundation by the proper long life cycle holder
material.

1.6 Significant of the study


As the company has two types of machines which means, critical machines and noncritical
machines that perform the company production process.

Critical machine: a machine which has no alternative operation if it is idle.

Example; pantograph, electrical shearing machine, electrical bending machine

Noncritical machine: a machine which has alternative to perform the operation when it is idle.
Example: welding machine, lathe machine etc.

Therefore, this study is to improve or modify the existing CNC pantograph foundation stage
design to keep the smooth flow process activity of the production in the company and reducing
of the wastage costs.

1.7 Limitation of the study


 Relevant data collecting was somewhat challenging and hard to get significant
information at right time because there is no documentation and deeply knowledgeable
operator
 We have not get laboratory in order to taste or check the micro structure of the material

1.8 Scope of the study


The scope of the study is focused or limited to the foundation design of oxy-acetylene flame
cutting division on pantograph in the company of MiEplc.February 15, 2012 to June 7,2012 G.C

MIGBEY T. AND AGAZI L. Page 9


REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Chapter two
2. Literature review

2.1 Design
The nature of design is equally as complex as that of technology. Archer wrote that:
“Design is that area of human experience, skill and knowledge which is concerned with man’s
ability to mold his environment to suit his material and spiritual needs.” Design is essentially a
rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems or, as Jones put it:For the term
“design process,” we can also read “problem-solving process”, which in all but its abstract forms
works by consultation and consensus. The process begins with the identification and analysis of
a problem or need and proceeds through a structured sequence in which information is
researched and ideas explored and evaluated until the optimum solution to the problem or need is
devised.
Yet, design has not always been a rational process; up until the Great War design was often a
chaotic affair in that consultation and consensus were barely evident. Design was not a total
process. The work of participants in the process was often compartmentalized, each having little
if any input in matters which fell outside the boundaries of their specific expertise. Thus,
participants explored their ideas unilaterally, with one or another participant, through virtue of
their “expertise”, imposing constraints upon all others. In this way, the craftsman has a veto on
matters to do with skill or availability of materials, the engineer had a veto on technological
considerations, and the patron alone could impose considerations of taste and finance.

When you propose to design something, selecting of the best material is the main consideration
of the designer.

2.2 Material selection

Is a step in the process of designing any physical object, In the context of product design, the
main goal of material selection is to minimize cost while meeting product performance goals.
Systematic selection of the best material for a given application begins with properties and costs
of candidate materials. For example, a thermal blanket must have poor thermal conductivity in
order to minimize heat transfer for a given temperature difference. Systematic selection for
applications requiring multiple criteria is more complex. For example, a rod which should be

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

stiff and light requires a material with high Young's modulus and low density. If the rod will be
pulled in tension, the specific modulus, or modulus divided by density will determine the best
material. But because a plate's bending stiffness scales as its thickness cubed, the best material
for a stiff and light plate is determined by the cube root of stiffness divided density.

Factors that affect for the material selection are the following:

 Material property
 Material availability in terms of the desired size, color, dimensions.
 Material cost
 Manufacturability

2.2.1 Material property

The desired properties of the materials are included:

 Density: It is defined as mass per unit volume. It is expressed as kg/m3.


 Specific gravity: It is the ratio of density of a material to density of water.
 Porosity: The term porosity is used to indicate the degree by which the volume of a
material is occupied by pores. It is expressed as a ratio of volume of pores to that of the
specimen.
 Strength: Strength of a material has been defined as its ability to resist the action of an
external force without breaking.
 Elasticity: It is the property of a material which enables it to regain its original shape and
size after the removal of external load.
 Plasticity: It is the property of the material which enables the formation of permanent

 Hardness: It is the property of the material which enables it to resist abrasion,


indentation, machining and scratching.
 Ductility: It is the property of a material which enables it to be drawn out or elongated to
an appreciable extent before rupture occurs.

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

 Brittleness: It is the property of a material, which is opposite to ductility. Material,


having very little property of deformation, either elastic or plastic is called Brittle.
 Creep: It is the property of the material which enables it under constant load to deform
slowly but progressively over a certain period.
 Stiffness: It is the property of a material which enables it to resist deformation.
 Fatigue: The term fatigue is generally referred to the effect of cyclically repeated stress.
A material has a tendency to fail at lesser stress level when subjected to repeated loading.
 Impact strength: The impact strength of a material is the quantity of work required to
cause its failure per its unit volume. It thus indicates the toughness of a material.
 Toughness: It is the property of a material which enables it to be twisted, bent or
stretched under a high stress before rupture.
 Thermal Conductivity: It is the property of a material which allows conduction of heat
through its body. It is defined as the amount of heat in kilocalories that will flow through
unit area of the material with unit thickness in unit time when difference of temperature
on its faces is also unity.
 Corrosion Resistance: It is the property of a material to withstand the action of acids,
alkalis gases etc., which tend to corrode (or oxidize).
 Flame cutting resistance: It is the property of a material which enables it to resist the
flame cutting; this is identifying by the micro structure arrangement of the atoms in the
material.

2.2.2 Material availability


If the material that the designer selected is accesses and sophisticated in the project area takes
place belong to the designed part, in terms of the ordered size, shape, dimension, property and
the preferable material with the minimum cost that achieve the designer target.

2.2.3 Material cost


Cost of materials plays a very significant role in their selection. The most straightforward way to
weight cost against properties is to develop a monetary metric for properties of parts. For
example,life cycle assessment can show that the net present value of reducing the weight of a
car by 1 kg averages around $5, so material substitution which reduces the weight of a car can

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

cost up to $5 per kilogram of weight reduction more than the original material However, the
geography- and time-dependence of energy, maintenance and other operating costs, and variation
in discount rates and usage patterns (distance driven per year in this example) between
individuals, means that there is no single correct number for this.

Of course, cost per kg is not the only important factor in material selection. An important
concept is 'cost per unit of function'. For example, if the key design objective was the stiffness of
a plate of the material, as described in the introductory paragraph above, then the designer would
need a material with the optimal combination of density, Young's modulus, and price.
Optimizing complex combinations of technical and price properties is a hard process to achieve
manually.

2.3 Flame cutting


Is oxygen cutting in which the appropriate part of the material to be cut is raised to ignition
temperature by an oxy-fuel gas flame (definition from BS 499: Part 1:1991 Section 7 No.72
002). Also known as oxy-fuel cutting, the process is used for separating and shaping steel
components. It is carried out using a torch through which oxygen and a fuel gas (acetylene,
propane or mains gas) are passed. An outer ring of jets in the torch nozzle are used to preheat the
surface of the steel. A separate oxygen stream is directed from a central jet on to the area to be
cut. Rapid oxidation of the steel takes place and material is removed by the pressure of the gases.

The process may be manual, where the cutting torch is held and guided by the operator, or
mechanized, where the torch may be mounted on a machine. Cutting of complex shapes is
possible. Cutting machines may be pre-programmed, using computer technology, to minimize
material wastage of plate being cut. Multi-cutting head machines are available for high volume
production applications.

Mechanized oxyacetylene cutting system;Theoxy-fuel process is the most widely applied


industrial thermal cutting process because it can cut thicknesses from 0.5mm to 250mm, the equipment
is low cost and can be used manually or mechanized. There are several fuel gas and nozzle design
options that can significantly enhance performance in terms of cut quality and cutting speed.

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REDESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF THE PANTOGRAPH FOUNDATION DESIGN

Process fundamentals;The cutting process is basically, a mixture of oxygen and the fuel gas
is used to preheat the metal to its 'ignition' temperature which, for mild steel, is 700°C -
900°C (bright red heat) but well below its melting point. A jet of pure oxygen is then
directed into the preheated area instigating a vigorous exothermic chemical reaction between
the oxygen and the metal to form iron oxide or slag. The oxygen jet blows away the slag
enabling the jet to pierce through the material and continue to cut through the material.

There are four basic requirements for oxy-fuel cutting:

 Material would melt and flow away before cutting could take place
 The oxide melting point must be lower than that of the surrounding material so that it can
be mechanically blown away by the oxygen jet
 The oxidation reaction between the oxygen jet and the metal must be sufficient to
maintain the ignition temperature

A minimum of gaseous reaction products should be produced so as not to dilute the cutting
oxygen point, fluid slag. As stainless steel, cast iron and non-ferrous metals form refractory
oxides i.e. the oxide melting point is higher than the material, powder must be injected into the
flame to form a low melting.

Melting ranges are very important to the steelmakers as the success of the melting and casting
operations depends on the correct selection of temperature. Once solidified and primary
processed (rolling or forging) by the steelmaker, the melting temperature has little significance to
designers, engineers and steel users. Although melting temperature does influence elevated
temperature properties, such as creep strength, this is only of interest to researchers. Data on
creep strength at various service temperatures is available.
Melting range does not directly affect the oxidation resistance of individual heat resisting
stainless steels. This is linked more closely to chromium content and is illustrated by comparing
304 and 310 types. Maximum service temperatures in air for stainless steels

Both have the same melting range of 1400-1450°C, but the maximum service temperatures in air
atmospheres are 870°C for 304 type and 1050°C for 310 types.

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Purity of oxygen;the cutting speed and cut edge quality are primarily determined by the purity
of the oxygen stream. Thus, nozzle design plays a significant role in protecting the oxygen
stream from air entrainment.

The purity of oxygen should be at least 99.5%. A decrease in purity of 1% will typically reduce
the cutting speed by 25% and increase the gas consumption by 25%.

Choice of fuel gas; Fuel gas combustion occurs in two distinct zones. In the inner cone or primary flame,
the fuel gas combines with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen which for acetylene, the
reaction is given by

2C 2 H 2 + 2O 2 → 4CO + 2H 2

Combustion also continues in the secondary or outer zone of the flame with oxygen being
supplied from the air.

4CO+2H 2 +3O 2 → 4CO 2 +2H 2 O

Thus, fuel gases are characterized by their

 flame temperature - the hottest part of the flame is at the tip of the primary flame (inner
cone)
 fuel gas to oxygen ratio - the amount of fuel gas required for combustion but this will
vary according to whether the flame is neutral, oxidizing or reducing
 heat of combustion - heat of combustion is greater in the outer part of the flame

The five most commonly used fuel gases are acetylene, propane, methyl acetylene-propadiene,
propylene and natural gas. The properties of the gases are given in the Table. The relative
performance of the fuel gases in terms of pierce time, cutting speed and cut edge quality, is
determined by the flame temperature and heat distribution within the inner and out flame cones.

Acetylene produces the highest flame temperature of all the fuel gases. The maximum flame
temperature for acetylene (in oxygen) is approximately 3,160°C compared with a maximum

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temperature of 2,810°C with propane. The hotter flame produces more rapid piercing of the
materials with the pierce time being typically one third that produced with propane.

2.4 Ceramics

(Greek keramos, "potter's clay"), originally the art of making pottery, now a general term for the
science of manufacturing articles prepared from pliable, earthy materials that are made rigid by
exposure to heat. Ceramic materials are nonmetallic; inorganic compounds–primarily
compounds of oxygen, but also compounds of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and silicon. Ceramics
includes the manufacture of earthenware, porcelain, bricks, and some kinds of tile and
stoneware. Ceramic products are used not only for artistic objects and tableware, but also for
industrial and technical items, such as sewer pipe and electrical insulators. Ceramic insulators
have a wide range of electrical properties. The electrical properties of a recently discovered
family of ceramics based on a copper-oxide mixture allow these ceramics to become
superconductive, or to conduct electricity with no resistance, at temperatures much higher than
those at which metals do (see Superconductivity). In space technology, ceramic materials are
used to make components for space vehicles.

The rest of this article will deal only with ceramic products that have industrial or technical
applications. Such products are known as industrial ceramics. The term industrial ceramics also
refers to the science and technology of developing and manufacturing such products.

2.4.1 Ceramic Properties


The properties of ceramic materials, like all materials, are dictated by the types of atoms present,
the types of bonding between the atoms, and the way the atoms are packed together. This is
known as the atomic scale structure. Most ceramics are made up of two or more elements. This is
called a compound. For example, alumina (Al2O3) is a compound made up of aluminum atoms
and oxygen atoms. The atoms in ceramic materials are held together by a chemical bond. The
two most common chemical bonds for ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. For metals, the
chemical bond is called the metallic bond. The bonding of atoms together is much stronger in
covalent and ionic bonding than in metallic. That is why, generally speaking, metals are ductile
and ceramics are brittle. Due to ceramic materials wide range of properties, they are used for a
multitude of applications. In general, most ceramics are:

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 Hard
 Wear-resistant
 Brittle
 Refractory
 Thermal insulators
 Electrical insulators
 Nonmagnetic
 Oxidation resistant
 Prone to thermal shock and
 Chemically stable

Ceramics possess chemical, mechanical, physical, thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties
that distinguish them from other materials, such as metals and plastics. Manufacturers customize
the properties of ceramics by controlling the type and amount of the materials used to make
them.

A. Chemical Properties

Industrial ceramics are primarily oxides (compounds of oxygen), but some are carbides
(compounds of carbon and heavy metals), nitrides (compounds of nitrogen), borides (compounds
of boron), and silicide’s (compounds of silicon). For example, aluminum oxide can be the main
ingredient of a ceramic–the important alumina ceramics contain 85 to 99 percent aluminum
oxide. Primary components, such as the oxides, can also be chemically combined to form
complex compounds that are the main ingredient of a ceramic. Examples of such complex
compounds are barium titan ate (BaTiO3) and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4). Another material that may
be regarded as a ceramic is the element carbon (in the form of diamond or graphite).

Ceramics are more resistant to corrosion than plastics and metals are. Ceramics generally do not
react with most liquids, gases, alkalis, and acids. Most ceramics have very high melting points,
and certain ceramics can be used up to temperatures approaching their melting points. Ceramics
also remain stable over long time periods.

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B. Mechanical Properties

Ceramics are extremely strong, showing considerable stiffness under compression and bending.
Bend strength, the amount of pressure required to bend a material, is often used to determine the
strength of a ceramic. One of the strongest ceramics, zirconium dioxide, has bend strength
similar to that of steel. Zirconia’s (ZrO2) retain their strength up to temperatures of 900° C
(1652° F), while silicon carbides and silicon nitrides retain their strength up to temperatures of
1400° C (2552° F). These silicon materials are used in high-temperature applications, such as to
make parts for gas-turbine engines. Although ceramics are strong, temperature-resistant, and
resilient, these materials are brittle and may break when dropped or when quickly heated and
cooled.

C. Physical Properties

Most industrial ceramics are compounds of oxygen, carbon, or nitrogen with lighter metals or
semimetals. Thus, ceramics are less dense than most metals. As a result, a light ceramic part may
be just as strong as a heavier metal part. Ceramics are also extremely hard, resisting wear and
abrasion. The hardest known substance is diamond, followed by boron nitride in cubic-crystal
form. Aluminum oxide and silicon carbide are also extremely hard materials and are often used
to cut, grind, sand, and polish metals and other hard materials.

D. Thermal Properties

Most ceramics have high melting points, meaning that even at high temperatures; these materials
resist deformation and retain strength under pressure. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride, for
example, withstand temperature changes better than most metals do. Large and sudden changes
in temperature, however, can weaken ceramics. Materials that undergo less expansion or
contraction per degree of temperature change can withstand sudden changes in temperature
better than materials that undergo greater deformation. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride expand
and contract less during temperature changes than most other ceramics do. These materials are
therefore often used to make parts, such as turbine rotors used in jet engines that can withstand
extreme variations in temperature.

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E. Electrical Properties

Certain ceramics conduct electricity. Chromium dioxide, for example, conducts electricity as
well as most metals do. Other ceramics, such as silicon carbide, do not conduct electricity as
well, but may still act as semiconductors. (A semiconductor is a material with greater electrical
conductivity than an insulator has but with less than that of a good conductor.) Other types of
ceramics, such as aluminum oxide, do not conduct electricity at all. These ceramics are used as
insulators–devices used to separate elements in an electrical circuit to keep the current on the
desired pathway. Certain ceramics, such as porcelain, act as insulators at lower temperatures but
conduct electricity at higher temperatures.

2.4.2 Ceramic manufacture

Industrial ceramics are produced from powders that have been tightly squeezed and then heated
to high temperatures. Traditional ceramics, such as porcelain, tiles, and pottery, are formed from
powders made from minerals such as clay, talc, silica, and feldspar. Most industrial ceramics,
however, are formed from highly pure powders of specialty chemicals such as silicon carbide,
alumina, and barium titan ate.

The minerals used to make ceramics are dug from the earth and are then crushed and ground into
fine powder. Manufacturers often purify this powder by mixing it in solution and allowing a
chemical precipitate (a uniform solid that forms within a solution) to form. The precipitate is
then separated from the solution, and the powder is heated to drive off impurities, including
water. The result is typically a highly pure powder with particle sizes of about 1 micrometer (a
micrometer is 0.000001 meter or 0.00004 in).

A. Molding

After purification, small amounts of wax are often added to bind the ceramic powder and make it
more workable. Plastics may also be added to the powder to give the desired pliability and
softness. The powder can then be shaped into different objects by various molding processes.
These molding processes include slip casting, pressure casting, injection molding, and extrusion.

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After the ceramic is molded, it is heated in a process known as densification to make the material
stronger and denser.

Slip Casting

Slip casting is a molding process used to form hollow ceramic objects. The ceramic powder is
poured into a mold that has porous walls, and then the mold is filled with water. The capillary
action (forces created by surface tension and by wetting the sides of a tube) of the porous walls
drains water through the powder and the mold, leaving a solid layer of ceramic inside.

Pressure Casting

In pressure casting, ceramic powder is poured into a mold, and pressure is then applied to the
powder. The pressure condenses the powder into a solid layer of ceramic that is shaped to the
inside of the mold.

Injection Molding

Injection molding is used to make small, intricate objects. This method uses a piston to force the
ceramic powder through a heated tube into a mold, where the powder cools, hardening to the
shape of the mold. When the object has solidified, the mold is opened and the ceramic piece is
removed.

Extrusion

Extrusion is a continuous process in which ceramic powder is heated in a long barrel. A rotating
screw then forces the heated material through an opening of the desired shape. As the continuous
form emerges from the die opening, the form cools, solidifies, and is cut to the desired length.
Extrusion is used to make products such as ceramic pipe, tiles, and brick.

B. Densification

The process of densification uses intense heat to condense a ceramic object into a strong, dense
product. After being molded, the ceramic object is heated in an electric furnace to temperatures

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between 1000° and 1700° C (1832° and 3092° F). As the ceramic heats, the powder particles
coalesce, much as water droplets join at room temperature. As the ceramic particles merge, the
object becomes increasingly dense, shrinking by up to 20 percent of its original size. The goal of
this heating process is to maximize the ceramic's strength by obtaining an internal structure that
is compact and extremely dense.

2.4.3 Applications

Ceramics are valued for their mechanical properties, including strength, durability, and hardness.
Their electrical and magnetic properties make them valuable in electronic applications, where
they are used as insulators, semiconductors, conductors, and magnets. Ceramics also have
important uses in the aerospace, biomedical, construction, and nuclear industries.

A. Mechanical Applications

Industrial ceramics are widely used for applications requiring strong, hard, and abrasion-resistant
materials. For example, machinists use metal-cutting tools tipped with alumina, as well as tools
made from silicon nitrides, to cut, shape, grind, sand, and polish cast iron, nickel-based alloys,
and other metals. Silicon nitrides, silicon carbides, and certain types of zirconias are used to
make components such as valves and turbocharger rotors for high-temperature diesel and gas-
turbine engines. The textile industry uses ceramics for thread guides that can resist the cutting
action of fibers traveling through these guides at high speed.

B. Electrical and Magnetic Applications

Ceramic materials have a wide range of electrical properties. Hence, ceramics are used as
insulators (poor conductors of electricity), semiconductors (greater conductivity than insulators
but less than good conductors), and conductors (good conductors of electricity).

Ceramics such as aluminum oxide (Al2O3) do not conduct electricity at all and are used to make
insulators. Stacks of disks made of this material are used to suspend high-voltage power lines
from transmission towers. Similarly, thin plates of aluminum oxide, which remain electrically
and chemically stable when exposed to high-frequency currents, are used to hold microchips.

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Other ceramics make excellent semiconductors. Small semiconductor chips, often made from
barium titanate (BaTiO3) and strontium titanate (SrTiO3), may contain hundreds of thousands of
transistors, making possible the miniaturization of electronic devices. Scientists have discovered
a family of copper-oxide-based ceramics that become superconductive at higher temperatures
than do metals. Superconductivity refers to the ability of a cooled material to conduct an electric
current with no resistance. This phenomenon can occur only at extremely low temperatures,
which are difficult to maintain. However, in 1988 researchers discovered a copper oxide ceramic
that becomes superconductive at -148° C (-234° F). This temperature is far higher than the
temperatures at which metals become superconductors (see Superconductivity).

Thin insulating films of ceramic material such as barium titanate and strontium titanate are
capable of storing large quantities of electricity in extremely small volumes. Devices capable of
storing electrical charge are known as capacitors. Engineers form miniature capacitors from
ceramics and use them in televisions, stereos, computers, and other electronic products.

Ferrites (ceramics containing iron oxide) are widely used as low-cost magnets in electric motors.
These magnets help convert electric energy into mechanical energy. In an electric motor, an
electric current is passed through a magnetic field created by a ceramic magnet. As the current
passes through the magnetic field, the motor coil turns, creating mechanical energy. Unlike metal
magnets, ferrites conduct electric currents at high frequencies (currents that increase and
decrease rapidly in voltage). Because ferrites conduct high-frequency currents, they do not lose
as much power as metal conductors do. Ferrites are also used in video, radio, and microwave
equipment. Manganese zinc ferrites are used in magnetic recording heads, and bits of ferric
oxides are the active component in a variety of magnetic recording media, such as recording tape
and computer diskettes.

C. Aerospace

Aerospace engineers use ceramic materials and cermet (durable, highly heat-resistant alloys
made by combining powdered metal with an oxide or carbide and then pressing and baking the
mixture) to make components for space vehicles. Such components include heat-shield tiles for
the space shuttle and nosecones for rocket payloads.

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D. Building and Construction

Manufacturers use ceramics to make bricks, tiles, piping, and other construction materials.
Ceramics for these purposes are made primarily from clay and shale. Household fixtures such as
sinks and bathtubs are made from feldspar- and clay-based ceramics.

E. Coatings

Because ceramic materials are harder and have better corrosion resistance than most metals,
manufacturers often coat metal with ceramic enamel. Manufacturers apply ceramic enamel by
injecting a compressed gas containing ceramic powder into the flame of a hydrocarbon-oxygen
torch burning at about 2500° C (about 4500° F). The semi molten powder particles adhere to the
metal, cooling to form hard enamel. Household appliances, such as refrigerators, stoves, washing
machines, and dryers, are often coated with ceramic enamel.

2.5 Brick

Brick, ceramic structural material that, in modern times, is made by pressing clay into blocks and
firing them to the requisite hardness in a kiln. Bricks in their most primitive form were not fired
but were hardened by being dried in the sun. Sun-dried bricks were utilized for many centuries
and are used even today in regions with the proper climate. First users of brick, In Babylonia
there was a lack of both timber and stone, and the thick clay deposited by the overflowing rivers
was the only material adaptable to building. The Persians and the Assyrians used sun-dried
blocks of clay for walls of great thickness, facing them with a protective coating of fired bricks.
Bricks played an important part in early Christian architecture until the decline of the empire.
Whereas the Romans had usually concealed their brickwork beneath a decorative facing of stone
or marble, the Byzantines devised a technique for exposing the bricks and giving them a full
decorative expression. This technique influenced the Romanesque style and brought especially
good results in Lombardy and in Germany, where bricks came to be arranged in immensely
varied patterns

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2.5.1 Manufacturing methods of bricks


Bricks for building may be made from clay, shale, soft slate, calcium silicate, concrete, or shaped
from quarried stone. However, true bricks are ceramic, and therefore created by the action of
heat and cooling.

Clay is the most common material, with modern clay bricks formed in one of three processes-
soft muds, dry press, or extruded.

Normally, brick contains the following ingredients

1. Silica (sand)-50% to 60% by weight


2. Alumina (clay)-20% to 30% by weight
3. Lime-2 to 5% by weight
4. Iron oxide-5 to 6 % (not greater than 7%) by weight
5. Magnesia-less than 1% by weight

2.5.2Mud brick
The soft mud method is the most common, as it is the most economical. It starts with the raw
clay, preferably in a mix with 25-30% sand to reduce shrinkage. The clay is first ground and
mixed with water to the desired consistency. The clay is then pressed into steel molds with a
hydraulic press. The shaped clay is then fired (burned) at 900-1000 degree Celsius to achieve
strength.

Figure 6Clay brick

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2.5.3 Properties of brick


“Brick is heat resister by nature” its heat treatment is obviously screened by the furnace coal and
electrical power after it dry on the sun and decreases its moisture ,Therefore, it becomes hard,
brittle, heat resister, flame resister ,not affected by moister and it performs it application in cold
and hot condition.

2.6 Welded Joint Design

As welding process is a permanent joint of two or more pieces using electrode and power supply
by including all the welding factors or conditions. Welding joints are formed by welding two or
more work pieces, made of metals or plastics, according to a particular geometry.The detail of a
joint which includes both the geometry and the required dimensions, are called the joint design.
Just what type of joint design is best suited for a particular job depends on many factors.
Although welded joints are designed primarily to meet strength and safely requirements, there
are other factors that must be considered. A few of these factors are as follows:

 Whether the load will be intension or compression and whether bending, fatigue, or
impact stresses will be applied.
 How a load will be applied, that is, whether the load will be steady, sudden, or variable.
 The direction of the load as applied to the joint.
 The cost of preparing the joint.

Another consideration that must be made is the ratio of the strength of the joint compared to the
strength of the base metal. This ratio is called joint efficiency. An efficient joint is one that is
just as strong as the base metal.

Normally, the joint design is determined by a designer or engineer and is included in the project
plans and specifications. Even so, understanding the joint design for a weld enables you to
produce better welds, according to the joint in the design we select butt joint and tee joint.

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2.7 Electrodes

Electrode selection is based primarily on the composition of the metal being welded, the process
variation being used, joint design and the material surface conditions. Electrode selection greatly
influences the mechanical properties of the weld and is a key factor of weld quality.

An electrode is a metal wire having approximately the same composition as the metal to be
welded. This electrode classifies into two parts;-

Consumable electrode: - Which have low melting point and melt away during welding
process. They are made of different metals and alloys. Those are subdivided into two parts,
bare electrode which is made of metal and alloys without any flux coating. Coated
electrodewhich is made of metal wire covered with a backed coating. Therefore this coated
electrode is the best for our design.

Non-consumable electrodes:-This is not melt away during weld mode of high melting point
material like carbon, pure tungsten alloy. There are copper, coated carbons or graphic
electrode.

Shielded metal arc welding: is one of the world's most popular welding processes, accounting
for over half of all welding in some countries. Because of its versatility and simplicity, it is
particularly dominant in the maintenance and repair industry, and is heavily used in the
construction of steel structures and in industrial fabrication. In recent years its use has declined
as flux-cored arc welding has expanded in the construction industry and gas metal arc welding
has become more popular in industrial environments. However, because of the low equipment
cost and wide applicability, the process will likely remain popular, especially among amateurs
and small businesses where specialized welding processes are uneconomical and unnecessary.
SMAW is often used to weld carbon steel, low and high alloy steel, stainless steel, cast iron, and
ductile iron. While less popular for nonferrous materials, it can be used on nickel and copper and
their alloys and, in rare cases, on aluminum. The thickness of the material being welded is
bounded on the low end primarily by the skill of the welder, but rarely does it drop below 0.05 in
(1.5 mm). No upper bound exists: with proper joint preparation and use of multiple passes,
materials of virtually unlimited thicknesses can be joined. Furthermore, depending on the

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electrode used and the skill of the welder, SMAW can be used in any position. Then, this is the
most dominant and preferable welding system for this design.

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Chapter three
3.0 Methodology and Data Collection Techniques
For accomplishment of this study both primary and secondary data collection methods are used.

3.1 Primary data collection


Direct observation: at the initial arrival, while studying the cutting process by the CNC
pantograph machine in the material preparation shop, it has been noticed that how to perform
each activity, the sequence of the activities (cutting process, handling and keeping safety)
Informal interview of concerned persons: interviewing some persons at different levels
such as operator, supervisors and foreman of the machines in the oxy-acetylene flame cutting
manufacturing section.

3.2 Secondary data collection


Referring to the manual; referring all necessary compiled prepared manual by the production
and maintenance department and using annual reports that are obtained from finance office.
 Referring to some relevant books and
 Using internet.

3.3 Design procedure


1. Designing of foundation floor
2. Designing of foundation beam and beam aligner
3. Designing of reinforcement
4. Designing of holder metal

3.4 Methodology for data analysis and evaluation


 Force analysis
 Simple cost analysis(comparing the existing and new proposed part list cost)
 Using Auto CAD drawing.

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Chapter four

4.0 Result and discussion


4.1Designing parts and cost Analysis process
The company receives mild steel with the following standard specification cost and
dimension;
Mild steel st 37=15birr/kg
Mild steel st 52=17birr/kg
Mild electrode diameter 3.2mm, length 350mm=134.15birr/pack (158pcs)

Standard dimension(mm) Weight in kg Cost 15birr/kg Cost17birr/kg


2000*1000*12 188.36 2825.4 3202.12
2000*1000*10 156.974 2354.61 2668.49
2000*1000*8 125.579 1883.685 2134.84
2000*1000*6 94.184 1412.76 1601.06
2000*1000*3 47.09 706.35 800.53
2000*1500*150 35319 529785 600423
2000*1500*160 37673.6 565104 640451.19
Table 1the cost of standard dimension mild steel

The existing cost of the foundation design


Part name Number of Dimension in mm Weight in Cost in birr
parts kg
Checker& sheet 180 pcs 1250*100*3 211.5 5095.5
metal
Reinforcement 1110 pcs 50*50*8 125.5 2135.5
Beam 144 pcs 460*520*12 1130 19210
Central position 72 pcs 200*100*8 20.91 355.8
alignment
Beam to beam 180 pcs 1000*200*10 941.8 16010.6

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aligner base
Bolt & nut 348 pcs 10*40 870
L-shaped beam 3 pcs 320*380*12 2.61 44.37
fixer
Bolt & nut 2 pcs 10*60 126.5
Mild electrode 22278 pcs Dia. 3.2mm, 32414.50
length 350mm
Labor cost 20 worker One week 111000
Total cost 187,462.77
Table 2the existing foundation design cost.

4.2 Design of foundation floor


This floor is the maximum area that the pantograph machine covers during its cutting operation.
That contains all parts of the foundation stage parts like the beam, beam alignment,
reinforcement, holder metal etc. Its maximum dimension is length, width, height (12*3*0.5
meter) respectively; this is the maximum distance covers by the pantograph. It enables to strictly
determine this dimension according to the maximum capacity the machine flame ebow angle.

Material selection;the most proper material for this design is hollowblock stone (cement
concrete brick), brick (clay), cement and sand. Those materials are selected because of their
availability, property, cost, manufacturability, hence all those materials are available in Mekelle
city with minimum and desired cost, preferable strength and long life cycle on service even if it
is simple to manufacture.

Hallow block stone;The most common construction material in Mekelle city is a block with the
following specification (20*40), (15*40*), (10*40) or class A, class B and class C. This grade
given to those blocks according to their strength and the load that carries on. But we have
selected for this design “class B”, because of its availability, medium strength, simple to
manufacture withminimum cost when compare to the other construction material.

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Figure 7hallow block stone

As the total dimension of the foundation is 12*3*0.5m,length, width and height respectively.

From this 0.2m or 20cm from the ground is builtby the hollow block stone. Then the number of
block per meter square is 12.5pcs/meter square, therefore,

The total number of pieces are 12.5*12*3=450pcs/36care meter.

Unit cost of block is =8 birr/piece

The total cost is 450*8=3600birr.

Bricks: “Bricks are by nature heat resistance”. Then we have selected according to the heat
resistance, flame resistance, stable at hot and cold work area.

Figure 8clay brick

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And the remaining 30cm will be built by brick (clay):- then the number of brick per meter square
is 36pcs/meter square.

i.e. .the total number of pieces are 36*5*12*3=6480pcs

Unit cost of brick is 2.5birr/piece

The total cost is 6480*2.5= 16200birr.

4.3Designing of foundation beam and beam aligner


Beam is the main fixed stander and supporter of the reinforcement,holder metal and straight
forward positioner of the Foundation at each corner and middle of the whole foundation it is
joined by the beam aligner bar metal,the beam aligner is used to avoid the contact of forklift in
the front of the foundation brick side it prevents from distraction of the brick and it locks the
slider of the holder metal.

Material selection: the appropriate material for this design with the desired property and
available in the company is mild steel. There is no any load that much carry on it results
deflection.

Specification: 500*460*6mm plat metal, but it is bending in 90 degree at the middle in equal
part.

The number of pieces = 88 from the existing material.

Unit cost =133.41birr, then

The total cost =11,740birr.

And the beam aligner in the foundation is;

Specification 750*150*6mm,

The number of pieces =48 from the existing material.

Unit cost =90.05birr,

Total cost =4322.4birr.

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Figure 9beam and beam aligner

4.4 Designing of reinforcement


Reinforcement isthe main part that supports for the holder metal called ceramic material and its
best application is keeping the position of holder metal and it contributes to the equal distribution
of load throw out the whole level by avoiding the vibration during the handling process and
cutting operation.

Material selection: the types of material that we use for the designing of the reinforcement is
mild steel st 52, because it is strong and have good property of design specially in the load
deflection, the dimension is 3000mm*50mm*20mm*6mm, U-channel mild steel. And angle iron
1500*50*50mm,the angle iron is welded with the beam 230mm by the two side of the angle iron.
this is available in the local market at any time with the minimum cost, 17Birr per kg. Then the

One u-channel mild steel is = 10.6kg per meter or

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From the standard estimation cost,6000mm*100mm*50mm*6mm is =63.6kg

Then from our design specification;

One u-channel mild steel is listed above and it is 31.8kg,

Unite cost=31.8kg*17birr/kg = 540.6birr.

The total number of u-channel =13pcs

Therefore, the total cost = 540.6*13 =7027.8Birr.

and the cost of one angle iron is = 173.5birr

Figure 10u-channeland angle iron

4.5 Designing of holder metal

This is the movable part of the jig foundation that holds for the metal that will be cut it is
inserted 1/3 of its part inside the U channel metal (reinforcement part).

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Material selection: the types of material that we use for this design is ceramic material. Design
with ceramics has been empirical, the great gothic cathedral still the most impressive all ceramic
designs, have an aura of stable permanents. In designing with the ductile materials, a safety
factor is used metals can be used under static loads within the small margin of their ultimate
strength with confidence that they will not fail prematurely, ceramics cannot. As we saw
earlierbrittle materials always have a wide scatter in strength, and the strength itself depends on
the times of loading and the volume of material under stress. The use of a single, constant,
safety factor is no longer adequate and the statically approach.

We have seen that the “strength” of a ceramic means, always the fracture or crushing strength.
Then (un like metals specially mild steel) the comprehensive strength is 10to20 times larger than
the tensile strength because ceramics have no ductility they have low tolerance for stress
concentrations (such as holes and flaws) or for high contact stresses that clamping or loading
points, obviously the process of design with ceramic material differs in detail from that of design
with metals.

From the different types of ceramics that satisfies all the above properties of the ceramic is

Porcelain:In this process, green(unfired) ceramic wares are heated to high temperatures in a
kiln to permanently set their shapes. Porcelain is fired at a higher temperature from 1500-1700
degree Celsius (max. 2000 degree Celsius) this is greaterthan the earthenware(volcanic heat) so
that the body can vitrify and become non-porous.

 High hardness
 Wear resistance
 Flame cutting resistance
 Anti-high temperature
 High mechanical strength
 High thermal conductivity
 High spaling resistance
 High softening temperature
 Excellent insulitivity

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 Etching resistance
 High resistance of oxidation reaction on the work area.

The applications of porcelain ceramic that produced in Awassa tabor ceramic factory was in the
Ethiopia Electric Power Corporation in the power insulator spool and glass insulator, from the
given specification 60*60*30mm dimension it carries or the minimum failing load ranges from
40KN to 550KN at hot and cold work area (min. 0 to max. 2000 degree Celsius) from the time
being that they manufacturing suspension(disc) type glass insulator.

Starting from this our maximum load is 37673.59kg or 369.201KN. Given an allowance with the
safety factor of 1.5.

1.5*369.2=553.8KN

With the maximum standard dimension 2000*1500*160mm flat plate metal.

This maximum load is get from the maximum thickness cutting capacity of the CNC pantograph

Machine, Then our load is (553.8KN)

Figure 11reinforcement

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It’s between 40KN and 550KN. And we can use the standard dimension with some intricate
shape design.

The load that will be calculated per unit ceramic is:

553.8/9=61.533KN per pieces this is consider from the total standard dimension of the input
plate metal (2000*1500*160mm)

We consider an assumption of nine pieces of ceramicbased upon;

- the standard dimension of plate metal,


- handling process and leveling or load balancing system
- the dimensions of any work piece is greater than 300mm

From the designed part, there are 76 pieces.(500mm*150mm*44mm)

Unite cost=158Birr

Total pieces =76, then

The total price or total cost = 12,008Birr

New proposed cost of modified foundation design

Part name Dimension in mm Number of parts Cost in birr


Hollow block stone 20*40 450pcs 3600
Brick 25*11*6 6480pcs 16200
Beam 500*460*6 88pcs 11740
Beam aligner 750*150*6 48pcs 4322
U-channel 3000*50*32*6 13pcs 7027
Ceramic 500*150*20 78pcs 12324
Angle iron 1500*50*50 52 9024
Bolt and nut 10*40 12pcs 18
Mild electrode 3.2dia,350mm length 21384pcs 28125.5

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Labor cost 85625


Total cost 168,963
Table 3New proposed cost of modified foundation design

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Chapter five

5.0 Conclusion and recommendation

5.1 Conclusion
Starting from the existing design problem identification to the modified problem solver design.
As we have discussed on the problem statement of the study the life cycle of the holder metal
(checker, sheet metal) on service is proportionally decrease with the increasing volume of sheet
metal that will be cut and always the difficult and stressed situation is as the thickness of the flat
plate that will be cut increase until the maximum capacity of the CNC pantograph machine
(150mm) the life cycle of holder metal, reinforcement and the foundation metal part on service
rapidly decline. Even if there is unwanted welding and cutting takes place on the holder metal
reinforcement it results on the improper position of top view of the foundation jig.

MiE has taken an agreement plan greater than three sugar factory project to produce the material
that they need, as we have seen on the material list plan 85% of the metal (mild steel) is greater
than 50mm almost 100to150mm and above thickness, this is the case to be waste metal part of
the foundation specially the holder metal, reinforcement and beam aligner. Because the flame
that the CNC machine produce is too maximum in order to cut the maximum thick metal. But
the ceramic material from our design has long life cycle on service, it’s convenient to use and it
is flame resistance. Even if its cost is 85% decrease annually from the existing holder metal
design.

The handling process on the existing foundation design is difficult and risk if thick piece intricate
shape metal is dropped in to the hollow because it can’t handle using forklift, over hade crane or
other handling equipment, the only probability is handling manually by human hands then this
results a risk on the human ergonomics position, it has a process to handle this piece example;
firstly avoid the holder metal from the reinforcement and other scrap, lift over manually then it
can pick it, if you can but our design is convenient for the handling process using whatever, the
handling machine or manual system because the foundation floor is not hollow and the holder
metal is smooth surface ceramic. During the cleaning process example; avoiding of the scrap
metals, lift over and the melted droplets of mild still from flat plate in the existing is dangerous
and results a risk but this is solved by this design project with appropriate assembling designed
parts. Therefore, if this project is applied it is significant and fruitful design for the company.

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5.2 Recommendation
 During the handling process using the forklift and overhead Crain they should have to
give special attention and the maintenance department should check up by their schedule.
 The operators should be more skilled full to control the flow of oxy-acetylene flame,
when they use nozzle proportional to the thickness of sheet metal it prevents sudden
pressurized flame, damage the ceramic part.
 We recommended that the plasmas water container is not corrosion resistant and as the
design material is mild steel it becomes a hot or warm during the cutting operation then
this is the main cause for the wastage of water.
 We recommended for this project if any one who want to improve for the study he or she
should test the microstructure of the metal that will be cut and the holder metal (ceramic)
on laboratory.

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Reference
1. Vernon john, 3𝑟𝑑 edition, Introduction to engineering materials, 1992, London.
2. R L TIMINGS,2𝑛𝑑 edition, engineering materials, 1998,UK
3. Weman klas,3𝑟𝑑 edition, welding process hand book,2003,New York.
4. http://www.design of machines, com
5. From the local company web site.

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Appendix
Standard temperature

Melting Range Steel Types

1325-1400 254SMO 1

1370-1480 440A, 440C

1375-1400 316, 316L,

1385-1445 22051

1400-1420 301,

1400-1425 330, 321, 347,

1400-1440 17-4PH

1400-1450 201, 304, 304L, 305, 309, 310,

1425-1510 430, 446

1450-1510 420

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1480-1530 409, 410, 416,

Work Cutt Heatin Acetylene Heating Cutting Cutting Nozzle


piece ing g pressure(ba oxygen oxygen speed(m clearan
thickness( nozz nozzle r) pressure( pressure(bar) m/min) ce(mm)
mm) le bar)
3 2 2 400 4-6
4 3-5 2 2.5 400 4-6
5 2 3 400 4-6
8 2.5 4 400 4-6
8 6-10 2.5 4.5 400 4-6
10 2.5 5 400 5-7
10 2.5 6.5 400 5-7
15 10- 2.5 6.5 400 5-7
20 25 2.5 7 400 5-7
25 2.5 7.5 400 5-7
25 2.5 6.5 400 5-7
30 25- Minimum 2.5 7.5 400 5-7
40 2-150 0.5
35 2.5 7.5 400 5-7
40 2.5 8 400 5-7
40 2.5 6.5 400 5-7
50 40- 2.5 7 400 5-7
60 60 2.5 8.5 400 5-7
60 2.5 6.5 400 5-7

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80 60- 2.5 7.5 400 5-7


100 100 2.5 8 270 5-7
100 3.5 6.5 270 7-10
130 100- 3.5 7 230 7-10
150 150 3.5 7 210 7-10
150 6.5 6.5 210 7-10

Operating data for vadura 1215-A flame cutting nozzles, fuel gas acetylene.

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