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Feasibility and Viability of the Manufacturing of Garlic


Flavored Chicken Longganisa and Pork Longganisa

Airalyn Joyce A. Pinlac, Krischelle N. Samia,


Gined M. Alimurung, Alliah C. Briones, Kate Sophia
Ann D. Cruza, Alfed G. Garcia, Ronel L. Raydanas

Abstract
This feasibility study aimed to determine
whether the proposed business of manufacturing
garlic flavored chicken longganisa and pork
longganisa is feasible and viable. Descriptive-
survey method was utilized in conducting the
study. The researchers prepared questionnaires
distributed to both consumers and manufacturers.
The respondents included seven manufacturer-
participants of longganisa and 384 consumer-
participants aged 18-above. Based on the
gathered data, sole proprietorship was the
suitable form of business organization, and line
and staff type organization structure for the
establishment of the proposed business. Angeles
City, Mabalacat City, and City of San Fernando
will be the geographical target market. The
proposed business has a payback period of 1.61
years and its profitability index is 20.74.
Thus, the result of the study suggested that the
proposed business is feasible and viable. The
researchers highly recommended that the
manufacturing of Garlic Flavored Chicken
Longganisa and Pork Longganisa be established.

Breakfast is the meal that most individuals have

difficulty in making it nutritionally balanced, that is

because individuals do not have enough time to prepare

food that is nutritious, or think that they can still work


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even if they skip it. Skipping the day’s most important

meal means that skipping out on getting in a boost of

energy to help one power through the day (Spence, 2017).

Toast and bread, coffee, cereals, eggs, and hotdogs are

some of examples that are served during breakfasts; which

in turn consumers are being tired and lost their appetite

because of these breakfasts that are served and prepared

repeatedly (Blumberg, 2018).

In today’s world, innovation of products is a fast

rising industry. A study by Basco, Magistrado, Ocampo,

Rodriquez and Valerio (2007) observed that producers or

manufacturers always find new product to introduce to the

market. Market in return would like today’s new trend

which gives entrepreneurs more chance of having good

business through the new product they innovate. Moreover,

due to the demand of the people due to their continuing

changes in lifestyle, food that is pre-cooked, fast and

easy has become a trend not only for professionals and

busy people but also for those people who are not good in

preparing or cooking meals.

Nowadays, consumers are more conscious on their

health especially on their food intake. They are willing


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to try new flavors and extend their quest for natural

products that are healthier than the original one

(Gagliardi, 2015). Since there is a mania into healthier

products, the researchers thought of creating chicken and

pork longganisa flavored with garlic with a touch of

Pampanga’s sweet longganisa but filled with the aromatic

flavor of garlic.

The researchers thought that the combination of

chicken and pork as the main ingredient and garlic as

flavoring are appealing to both health conscious consumers

and those with adventurous tastes. Chicken and pork both

have many nutritional benefits to offer. Garlic, aside

from its aromatic flavor, provides significant benefits as

well.

As stated by Sheule and Bennion (2017) if the

Americans prepare bacon and egg to start their day,

Filipinos have longsilog, a coined term for longganisa,

sinangag (fried garlic rice) and itlog (fried egg) as

their breakfast. Tayag and Quioc (2015) said that

longganisa, though a most loved breakfast is likewise

considered an ulam or viand, prepared for lunch or dinner.

They also added that it can be made merienda as palaman


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for breads, a suitable baon or packed lunch, as it tends

to be eaten cool and leaves no waste at the plate.

Sausages, locally known as longganisa, emerges as the

pork of morning, they are the crunch that gives heart to

our breakfasts (Tan, 2016). Aside from being a filling

main course, longganisa was also tagged as one of the

spicy yet acidically fragrant dishes (Huen, 2017).

Longganisa in the Philippines has a very long

history. The Spanish colonizers carried with them their

culinary customs, particularly the techniques of

preserving food to supply their long expeditions. The

Filipino longganisa tradition was brought at the time of

when Juan de Salcedo established Manila. The Filipinos,

in turn, embraced this practice, and adjusted it with

their inclinations to their territorial setting. In fact,

each region or province has their own recipe of

longganisa that creates a unique taste in regards to

their locality (Sheule & Bennion, 2017).

Philippine longganisa is made up of chopped or ground

meat that is seasoned, spiced, and shaped, usually in a

casing. It may be cooked or uncooked, and curing processed

– including drying, smoking and acidification – are used


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to enhance flavor texture, and keeping qualities.

Longganisa making transforms carcass trimmings and tough

cuts of meat into valuable foods. Moreover, they stated

that small amounts of ingredients other than meat are

added to longganisa, these ingredients include salt,

sugar, spices, pepper, vinegar, soy protein, and water.

Usually the mixture of meat and non-meat ingredients is

tough into casings (Espinosa, Go, Macapagal, Salonga,

Santos & Young, 2007).

According to Kapoor (2015), longganisa is high in

protein and essential vitamins, minerals and amino acid

good for overall health. Likewise, he also added that it

is rich in vitamins B1, B6, B12, vitamin D along with

zinc, iron, phosphorus, sulfur and copper. Tremblay (2018)

also added that a high fat like longganisa can be eaten in

moderation without destroying one’s eating routine.

Despite its nutritional drawbacks, longganisa provide a

source of beneficial nutrient contents needed for good

health.

Filipinos love longganisa. Traditionally, the

original longganisa was made from ground pork, spiced with

salt, sugar and pepper (Reyes, 2017). It is only recently


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that one has started to really appreciate mixing other

ingredients with longganisa. Today, longganisa is almost

everywhere, each region produces its own specialties of

longganisa with distinct characteristics using their own

unique blend of native spices and seasonings. According to

Henares (2009), the flavorings and spices used in

manufacturing longganisa vary from provinces or region

across the Philippines. In Vigan, Ilocos Sur, located in

the northern part of Luzon, their longganisa is popular

because of their own garlic and sugarcane vinegar. In

Lucban, Quezon, from the southern part, their longganisa

is made with oregano while the longganisa in Pampanga are

sweet flavored.

Filipino food has many spices that add flavor and

class to every dish. One of these spices was garlic, a

root crop that is known in the market because of its long

tradition as a medicinal plant and as a food, typically

planted during hot month. However, during cool months,

this crop is more productive since bulb formation occurs

at this period. Generally, there are two types of garlic:

softneck and hardneck. Softneck has a soft neck, that can

be braided and also known as the common garlic found in


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most grocery stores while hardneck are considered more

flavorful than softneck. However, hardneck does not have a

long life span as softnecks (Department of Agriculture,

Forestry and Fisheries, 2006). Softneck garlic is native

to the Philippines, particularly the Ilocos Region, which

is the country’s biggest producer of garlic based on

current Department of Agriculture (DA) statistics. Ilocos

white is the most common variety of garlic planted for

commercial production in the country. One or two cloves

of the native garlic would be sufficient to give flavor to

the food to be prepared as compared to the many cloves

that are needed when using imported garlic (“Garlic White

Gold,” 2017).

The use of garlic as flavoring started in Vigan, an

Ilocano sausage delicacy with a plenty of garlic and

spices in the mixture. This longganisa is distinct from

other native longganisa version because of its garlicky

and spicy flavor unlike the other version that are sweet

or salty (Manny, 2007). In fact, Vigan is the top

longganisa producer throughout the years in the

Philippines (“Vigan Longganisa,” 2017).


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Garlic, which is scientifically known as Allium

sativa is a plant with long, flat grass like leaves and

papery hood around the flower, which found grouped

together at the end of its long stalk. The flower bulb,

the part of the plant used as a food and medicine, is made

up of many smaller bulbs covered with a papery skin or

cloves (Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine, 2005).

Kumar (2006) also added that garlic is widely used all

over the world in numerous dishes as flavoring and in

medical uses. It contains natural chemicals that can have

a powerful health-boosting effect on the body. It does not

only taste and smell aromatic; it is also an effective

treatment against bacteria, fungi and viruses. It is also

useful in lowering high blood pressure and blood

cholesterol.

The longganisa is nothing new for centuries. And now,

Filipinos love for longganisa is strong. Innovation is

sometimes as simple as taking an existing product and

making a tweak to its format, due to growing competition,

producers focus on the improvement of the quality of their

products. Furthermore, the manufacturers used consumer

familiarity and favorability to their advantage by


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introducing new formats (Topper, 2016). Researchers strive

to stand out in this crowded category by developing not

only the taste by adding the aromatic flavor of the garlic

but also the nutritional factors to come up with good

quality products of chicken and pork longganisa with

garlic with a touch of Pampanga’s sweet longganisa but are

still affordable for the consumers.

There are two known manufacturers of longganisa in

Pampanga, one of which is Pampanga’s Best. According to

Palma (2014) for 44 years, Pampanga’s Best adjusted to

change and added new products to their menu. It becomes

the households’ favorite as it provided special and

original Filipino breakfast like tocino, bacon longganisa,

ham, and hotdogs that continuously gives satisfaction to

Filipino palate for many years. Today, Pampanga’s Best,

Inc. is a multi-million meat-processing corporation, which

manufactures eleven core products including longganisa.

Mekeni Food Corporation (MFC) located in Porac, Pampanga

was also one of the suppliers and manufacturers of

longganisa. Now, Mekeni is processing 50,000 kilos and

more of meat daily (Rodriguez, 2013).


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Longganisa was a trending wave that everyone wanted

to ride, with the two successful suppliers that was

mentioned; they only started their business with small

investment. With only 3,000 pesos as initial capital of

Apong Lolet of Pampanga’s Best, she was able to expand her

business. Now, it has numerous outlets and distributors

scattered across the country and even in the Middle East

(Palma, 2014). They are a good example that it is possible

to start up a business with a minimal amount of profit, as

stated by Garcia, MFC president, “Dream big, but you don’t

have to start big.”

With these ingredients readily available in the

market plus the health benefits that people get. It is

possible to come up with a new flavor that is not just

delicious but also filled with health benefits. If this

study is proven feasible and viable, the researchers aim

to be the innovators of manufacturing the product, garlic

flavored chicken longganisa and pork longganisa,

specifically in Pampanga.

Conceptual Framework
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The proposed garlic flavored chicken longganisa and

pork longganisa is believed to be feasible and viable

under each of the concepts that are placed within a

logical and sequential layout. The overall procedure of

the study will include input, process, and output

presented below.

To document and conclude a project’s viability,

feasibility study is undertaken as preparative study to

determine whether to proceed with the project or not

(Agamata, 2013). On the other hand, viability is denoted

as the ability to survive. That ability to survive is

associated to financial performance and position

(Australian Taxation Office, 2018).

The input box figure illustrates the four aspects of

business management, which are organizational and

management aspect, marketing aspect, production and

technical aspect, and financial aspect. Manufacturers

contributed mainly in responding to the four aspects of

business management. Consumers, on the other hand,

participated to the study in terms of responding to the

marketing aspect only.


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Organizational and management aspect as defined by

Juneja (2018) is the efficient use of resources by being

strict in planning and controlling of the workplace. It

also serves the employees as a guide and sense of

direction. It is concerned in determining the form of

business organization, the type of organizational

structure, the business’ legal requirements, the required

number and qualifications of manpower along with their

respective duties, the compensation rates and

benefit/incentive allotted for the employees, the

measurements of efficiency of the employees, method of

acquiring manpower, the problems and issues expected to be

encountered by the business concerning employees and the

solution of the management in resolving conflicts.

The marketing aspect is engaged with the disposition

of current and projected supply and demand and ascertains

the future demand for the product (Roque, 2016). It

focused in choosing the target market, the determination

of average sales per week, the supply and demand

situation, pricing method, promotion and distribution of

product and problems encountered in marketing the product.

This aspect also considers the consumers-participants as


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to consumption and purchases of longganisa, the

consumption of garlic flavored products, number of

participants who have tasted products flavored with garlic

and participants who want to try garlic flavored chicken

longganisa and pork longganisa.

The production and technical aspect regards the

process of producing an output. It also involves the

methods and practical skills in making a product

(Cambridge University Press, 2018). It concentrates in the

main product of the business. This aspect determines the

location and plant of the business, the appropriate tools

and equipment to be used for production, the raw materials

needed in the main product, the suppliers of raw materials

and frequency of purchases, the manufacturing process, as

well as the difficulties in the manufacturing process. The

quality control of the product, the waste management, and

production budget per week are also parts of the

production and technical aspect.

The financial aspect as defined by Cabrera (2017) is

a decision making process concerned with planning,

acquiring and utilizing funds in a manner that achieves

the firm’s desired goals and described as the process for


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and the analysis of making financial decisions in the

business context. It focuses on the financing sources of

the business, the initial capital investment, the required

working capital, the term of payment for raw materials and

frequency of payment of purchases. Financial aspect also

communicates the measurement of average operating expenses

and the payback period.

The process box figure indicates the strategy used in

gathering and collecting the data needed. Survey

questionnaires are distributed to participating

manufacturers of meat products and probable consumers in

accordance to the target market of the proposed product

residing in Angeles City, Mabalacat City, and City of San

Fernando.

Lastly, the output box figure shows the feasibility

and viability of the proposed product garlic flavored

chicken longganisa and pork longganisa. The researchers

can determine the likelihood that the project can

penetrate in the market and subsequently, generate profit

through the data gathered according to organization and

management aspect, marketing aspect, production and

technical aspect, and financial aspect.


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INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


Responses of the  Administration Feasibility of
longganisa and retrieval the proposed
manufacturers in of the survey manufacturing of
managing their questionnaires garlic flavored
business in terms - Manufacturer chicken
of the four longganisa and
s
aspects of pork longganisa
business - Consumers in terms of:
management
 Tabulation of  Organization
 Organization Data and
and Management
Management  Data Analysis Aspect
Aspect  Marketing
 Marketing  Interpretation Aspect
Aspect  Production
of Data
 Production and Technical
and Aspect
Technical  Financial
Aspect Aspect
 Financial
Aspect Viability of the
proposed product
Responses from
the longganisa
consumers as to
purchase and
consumption
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Figure 1.Feasibility and Viability of the Manufacturing of Garlic


Flavored Chicken Longganisa and Pork Longganisa

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to determine whether

the manufacturing of garlic flavored chicken longganisa

and pork longganisa is feasible and viable. Data

werecollected through research method and through a

survey form distributed to manufacturers and potential

consumers. The researchers aimed to acquire significant

answers on the following questions:

1. How may the organizational and management aspect of

business be described according to:

1.1 Forms of business organization;

1.2 Type of organizational structure;

1.3 Legal requirements needed to start the business;

1.4 Employees’ requirements;

1.4.1 Qualifications and duties;

1.4.2 Number of employees needed;

1.4.3 Number of required working days;

1.4.4 Compensation rates;


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1.4.5 Method of acquiring employees;

1.4.6 Benefits/incentive package for the

employees;

1.4.7 Efficiency measurement;

1.5 Problems encountered concerning employees;

1.6 Reasons that lead to these problems; and

1.7 Management methods of resolving conflicts?

2. How do manufacturer-participants perceive the

marketing aspect of the business in terms of:

2.1 Target market;

2.2 Average sale per week;

2.3 Supply and demand situation;

2.4 Pricing method;

2.5 Means of promoting the product;

2.6 Problems encountered in marketing the product;

2.7 Problems encountered with business competitors;

and

2.8 Channel of distribution?


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3. How may the marketing aspect of the business be

described considering consumers-participants as to:

3.1 Consumption of longganisa;

3.1.1 Number of participants who eat longganisa;

3.1.2 Frequency of eating longganisa;

3.1.3 Preferred volume in consuming longganisa;

3.2 Purchasing of longganisa;

3.2.1 Number of participants who buy longganisa;

3.2.2 Frequency in buying longganisa;

3.2.3 Purposes for buying longganisa;

3.2.4 Preferred volume in buying longganisa;

3.3 Consumption of garlic flavored products;

3.3.1 Number of participants who are familiar

with garlic flavored products;

3.3.2 Number of participants who have tasted

garlic flavored products;

3.3.3 Garlic flavored products that participants

have tried;

3.3.4 Number of participants who want to try

garlic flavored chicken longganisa and pork

longganisa;

3.4 Family/household’s average monthly income?


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4. How may the production and technical aspect of the

business be described as to:

4.1 Location of the business;

4.2 Tools and equipment used in manufacturing;

4.3 Raw materials;

4.3.1 Required materials used in manufacturing;

4.3.2 Sources of raw materials;

4.3.3 Frequency of raw materials purchases;

4.4 Manufacturing process;

4.5 Difficulties in manufacturing process;

4.6 Techniques in maintaining product quality;

4.7 Waste disposal method;

4.8 Grams produced per unit; and

4.9 Production budget per week?

5. How may the financial aspect of the business be

described in terms of:

5.1 Sources of financing;

5.2 Initial capital investment;

5.3 Required working capital;

5.4 Procurement and payment of raw materials;

5.5 Frequency of payment of purchases;

5.6 Average operating expenses; and


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5.7 Payback period?

6. How may the manufacturing of garlic flavored chicken

longganisa and pork longganisa business be proposed

according to the following:

6.1 Organizational and management aspect;

6.2 Marketing aspect;

6.3 Production and technical aspect; and

6.4 Financial aspect?

7. How may the feasibility and viability of the

manufacturing of garlic flavored chicken longganisa

and pork longganisa business be described?

Significance of the Study

The most difficult part of the entire process of

putting up the business is to start from a scratch in

planning to establish a business itself. Identifying the

product to offer in the market is what makes it more

complicated since there are many factors needed to be

considered. To those who are interested in meat production

and other businesses with the same line, this study of the

manufacturing of garlic flavored chicken longganisa and

pork longganisa may be used as an instrument and source of


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information. This study also aimed to provide the

feasibility and viability of garlic flavored chicken

longganisa and pork longganisa production business.

Furthermore, the following shall be benefited for this

study:

Consumers. This study, if implemented, will offer to

the consumers a kind of product that is pleasing to the

taste and at the same time conform to those mounting

numbers of health-conscious people. This will also

contribute knowledge to the consumers in respect to the

benefits that this product could provide.

Prospective investors. This study can be a means of

information for prospective investors who want to engage

in manufacturing of garlic flavored chicken longganisa and

pork longganisa and other business similar to this kind.

The prospective investors will have a supplementary

knowledge on the pertinent factors to be considered in

establishing this kind of business particularly in

assessing the project’s financial feasibility and

therefore help them make a decision regarding the

investment.
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Other related business industries. This study through

the data provided may give an insight to the other

industries that may be deemed connected to this type of

business to help increase their production and revenue by

being a supplier of raw materials and other indirect

materials. This study can also be a source of information

on the actual condition of the business – the

profitability and potentially in the market, which can

serve as a guide for future activities and operation, to

assess the growth potential of the business and to

ascertain the needs for future possible expansions.

Community. This study will help to provide

opportunities to the people in a community to enhance

their knowledge about longganisa production and to learn

how to utilize their available raw materials and with that

learning, they could make and sell the product to the

market. This will help them to have a steady source of

living and can therefore alleviate their lives.

Government. If proven feasible, the government can

generate revenues in the form of taxes and other fees

collected for business legal requirements, and thus

finance its development projects and programs. In


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addition, with increased business and employment

opportunities provided through the formation of this

business, this can increase the funds of the government

and served as stepping stone to economic growth.

Researchers. This study will enlighten the

researchers in terms of putting up a business focused on

manufacturing and distributing garlic flavored chicken

longganisa and pork longganisa to the market through the

information and data gathered. This will also be

beneficial to the researchers to gain a wider

entrepreneurial abilities and skills that they can use in

their own professions in the future. More so, this study

will serve as an encouragement for researchers that they

can possibly have a share and contribution to the economy

if business is further pursued.

Future researchers. This study will be used as a

guide and reference for future researchers who wish to

conduct a research, which is similar to this study. This

can be a readily available source of information on the

four functional aspects of business management –

organization and management, marketing, production and

technical and financial aspects of the business.


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Scope and Delimitation

The study examines the feasibility and viability of

the manufacturing of garlic flavored chicken longganisa

and pork longganisa. This product will be introduced and

offered to the general public and local establishments

including general and public market located particularly

in Angeles City, Mabalacat City, and City of San Fernando.

The study wraps the results collected, classified in the

four major functional aspects of business management,

which includes organization and management aspect,

marketing aspect, production and technical aspect, and

financial aspect. These were bounded using descriptive-

survey research method. The respondents were selected

according to their age and residence. Thus, respondent’s

responses were based only on the survey questionnaire

about their demographic profile and general perception and

preference as to purchase and consumption of longganisa.


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Method

Research Design

To prove the feasibility of this study, the

researchers utilized descriptive-survey method. A

descriptive type of research is utilized to depict

methodically the certainties and qualities of a given

populace or zone of habit, factually and precisely. In

addition, the purposes of survey studies are to collect

detailed information that describes existing phenomena; to

identify problems or justify current conditions and

practices; and to make comparisons and evaluations (Bueno,

2015). The researchers found this method most appropriate

in the study since the main objective for the consumer-

participants is to provide description of their perception

and preference as to purchase and consumption of

longganisa. In addition, for the manufacturer-participants

are to analyze and describe the four business aspects of

garlic flavored chicken longganisa and pork longganisa


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namely: Organizational and management aspect, marketing

aspect, production and technical aspect and financial

aspect.

Participants

There were 384 consumer participants with ages

ranging 18 and above. The said numbers of consumer

participants were selected on a pro-rata based on the

population of Angeles City, Mabalacat City, and City of

San Fernando. The three cities mentioned are all located

in the province of Pampanga. The population of the three

cities totaled 734,370, of which 320,068 were from Angeles

city, 187,500 were from Mabalacat City and 226,802 were

from City of San Fernando (Philippine Statistics

Authority, 2015). Using a raosoft, a sample size

calculator with five percent margin of error, 95%

confidence level and 5% response contribution (Raosoft,

2018) the researchers came up with 384 sample size for

consumer participants. As a result of the computation,

among the 384 sample size, 169 were from Angeles City, 85

were from Mabalacat City, and 130 were from City of San

Fernando.
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For the manufacturer participants, the researchers

were able to gather seven participants. The

sevenmanufacturer participants are also located in the

three cities mentioned.

Sampling Technique

Convenient sampling technique was employed in the

selection of the participants in the study. Convenient

sampling is a process of picking out people in the most

convenient and to immediately get their reaction to a

certain issue (Zulueta & Perez, 2010). Thus, the

participants were conveniently selected and there is no

system of selection but only those whom the researcher

meets by chance are included in the sample.

Instrument

The instrument used in this research was a validated

survey questionnaire. A questionnaire is a paper-and-

pencil instrument that is administered to the

participants. Researchers constructed a questionnaire in a


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manner that participants were given ease in understanding

and answering the prepared set of questions. Closed

questioning technique was used, wherein each question

requires an honest answer by checking the space provided

before each number. The researchers prepared a

questionnaire to both consumer- and manufacturer-

participants. Consumer’s questionnaire has two parts. The

first part mainly asks the basic information of the

consumer participant, such as the consumer’s name,

address, age and gender. While the second part is composed

of 12 relevant questions that correspond to the consumer

participant’s taste or preference as to purchase and

consumption of longganisa and other related subject

matter.

For the manufacturer’s questionnaire, it is also

divided into two parts. The first part asks about the

basic information of the manufacturer participant, such as

the name, position, name of business, and business

address. The second part contains questions regarding the

manufacturer participant’s knowledge of the four business

aspects namely: organization and management, marketing,

production and technical, and financial Aspect. For the


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organization and management aspect, it contains questions

concerning to the internal management such as business

formation, human resources, and other business operation.

For the marketing aspect, it contains questions about the

supply and demand status of the company, pricing method,

advertisement, and other marketing concerns. For the

technical aspect, it contains questions regarding the

location, equipment to be use, as well as the production

process of longganisa. And for the financial aspect, it

contains questions concerning the cash flow, and payback

of the company.

Before conducting the formal survey to the

participants, the researchers randomly selected 10

participants for pilot testing. The 10 participants were

asked for feedbacks regarding the questionnaire to

determine the questions that should be changed or

enhanced. After which, the final consumer questionnaire

was made and validated.

Data Collection Procedure and Ethical Consideration


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After the validation of the survey questionnaire, the

researchers started conducting a survey. The researchers

distributed the consumer’s questionnaire to any people

that qualifies with the guidelines that the researchers

have set, the age requirement of the study that is from 18

and above and their residence. The questionnaires were

distributed to different households, schools, and other

public areas of the city.

The researchers handed the questionnaires only to

those who are willing to be engaged in the study. They

made sure that the participants read the informed consent

and agreed to be part of the study by putting their

signature. Also, to avoid conflicts, the researchers

guided the participants in answering.

For the manufacturer participants, the questionnaires

were given to manufacturing companies who produce product

similar to the study. First, the researchers made phone

calls to their respective offices to ask their approval to

be involved in the study. Unfortunately, most of them

refused to be one of the manufacturer participants. But

there were few who allowed and accommodated the

researchers. After which, the researchers went to their


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respective offices to hand over the hard copy of the

questionnaire. After giving the questionnaires to them,

the researchers were told to come back in the following

days. Others said they will just send it through email.

Due to their busy schedules, the manufacturer participants

did not give any exact date as to when can the researchers

is able to get the questionnaires back. So the researchers

decided to leave a contact numbers and email addresses to

serve as ways of communication.

After the questionnaires of both consumer and

manufacturer were gathered, the researchers tabulated and

analyzed the answers given by the participants.

Data Analysis

The data gathered were tabulated and analyzed by the

researchers by means of ratio and frequency distribution.

A frequency distribution table is a display of data that

specifies the percentage of observations that exist for

each data points. The process of creating percentage

frequency distribution involves first, identifying the

total number of observations to be presented; then


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counting the total number of observations within each data

point (Shapiro, 2013). To have an accurate tally, the

researchers were divided into two teams in tabulating the

answers. The first team did the tabulation using a

Microsoft excel and the other team tabulated the answers

manually. After which, the researchers compared the

results. The results were interpreted further by the

researchers and served as their basis in decision making

so as to come up with the best proposal to be used in the

business.

Results and Discussion

1. Organizational and Management Aspect

Forms of business organization. Table 1 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of the forms of


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business organization that the manufacturer-participants

have. Five (72%) of them are sole proprietorship and both

one (14%) for a partnership and corporation. The most

common form of business organization is sole

proprietorship, based on the survey conducted by the

researchers. The sole proprietorship is the simplest type

of organization because of its small capitalization, ease

of set up, less of government control and all profits

belong to the owner (Morales & Saidali, 2014).

Table 1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Forms of Business Organization

Forms of Business Company


F %
Organization A B C D E F G
Sole Proprietorship 1 1 1 1 1 5 72
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Partnership 1 1 14
Corporation 1 1 14
Cooperatives 0 0
Total 7 100

Types of organizational structure. Table 2 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ type of organizational structure being

practiced in their company. Five (71%) use line type of

organizational structure while two (29%) use line and

staff type. The line type is a superior-subordinate

relationship wherein the chain of command comes from the

top of the line up to the bottom. In the line and staff

type, the specialist positions are created and given

recommendatory functions and has to coordinate closely

with his line managers in carrying out plans and other

activities to the department (Pereda & Pereda, 2014).

Table 2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Types of Organizational Structure

Type of Company
Organizational F %
A B C D E F G
Structure
Line Type 1 1 1 1 1 5 71
Functional Type 0 0
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Line and Staff Type 1 1 2 29


Total 7 100

Legal requirements needed to start the business.

Table 3 shows the frequency distribution of the legal

requirements needed by the manufacturer-participants in

order to start their business. All of them have Mayor’s

Permit, Municipal License, Health and Sanitary Permit, and

Inspection Certificate, six have Fire and Safety

Certificate, five have DTI Permit, and four have BIR

Permit.

Table 3

FrequencyDistribution of Manufacturer-Participants’ Legal

Requirements Needed to Start the Business

Company F
Legal Requirements
A B C D E F G
DTI Permit 1 1 1 1 1 5
Mayor’s Permit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
BIR Permit 1 1 1 1 4
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Municipal License 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Health and Sanitary Permit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Fire and Safety Certificate 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Inspection Certificate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7

Qualifications and duties of the employees. Table 4

shows the frequency and percentage distribution of

manufacturer-participants’ qualifications and duties of

their employees for each category. For rank and file, for

the working experience required, four (57%) require a

working experience of below 1 year and three (43%) require

1 to 2 years; for educational attainment, three (43%)

require high school graduate and college level and one

(14%) requires college graduate. For production personnel,

for the working experience required, five (71%) require

below 1 year and two (29%) require 1 to 2 years; for

educational attainment, all (100%) of them requires high

school graduate. For the managerial or supervisory level,

for the working experience required, four (57%) require a

work experience of 1 to 2 years and three (43%) require 3

to 5 years; for educational attainment, four (57%) require

college graduate and three (43%) require college level. It

is best to identify applicants having the necessary


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knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics

that will help the organization achieve its goals

(Acierto, 2017).

Table 4

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Qualifications and Duties of the Employees

for Each Category

Company F %
Employee Qualifications
A B C D E F G
A. Rank and File
Working Experience
below 1 year 1 1 1 1 4 57
1 to 2 years 1 1 1 3 43
3 to 5 years 0 0
6 years and above 0 0
Total 7 100
Educational Attainment
High School Graduate 1 1 1 3 43
Table 4
Continuation 1 1 1 3 43
College Level
College Graduate 1 1 14
Total 7 100
B. Production Personnel
Working Experience
below 1 year 1 1 1 1 1 5 71
1 to 2 years 1 1 2 29
3 to 5 years 0 0
6 years and above 0 0
Total 7 100
Educational Attainment
High School Graduate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 100
College Level 0 0
College Graduate 0 0
Total 7 100
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C. Managerial/Supervisory
Working Experience
below 1 year 0 0
1 to 2 years 1 1 1 1 4 57
3 to 5 years 1 1 1 3 43
6 years and above 0 0
Total 7 100
Educational Attainment
High School Graduate 0 0
College Level 1 1 1 3 43
College Graduate 1 1 1 1 4 57
Total 7 100

Number of employees needed. Table 5 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of the manufacturer-

participants’ number of employees needed for each

category. For the rank and file, five (71%) answered 1-5

employees while two (29%) answered 6-10 employees. For the

production personnel, four (57%) answered 1-5 employees,

two (29%) answered 11-15 employees and one (14%) answered

6-10 employees. For managerial or supervisory, all (100%)

of them answered 1-5 employees.

Table 5

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Number of Employees for Each Category

Number of Company F %
Employees A B C D E F G
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A. Rank and File


1–5 1 1 1 1 1 5 71
6–10 1 1 2 29
11–15 0 0
16–above 0 0
Total 7 100
B. Production Personnel
1–5 1 1 1 1 4 57
6–10 1 1 14
11–15 1 1 2 29
16–above 0 0
Total 7 100
C. Managerial/Supervisory
1–5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 100
6–10 0 0
11–15 0 0
16–above 0 0
Total 7 100

Number of required working days. Table 6 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of the manufacturer-

participants’ number of required working days their

employees work. Among the manufacturer-participants, six

(86%) of them requires six working days per week or 26

days per month and one (14%) requires five days per week

or 22 days per month.

Table 6

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Number of Required Working Days


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Number of Company F %
Working Days A B C D E F G
Weekly
5 days 1 1 14
6 days 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 86
Total 7 100
Monthly
22 days 1 1 14
26 days 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 86
Total 7 100

Compensation rates. Table 7 shows the frequency and

percentage distribution of the manufacturer-participants’

compensation rates for their employees. For the rank and

file, six (86%) of them pay ₱300 – ₱400 on a daily basis

and one (14%) pays ₱1,800 – ₱2,400 on a weekly basis. For

the production personnel, five (72%) of them pay ₱300 –

₱400 on a daily basis, one (14%) each pay ₱1,800 – ₱2,400

and ₱2,401 – ₱3,000 both on a weekly basis. For the

managerial or supervisory, five (71%) pay above ₱500 on a

daily basis and two (29%) pay above ₱3,000 on a weekly

basis. The compensation are based on their qualifications.

The usual standard in determining wage rates is matching

them with the industry standards (Acierto, 2017).


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Table 7

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Compensation Rates for Each Category

Compensation of Company
F %
Employees A B C D E F G
A. Rank and File
Daily
below ₱300 0 0
₱300 – ₱400 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 86
Table 7
Continuation 0 0
₱401 – ₱500
above ₱500 0 0
Weekly
below ₱1,800 0 0
₱1,800 – ₱2,400 1 1 14
₱2,401 – ₱3,000 0 0
above ₱3,000 0 0
Total 7 100
B. Production Personnel
Daily
below ₱300 0 0
₱300 – ₱400 1 1 1 1 1 5 72
₱401 – ₱500 0 0
above ₱500 0 0
Weekly
below ₱1,800 0 0
₱1,800 – ₱2,400 1 1 14
₱2,401 – ₱3,000 0 0
above ₱3,000 1 1 14
Total 7 100
C. Managerial/Supervisory
Daily
below ₱300 0 0
₱300 – ₱400 0 0
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₱401 – ₱500 0 0
above ₱500 1 1 1 1 1 5 71
Weekly
below ₱1,800 0 0
₱1,800 – ₱2,400 0 0
₱2,401 – ₱3,000 0 0
above ₱3,000 1 1 2 29
Total 7 100

Method of acquiring employees. Table 8 shows the

frequency distribution of the manufacturer-participants’

method of acquiring employees. Four answered through walk-

in applicants, three answered through referrals, two

answered through advertisement and one hires employees

through agencies. According to Saidali and Saidali (2015),

for the human resource function to be effective, it should

comply with the organization’s human resource requirements

like implementing ethical business practices, labor laws

and regulations, and net cost, in a way that optimizes

employee motivation, commitment and productivity.

Table 8

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Method of Acquiring Employees


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Acquisition of Company
F
Employees A B C D E F G
Through job fairs 0
Through present work 0
Walk-in Applicants 1 1 1 1 4
Through agencies 1 1
Through advertisement 1 1 2
Referrals 1 1 1 3
Benefits/incentive package for the employees. Table 9

shows the frequency distribution of the manufacturer-

participants’ benefits and/or incentive package for their

employees. Four of the participants answered commissions

and Christmas bonus, three answered meal allowance, two

answered vacation leave, uniform allowance, and free board

loading, and one answered paternity and maternity leave.

One of the most important components of running a

successful business is keeping employees happy and

providing them with enough incentive/benefits to maximize

their productivity. As a result, they should be willing to

work harder, which can lead to greater productivity and

higher quality (Tolhurst, 2013).


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Table 9

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Benefits/Incentives Package for the Employees

Company
Benefits/Incentives F
A B C D E F G
Commissions 1 1 1 1 4
Meal Allowance 1 1 1 3
Christmas Bonus 1 1 1 1 4
Vacation Leave 1 1 2
Paternity Leave 1 1
Uniform Allowance 1 1 2
Free Board and Loading 1 1 2
Maternity Leave 1 1

Efficiency measurement of employees. Table 10 shows

the frequency distribution of the manufacturer-

participants’ efficiency measurement of their employees.

Five answered that they measure their employees both by

performance and by output and four answered by work

attitude.
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Table 10

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Efficiency Measurement of Employees

Company
Efficiency Measurement F
A B C D E F G
By performance 1 1 1 1 1 5
By output 1 1 1 1 1 5
By work attitude 1 1 1 1 4

Problems/Conflicts encountered concerning employee.

Table 11 shows frequency distribution of the manufacturer-

participants’ problems and/or conflicts encountered

concerning employees. All of them answered absenteeism and

two answered lack of concentration and tardiness.

Absenteeism and lack of concentration can negatively

affect a small business’ productivity and profitability

(Morley, 2017).
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Table 11

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Problems/Conflicts Encountered Concerning Employees

Company F
Problems
A B C D E F G
Tardiness 1 1 2
Lack of concentration 1 1 2
Absenteeism 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Inefficiency 0
Health deficiency 0

Reasons that lead to the problems/conflicts

concerning employees. Table 12 shows the frequency

distribution of the reasons that lead to the

problems/conflicts concerning employees. All of them

answered because of personal problem and five because of

family.
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Table 12

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Reasons of the Problems/Conflicts Concerning Employees

Reasons of the Company F


Problems/Conflicts A B C D E F G
Calamities 0
Personal problem 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Family 1 1 1 1 1 5
Educational deficiency 0
Morale 0

Management methods of resolving problems/conflicts.

Table 13 shows the frequency and percentage distribution

of manufacturer-participants’ methods of resolving

problems and/or conflicts. All of them resolve their

problems/conflicts through open forum and one each by way

of seminar and do re-orientation. If implemented, it

maintains productivity and harmony within the business

enterprise.
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Table 13

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Methods of Resolving Problems/Conflicts

Ways of solving Company


F
Problems/Conflicts A B C D E F G
Re-orientation 1 1
Recollection 0
Open Forum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Seminar 1 1

2. Marketing Aspect (Manufacturer)

Target Market. Table 14 shows the frequency

distribution of the manufacturer-participants’ target

market. Six of the manufacturers’ target market are

general public, three are online retailers, and one are

supermarkets or hypermarkets and traders. According to

Kotler (2017), target market is a well-defined set of

customers whose needs the organization plans to satisfy.

Business sectors identify them as the ultimate and final

users of the product.


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Table 14

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Target Market

Company
Target Markets F
A B C D E F G
Supermarket/Hypermarket 1 1
Online Retailer 1 1 1 3
General Public 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Trader 1 1

Average sales per week. Table 15 shows the frequency

and percentage distribution of the manufacturer-

participants’ average sales per week. Three (44%) answered

their average sales per week is ₱50,001 and above, and

each one (14%) answered less than ₱10,000, ₱10,001 –

₱20,000, ₱30,001 – ₱40,000 and ₱40,001 – ₱50,000

respectively.
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Table 15

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Average Sales per Week

Average Sales Company F %


per Week A B C D E F G
Less than ₱10,000 1 1 14
₱10,001 – ₱20,000 1 1 14
₱20,001 – ₱30,000 0 0
₱30,001 – ₱40,000 1 1 14
₱40,001 – ₱50,000 1 1 14
₱50,001 above 1 1 1 3 44
Total 7 100

Supply and demand situation. Table 16 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of the present

supply and demand situation of the manufacturer-

participants. Four (57%) of them responded that the supply

of their product is retaining and three (43%) answered

increasing same as with the demand situation. Supply and

demand is the backbone of a market economy. Supply refers

to the behavior of suppliers or producers on their

willingness and ability to make products available at

given prices. Demand, on the other hand, refers to the

behavior of people with regard to their willingness and


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ability to buy products at given prices (Azarcon, Marzo, &

Navarro, 2008).

Table 16

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Present Supply and Demand Situation

Present Supply and Company


F %
Demand Situation A B C D E F G
Supply
Increasing 1 1 1 3 43
Decreasing 0 0
Retaining 1 1 1 1 4 57
10
7
Total 0
Demand
Increasing 1 1 1 3 43
Decreasing 0 0
Retaining 1 1 1 1 4 57
10
Total 0

Pricing method. Table 17 shows frequency and

percentage distribution of the pricing method used by the

manufacturer-participants. Four (57%) of them use full

manufacturing cost plus mark-up and three (43%) use market

price. Price determines the value of a good or service to

the buyers even to the sellers (Acierto, 2017).


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Table 17

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Pricing Method

Company F %
Pricing Method
A B C D E F G
Full Manufacturing Cost
1 1 1 1 4 57
plus Mark-up
Market Price 1 1 1 3 43
Total 7 100

Means of promoting the product. Table 18 shows the

frequency distribution of the methods of promotion being

used by the manufacturer-participants in their product.

Four participants promote their product by giving free

taste, three through word of mouth, two through

flyers/leaflets, and one through social media. Promotion

is any form of communication that is used to inform,

persuade and remind people about an organization or

individual’s goods, services, image, ideas, community

involvement or impact on the society (Acierto, 2017).

Table 18
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Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Means of Promoting the Product

Means of Advertising Company F


the Product A B C D E F G
Television 0
Social Media 1 1
Flyers/Leaflets 1 1 2
Free Taste 1 1 1 1 4
Word of mouth 1 1 1 3

Problems encountered in marketing the product. Table

19 shows the frequency distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ problems encountered in marketing their

product. Four of them answered location and three answered

sales return and climate. According to them, climate can

affect the delivery and production of the products.

Table 19
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Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Problems Encountered in Marketing the Product

Company
Problems/Difficulties F
A B C D E F G
Location 1 1 1 1 4
Defective products 0
Sales return 1 1 1 3
Climate 1 1 1 3

Problems encountered with business competitors. Table

20 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of

manufacturer-participants’ problems that they encountered

with their business competitors. Four (57%) answered

services and three (43%) answered pricing. These problems

can affect the marketability of their own product.

Table 20
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Problems Encountered with Business

Competitors

Causes of Problems Company F %


with Competitors A B C D E F G
Pricing 1 1 1 3 43
Services 1 1 1 1 4 57
Product Quality 0 0
Location 0 0
Total 7 100

Channel of distribution. Table 21 shows the frequency

and percentage distribution of the manufacturer-

participants’ channel of distribution. All (100%) of them

distribute their product by wholesaling and retailing. A

distribution channel also called as marketing channel is a

business structure of interdependent organizations that

reach from the point of product origin to the consumer

with the purpose of moving products to their final

consumption destination (Lamb, Hair & McDaniel, 2013).

Table 21
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Channel of Distribution

Company
Channel of Distribution F %
A B C D E F G
By retail 0 0
By wholesale 0 0
By wholesale and retail 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 100
Total 7 100

3. Marketing Aspect (Consumer)

Number of consumer participants who eat longganisa.

Table 22 shows the frequency and percentage distribution

of consumer-participants who eat longganisa. Among the 384

participants from Angeles City, Mabalacat City, and City

of San Fernando, 349 (91%) answered yes and 35 (9%)

answered no. Majority of the consumer-participants eat

longganisa.

Table 22
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants Who Eat Longganisa

Responses F %
Yes 349 91
No 35 9
Total 384 100

Number of times consumer participants eat longganisa.

Table 23 shows the frequency and percentage distribution

of the number of times consumer-participants eat

longganisa. The data show that 138 (40%) of them eat

longganisa once a week, 92 (26%) eat once a month, 82

(24%) eat every other week, 26 (7%) eat every other day,

eight (2%) eat every day, and three (1%) eat occasionally.

Table 23
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Number of

Times Consumer–Participants’ Eat Longganisa

Number of Times F %
Every day 8 2
Every other day 26 7
Once a week 138 40
Every other week 82 24
Once a month 92 26
Occasionally 3 1
Total 349 100

Consumer Participants’ preferred volume in consuming

longganisa. Table 24 shows the frequency and percentage

distribution of consumer-participants’ preferred volume in

consuming longganisa. The data show that 130 (37%) of them

preferred two pieces in consuming longganisa, 96 (28%)

preferred three pieces, 61 (17%) preferred four pieces, 28

(8%) preferred pieces, 25 (7%) preferred 1 piece, eight

(2%) preferred six pieces, and only one (1%) preferred

seven pieces.

Table 24
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants’ Preferred Volume in Consuming Longganisa

Volume ( in pieces) F %
1 piece 25 7
2 pcs. 130 37
3 pcs. 96 28
4 pcs. 61 17
5 pcs. 28 8
6 pcs. 8 2
7 pcs. 1 1
Total 349 100

Number of consumer participants who buy longganisa.

Table 25 shows the frequency and percentage distribution

of consumer-participants who buy longganisa. Among the 384

participants in Angeles City, Mabalacat City and City of

San Fernando, 305 (79%) buy longganisa while 79 (21%) do

not buy longganisa.

Table 25
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants Who Buy Longganisa

Responses F %
Yes 305 79
No 79 21
Total 384 100

Number of times consumer participants buy longganisa.

Table 26 shows the frequency and percentage distribution

of the number of times consumer-participants buy

longganisa. Among the participants, 118 (39%) buy

longganisa once a week, 96 (31%) buy every other week, 59

(19%) buy once a month, 20 (7%) buy every other day, 7

(2.4%) and 5 (1.6%) buy every other day and occasionally,

respectively.

Table 26
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Times Consumer–

Participants’ Buy Longganisa

Number of Times F %
Every day 7 2.4
Every other day 20 7
Once a week 118 39
Every other week 96 31
Once a month 59 19
Occasionally 5 1.6
Total 305 100

Purposes of consumer participants in buying

longganisa. Table 27 shows the frequency and percentage

distribution of different purposes of consumer-

participants in buying longganisa. 299 (98%) of them buy

longganisa for home consumption, four (1.3%) for special

occasion, and two (0.7%) for giveaways.

Table 27
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants’ Purposes in Buying Longganisa

Purposes F %
Giveaways 2 0.7
Special occasion 4 1.3
Home consumption 299 98
Total 305 100

Consumer participants’ preferred volume in buying

longganisa. Table 28 shows the frequency and percentage

distribution of consumer-participants preferred volume in

buying longganisa. 191 (63%) preferred to buy half dozen

(250g) of longganisa, 102 (33%) preferred one dozen

(500g), and 12 (4%) preferred two dozen (1000g). This

means that among the given volumes of longganisa, most of

the consumers preferred to buy 250g.

Table 28
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants’ Preferred Volume in Buying Longganisa

Volume ( in grams ) F %
Half dozen (250g) 191 63
1 dozen (500g) 102 33
2 dozens (1000g) 12 4
Total 305 100

Number of consumer participants who are familiar with

garlic flavored products. Table 29 shows the frequency and

percentage distribution of consumer-participants who are

familiar with garlic flavored products. Among the 384

participants in Angeles City, Mabalacat City and City of

San Fernando, 362 (94%) answered yes and 22 (6%) answered

no.

Table 29
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants Who Are Familiar with Garlic Flavored

Products

Responses F %
Yes 362 94
No 22 6
Total 384 100

Number of consumer-participants who have tasted

garlic flavored products. Table 30 shows the frequency and

percentage distribution of the number of consumer-

participants who have tasted garlic flavored products. Out

of the 384 consumer participants, 354 (92%) of them have

tasted garlic flavored products and 30 (8%) have not yet

tasted garlic flavored products.

Table 30
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants who have Tasted Garlic Flavored Products

Responses F %
Yes 354 92
No 30 8
Total 384 100

Garlic flavored products that consumer-participants

have tried. Table 31 shows frequency distribution of

different garlic flavored products that consumer-

participants have tried. Among the different garlic

flavored products, 236 of the consumer-participants have

tried chips, 156 tried biscuits, 128 tried bread, 18 tried

cake and 11 tried candy.

Table 31
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Frequency Distribution of Garlic Flavored Products that

Consumer–Participants Have Tried

Purposes Frequency
Chips 236
Cake 18
Bread 128
Biscuit 156
Candy 11

Number of consumer participants who want to try

garlic flavored chicken longganisa and pork longganisa.

Table 32 shows the frequency and percentage distribution

of the consumer-participants who want to try garlic

flavored chicken longganisa and pork longganisa. Out of

the 384 consumer participants, 341 (89%) answered yes and

43 (11%) of them answered no.

Table 32
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants Who Want to Try Garlic Flavored Chicken

Longganisa and Pork Longganisa

Responses F %
Yes 341 89
No 43 11
Total 384 100

Average monthly income of the family. Table 33 shows

the frequency and percentage distribution of the average

monthly income of consumer-participants. Among the

participants, 155 (40%) have monthly income of ₱10,001 –

₱20,000; 105 (27%) have monthly income of ₱10,000 and

below; 94 (25%) and 30 (8%) have monthly income of ₱20,001

- ₱40,000 and of ₱40,001 and above, respectively.

Table 33
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Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Consumer–

Participants’ Family Average Monthly Income

Monthly Income F %
₱10,000 and below 105 27
₱10,001 – ₱20,000 155 40
₱20,001 – ₱40,000 94 25
₱40,001 and above 30 8
Total 384 100

3. Production and Technical Aspect

Location of the business. Table 34 shows the

frequency distribution of factors considered by

manufacturer-participants’ in choosing the location of

their business. Four answered utilities, two answered

neighborhood services and environment, and one answered

accessibility in transportation. Location is making the

products available in the right quantities and place where

customers want them (Acierto, 2017).

Table 34
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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY 69

Frequency Distribution of Factors Considered by

Manufacturer-Participants in Choosing the Location of

Their Business

Factors to consider Company


F
in choosing the location A B C D E F G
Neighborhood services (e.g.
1 1 2
malls, market, schools, etc.)
Accessibility in transportation 1 1
Environment (e.g. natural
1 1 2
disasters, hazards, etc.)
Utilities (e.g. water,
1 1 1 1 4
electricity, telephone, etc.)

Tools and equipment used in manufacturing. Table 35

shows the frequency distribution of the different tools

and equipment used by the manufacturer-participants. All

of them use grinder, basin and knife, six of them use

mixer, measuring spoons and cups, five use grater, and

three use stuffer.

Table 35
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Frequency Distribution of Tools and Equipment Used by

Manufacturer-Participants

Company
Tools and Equipment F
A B C D E F G
Mixer 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Whisk 0
Spatula 0
Measuring spoons 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Measuring cups 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Grater 1 1 1 1 1 5
Grinder 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Basin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Knife 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Stuffer 1 1 1 3

Raw materials used in manufacturing. Table 36 shows

the frequency distribution of manufacturer-participants’

raw materials used in manufacturing. All of them use

ground pork, garlic, ground pepper, soy sauce, astuete and

casing, six use brown sugar, five use cane vinegar and

three use ground chicken. Raw materials are the

unprocessed and basic material that is used to produce the

future finished products (Acierto, 2017).

Table 36
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Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’ Raw

Materials Used in Manufacturing

Company F
Raw Materials
A B C D E F G
Ground pork 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Ground Chicken 1 1 1 3
Garlic 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Brown sugar 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Ground pepper 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Cane vinegar 1 1 1 1 1 5
Soy Sauce 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Atsuete 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Casing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7

Sources of raw materials. Table 37 shows the

frequency distribution of manufacturer-participants’

sources of raw materials. Five get their raw materials to

manufacturer and four to wholesaler.

Table 37
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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY 72

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Sources of Raw Materials

Sources of Company
F
Raw Materials A B C D E F G
Manufacturer 1 1 1 1 1 5
Wholesaler 1 1 1 1 4

Frequency of raw materials purchased. Table 38 shows

the frequency and percentage distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ frequency of purchasing raw materials. 4

(57%) purchase their raw materials weekly and 3 (43%)

purchase daily.

Table 38

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Frequency of Purchasing Raw Materials

Frequency of Purchasing Company


F %
Raw Materials A B C D E F G
Daily 1 1 1 3 43
Weekly 1 1 1 1 4 57
Semi-monthly 0 0
Monthly 0 0
Total 7 100
Manufacturing process. Table 39 shows the frequency

distribution of the manufacturer-participants’


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manufacturing process. All of them selected grounding and

casing, three specified mixing and packaging, two answered

preserving, filling, and cooling/freezing, and one

answered separating and smoking.

Table 39

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Company
F
Process A B C D E F G
Grounding 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Mixing 1 1 1 3
Separating 1 1
Preserving 1 1 2
Filling 1 1 2
Packaging 1 1 1 3
Cooling/Freezing 1 1 2
Casing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Smoking 1 1

Difficulties in manufacturing process. Table 40 shows

the frequency distribution regarding the manufacturer-

participants’ difficulties they encounter in manufacturing

their product. Six answered deterioration of tools and


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equipment and personnel’s performance, two answered lack

of supply and, one answered weather.

Table 40

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Difficulties in Manufacturing Process

Difficulties in Company
F
Manufacturing Process A B C D E F G
Weather 1 1
Deterioration of
1 1 1 1 1 1 6
tools and equipment
Environment 0
Personnel’s performance 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Lack of supply 1 1 2

Techniques in maintaining product quality

measurement. Table 41 shows the frequency distribution of

manufacturer-participants’ techniques in maintaining

product quality measurement. All of them answered

Maintaining the sanitation of production area selecting

good raw materials, periodic inspection of tools and

equipment, proper warehousing of inventory, conducting

training to employees/personnel and, ensuring the package

quality.
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Table 41

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Techniques in Maintaining Product Quality Measurement

Maintaining Company
Product Quality F
A B C D E F G
Measurement
Maintaining the
sanitation of 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
production area
Selecting good raw
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
materials
Periodic inspection
of tools and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
equipment
Proper warehousing
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
of inventory
Conducting training
to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
employees/personnel
Ensuring the package
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
quality

Waste disposal method. Table 42 shows the frequency

distribution of manufacturer-participants’ waste disposal

method implemented by their company. All of them implement

waste disposal through garbage or trash, five of them

through drainage and, one answered each through compost

pit, wastewater treatment and septic tank.


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Table 42

Frequency Distribution of Manufacturer-Participants’

Waste Disposal Method

Company
Waste Disposal Method F
A B C D E F G
Garbage or Trash 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Drainage 1 1 1 1 1 1 5
Compost pit 1 1
Waste water treatment 1 1
Septic tank 1 1

Grams produced per unit. Table 43 shows the frequency

and percentage distribution of manufacturer-participants’

product grams produced per unit. four (57%) of them

produce 250 grams per unit, two (29%) produce 500 grams

and, one (14%) produce 300 grams.

Table 43

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Product Grams Produced per Unit

Grams Produced Company F %


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per Unit A B C D E F G
200 0 0
250 1 1 1 1 4 57
300 1 1 14
500 1 1 2 29
1000 0 0
Total 7 100

Production budget per week. Table 44 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ production budget per week. Four (57%)

production budget per week is below 500, two (29%) is

between 1,001 – 2,000 and, one (14%) is between 501 –

1,000.

Table 44

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Production Budget per Week

Production Budget Company F %


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per Week A B C D E F G
Below 500 1 1 1 1 4 57
501 - 1,000 1 1 14
1,001 – 2,000 1 1 2 29
Total 7 100

4. Financial Aspect

Sources of financing. Table 45 shows the frequency

and percentage distribution of manufacturer-participants’

source/s of financing. All (100%) of them use their

personal savings as their source of capital.

Table 45

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Source/s of Financing

Company
Sources of Capital F %
A B C D E F G
Loan from government institution 0 0
Loan from private institution 0 0
Investors 0 0
Personal savings 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 100
Total 7 100
Initial capital investment. Table 46 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ initial capital investment. It shows that

four (57%) of them had an initial capital of ₱100,001 and


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above and three (43%) answered ₱50,000 and below. An

initial capital is the initial investment or money used to

start a business.

Table 46

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Initial Capital Investment

Initial Capital Company F %


Investment A B C D E F G
₱50,000 and below 1 1 1 3 43
₱50,001 to ₱100,000 0 0
₱100,001 and above 1 1 1 1 4 57
Total 7 100

Required working capital. Table 47 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ required working capital. It shows that four

(57%) of them had a required working capital of ₱100,001

and above and three (43%) answered ₱50,000 and below.

Table 47
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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY 80

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Required Working Capital

Company F %
Working Capital
A B C D E F G
₱50,000 and below 1 1 1 3 43
₱50,001 to ₱100,000 0 0
₱100,001 and above 1 1 1 1 4 57
Total 7 100

Procurement and payment of raw materials. Table 48

shows the frequency and percentage distribution of

manufacturer-participants’ procurement and payment of raw

materials they purchase. four (57%) use cash basis and

three (43%) pay on account.

Table 48

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Procurement and Payment of Raw Materials

Type of Procurement Company


and Payment of F %
A B C D E F G
Raw Materials
Cash basis 1 1 1 1 4 57
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On account 1 1 1 3 43
Total 7 100

Frequency of payment of purchases. Table 49 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ frequency of payment of raw materials they

purchased. It shows that five (71%) answered daily and two

(29%) answered less than 1 month.

Table 49

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Frequency of Payment of Purchases

Frequency of Payment Company


F %
of Purchases A B C D E F G
Daily 1 1 1 1 1 5 71
Less than 1 month 1 1 2 29
More than 4 months to 6 months 0 0
Total 7 100
Average operating expenses. Table 50 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of manufacturer-

participants’ average operating expenses. It shows that

four (57%) of them answered their operating expenses per

week is less than ₱5,000, two (29%) ₱40,001 and above and

one (14%) answered ₱10,001 – ₱20,000. The operating


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expense ratio expresses the sum of all operating expenses

on an ongoing basis to the fund’s assets as a percentage

of the fund’s average net asset value (Cabrera & Cabrera,

2017).

Table 50

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Average Operating Expenses

Average Operating Company


F %
Expenses A B C D E F G
Less than ₱5,000 1 1 1 1 4 57
₱5,001 – ₱10,000 0 0
₱10,001 – ₱20,000 1 1 14
₱20,001 – ₱30,000 0 0
₱30,001 – ₱40,000 0 0
₱40,001 and above 1 1 2 29
Total 7 100

Payback period. Table 51 shows the frequency and

percentage distribution of manufacturer-participants’

payback period. It shows that five (72%) answered it takes

less than 1 year and one (14%)each answered for 1 to 2

years and 4 to 5 years to recover their investment.

Payback period is the length of time required for a

project’s cumulative net cash inflows to equal its net


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investment. It also measures the time required for a

project to breakeven (Cabrera & Cabrera, 2017).

Table 51

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Manufacturer-

Participants’ Payback Period

Length of Payback Company F %


Period A B C D E F G
Less than 1 year 1 1 1 1 1 5 72
1 to 3 years 1 1 14
4 to 5 years 1 1 14
6 years and above 0 0
Total 7 100

6. Proposal of the Meat & Spices Company in the

manufacturing of Garlic Flavored Chicken Longganisa and

Pork Longganisa.

6.1. Organizational and Management Aspect

Proposed form of business organization suited in

carrying the business. The proposed business organization

of the Meat & Spices Company for the manufacturing of


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garlic flavored chicken longganisa and pork longganisa is

sole proprietorship.

A sole proprietorship as defined by Panganiban and

Rosales (2018) is owned by an individual doing business.

It is easy to set up and the least costly among all forms

of ownership. Flores (2017) said that the fact that it is

run by an individual means that it is highly flexible in

which the owner retains absolute control. Moreover, the

downside of a sole proprietorship is that it has unlimited

liability. Creditors may proceed not only against the

assets and property of the business, but also after the

personal properties of the owner. In other words, the law

basically treats the business and the owner as one and the

same.

The researchers take the account in the following for

choosing the said business organization in the production

of garlic flavored chicken longganisa and pork longganisa:

its ease and cost of formation and compliance, less

complexity, level of control in the business, and tax

concern.

Proposed type of organizational structure applicable

to the business. For the even flow of the business


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operation, the researchers chose the line and staff type

structure because of its simplicity and it is the most

suitable type of organizational structure for small

organization like a sole proprietor type of a business.

In the line and staff type, the specialist positions

are created and given recommendatory functions and has to

coordinate closely with his line managers in carrying out

plans and other activities to the department (Pereda &

Pereda, 2014). Lundy (2016) added that direct lines of

authority flowing from the top to the bottom of the

organizational hierarchy and lines of responsibility

flowing in an opposite but equally direct manner

characterize it.

Necessary legal requirements needed in establishing

the proposed business. Before operation, company should

secure first all the necessary legal documents under the

Philippine law.

The first step is to get accreditation from Bureau of

Food and Drugs (BFAD) in compliance with Food and Drug

Administration (FDA) Act of 2009. The proposed product

should be tested to ensure that it is free from any

harmful effect on health.


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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY 86

The second step is to register the business name to

the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). In registering

with DTI, company can go directly to DTI office to secure

the Application for Sole Proprietorship (BTRCP Form No.

16) or through the online facility, Web-Enabled Business

Name Registration System (WEBNRS). Submit the file

application form and pay the necessary application fee.

Third step is to register the company with Local

Government Unit (LGU) where the business is located. For

LGU’s, first is to get Barangay clearance in Anunas. The

following are the steps in securing Barangay Clearance for

new business:

1. Secure the application form from the Barangay

hall.
2. Submit the accomplished form with the necessary

requirements:
2.1. DTI Certificate / SEC Certificate
2.2. Community Tax Certificate or Cedula
2.3. Contract of lease, if leasing or land title,

if owned

After securing the Barangay Clearance, next is to

register with the municipal office. The following are

steps in registering the business in the municipality of

Angeles City:
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1. Secure the Application Form from the Business

Permit and License Division at Angeles City Hall,

Pandan, Angeles City, Pampanga or download the

form in the official website of Angeles City.


2. File or submit the Application Form together with

the following documentary documents:


2.1. DTI/SEC/CDA Registered Name
2.2. Community Tax Certificate or Cedula (for

Business)
2.3. Barangay Clearance where business is located
2.4. Sketch where business is located
3. Get the assessment of business tax and make

necessary payment to the Office of City Treasurer.


4. Releasing of Business Permit

Before releasing of the business permit, company will

receive notice for their zoning inspection, sanitary

inspection and fire and safety inspection. If all

inspections are cleared, company will receive their

inspection clearance that will be presented upon claiming

all the necessary permits such as Zoning Permit, Sanitary

Permit, Fire and Safety Certificate and the Business

Permit. Processing of business permit are mostly the same

for new business and old business or renewal except that

old business should provide a copy of their Income Tax

Return (ITR). In addition, payment of business tax can be


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lump sum or in installment basis divided into four

quarter.

The last step is to register with Bureau of Internal

Revenue (BIR). The following are steps in registering the

business in BIR:

1. Go to the Regional District Office (RDO) of Mexico

City and secure Application for Registration

(1901) and Payment Form (0605) or download the

said forms through the official website of BIR.


2. Accomplish and submit the Application for

Registration form to the Regional District Office

(RDO) of Mexico City together with the necessary

documents.
2.1. DTI / SEC Certificate
2.2. Barangay Clearance
2.3. Business Permit
2.4. Contract of lease, if leasing or land title,

if owned
3. Accomplish the Payment form and pay the

registration fee to BIR Collecting Division or

through accredited banks.


4. Purchase and register your book of accounts.
5. Claim your Certificate of Registration (2303).

Additional registrations are as follows:

1. Business Establishment Registry (DOLE Rule 1020)


2. Social Security System (SSS)
3. Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHIC)
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4. Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF)

Proposed manpower requirements to be hired by the

business. A company desires personnel and staffs that are

efficient and effective in the manufacturing of garlic

flavored chicken longganisa and pork longganisa. The

organizational structure is divided into three (3)

departments: administrative, selling, and production

departments. The administrative department comprises

general manager and accountant, and are the one

responsible in managing the company and recording the

financial transactions respectively. The selling

department includes the sales officer, sales staff, and

delivery staff. These personnel are in charge of

marketing, selling, and distributing the product. The

delivery staff serves also as a production staff. For the

production department, the factory supervisor heads it

with two (2) production staffs excluding the delivery

staff. Note that the general manager is also the sales

officer and production supervisor.


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Table 52 shows the proposed number of employees to be

hired by business. The project is expected to employ six

workers in the initial year of operation.

Table 52

No. Of
Position
Employees
ADMINISTRATIVE LABOR:
General Manager 0.40
Accountant 1
SELLING LABOR:
Sales Officer 0.30
Sales Staff 1
Delivery Man/Maintenance 1
DIRECT LABOR:
Production Supervisor 0.30
Production Staff 1 1
Production Staff 2 1
TOTAL 6
Proposed number of employees to be hired by business

General Manager/Sales
Officer/Production
Supervisor
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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY 91

Accountant

Sales Staff Delivery Man Production


Staffs
Figure 2. Organizational Structure Paradigm

Proposed qualification, duties and responsibilities

of employees. There are required job specifications and

job descriptions in every labor force or work force in the

organization. The firm’s employee must fulfill their

respective function, duties and responsibilities for the

organization to accomplish its organizational objectives

effectively and efficiently.

The following are the qualifications, duties,

functions and responsibilities assigned on the

corresponding position of employee:

Job Title: General Manager/Sales Officer/Factory

Supervisor
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 The owner of the business

Job Descriptions:

 Responsible for the overall coordination of the

firm

 Ensures the implementation of organization’s rules

and policies

 Performs the fundamental functions of management

such as planning, organizing, directing, and

controlling in the firm’s operation

 Responsible in making decision in solving major

problems

 Serves as counsellor, guide confidant to

management and employees

 Supervises employees in the process of production

to ensure productivity, quality and safety

 Secures the quality of incoming raw materials

 Responsible for overseeing the process of

production

 Establishes and enforces product standard to

maintain quality products


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 Reviews financial statements prepared by the

accountant

 Takes charge of admission, training, assessment

and dismissal of staff

Job Title: Accountant

Job Specifications:

 At least 24 years old

 Must be a graduate of Bachelor of Science in

Accountancy

 Must have an experience preferably on general

accounting, payroll and recording of numerical

data

 Computer Literate/Possess skill in Microsoft

applications

 Hardworking, honest and trustworthy

 Must be goal oriented

 Must be physically fit

Job Descriptions:

 Records and documents daily transactions of the

business
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 Ensures financial records are maintained in

compliance with accepted policies and procedures

 Establishes and monitors the implementation and

maintenance of accounting control procedures

 Keeps information confidential to protect

organization's value

 Prepares and analyzes accounting records,

financial statements, and other financial reports

 Input type vouchers, invoices, checks, account

statements, reports and other records

 Prepares the payroll of the employees

 Submits financial statement to the general manager

 Analyzes accounting options and recommend

financial actions to general manager

Job Title: Sales Staff

Job specifications:

 At least senior high school graduate

 Must have an experience in the field of marketing

for at least one year


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 Must have good oral communication skills

preferably both in English and Filipino

 Hardworking, honest and trustworthy

 With pleasing personality

 Must be of good moral character

 Must have broad knowledge about geographical

structure of the target market

Job Descriptions:

 Responsible for promoting and driving the sales of

a company's goods or services

 Entertains costumers and ascertain what each

customer wants or needs

 Responsible in inventories and store keeping

 Promotes sales by arranging and displaying

merchandise in the store

 Obtains payments, or arrange for recipients to

make payments and remits it to the owner.

Job Title: Delivery Man/Maintenance

Job specifications:
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 At least senior high school graduate

 Must have a broad knowledge about geographical

structure of the target market

 Have at least 1 or 2 years working experience

 Must have a Driver’s License

 Must be good in written and oral communication

skills

 Must be of good moral character

Job Descriptions:

 Responsible for delivery sales

 Collects receivables from the customers and remits

to the sales staff

 Responsible taking care of tools and equipment

 Responsible in the management and maintenance of

production machineries and/or equipment such as

repairs and maintenance

 Responsible in preparing and setting aside the

proper tools in making the products

 Perform other related tasks

Job Title: Production Staffs

Job Specifications:
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 At least junior high school level

 Must willing to be train

 Hard working and physically fit

Job Descriptions:

Production Staff 1

 Responsible for preparing equipment and materials

needed for production

 Responsible in measuring the meat and all

necessary ingredients

 Responsible in mixing the ingredients with the

meat

 Responsible in curing the mixture

 Responsible in cleaning the fresh intestine

 Responsible in salting the cleaned intestine

Production Staff 2

 Responsible in putting the longganisa mixture in

the cleaned intestine

 Responsible in producing the product according to

specifications

 Maintains quality control in the products


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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY 98

 Responsible in weighing, labelling and packaging

the products

 Monitors the quantity of completed products

Proposed compensation scheme of the business. To

motivate employees toward accomplishing goals that are

more assertive and play a vital role in attracting and

retaining great talent within the firm is by using a well-

designed compensation scheme. Employers must consider

rewarding employees through a combination of monetary and

non-monetary benefits and thereby tap into the unitive

strength of workers to create an enthusiastic and desirous

workplace.

Working Hours. The employees’ regular working days

will be from Monday to Saturday and regular working hours

will start from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. Day-off will be on

Sunday.

Overtime Pay.25% premium will be paid on each hour in

excess of the regular eight working hours and for working

during the day-off. Management will also pay 30% premium

to employees who will work on special working and non-


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working holidays and will be paid 200% of the regular

compensation if it is a legal holiday.

Minimum Wage. The company will give salaries not less

than the declared daily minimum wage in the region, which

is ₱400.00 for Non-Agriculture businesses declared by the

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE).

Payroll. Salaries and wages will be on semi-monthly

basis. Employees will be paid on the 15th and 30th of each

month. If the said date falls on a non-working day, the

salaries will be given to employees a day before the said

date.

Employee Benefits. All employees are granted to have

SSS, Phil Health, and Pag-ibig benefits. These benefits

will be paid by the employers and a certain percentage is

deducted on their gross pay in which they can use for

future financial assistance such as loans and

hospitalization bills.

13th Month Pay. All employees are entitled to receive

13th month pay which is equivalent to one/twelve of their

total basic salary earned within a year. It is not

considered a part of their regular wages and should be

paid not later than December 24 each year.


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Table 53

Proposed Compensation Scheme for Employees


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Table 54

Proposed SSS, EC,

PhilHealth, Pag-ibig Monthly Contribution for Employees


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Table 55

Proposed SSS, EC,

PhilHealth, Pag-ibig AnnualContribution for Employees


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Proposed company policies. Company policies and

procedures establish the rules of conduct within an

organization, outlining the responsibilities of both

employees and employers. Company policies and procedures

are in place to protect the rights of workers as well as

the business interests of employers. Depending on the

needs of the organization, various policies and procedures

establish rules regarding employee conduct, attendance,

dress code, privacy and other areas related to the terms

and conditions of employment.

The policies of the proposed business are as follows:

A. General Policies

1. Pre-employment – Employees are selected based on

their educational attainment, skills, qualification,

moral character, physical and moral fitness and

potentials. All employees should submit necessary

documents and legal requirements at the time of

employment such as:

a) 2x2 ID picture (2pcs)

b) Birth Certificate

c) SSS/Pag-ibig/PhilHealth number

d) Community Tax Certificate


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e) Certificate of previous employment (if any)

f) Clearance from the:

1. Police

2. NBI

3. Barangay

g) Current Medical Certificate/Drug Test Results

h) Transcript of Records or Diploma

2. Probationary Employment - Employees shall be

subject for probationary employment for six (6)

months provided with fair compensation and benefits

and shall be evaluated in accordance with their

performance before the contract expires.

3. Regular Employment – All employees who undergone

probationary employment and complied to all the

requirements and evaluation of appraisal shall

continue their employment to the company as regular

employees. Regular employees shall be entitled with

five (5) days sick leave and ten (10) days vacation

leave.

4. Employee Benefits – The Company is registered under

Social Security System (SSS), Philippine Health

Insurance Corporation (PHIC) and Development Mutual


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Funds (HDMF) and employees are provided with these

benefits through the employer’s share following the

contribution table provided by SSS, PHIC and HDMF.

5. Discipline - All employees have to follow working

rules and regulation to maintain discipline. These

include order and memorandum issued from time to

time.

6. Separation Procedure – Employees must submit their

resignation letter to the General Manager. Upon

receipt, employees are required to render 30 working

days in its transition period. Employees should make

necessary endorsement. Then, employees will get

their final pay after 15 days of their last working

day in the company.

B. Job Responsibility and Integrity

1. Attendance
1.1. Recording Time - Before and after employees’

shift, they should punch their time cards in

the Bundy clock provided by the company.


1.2. Absences – Employees should notify their

immediate supervisor regarding their absence.


1.3. Tardiness – Employees are provided 15 minutes

allowance for tardiness. There will be salary


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deduction for any tardiness more than the

provided allowance.
1.4. Visitors – Accommodation of any personal

visitors of employees during working hours is

prohibited.
1.5. Safety – To avoid any accident in working

place, employees should follow all

precautionary measure.

C. Code of Conduct

1. Purpose
1.1. To develop the individual responsibility and

respect towards work, authority and property

and co-employees.
1.2. To establish uniform code of conduct
1.3. To define each violations and their penalties
2. Responsibility of Employees
2.1. Employees should show integrity and

professionalism in the workplace.


2.2. Employees should carry out their duties

honestly, faithfully, and efficiently.


2.3. All employees should respect their colleagues.
2.4. All employees should treat our company’s

property, whether material or intangible, with

respect and care.


3. Unacceptable Conduct
3.1. Disciplinary Action – Employees shall be

subject to disciplinary action for any


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violation or disconformities to any rules and

regulations.
3.2. Penalty per Degree of Violation
3.2.1. Minor Violation – have minimal effect on

the company.
 1st – Verbal Reprimand
 2nd - Written Reprimand
 3rd – Suspension
 4th – Dismissal
3.2.2 Major Violation – have serious effect on

the company.
 1st - Suspension
 2nd - Dismissal

Employees’ problems encountered by the business.

Efficiency variation in employees’ performance can affect

and may reduce overall production. The most common problem

encountered by the business is employees’ tardiness and

followed by lack of concentration and health deficiency.

These are usually caused by calamities, personal and

family problems, morale, and educational deficiency.

Management can enforce disciplinary action if these

problems were habitually done without a reasonable excuse.

For the first violation, written warning will be sent to

the employee. If followed by a second violation,


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suspension will be enforced and might lead to termination

if followed by another violation.

Proposed solution in rising conflicts within the

organization. Conflicts within the organization and among

employees are inevitable. These conflicts yield after

effect and consequences to the workplace. To reduce

further repercussion, these problems should be dealt as

soon as possible. Reorientation to an employee may aid to

re-establish his/her focus accordingly to company’s

objectives. Open forum can be also conducted by the

management to discuss and talk about the issues and

conflicts in a respectful and private way. Employees to

accumulate additional knowledge, to refresh, and to

restart their work lifestyle to become more effective and

efficient in doing their intended work and make a healthy

relationship between co-workers, can attend seminars,

recollections, and team building.

Proposed working plan. Table 57 shows the activities

that should be undertaken before the start of official

operation of business. Each of the activities are


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carefully analyzed to come up with the period to

accomplish all task included to it. The schedule provided

will help the successful implementation of the proposed

business. Above all, the researchers to assure the

viability of the proposed business conducted a feasibility

study. The study was started in June 2018. The normal

operation of the business is planned to start by July

2019.

Table 56

Working Time Table

Activities Duration
1. Preparation of feasibility 7 months (June - December
study 2018)
2. Acquisition of funds 1 month (January 2019)
3. Registration of legal
1 month (February 2019)
documents and permits
4. Preparation of plant site
1 month (March 2019)
or location improvements
5. Acquisition and
installation of
1 month (April 2019)
machineries, tools and
equipment
6. Hiring, orientation and
1 month (May 2019)
training of employees
7. Canvassing and Procurement
1 month (June 2019)
of raw materials
8. Start of operation July 2019
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Table 57

Working Time

Table – Gantt

Chart
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6.2. Marketing Aspect

The success of the company lies on the efficiency of

its Marketing Department (Balasan, 2014).

According to Kotler and Keller (2017) the aim of

marketing is to make selling unnecessary, know and

understand the customer for the product and services to

fit their satisfaction and sells itself. They also added

that the role of marketing is to provide a higher standard

of living by obtaining the needs and wants via creating,

offering and communicating the central benefits of a

product or service to the target market. The term

marketing has developed over a period, understanding not

only the old sense of making sale telling and selling but

also the new denotation of satisfying customers’ needs and

wants. In addition, it starts from understanding the

business environment, researching customers’ needs

and obtaining information, then selecting of target

market through market analysis and market segmentation as

well as understanding customer and business buying

behaviors (Lamb, Hair & McDaniel, 2015).


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According to Marketing Specialist (2015) the

marketing concept holds that achieving organizational

objectives depends on determining the needs and wants of

target markets and providing the desired satisfactions

better than competitors do. They noted that under the

marketing concept, the purpose of marketing is not

achieving an optimal level of sales volume but gaining

profits through the satisfactions of selected market. They

added that it is important to distinguish the customer,

establish a good connection with them, identify their

needs and deliver the goods and services that will meet

their necessity.

Proposed potential market of the business. Potential

markets are customers in the market population for an

available product where they have the ability and interest

to purchase a product or service (Castillo, Pereda, &

Pereda, 2014). The potential markets of the Chorizo de

Pampanga Garlic Flavored Longganisa are general public,

local establishments, public markets, grocery stores and

ultimate consumers residing in Angeles City, Mabalacat

City, and City of San Fernando.


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Proposed target market by the business.Target Market

is a group of people or organization for which an

organization designs, implements and maintains a marketing

mix with a goal to satisfy the demands of that group

(Lamb, Hair & McDaniel, 2015). Target Market is the buyer

or consumer that is expected to pay a certain amount of

money for a product or to avail services offered by

business (Nuqui, Rey, Antonino & Pascual, 2013).

Furthermore, a target market is defined as the potential

buyer of the product. According to Kotler (2017), target

market is a well-defined set of customers whose needs the

organization plans to satisfy. Business sectors identify

them as the ultimate and final users of the product.

The geographical target markets of the proposed

product are Angeles City, Mabalacat City, and City of San

Fernando. The product will be distributed mainly to the

general public and local establishments and markets.

Individuals who are in the age of 18 and above are the

target consumers of the proposed product regardless of

economic class and gender.


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Proposed pricing method of the business. Firms set a

specific price for a purpose. It can be companies want to

achieve their profit goal, to sustain or enrich market

share and to hold the entry of new competitors in the

market selling the same products (Balasan, 2014). They

also added that pricing is an important element of

marketing mix and companies should select strategic

choices on how to price their product to accomplish their

business goals.

Most consumers, especially those who are at the

middle and low class, will prefer to buy products that are

affordable and with good quality at the same time. The

researchers settled to use the full manufacturing cost

plus mark-up as a pricing method of the Chorizo de

Pampanga Garlic Flavored Longganisa.

Table 58 shows the proposed projected selling price

of Chorizo de Pampanga Garlic Flavored Chicken Longganisa

and Pork Longganisa per 250g.

Table 58
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Proposed Projected Selling Price of Chorizo de Pampanga

Garlic Flavored Longganisa per 250g

Net Weight: 250g Total


Pork Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱58.09
Mark Up: (30%) 17.43
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 75.51
Add: 12% VAT 9.06
Projected Selling Price ₱84.57
Round Off 85

Chicken Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱50.89
Mark Up: (40%) 20.36
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 71.25
Add: 12% VAT 8.55
Projected Selling Price ₱79.80
Round Off 80

Proposed promotion and advertising of the business.

Once a product has been created and its price labeled, the

next problem come to its sales is creating a demand for

the product. Advertising gives the companies and business

a chance to build a brand and identity in the mind of

their consumer (Marketing and Salemanship, 2015).

Nowadays, companies rely on advertising in boosting their

sales of their offered product and services, building a

relation to their target market and creating rivals within

competitive environment. In addition, advertising is a


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marketing tool that is making impossible to avoid in

everyday life. One of the key factors of advertising is

that it will draw a potential consumer’s attention to a

product or services offered by a company. They also added

that advertising is a way of making possible customers

aware of the benefits of the product and will eventually

give them a reason to invest to it. It is also important

in reconnecting to current customer, reminding them that

they chose the right company and updating them to the

latest products and available services.

The researchers decided to display a sign board

indicating the image of the product, address, business

name, logo, and telephone number at the top center of the

façade of the establishment. This will help to communicate

to potential consumers and inform them about the existence

of the business and its product.

Business card will be given to the customers for them

to contact the company if they want to purchase, be a

retailer or to keep them updated about the new product to

be offered. Flyers will also be distributed by hand

whenever people may pass by to draw attention to the


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proposed product. Also, free taste will be offered to hook

customers and to encourage them to buy the product.

Other means of advertising technique that the

researchers decided to apply is the internet marketing or

online marketing, which is a way of advertising and

marketing efforts that use the Web and E-Mail to drive

direct sales via electronic commerce. Internet marketing

and online advertising efforts are typically used in

conjunction with traditional types of advertising such as

radio, television, newspapers and magazines.

Above all, the best and most effective means of

advertising is still through word of mouth. Marketing and

Salesmanship (2015) states that it would be a success for

the company if the advertising campaign will last over the

life cycle of the product, attain the right customers and

generate expected income. According to them, advertisement

needs to relate current trends and sell both a product

separately. With this it can help attract a customer to

the product or service and build a good and strong

relationship between the consumer and the company.

Table 59 shows the promotion and advertising of the

proposed Chorizo de Pampanga Garlic Flavored Longganisa.


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Table 59

Promotion and Advertising of the Proposed Chorizo de

Pampanga Garlic Flavored Longganisa.

Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total


Sign Board (3x7) 2 pieces ₱ 10,000.00 ₱ 20,000.00
Business Card 300 pieces 3.00 900.00
Flyers 1,000 pieces 2.00 2,000.00
Free Taste (Pork
15 250g/pack 595.05
Longganisa) 39.67
Free Taste
(Chicken 15 250g/pack 487.05
Longganisa) 32.47
TOTAL ₱ 22,900.00

Problems that may arise with business competitors.

The competitors have their own strategies on how to meet

customers’ satisfaction through producing a better and a

more affordable product in the market. Guillao and

Cabading (2015) states that Marketing department needs to

have strategic plan in order to standout in the

competitive environment it is operation. It is not enough

that the company satisfies the needs and wants of their

target customers, it has to be done better than the

competitors do.

With a high competition in the meat industry, The

Meat & Spices Company decided to offer a new variety of


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product that will make the consumers taste something new.

The product, Chorizo de Pampanga Garlic Flavored

Longganisa are appealing to both health conscious

consumers and those with adventurous tastes.

Proposed distribution techniques of the business. The

distribution of Chorizo de Pampanga Garlic Flavored

Longganisa product will be from the manufacturing house to

wholesalers (for large quantities of products), to

retailers (for smaller quantities of product), or directly

to end users. The company will distribute its product

through wholesale and retail in general public and local

establishments.

Manufacturer

Wholesaler
The proposed channel of distribution is illustrated

in figure 3

Retailer

Consumer
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Figure 3: Channel of Distribution

Supply Situation

Historical Supply. Chorizo de Pampanga Garlic

Flavored Longganisa is an alternative to different

longganisa that are currently available in the market.

Thus, supply for currently available longganisa was taken

into account to analyze the available market for the

proposed business.

Through personal interviews and sending letters to

grocery store owners, suppliers, and companies, the

researchers gathered data for the current supply of


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various longganisa. They were able to calculate the annual

supply for the year 2018 in the target markets by

multiplying the average monthly supply by twelve months.

In addition, the historical supply for longganisa was

separately calculated. Annual supply for longganisa was

increasing by 2% (105%/70), a round off percentage. Thus,

the researchers calculated historical supply for the year

2018 by dividing 102% from the actual supply of 2019. Same

computation was applied to the preceding years.

Computation for Supply.

The following data show the actual supply of

longganisa in the researchers’ target market for the year

2018.

Table 60
Supply of Longganisa of Different Manufacturers and Retailers
Annual Supply of Longganisa
Annual Annual
Supply Annual Supply Total
in Supply in in City Annual
Angeles Mabalacat of San Volume Total Supply (in
Brand Variant City City Fernando (grams) (grams) units/250g)

A V1 269,600 108,500 168,000 250 136,525,000 546,100


V2 294,400 145,800 286,200 250 181,600,000 726,400
V3 146,200 18,500 22,280 250 46,745,000 186,980
Subtotal 1,459,480
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B V1 99,012 74,080 88,192 500 130,642,000 522,568


V2 78,185 57,616 65,378 380 76,448,020 305,792
V3 218,482 168,160 214,384 200 120,205,200 480,821
V4 117,012 74,080 88,192 500 139,642,000 558,568
V5 208,967 178,240 198,152 250 146,339,750 585,359
V6 105,222 83,488 97,837 400 114,618,800 458,475
V7 218,482 168,160 214,384 200 120,205,200 480,821
V8 105,222 83,488 97,837 400 114,618,800 458,475
V9 218,482 168,160 214,384 200 120,205,200 480,821
Subtotal 4,331,700
C V1 212,000 189,000 207,900 200 121,780,000 487,120
V2 196,000 170,100 187,110 225 124,472,250 497,889
V3 198,600 151,200 166,320 450 232,254,000 929,016
V4 196,000 170,100 187,110 225 124,472,250 497,889
V5 198,600 151,200 166,320 450 232,254,000 929,016
V6 196,000 170,100 187,110 225 124,472,250 497,889
V7 198,600 151,200 166,320 450 232,254,000 929,016
V8 198,600 151,200 166,320 450 232,254,000 929,016
V9 218,000 201,600 211,680 500 315,640,000 1,262,560
V10 218,000 201,600 211,680 500 315,640,000 1,262,560
V11 218,000 201,600 211,680 500 315,640,000 1,262,560
V12 215,490 161,618 177,780 250 138,722,000 554,888
V13 215,490 161,618 177,780 250 138,722,000 554,888
V16 248,800 201,600 211,680 500 331,040,000 1,324,160
Subtotal 11,918,467
Table 60
Continuation

D V1 128,240 96,180 100,989 430 139,925,870 559,703


V2 136,415 102,311 107,427 215 74,422,895 297,692
V3 128,240 96,180 100,989 430 139,925,870 559,703
V4 128,240 96,180 100,989 430 139,925,870 559,703
V5 128,240 96,180 100,989 430 139,925,870 559,703
V6 128,240 96,180 100,989 430 139,925,870 559,703
V7 128,240 96,180 100,989 430 139,925,870 559,703
V8 136,415 102,311 107,427 215 74,422,895 297,692
V9 135,480 101,610 107,700 400 137,916,000 551,664
V10 135,480 101,610 107,700 400 137,916,000 551,664
Subtotal 5,056,932
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E V1 54,360 50,770 52,309 240 37,785,360 151,141


V2 54,920 43,690 46,874 440 64,012,960 256,052
V4 58,480 53,860 55,553 250 41,973,250 167,893
V5 42,340 41,755 44,843 450 58,022,100 232,088
V6 58,480 53,860 55,553 250 41,973,250 167,893
V7 58,480 53,860 55,553 250 41,973,250 167,893
V8 58,480 53,860 55,553 250 41,973,250 167,893
V9 36,540 37,405 40,275 500 57,110,000 228,440
V11 58,480 53,860 55,553 250 41,973,250 167,893
V12 54,360 50,770 52,309 240 37,785,360 151,141
V13 54,360 50,770 52,309 240 37,785,360 151,141
Subtotal 2,009,470
F V1 24,460 18,345 22,932 400 26,294,800 105,179
V2 28,920 21,690 23,860 400 29,788,000 119,152
Subtotal 224,331
G V1 28,360 21,270 22,334 1000 71,964,000 287,856
V2 24,290 20,718 22,753 225 15,246,225 60,985
V3 26,400 22,300 24,415 200 14,623,000 58,492
V4 28,360 21,270 22,334 1000 71,964,000 287,856
V5 28,140 26,105 27,210 250 20,363,750 81,455
V6 28,360 21,270 22,334 1000 71,964,000 287,856
V7 24,300 22,300 24,105 200 14,141,000 56,564
Subtotal 1,121,064
Table 60
Continuation
H
V1 35,840 26,880 22,568 200 17,057,600 68,230
V2 19,296 16,972 18,670 225 12,361,050 49,444
V3 24,226 18,481 20,180 200 12,577,400 50,310
V4 14,460 17,345 22,932 225 12,315,825 49,263
I Subtotal 217,248
V1 24,460 17,345 22,932 250 16,184,250 64,737
V2 28,920 20,690 23,860 250 18,367,500 73,470
J Subtotal 138,207
V1 24,460 17,345 22,932 250 16,184,250 64,737
V2 28,920 20,690 23,860 250 18,367,500 73,470
K Subtotal 138,207
V1 35,840 32,480 30,568 250 24,722,000 98,888
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V2 29,296 26,972 20,670 250 19,234,500 76,938


V3 24,226 20,670 24,940 530 37,013,080 148,052
V4 14,460 10,345 12,932 270 10,188,990 40,756
L Subtotal 364,634
V1 24,290 20,718 22,753 200 13,552,200 54,209
V2 26,210 22,300 24,415 250 18,231,250 72,925
V3 29,296 26,972 20,670 230 17,695,740 70,783
V4 24,290 20,718 22,753 200 13,552,200 54,209
V5 26,400 22,300 24,415 250 18,278,750 73,115
V6 26,400 22,300 24,415 250 18,278,750 73,115
M Subtotal 398,356
V1 45,386 36,880 32,568 250 28,708,500 114,834
V2 29,296 16,972 20,670 250 16,734,500 66,938
V3 24,226 10,670 14,940 250 12,459,000 49,836
N Subtotal 231,608
V1 56,400 34,800 24,280 220 25,405,600 101,622
V2 43,760 25,320 36,788 220 23,290,960 93,164
V3 39,488 23,980 24,467 250 21,983,750 87,935
Subtotal 282,721
Total 27,892,424
Table 61 shows the annual increase in supply of

various manufacturers and suppliers of longganisa.

Table 61

Annual Increase in Supply of Manufacturers and Suppliers

of Longganisa

Annual Increase in Supply of Longganisa of


Different Retailers
Annual
Angeles City
Increase
Store 1 1%
Store 2 1%
Store 3 1%
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Store 4 2%
Store 5 2%
Store 6 2%
Store 7 1%
Store 8 1%
Store 9 1%
Store 10 1%
Store 11 1%
Store 12 2%
Store 13 2%
Store 14 2%
Store 15 2%
Store 16 2%
Hypermarket 1 2%
Hypermarket 2 2%
Supermarket 1 1%
Supermarket 2 1%

Continuation
Supermarket 3 1%
Supermarket 4 1%
Supermarket 5 1%
Supermarket 6 1%
Supermarket 7 1%
Supermarket 8 1%
Supermarket 9 1%
Supermarket 10 1%
Supermarket 11 1%
Supermarket 12 1%
Supermarket 13 1%
Supermarket 14 1%
Supermarket 15 1%
Supermarket 16 1%
Supermarket 17 2%
Supermarket 18 2%
Supermarket 19 2%
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Supermarket 20 2%
Supermarket 21 2%
Supermarket 22 2%
Supermarket 23 2%
Subtotal 58%
Mabalacat City
Store 17 1%
Store 18 1%
Store 19 1%
Store 20 1%
Store 21 1%
Store 22 1%
Store 23 1%
Store 24 1%
Hypermarket 3 2%
Supermarket 24 1%
Supermarket 25 1%
Continuation
Supermarket 26 2%
Supermarket 27 2%
Supermarket 28 2%
Subtotal 18%
City of San Fernando
Store 25 1%
Store 26 1%
Store 27 1%
Hypermarket 4 3%
Supermarket 29 3%
Supermarket 30 3%
Supermarket 31 3%
Supermarket 32 1%
Supermarket 33 1%
Supermarket 34 2%
Supermarket 35 2%
Supermarket 36 2%
Supermarket 37 2%
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Supermarket 38 2%
Supermarket 39 2%
Subtotal 29%
Average 2%

Table 62 shows the historical supply of longganisa

per 250g.

Table 62

Historical Supply of Longganisa per 250g

Angeles Mabalacat City of San


Year City City Fernando Total
2014 9,781,578 7,576,087 8,410,623 25,768,288
2015 9,977,210 7,727,609 8,578,836 26,283,654
2016 10,176,754 7,882,161 8,750,412 26,809,327
2017 10,380,289 8,039,804 8,925,421 27,345,514
2018 10,587,895 8,200,600 9,103,929 27,892,424
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The average increase in supply for the last five

years was computed as shown below:

Actual supply for the last year (2018) 27,892,424


Actual supply for the first year (2014) 25,768,288
Difference 2,124,136
Divided by: number of historical years 5
Average increase in 5 years (250g) 424,827

Table 63 shows the projected supply of longganisa per

250g.

Table 63

Projected Supply of Longganisa per 250g

Supply Last Average Projected


Year + =
Year Increase Supply
2019 27,892,424 + 424,827 = 28,317,251
2020 28,317,251 + 424,827 = 28,742,078
2021 28,742,078 + 424,827 = 29,166,905
2022 29,166,905 + 424,827 = 29,591,732
2023 29,591,732 + 424,827 = 30,016,559
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Demand Situation. Companies use market demand

analysis to understand how much consumer demand exists for

a product or service. This analysis helps management

determine if the company can successfully enter a market

and generate enough profits to advance its business

operations. While several methods of demand analysis may

be used, they usually contain a review of the basic

components of an economic market (Vitez, 2017).

The researchers used the population of ages 18 and

above as the basis in the calculation of the market demand

of longganisa to determine the size, nature, and growth of

the total demand of the product for five (5) years in

Angeles City, Mabalacat City, and City of San Fernando.

Table 64 shows the historical demand for longganisa

per 250g.

Table 64

Total Historical Demand for Longganisa per 250g

% of Average
Mabalaca City of Total populati per Total
Angeles
Year t San Populatio on capita Historical
City
City Fernando n capable Consumpt Demand
to buy ion
2014 257,111 157,711 199,999 614,820 78.40% 67 32,295,289
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2015 268,732 162,316 202,679 633,727 78.40% 67 33,288,412


2016 280,879 167,056 205,395 653,329 78.40% 67 34,318,077
2017 293,574 171,934 208,147 673,655 78.40% 67 35,385,763
2018 306,844 176,954 210,936 694,734 78.40% 67 36,493,011

Supporting Computations:

(Total populations are based on households, aged 18 and

above)

Angeles City: based on 2015 Census with an annual increase

of 4.52%

(National Statistics Office, 2015 Census of Population and

Housing)

Mabalacat City: based on 2015 Census with an annual

increase of 2.92%

(National Statistics Office, 2015 Census of Population and

Housing)

City of San Fernando: based on 2015 Census with an annual

increase of 1.34%

(National Statistics Office, 2015 Census of Population and

Housing).

Poverty line is based on the Poverty Incidence in 2015.

(National Statistics Office, 2015 Full Year Poverty

Statistics)
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Table 65 shows the frequency of consumer-participants

in buying longganisa.

Table 65

Consumer-Participants’ Frequency in Buying Longganisa

250g 500g 1000g Total


Everyday 4 3 0 7
Every other day 14 5 1 20
Once a week 84 29 5 118
Every other week 54 38 4 96
Once a month 32 25 2 59
Occasionally 3 2 0 5
Total 191 102 12 305

Table 66 shows the annual demand for longganisa of

consumer-participants.

Table 66

Consumer-Participants’ Annual Demand for Longganisa

250 g 500 g 1000 g Total


Everyday 336,000 504,000 0 840,000
Every other day 588,000 420,000 168,000 1,176,000
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Once a week 1,008,000 696,000 240,000 1,944,000


Every other week 324,000 456,000 96,000 876,000
Once a month 96,000 150,000 24,000 270,000
Occasionally 9000 12,000 0 21,000
Total 2,361,000 2,238,000 528,000 5,127,000

The researchers used the following computations to arrive

at the annual demand:

Everyday (Pack type * 7 days * 4 weeks * 12 months * No.

of Respondents)

Every other day (Pack type * 14 days* 12 months * No. of

Respondents)

Weekly (Pack type* 4weeks * 12 months * No. of

Respondents)

Every other week (Pack type* 2 per month * 12 months * No.

of Respondents)

Monthly (Pack type* 12 months * No. of Respondents)

Every Other Month (Pack type * 6 per year * No. of

Respondents)

Occasionally (Pack type * 12months * No. of Respondents)

Note that the researchers assumed that the

respondents who answered “occasionally” were buying the

product once a month.


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Formula in calculating the average per capita consumption

for longganisa:

Annual Consumption of Longganisa


(5,127,000/250) 20,508
Divide by the number of participants 305
Average per capita consumption 67
The average increase in demand for longganisa for the last

three years is calculated as follows:

Actual demand for the last year (2018) 36,493,011


Less: Demand for the first year (2014) 32,295,289
Difference 4,197,722
Divided by: number of historical years 5
Average increase in 5 years 839,544

The historical demand was calculated as follows:

Historical demand = (Population * % of Population capable

to buy * Average per capita consumption)

Table 67 shows the projected demand for longganisa

per 250g.

Table 67

Projected Demand for Longganisa per 250g

Demand Last Average Projected


Year + =
Year Increase Demand
2019 36,493,011 + 839,544 = 37,332,555
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2020 37,332,555 + 839,544 = 38,172,099


2021 38,172,099 + 839,544 = 39,011,643
2022 39,011,643 + 839,544 = 39,851,187
2023 39,854,187 + 839,544 = 40,693,731

Demand and supply analysis. Supply and demand is a

fundamental concept of all economic insights and the

foundation of the majority of modern economics. The basic

theory states that the market mechanism of supply and

demand will result in an equilibrium price for a good or

service such that there will be the equilibrium between

the cost of the good to society as well as benefit of the

good to consumers (Fitzimmons, 2008).

The gap between the supply and demand was determined

by subtracting the projected supply from the projected

demand. Results are favorable as there is a positive gap.

This means that there is still an available market for the

business.

Table 68 shows the analysis of the demand and supply

for longganisa per 250g.


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Table 68

Demand and Supply Analysis for Longganisa per 250g

Projected Projected Gap Rate


Year Gap
Demand Supply (%)
2019 37,332,555 28,317,251 9,015,304 24%
2020 38,172,099 28,742,078 9,430,021 25%
2021 39,011,643 29,166,905 9,844,738 25%
2022 39,854,187 29,591,732 10,262,455 26%
2023 40,639,731 30,016,559 10,623,172 26%

Gap
Gap Rate =
Projected Demand

Table 69 shows the proposed market share of the

business. The market share is derived from the projected

sales divided by the projected demand. It also shows the

projected sales in units in the first five years of the

proposed business. It is important for the company to

determine the target sales based on the present market

situation. With that, the researcher’s 2019 forecasted

sales will be 46,800 units with an annual increase of


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2.5%. The projected sale in 2019 is acceptable since it is

within the 9,015,304gap of 2019.

Table 69

Proposed Market Share of the Business

Projected Projected Market Share


Year
Sales Demand (%)
2019 46,800 18,666,278 0.25%
2020 95,940 38,172,099 0.25%
2021 98,339 39,011,643 0.25%
2022 100,797 39,854,187 0.25%
2023 103,317 40,639,731 0.25%

Table 70 shows the proposed sales budget of the

business. The increase in units is calculated by

multiplying the prior year sales budget by the percentage

increase in sales in the current year.

Table 70

Proposed Sales Budget of the Business

Sales Budget - Pork Longganisa


Cash Sales 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Cash Sales in Units 18,360 38,007 38,957 39,931 40,929
Units Selling Price ₱80 ₱83 ₱83 ₱85 ₱87
Subtotal 1,468,800 3,154,581 3,241,602 3,406,381 3,579,070
Credit Sales
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Credit Sales in
Units 4,590 9,502 9,739 9,983 10,232
Units Selling Price ₱80 ₱83 ₱83 ₱85 ₱87
Subtotal 367,200 788,645 810,401 851,595 894,768
₱1,836,00 ₱3,943,22 ₱4,052,00 ₱4,257,97 ₱4,473,83
TOTAL 0 6 3 7 8
Sales Budget - Chicken Longganisa
Cash Sales 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Cash Sales in Units 18,360 38,007 38,957 39,931 40,929
Units Selling Price ₱85 ₱87 ₱87 ₱90 ₱92
Subtotal 1,560,600 3,296,097 3,399,900 3,575,341 3,759,257
Credit Sales
Credit Sales in
Units 4,590 9,502 9,739 9,983 10,232
Units Selling Price ₱85 ₱87 ₱87 ₱90 ₱92
Subtotal 390,150 824,024 849,975 893,835 939,814
₱1,950,75 ₱4,120,12 ₱4,249,87 ₱4,469,17 ₱4,699,07
TOTAL 0 2 5 6 1
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6.3. Production and Technical Aspect

Production aspect involves the study of the process

to be used, plant capacity, plant location and layout,

structural specification and other technical requirements

to minimize cost and maximize profits (Cabrera, 2013).

According to Production and Operation Management

(2015), this aspect deals with the transformation of

various resources (inputs) into the required product

having the necessary quality level. The goal of this

production management is to produce a good product with

requisite quality and quantity at the right time and right

production cost.

This aspect will also give details about the

description of the product, manufacturing process,

production schedule, machinery and equipment to be used,

location of the business and its plant layout, raw

materials, and the operation and labor cost (Roque, 2013).

In Addition, this aspect, will also discussed the quality

control of the product, and the waste disposal system of

the business.
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Proposed name of the business. The Meat & Spices

Company is composed mainly of two words, Meat and Spices.

The word “Meat” is one of the main ingredients in

producing a longganisa. The word “Spices” is another main

ingredient of the product in which it gives aroma and

makes it appealing enough to captures customer’s

attention. Meat & Spices Company, presents a combination

of meat and different kinds of spices which enables to

provide the target market a new flavor of the product that

satisfy their demands for not only having mouth-watering

taste but also healthy food options.

Proposed name of the product. Chorizo de Pampanga is

the suggested brand name of the product. The word

“Chorizo” is a Spanish word which means longganisa, which

is the product to be offered. Under this product, are two

varieties, the garlic flavored chicken longganisa and

garlic flavored pork longganisa. The researchers decided

to name the product after the province where the business

is located and originated in, the “Pampanga” which is

known as the home of sweet longganisa.

Product description. Chorizo de Pampanga Garlic

Flavored Chicken Longganisa and Garlic Flavored Pork


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Longganisa are made up of ground pork/chicken and mashed

garlic seasoned with different rich spices for taste. With

the combination of pork and garlic, and chicken and

garlic, it does not only catch our nose through its

aromatic flavor but it also has essential vitamins

minerals and amino acid good for overall health. It is

also rich in vitamins B1, B6, B12, vitamin D along with

zinc, iron, phosphorus, sulfur and copper and nutrients

that help to increase strength and resistance to diseases.

Ingredients: chicken, native garlic, sugar, vinegar, soy

sauce, salt, pepper

For pork longganisa, pork is use

Net Weight per Pack: 250 grams

Storage: Keep Frozen

Shelf Life: 3 Months

Table 71 shows the production budget of the proposed

business for five years per 250g.


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Table 71

Production Budget of Meat & Spices Company for Five Years

per 250g

Pork Longganisa 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023


22,95 49,91 51,16
Units to be sold 0 47,509 48,697 4 2
Add: Desired ending
Inventory 450 461 473 485 497
23,40 50,39 51,65
Units available for sale 0 47,970 49,170 9 9
Less: Beginning Inventory 0 450 461 473 485
23,40 49,92 51,17
Units to be produced 0 47,520 48,709 6 4
Chicken Longganisa 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
22,95 49,91 51,16
Units to be sold 0 47,509 48,697 4 2
Add: Desired ending
Inventory 450 461 473 485 497
23,40 50,39 51,65
Units available for sale 0 47,970 49,170 9 9
Less: Beginning Inventory 0 450 461 473 485
23,40 49,92 51,17
Units to be produced 0 47,520 48,709 6 4

Table 72 shows the product ingredients justification

of the proposed product

Table 72

Product Ingredients Justification


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Ingredients Description and Purpose


Chicken It is lower in saturated fat than most
meats and has a high level of a good
quality protein, as well as B vitamins,
iron, copper, and selenium

Pork It is a culinary name for domestic pig. It


is high in protein and rich in many
vitamins and minerals

Native Garlic It has health benefits that comes from


potent anti-cancer compounds, immune-
strengthening molecules, and heart
disease-preventing antioxidants.

Sugar It is added to the ground pork/chicken to


add sweetness to the product.

Vinegar Use as a flavoring. It adds a taste of


sourness and help in preservation of the
product, making it shell life last longer.

Soy Sauce Also use as a flavoring and contributes to


the color of the product

Salt It is use to balance the taste between


sweetness and saltiness in the product

Pepper Used together with salt which gives a


touch of heat and spiciness

Figure 4.Company Logo


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Figure 5. Label of the Proposed Business

Plant location of the proposed business. The proposed

project site for the business is located in CHH Place

Corner Volga St., Friendship Highway, Angeles City. It has

a total land area of 125 square meters. The accompanying

variables were considered in picking the plant:

a) Inside and adjacent the objective urban areas

b) Nearness to market like groceries and supermarkets

c) Sufficiency of public utility services

d) Accessibility to the general public

e) Availability of the workers


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Plant layout. The plant was designed according to the

needs of the persons in the administration, selling, and

production department. The site will be consisting of

production area for the processing of the product, stock

room for raw materials and finished goods, office of the

manager, store, and other facilities required in the

plant. Sufficient space will be provided for the smooth

flow of production. The said space will have a monthly

rent of ₱24,000.00 with 5% increase per annum.


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Figure 6. Vicinity Map


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Figure 7. Floor Plan


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Figure 8.Colored Floor Plan


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Figure 9. Figure Perspective View


Required tools and equipment of the proposed

business. Equipment and tools are necessary for the

manufacturing of Chorizo de PampangaGarlic Flavored

Chicken and Pork Longganisa.

Manufacturing Supplies.The following are the

manufacturing supplies used in the proposed business:

 Apron – used to protect clothes from different

kind of stains

 Hairnet – used to cover and hold hair in place

 Face Mask – used to cover the mouth, nose and

other part of the face

 Clear gloves – used to avoid the contact of bare

hand to the ingredients during production

 Letting – used to tie the longganisa into pieces

 Packaging tape - used to seal boxes

 Packaging Box - use as container for a large

number of finished product.

 Product Label Sticker - used to indicate the

product name in the container.


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 Resealable Pouch - serves as a container of the

product.

Apron Hairnet

Clear Gloves Letting

Packaging Tape Packaging Box


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Product Label Sticker Plastic Box

Figure 10. Manufacturing Supplies

Table 73 shows the list of the manufacturing supplies

of the proposed business and their required quantity and

corresponding cost.

Table 73

Cost of Manufacturing Supplies of the Proposed Business

Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Apron 4 pieces 35 140.00
Hairnet 15 pieces 10 150.00
Facemask 1 50 pcs/pack 150 150.00
Disposable Gloves 2 100 pcs/pack 45 90.00
Letting 5 Pieces 25 125.00
Packaging Box 468 pieces 3 1,404.00
Packaging Tape 20 pieces 30 600.00
Product Label Sticker 2,340 20 pcs/sheet 12 28,080.00
Resealable Pouch 46,850 pieces 2.25 105,412.50
Total 136,151.50
Manufacturing Tools. The following are the

manufacturing tools used in the proposed business.


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 Kitchen knife - used in removing the skin of the

garlic

 Chopping board – use as a surface for chopping the

head of the garlic

 Basin - a deep bowl that is used in blending all

the ingredients.

 Measuring spoon - used to measure a small quantity

of ingredient, either liquid or dry.

 Measuring cup - used to measure the volume of

liquid or bulk solid cooking ingredients.

 Scissors – used to cut the letting.

Kitchen Knife Chopping Board


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Basin Measuring Spoon

Measuring Cups Scissors

Figure 11: Manufacturing Tools

Table 74 shows the list of manufacturing tools of the

proposed business. It also shows their quantity, unit and

unit cost, and the total cost.

Table 74

Cost of Manufacturing Tools of the Proposed Business

Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total


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Kitchen Knife 2 pieces 179.75 359.50


Chopping Board 2 pieces 88.00 176.00
Basin 2 pieces 65.00 130.00
Measuring Spoon 2 pieces 69.75 139.50
Measuring Cup 2 pieces 99.75 199.50
Scissors 2 pieces 50.00 100.00
TOTAL 1,104.50

Delivery Equipment. The following is the delivery

vehicle used in the proposed business.

Racal Haval - used to deliver the products to

customers.

Figure 12.Delivery Equipment

Table 75 shows the cost of the delivery equipment of

the proposed business.


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Table 75

Cost of Delivery Equipment of the Proposed Business

Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost


Racal Haval 1 44,800.00 ₱ 44,800.00
TOTAL ₱ 44,800.00

Manufacturing Equipment. The following are the

manufacturing equipment used in the proposed business:

 Exhaust Fan – use for properly circulation of air

flow in the manufacturing area by drawing air from

the interior and expelling it outside.

 Industrial Fan – accommodate a large flow of air

which cool the various part of the production area

 Freezer – used to store meat and poultry to

maintain its quality and to prevent spoilage.

 Power Generator – is use for the emergency back-up

of electricity in case of power shortage.

 Digital Weighing Scale - use in weighing the

ingredients and the product as well.

 Garlic Chopper - use to grind the native garlic

 Sausage Maker Meat Stuffer - use to put the meat

inside the casing


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Exhaust Fan
Industrial Fan

Freezer
Power Generator

Digital
Weighing Scale
Garlic
Chopper
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Sausage Meat Maker Stuffer

Figure 13: Manufacturing Equipment

Table 76 shows the cost of manufacturing equipment of

the proposed business and its cost.

Table 76

Cost of Manufacturing Equipment of the Proposed Business

Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost


Portable Freezer (22 cu.ft.) 1 20,798.00 20,798.00
Garlic Chopper 2 500.00 1,000.00
Exhaust Fan (10A) 1 899.75 899.75
Industrial Fan 1 1,230.00 1,230.00
Power Generator 1 5,000.00 5,000.00
Water Dispenser 1 1,995.00 1,995.00
Digital Weighing Scale 1 1,117.00 1,117.00
Electric Mixer 1 400.00 400.00
Sausage Maker Meat Stuffer 2 2,961.00 5,922.00
Total P 38,361.75

Manufacturing Furniture and Fixtures. The following

are the manufacturing equipment used in the proposed

business:
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 Monoblock Chair – place at the working area and

used by the workers during production.

 Stainless Steel Working Table – is used to keep

supplies, tools, and equipment during the whole

process.

Stainless Steel Working Table Monoblock Chair


Figure 14: Manufacturing Furniture and Fixtures

Table 77 shows the furniture and fixture of the

proposed business and its cost.

Table 77

Cost of Manufacturing Furniture and Fixture of the

Proposed Business

Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost


Monoblock Chair 2 150.00 300.00
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Stainless Steel Working 10,000.


Table 2 00 20,000.00
Total 20,300.00

Required raw materials of the proposed business.

Table 78 shows the information pertaining to the cost of

raw materials. It also indicates their quantity and cost.

Table 78

Raw Materials used in manufacturing of Garlic Flavored

Pork Longganisa and Chicken Longganisa per 250 grams.

Unit Total
Pork Longganisa Quantity Unit
Cost Cost
Lean Meat 143.93 gm 0.18 25.91
Fat 64.64 gm 0.08 5.17
Native Garlic 25.56 ml 0.10 2.56
Black Pepper 1.32 gm 0.05 0.07
Sugar 5.28 gm 0.04 0.21
Rock Salt 2.7 gm 0.02 0.05
Soy Sauce 1.5 ml 0.03 0.05
Cane Vinegar 3 ml 0.04 0.12
Casing 2.07 gm 0.10 0.21
Total 34.34
Chicken Unit Total
Quantity Unit
Longganisa Cost Cost
Lean Meat 143.93 gm 0.13 18.71
Fat 64.64 gm 0.08 5.17
Native Garlic 25.56 ml 0.10 2.56
Black Pepper 1.32 gm 0.05 0.07
Sugar 5.28 gm 0.04 0.21
Rock Salt 2.7 gm 0.02 0.05
Soy Sauce 1.5 ml 0.03 0.05
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Cane Vinegar 3 ml 0.04 0.12


Casing 2.07 gm 0.10 0.21
Total 27.14

Production process of the proposed business.

Production process is a process wherein the product takes

in order for it to become ready for customers to buy.

Materials Needed:

2 1/2kg Lean Meat

1/2kg Fat

358ml Native Garlic

19gm Black Pepper

7kg Sugar

38gm Rock Salt

20ml Soy Sauce

42ml Cane Vinegar

2.9kg Casing

Procedure:

Making the Meat mixture

1. Prepare all raw materials, tools, and equipment

needed in the production.


2. In a basin, mix the ground meat and fat.
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3. Add soy sauce, vinegar, brown sugar, salt and pepper

into the basin.


4. Mix well the ingredients together until the brown

sugar is dissolved.
5. Refrigerate the meat mixture for at least two hours

or overnight. This will allow the meat to firm and

the flavors to blend well before forming the

longganisa.

Forming Sausages Using Casing

1. Prepare the pork intestine casing.


2. Soak the casing in a salt and water solution for at

least one hour.


3. Rinse thoroughly to remove traces of the salt and

water solution.
4. Cut off a 5inc. length of the casing.
5. Ease the casing onto the nozzle of the Sausage Maker

Meat Stuffer, leaving 2 inches (5.1 cm). Tie a double

knot at this end.


6. Scoop the meat mixture, a small amount at a time,

into the Sausage Maker Meat Stuffer and gently pack

into the casing.


7. When it's filled, remove the casing at the nozzle of

the Sausage Maker Meat Stuffer and use a letting to

tie a double knot at the end of the longganisa.


8. Dry the longganisa before packaging.
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This process produces fourteen (14) 250 grams of

garlic flavored longganisa for every 3,580 grams packed in

plastic box.

For Pork For Chicken

Preparation of Raw Materials

Mixing Mixing

Casing Casing

Packaging Packaging
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Figure 15.Production Flow Chart


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Suppliers of raw materials of the proposed business.

Public Market

St Mart

Suppliers of tools and supplies.

New Star

268 Shopper’s Mall

Suppliers of furniture and fixtures.

New Star

LAZADA

Suppliers of machineries and equipment.

New Star

Handyman

Abenson

Surplus Stores

LAZADA

New Point - Ace Hardware


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Sources of the utilities of the proposed business:

The working area of a company must be in good condition

where workers must feel comfortable. To attain this

condition, the following must be considered:

Sources of Power. Angeles Electric Corporation (AEC)

provides the primary source of electricity.

Water System. In order to maintain the cleanliness of

the production area, Angeles City Water District (ACWD)

will be the one to supply water in the company.

Source of Communication. PLDT’s telephone system and

internet connection will be used for an easy access and a

way of communication in negotiating to potential suppliers

and buyers.

Sanitation. Comfort rooms are available in the

production area for the use of employees in maintaining

their proper hygiene before and after their work.

Safety. Fire exit and fire extinguishers are

available in case of fire and first aid kit is provided

for unexpected injuries and accidents during working

hours.

Duration of purchasing the raw materials of the

proposed business. Insufficient source of raw materials


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usually occurs during calamities or other fortuitous

events. The researchers proposed to purchase raw materials

once a week to ensure the availability of the company’s

stock of raw materials to meet the demand of the product.

Quality control of the proposed business. Quality

Control is a process for maintaining the manufactured

products in great quality. Quality Control is an important

aspect of business to maintain, improve and to prevent the

defects in manufactured products, making sure that outputs

meet customer’s satisfaction.

To achieve a good quality in manufacturing of Chorizo

de Pampanga Garlic Flavored Chicken and Pork Longganisa

the following are needed:

 Choosing the proper quality of ingredients

 Ingredients must examine before and during the

whole procedure.

 Ensure that all the tools and equipment are well

cleaned and accurate to use.

 For the safeness and cleanliness of the product,

workers must wear hair net, face mask, apron and

gloves.
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 Workers must be in proper uniform and well

trained.

 Keep the working area well sanitized

 Any date indicated in the label regarding the

life of the product must be correct.

 The final product must be tightly sealed to

avoid error, assuring the quality of it.

 Checking abnormalities of the final product by

performing a visual and functional inspection of

the product.

Waste management of the proposed business.

Manufacturing company must have social responsibility in

disposing their own waste so that the people around them

will not be affected of what they are doing during

production. To make sure the safeness, companies must have

a clean and healthy environment, proper planning and

organizing of waste disposal system to avoid any risk from

employees to the environment.

In disposing waste, the factory is strictly

separating biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Non-

biodegradable like plastic bottles it can be collected and


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then sell them to earn an extra income. Biodegradable like

the skin of garlic can be used as organic fertilizer by

mixing it to the soil.

6.4. Financial Aspect

Financial Assumptions
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The assumptions were carefully drawn to complete the

financial statements. As a support to the assumptions,

schedules are prepared. These will serve as a guiding

principle in preparing the financial data needed in the

years 2019 to 2023 including the pre – operation.

1. Selling price is computed 23% markup for pork

longganisa in the first year and 25% in the

succeeding years while 50% markup for chicken

longganisa based on their production cost.

2. Cash sales and credit sales are 80% and 20% of the

total sales respectively.

3. Accounts Receivable – End is 5% of credit sales.

4. Allowance for Doubtful Accounts is 5% of the

Accounts Receivable – End and accounts written off

are 5% of beginning allowance for doubtful accounts.

5. Cash purchases and credit purchases on account are

30% and 70% of the total purchases respectively.

6. Accounts Payable – End is 5% of credit purchases.

7. Raw Materials Requirement will have an annual

increase of 5% on its unit cost.

8. The desired ending inventory of Raw Materials is

assumed to cover three days of production.


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9. The desired ending inventory of Finished Goods is

equal to three days production.

10. The Manufacturing Supplies ending inventory is 10%

of the annual manufacturing supplies requirement.

11. Manufacturing Supplies will have an annual increase

of 5% on its unit cost.

12. Depreciation is computed using the straight – line

method.

13. The cost of rent expense per month is ₱24,000.00 and

is assumed to increase by 5% annually.

14. Rent Expense will be allocated to Factory Overhead,

Administrative and Selling Expenses for 50%, 30%,

and 20% respectively.

15. Salaries and wages of all employees will increase 5%

annually.

16. Thirteenth month pay is given every year which is

equivalent to 1/12 of the total basic salary earned

by an employee within a year.

17. SSS, EC and PhilHealth contribution are based on the

revised table of SSS and PhilHealth depending upon

the compensation of each employee.


Republic Central Colleges 171
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

18. The last month of payment for SSS, EC, PhilHealth,

Pag-ibig and VAT will be accrued.

19. Office Supplies will have an annual increase of 5%

on its unit cost.

20. Office Supplies Inventory – End is 10% of the total

office supplies requirement.

21. Cleaning Supplies will have an annual increase of 5%

on its unit cost.

22. Cleaning Supplies expense will increase 5% annually

and allocated to Factory Overhead, Administrative

and Selling Expenses for 50%, 30% and 20%

respectively.

23. Tools will increase by 5% on its unit cost annually

and the tools expense applied the retirement method.

24. Repairs and maintenance is assumed to have an annual

increase of 20php.

25. Utilities Expense is assumed to increase 5% each

year and allocated to Factory Overhead,

Administrative, and Selling Expenses for 50%, 30%,

and 20% respectively.


Republic Central Colleges 172
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

26. Miscellaneous expense will increase 5% annually and

allocated to Factory Overhead, Administrative, and

Selling Expenses for 50%, 30%, and 20% respectively.

27. Advertising expense will have an annual increase of

2% on its unit cost.

28. Gas Expense will have an annual increase of 2% on

its unit cost.

29. Withdrawal is 80% of Net Income.

30. Business taxes were computed based on the Code

gathered from the City Hall of Angeles City. Gross

sales were considered as tax bases in the

computations.

31. Annual Projected Sales is assumed to increase by

2.50% each year.

32. The total projected cost consists of working capital

that will support the company for a week, furniture

and fixtures, and equipment needed in the operation.

33. The source of finance will be from personal savings

of the sole proprietor.


Republic Central Colleges 173
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 174
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 175
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 176
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 177
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 1
Projected Cost

Working Capital (Sch. 2) 121,111.25
Furnitures & Fixtures)(Sch. 3B) 40,832.00
Machineries & Equipment (Sch. 4B) 63,256.75
Delivery Equipment (Sch. 3) 44,800.00

Total Projected Cost 270,000.00

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 2
Working Capital (6 days)
Purchases (Sch. 52) ₱ 56,520.37
Office Supplies (Sch. 8) 248.96
Manufacturing Supplies (Sch. 11) 5,236.60
Cleaning Supplies (Sch. 17) 155.71
Salaries and Wages (Sch. 59) 41,470.00
SSS and EC (Sch. 61) 1,440.30
PhilHealth (Sch. 61) 263.18
Pag-ibig (Sch. 61) 207.69
Tools Expense (Sch. 20) 38.63
Utilities Expense (Sch. 24) 0.00
Rent Expense (Sch. 25) 4,153.85
Advertising Expense (Sch. 27) 269.23
Gas Expense (Sch. 28) 146.15
Miscellaneous Expense (Sch. 30) 57.69
Fees &Licenses (Sch. 31) 1,195.06
Contingency Fund 9,796.29
Total Working Capital ₱ 121,111.25
Republic Central Colleges 178
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 3A
Furniture and Fixtures (Exclusive of VAT)
Unit Cost
Particular Quantity (Exclusive Total Cost
of VAT)
Furniture and Fixtures - Office
Office Table 2 ₱ 1,427.68 ₱ 2,855.36
Round Table - Receiving
Area 1 5,257.14 5,257.14
Swivel Chair 2 981.25 1,962.50
Small Cabinet 1 1,606.25 1,606.25
Filing Cabinet (with 4
drawers) 1 6,964.29 6,964.29
4 Seater Sofa Set 1 7,141.96 7,141.96
Subtotal ₱ 25,787.50
Furniture and Fixtures - Manufacturing
Monoblock Chair 2 ₱ 133.93 ₱ 267.86
Stainless Steel Working
Table 2 892.86 1,785.71
Subtotal ₱ 2,053.57
Furniture and Fixtures - Selling
Monoblock Chair 1 ₱ 133.93 ₱ 133.93
Shelves (with 5 layers) 1 8,482.14 8,482.14
Subtotal 8,616.07
TOTAL ₱ 36,457.14
Republic Central Colleges 179
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 3B
Furniture and Fixtures (Inclusive of VAT)
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
Furniture and Fixtures - Office
Office Table 2 1,599.00 ₱ 3,198.00
Round Table - Receiving
Area 1 5,888.00 5,888.00
Swivel Chair 2 1,099.00 2,198.00
Small Cabinet 1 1,799.00 1,799.00
Filing Cabinet (with 4
drawers) 1 7,800.00 7,800.00
4 Seater Sofa Set 1 7,999.00 7,999.00
Subtotal ₱ 28,882.00
Furniture and Fixtures - Manufacturing
Monoblock Chair 2 150.00 ₱ 300.00
Stainless Steel Working
Table 2 1,000.00 2,000.00
Subtotal ₱ 2,300.00
Furniture and Fixtures - Selling
Monoblock Chair 1 ₱ 150.00 ₱ 150.00
Shelves (with 5 layers) 1 9,500.00 9,500.00
Subtotal 9,650.00
TOTAL ₱ 40,832.00
Republic Central Colleges 180
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 4A
Machinery & Equipment (Exclusive of VAT)
Unit Cost
Particular Quantity (Exclusive Total Cost
of VAT)
Machinery & Equipment - Office
Air conditioner 1 ₱ 6,691.96 ₱ 6,691.96
Bundy Clock 1 2,790.18 2,790.18
Computer Set 2 10,267.86 20,535.71
Ceiling Fan 1 1,629.46 1,629.46
Calculator 1 401.79 401.79
Water Dispenser 1 713.39 713.39
Printer 1 6,784.82 6,784.82
Subtotal ₱ 32,762.50

Machinery & Equipment - Manufacturing


Portable Freezer 1 ₱ 8,034.82 ₱ 8,034.82
Garlic Chopper 2 446.43 892.86
Exhaust Fan (10A) 1 803.35 803.35
Industrial Fan 1 1,098.21 1,098.21
Power Generator 1 4,464.29 4,464.29
Water Dispenser 1 1,781.25 1,781.25
Digital Weighing
Scale 1 997.32 997.32
Electric Mixer 1 357.14 357.14
Sausage Maker Meat
Stuffer 2 2,643.75 5,287.50
Subtotal 23,716.74
TOTAL ₱ 56,479.24
Republic Central Colleges 181
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 4B
Machinery & Equipment (Inclusive of VAT)
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
Machinery & Equipment - Office
Air conditioner 1 7,495.00 ₱ 7,495.00
Bundy Clock 1 3,125.00 3,125.00
Computer Set 2 11,500.00 23,000.00
Ceiling Fan 1 1,825.00 1,825.00
Calculator 1 450.00 450.00
Water Dispenser 1 799.00 799.00
Printer 1 7,599.00 7,599.00
Subtotal ₱ 36,694.00
Machinery & Equipment - Manufacturing
Portable Freezer 1 8,999.00 ₱ 8,999.00
Garlic Chopper 2 500.00 1,000.00
Exhaust Fan (10A) 1 899.75 899.75
Industrial Fan 1 1,230.00 1,230.00
Power Generator 1 5,000.00 5,000.00
Water Dispenser 1 1,995.00 1,995.00
Digital Weighing
Scale 1 1,117.00 1,117.00
Electric Mixer 1 400.00 400.00
Sausage Maker Meat
Stuffer 2 2,961.00 5,922.00
Subtotal 26,562.75
TOTAL ₱ 63,256.75
Republic Central Colleges 182
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 5A
Delivery Equipment (Exclusive of VAT)
Unit Cost
Quantit
Particular (Exclusive Total Cost
y
of VAT)
₱ ₱
Racal Haval 1 40,000.00 40,000.00
TOTAL ₱
40,000.00

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 5B
Delivery Equipment (Inclusive of VAT)
Unit Cost
Quantit
Particular (Inclusive Total Cost
y
of VAT)
Racal Haval 1 44,800.00 ₱ 44,800.00
TOTAL ₱ 44,800.00
Republic Central Colleges 183
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 184
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 8
Office Supplies
Particular Quantit Unit Unit Total
y Cost Cost
Ballpen (HBW) 2 12pcs/box 60.00 ₱ 120.00
Binder 4 pieces 96.00 384.00
Bond Paper (long) 1 500 Sheets/Ream 180.00 180.00
Bond Paper (short) 1 500 Sheets/Ream 160.00 160.00
Brown Envelope (Long) 10 pieces 4.00 40.00
Brown Envelope 10 pieces 3.00 30.00
(Short)
Bulletin Board 1 piece 379.00 379.00
Correction Tape 2 pieces 20.00 40.00
Fastener(Plastic) 2 box 30.00 60.00
Flash Drive (16Gig) 2 pieces 390.00 780.00
Folder (Long) 10 pieces 7.00 70.00
Folder (Short) 10 pieces 6.00 60.00
Paper Clip (Big) 2 box 21.00 42.00
Paper Clip (Small) 2 box 8.00 16.00
Pencil (Mongol) 2 12 pieces/ box 84.00 168.00
Pentelpen 2 pieces 39.00 78.00
Pentelpen Ink 2 piece 91.00 182.00
Puncher 2 piece 139.00 278.00
Push Pins 2 30pcs/box 15.00 30.00
Record Book 2 pieces 35.00 70.00
Scissors 2 pieces 23.00 46.00
Scotch Tape 6 pieces 29.00 174.00
Sharpener 2 piece 7.00 14.00
Stamp Pad 2 pieces 31.00 62.00
Stamp Pad Ink 2 bottles 35.00 70.00
Staple Wire 2 box 27.00 54.00
Stapler 2 pieces 61.00 122.00
Sticky Note (3x3) 2 pieces 24.00 48.00
Tape Dispenser 2 pieces 86.00 172.00
Time Card 1 100pcs/pack 94.00 94.00
Toner Cartridge - 5 bottles 195.00 975.00
Black
Toner Cartridge - 5 bottles 195.00 975.00
Colored
White Board 1 piece 252.00 252.00
White Board Eraser 2 piece 13.00 26.00
Republic Central Colleges 185
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

White Board Marker 2 pieces 30.00 60.00


White Board Marker
Refill 2 bottles 81.00 162.00

TOTAL 6,473.00

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 8A
Office Supplies - 2019
Unit Total
Particular Quantity Unit
Cost Cost
Ballpen (HBW) 2 12pcs/box 60.00 ₱ 120.00
Binder 4 pieces 96.00 384.00
Bond Paper (long) 1 500 Sheets/Ream 180.00 180.00
Bond Paper (short) 1 500 Sheets/Ream 160.00 160.00
Brown Envelope (Long) 10 pieces 4.00 40.00
Brown Envelope
(Short) 10 pieces 3.00 30.00
Bulletin Board 1 piece 379.00 379.00
Correction Tape 2 pieces 20.00 40.00
Fastener(Plastic) 2 box 30.00 60.00
Flash Drive (16Gig) 2 pieces 390.00 780.00
Folder (Long) 10 pieces 7.00 70.00
Folder (Short) 10 pieces 6.00 60.00
Paper Clip (Big) 2 box 21.00 42.00
Paper Clip (Small) 2 box 8.00 16.00
Pencil (Mongol) 2 12 pieces/ box 84.00 168.00
Pentelpen 2 pieces 39.00 78.00
Pentelpen Ink 2 piece 91.00 182.00
Puncher 2 piece 139.00 278.00
Push Pins 2 30pcs/box 15.00 30.00
Record Book 2 pieces 35.00 70.00
Scissors 2 pieces 23.00 46.00
Scotch Tape 6 pieces 29.00 174.00
Sharpener 2 piece 7.00 14.00
Stamp Pad 2 pieces 31.00 62.00
Stamp Pad Ink 2 bottles 35.00 70.00
Staple Wire 2 box 27.00 54.00
Stapler 2 pieces 61.00 122.00
Sticky Note (3x3) 2 pieces 24.00 48.00
Tape Dispenser 2 pieces 86.00 172.00
Time Card 1 100pcs/pack 94.00 94.00
Toner Cartridge -
Black 5 bottles 195.00 975.00
Toner Cartridge - 5 bottles 195.00 975.00
Republic Central Colleges 186
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Colored
White Board 1 piece 252.00 252.00
White Board Eraser 2 piece 13.00 26.00
White Board Marker 2 pieces 30.00 60.00
White Board Marker
Refill 2 bottles 81.00 162.00

TOTAL 6,473.00

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 8B
Office Supplies - 2020
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
Ballpen (HBW) 1 12pcs/box 63.00 ₱ 63.00
500
Bond Paper (long) 2 Sheets/Ream 189.00 378.00
500
Bond Paper (short) 2 Sheets/Ream 168.00 336.00
Brown Envelope (Long) 10 pieces 4.20 42.00
Brown Envelope (Short) 10 pieces 3.15 31.50
Correction Tape 3 pieces 21.00 63.00
Fastener(Plastic) 2 box 31.50 63.00
Folder (Long) 10 pieces 7.35 73.50
Folder (Short) 10 pieces 6.30 63.00
Paper Clip (Big) 2 box 22.05 44.10
Paper Clip (Small) 2 box 8.40 16.80
12 pieces/
Pencil (Mongol) 1 box 88.20 88.20
Pentelpen 3 pieces 40.95 122.85
Push Pins 2 30pcs/box 15.75 31.50
Record Book 2 pieces 36.75 73.50
Scotch Tape 4 pieces 30.45 121.80
Sharpener 2 pieces 7.35 14.70
Stamp Pad Ink 2 bottles 36.75 73.50
Staple Wire 2 box 28.35 56.70
Sticky Note (3x3) 2 pieces 25.20 50.40
Time Card 1 100pcs/pack 98.70 98.70
Toner Cartridge -
Black 5 bottles 204.75 1,023.75
Toner Cartridge -
Colored 5 bottles 204.75 1,023.75
White Board Marker 2 pieces 31.50 63.00
White Board Marker
Refill 1 bottles 85.05 85.05
Republic Central Colleges 187
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

TOTAL ₱ 4,101.30

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 8C
Office Supplies - 2021
Unit Total
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Cost
Ballpen (HBW) 1 12pcs/box ₱ 66.15 ₱ 66.15
500
Bond Paper (long) 2 Sheets/Ream 198.45 396.90
500
Bond Paper (short) 2 Sheets/Ream 176.40 352.80
Brown Envelope (Long) 10 pieces 4.41 44.10
Brown Envelope (Short) 10 pieces 3.31 33.08
Bulletin Board 1 piece 417.85 417.85
Correction Tape 2 pieces 22.05 44.10
Fastener(Plastic) 2 box 33.08 66.15
Folder (Long) 10 pieces 7.72 77.18
Folder (Short) 10 pieces 6.62 66.15
Paper Clip (Big) 2 box 23.15 46.31
Paper Clip (Small) 2 box 8.82 17.64
12 pieces/
Pencil (Mongol) 1 box 92.61 92.61
Pentelpen 3 pieces 43.00 128.99
Push Pins 2 30pcs/box 16.54 33.08
Record Book 2 pieces 38.59 77.18
Scissors 2 pieces 25.36 50.72
Scotch Tape 4 pieces 31.97 127.89
Sharpener 2 piece 7.72 15.44
Stamp Pad Ink 2 bottles 38.59 77.18
Staple Wire 2 box 29.77 59.54
Sticky Note (3x3) 2 pieces 26.46 52.92
Time Card 1 100pcs/pack 103.64 103.64
Toner Cartridge -
Black 5 bottles 214.99 1,074.94
Toner Cartridge -
Colored 5 bottles 214.99 1,074.94
Republic Central Colleges 188
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

White Board Marker


Refill 2 bottles 89.30 178.61

TOTAL 4,776.03

Meat & Spices Company


Snap Snacks Company
Schedule 8D
Office Supplies - 2022
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
Ballpen (HBW) 1 12pcs/box ₱ 69.46 ₱ 69.46
500
Sheets/Re
Bond Paper (long) 2 am 208.37 416.75
500
Sheets/Re
Bond Paper (short) 2 am 185.22 370.44
Brown Envelope
(Long) 10 pieces 4.63 46.31
Brown Envelope
(Short) 10 pieces 3.47 34.73
Correction Tape 2 pieces 23.15 46.31
Fastener(Plastic) 2 box 34.73 69.46
Folder (Long) 10 pieces 8.10 81.03
Folder (Short) 10 pieces 6.95 69.46
Paper Clip (Big) 2 box 24.31 48.62
Paper Clip (Small) 2 box 9.26 18.52
12
pieces/
Pencil (Mongol) 1 box 97.24 97.24
Pentelpen 2 pieces 45.15 90.29
Pentelpen Ink 2 piece 105.34 210.69
Push Pins 2 30pcs/box 17.36 34.73
Record Book 2 pieces 40.52 81.03
Republic Central Colleges 189
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Scissors 2 pieces 26.63 53.25


Scotch Tape 4 pieces 33.57 134.28
Sharpener 2 piece 8.10 16.21
Stamp Pad Ink 2 bottles 40.52 81.03
Staple Wire 2 box 31.26 62.51
Sticky Note (3x3) 2 pieces 27.78 55.57
100pcs/pa
Time Card 1 ck 108.82 108.82
Toner Cartridge -
Black 5 bottles 225.74 1,128.68
Toner Cartridge -
Colored 5 bottles 225.74 1,128.68
White Board Eraser 2 piece 15.05 30.10
White Board Marker 2 pieces 34.73 69.46
White Board Marker
Refill 2 bottles 93.77 187.54
TOTAL ₱ 4,841.19
Republic Central Colleges 190
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 8E
Supplies - Office 2023
Quantit Unit
Particular y Unit Cost Total Cost
Ballpen (HBW) 1 12pcs/box ₱ 72.93 ₱ 72.93
500
Sheets/Rea
Bond Paper (long) 2 m 218.79 437.58
500
Sheets/Rea
Bond Paper (short) 2 m 194.48 388.96
Brown Envelope (Long) 10 pieces 4.86 48.62
Brown Envelope (Short) 10 pieces 3.65 36.47
Bulletin Board 1 piece 460.68 460.68
Correction Tape 3 pieces 24.31 72.93
Fastener(Plastic 1Box) 2 box 36.47 72.93
Folder (Long) 10 pieces 8.51 85.09
Folder (Short) 10 pieces 7.29 72.93
Paper Clip (Big) 2 box 25.53 51.05
Paper Clip (Small) 2 box 9.72 19.45
12 pieces/
Pencil (Mongol 1Box) 1 box 102.10 102.10
Pentelpen 2 pieces 47.40 94.81
Push Pins 2 30pcs/box 18.23 36.47
Record Book 2 pieces 42.54 85.09
Scissors 2 pieces 27.96 55.91
Scotch Tape 4 pieces 35.25 141.00
Sharpener 2 piece 8.51 17.02
Stamp Pad Ink 2 bottles 42.54 85.09
Staple Wire (1 box) 2 box 32.82 65.64
Sticky Note (3x3) 2 pieces 29.17 58.34
100pcs/pac
Time Card 1 k 114.26 114.26
Toner Cartridge - Black 5 bottles 237.02 1,185.12
Toner Cartridge -
Colored 5 bottles 237.02 1,185.12
White Board Marker
Refill 2 bottles 98.46 196.91
TOTAL ₱ 5,242.48
Republic Central Colleges 191
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 192
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 11
Manufacturing Supplies
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Total
Cost
Apron 4 pieces 35.00 ₱ 140.00
Hairnet 15 pieces 10.00 150.00
Facemask 1 50 pcs/pack 150.00 150.00
Disposable Gloves 2 100 pcs/pack 45.00 90.00
Letting 5 pieces 25.00 125.00
Packaging Box (100
units per box) 468 pieces 3.00 1,404.00
Packaging Tape 20 pieces 30.00 600.00
Product Label
Sticker(Front) 2,340 20 pcs/sheet 12.00 28,080.00
Resealable Pouch 46,850 pieces 2.25 105,412.50
TOTAL ₱136,151.50

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 11A
Manufacturing Supplies - 2019
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Total
Cost
Apron 4 pieces 35.00 ₱ 140.00
Hairnet 15 pieces 10.00 150.00
Facemask 1 50 pcs/pack 150.00 150.00
Disposable Gloves 2 100 pcs/pack 45.00 90.00
Letting 5 pieces 25.00 125.00
Packaging Box (100
units per box) 468 pieces 3.00 1,404.00
Packaging Tape 20 pieces 30.00 600.00
Product Label
Sticker(Front) 2,340 20 pcs/sheet 12.00 28,080.00
Resealable Pouch 46,850 pieces 2.25 105,412.50
TOTAL ₱136,151.50
Republic Central Colleges 193
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 11B
Manufacturing Supplies 2020
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Total
Cost
Apron 8 pieces ₱36.75 ₱ 294.00
Hairnet 30 pieces 10.50 315.00
Facemask 2 50 pcs/pack 157.50 315.00
Disposable Gloves 4 100 pcs/pack 47.25 189.00
Letting 10 pieces 26.25 262.50
Packaging Box (100
units per box) 941 pieces 3.15 2,964.15
Packaging Tape 40 pieces 31.50 1,260.00
Product Label
Sticker(Front) 4,707 20 pcs/sheet 12.60 59,308.20
Resealable Pouch 94,140 pieces 2.36 222,405.75
TOTAL ₱287,313.60

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 11C
Manufacturing Supplies 2021
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Total
Cost
Apron 8 pieces ₱38.59 ₱ 308.70
Hairnet 30 pieces 11.03 330.75
Facemask 2 50 pcs/pack 165.38 330.75
Disposable Gloves 4 100 pcs/pack 49.61 198.45
Letting 10 pieces 27.56 275.63
Packaging Box (100
units per box) 965 pieces 3.31 3,191.74
Packaging Tape 40 pieces 33.08 1,323.00
Product Label
Sticker(Front) 4,825 20 pcs/sheet 13.23 63,834.75
Resealable Pouch 96,494 pieces 2.48 239,365.43
TOTAL ₱309,159.19
Republic Central Colleges 194
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 11D
Manufacturing Supplies 2022
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Total
Cost
Apron 8 pieces ₱40.52 ₱ 324.14
Hairnet 30 pieces 11.58 347.29
Facemask 2 50 pcs/pack 173.64 347.29
Disposable Gloves 4 100 pcs/pack 52.09 208.37
Letting 10 pieces 28.94 289.41
Packaging Box (100
units per box) 989 pieces 3.47 3,434.67
Packaging Tape 40 pieces 34.73 1,389.15
Product Label
Sticker(Front) 4,945 20 pcs/sheet 13.89 68,693.47
Resealable Pouch 98,906 pieces 2.60 257,616.13
TOTAL ₱332,649.91

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 11E
Manufacturing Supplies 2023
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Total
Cost
Apron 8 pieces ₱42.54 ₱ 340.34
Hairnet 30 pieces 12.16 364.65
Facemask 2 50 pcs/pack 182.33 364.65
Disposable Gloves 4 100 pcs/pack 54.70 218.79
Letting 10 pieces 30.39 303.88
Packaging Box (100
units per box) 1,014 pieces 3.65 3,697.57
Packaging Tape 45 pieces 36.47 1,640.93
Product Label
Sticker(Front) 5,069 20 pcs/sheet 14.59 73,936.81
Resealable Pouch 101,379 pieces 2.73 277,260.32
TOTAL ₱358,127.95
Republic Central Colleges 195
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 196
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 14
Cleaning Supplies Expense
Quantit Unit
Particular y Cost Total
Feather duster 2 ₱50.00 ₱ 100.00
Broom Stick 2 100.00 200.00
Detergent powder (2kg) 1 125.00 125.00
Dipper 1 20.00 20.00
Domex (1000ml) 2 170.75 341.50
Dust broom and Dust Pan 1 1,291.00 1,291.00
Insecticide 1 195.00 195.00
Joy Ultra (500ml) 4 129.00 516.00
Mop 1 299.75 299.75
Pail 1 45.00 45.00
Rags 3 49.25 147.75
Garbage Bag 10 50.00 500.00
Brush 2 118.75 237.50
Sponge 3 10.00 30.00
TOTAL ₱ 4,048.50

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 14
Cleaning Supplies Expense - 2019
Quantit Unit
Particular y Cost Total
Feather duster 2 ₱50.00 ₱ 100.00
Broom Stick 2 100.00 200.00
Detergent powder (2kg) 1 125.00 125.00
Dipper 1 20.00 20.00
Domex (1000ml) 2 170.75 341.50
Dust broom and Dust Pan 1 1,291.00 1,291.00
Insecticide 1 195.00 195.00
Joy Ultra (500ml) 4 129.00 516.00
Mop 1 299.75 299.75
Pail 1 45.00 45.00
Rags 3 49.25 147.75
Garbage Bag 10 50.00 500.00
Republic Central Colleges 197
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Brush 2 118.75 237.50


Sponge 3 10.00 30.00
TOTAL ₱ 4,048.50
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 14B
Cleaning Supplies Expense 2020
Quantit
Particular y Unit Cost Total
Feather duster 2 ₱52.50 ₱ 105.00
Broom Stick 2 105.00 210.00
Detergent powder (2kg) 1 131.25 131.25
Dipper 1 21.00 21.00
Domex (1000ml) 2 179.29 358.58
Dust broom and Dust Pan 1 1,355.55 1,355.55
Insecticide 1 204.75 204.75
Joy Ultra (500ml) 4 135.45 541.80
Mop 1 314.74 314.74
Pail 1 47.25 47.25
Rags 3 51.71 155.14
Garbage Bag 15 52.50 787.50
Brush 2 124.69 249.38
Sponge 3 10.50 31.50
TOTAL ₱ 4,513.43

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 14C
Cleaning Supplies Expense 2021
Quantit
Particular y Unit Cost Total
Feather duster 2 ₱ 55.13 ₱ 110.25
Broom Stick 2 110.25 220.50
Detergent powder (2kg) 1 137.81 137.81
Dipper 1 22.05 22.05
Domex (1000ml) 2 188.25 376.50
Dust broom and Dust Pan 1 1,423.33 1,423.33
Insecticide 1 214.99 214.99
Joy Ultra (500ml) 4 142.22 568.89
Mop 1 330.47 330.47
Pail 1 49.61 49.61
Republic Central Colleges 198
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Rags 3 54.30 162.89


Garbage Bag 15 55.13 826.88
Brush 2 130.92 261.84
Sponge 3 11.03 33.08
TOTAL ₱ 4,739.10
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 14D
Cleaning Supplies Expense 2022
Quantit
Particular y Unit Cost Total
Feather duster 2 ₱ 57.88 ₱ 115.76
Broom Stick 2 115.76 ₱ 231.53
Detergent powder (2kg) 1 144.70 144.70
Dipper 1 23.15 23.15
Domex (1000ml) 2 197.66 395.33
Dust broom and Dust Pan 1 1,494.49 1,494.49
Insecticide 1 225.74 225.74
Joy Ultra (500ml) 4 149.33 597.33
Mop 1 347.00 347.00
Pail 1 52.09 52.09
Rags 3 57.01 171.04
Garbage Bag 15 57.88 868.22
Brush 2 137.47 274.94
Sponge 3 11.58 34.73
TOTAL ₱ 4,976.05

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 14E
Cleaning Supplies Expense 2023
Quantit
Particular y Unit Cost Total
Feather duster 2 ₱ 60.78 ₱ 121.55
Broom Stick 2 121.55 243.10
Detergent powder (2kg) 1 151.94 151.94
Dipper 1 24.31 24.31
Domex (1000ml) 2 207.55 415.10
Dust broom and Dust Pan 1 1,569.22 1,569.22
Insecticide 1 237.02 237.02
Joy Ultra (500ml) 4 156.80 627.20
Republic Central Colleges 199
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Mop 1 364.35 364.35


Pail 1 54.70 54.70
Rags 3 59.86 179.59
Garbage Bag 15 60.78 911.63
Brush 2 144.34 288.68
Sponge 3 12.16 36.47
TOTAL ₱ 5,224.85
Republic Central Colleges 200
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 16A
Tools
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Kitchen Knife 2 piece 179.75
s ₱ 359.50
Chopping Board 2 piece 88.00 176.00
s
Basin 2 piece 65.00 130.00
s
Measuring Spoon 2 piece 69.75 139.50
s
Measuring Cup 2 piece 99.75 199.50
s
TOTAL ₱ 1,004.50

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 16A
Tools - 2019
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Kitchen Knife 2 piece 179.75
s ₱ 359.50
Chopping Board 2 piece 88.00 176.00
s
Basin 2 piece 65.00 130.00
s
Measuring Spoon 2 piece 69.75 139.50
s
Measuring Cup 2 piece 99.75 199.50
s
TOTAL ₱ 1,004.50

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 16B
Republic Central Colleges 201
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Tools 2020
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Kitchen Knife 2 piece 377.48
s 188.74
Chopping Board 2 piece 184.80
s 92.40
TOTAL ₱ 562.28

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 16C
Tools 2021
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Kitchen Knife 2 piece
s ₱ 198.17 ₱ 396.35
Chopping Board 2 piece 194.04
s 97.02
Basin 2 piece 143.33
s 71.66
Measuring Spoon 2 piece 153.80
s 76.90
Measuring Cup 2 piece 219.95
s 109.97
TOTAL ₱ 1,107.46

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 16D
Tools 2022
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Kitchen Knife 2 piece 416.17
s 208.08
Chopping Board 2 piece 203.74
s 101.87
TOTAL ₱ 619.91
Republic Central Colleges 202
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 16E
Tools 2023
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Kitchen Knife 2 piece
s ₱ 218.49 ₱ 436.97
Chopping Board 2 piece 106.96 213.93
s
Basin 2 piece 79.01 158.02
s
Measuring Spoon 2 piece 84.78 169.56
s
Measuring Cup 2 piece 121.25 242.49
s
TOTAL ₱ 1,220.98
Republic Central Colleges 203
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 204
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 205
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 23A
Advertising Expense - 2019
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Total
Cost
Sign Board (20" x 20") 2 Piece ₱ 700.00 ₱ 1,400.00
Business Card 100 Pcs 3.00 300.00
Calendar Posters (12"
50 Pcs 60.00 3,000.00
x 18")
TOTAL ₱ 4,700.00

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 23B
Advertising Expense 2020
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Total
Republic Central Colleges 206
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Cost
Calendar Posters (12" x
50 Pcs
18") ₱ 60.25 ₱ 3,012.50
TOTAL ₱ 3,012.50

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 23C
Advertising Expense 2021
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Calendar Posters (12"
50 Pcs.
x 18") ₱ 60.50 ₱ 3,025.00
TOTAL ₱ 3,025.00
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 23D
Advertising Expense 2022
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Calendar Posters (12"
50 Pcs.
x 18") ₱ 60.75 ₱ 3,037.50
TOTAL ₱ 3,037.50
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 23E
Advertising Expense 2023
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Calendar Posters (12" Piece
50
x 18") s ₱ 61.00 ₱ 3,050.00
TOTAL ₱ 3,050.00

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 24A
Gas 2019
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Diesel 100 Liters ₱ 38.00 ₱ 3,800.00
TOTAL ₱ 3,800.00
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 24B
Gas 2020
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Republic Central Colleges 207
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Diesel 100 Liters ₱ 38.76 ₱ 3,876.00


TOTAL ₱ 3,876.00
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 24C
Gas 2021
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Diesel 100 Liters ₱ 39.54 ₱ 3,953.52
TOTAL ₱ 3,953.52

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 24D
Gas 2022
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Diesel 100 Liters ₱ 40.33 ₱ 4,032.59
TOTAL ₱ 4,032.59
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 24E
Gas 2023
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Diesel 100 Liters ₱ 41.13 ₱ 4,113.24
TOTAL ₱ 4,113.24
Republic Central Colleges 208
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 209
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 210
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Snap Snacks Company


Schedule 28
Organizational Cost
DTI ₱ 2,000.00
BIR Permit 500.00
Mayor's Permit 500.00
Health & Sanitary Permit 250.00
Sticker fee and Card 35.00
Occupational Permit 1,400.00
Business Plate 200.00
Barangay Permit 500.00
Inspection Fee 30.00
Zoning fee 150.00
Environmental Protection Fee 300.00
Fire and Safety Inspection Fee 476.50
Documentary Stamp Fee 15.00
TOTAL ₱ 6,356.50
Republic Central Colleges 211
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 212
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 31A
Raw Materials Requirement 2019
Quantit
Particular y Unit Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
Lean Meat 3,368 Kilograms 180.00 ₱606,227
Fat 1,513 Kilograms 80.00 121,011
millilite
Native Garlic 598,104 r 0.10 59,810
Black Pepper 30,921 grams 0.05 1,546
Sugar 123,602 grams 0.04 4,944
Rock Salt 63,180 grams 0.02 1,264
millilite
Soy Sauce 35,100 r 0.03 1,053
millilite
Cane Vinegar 70,200 r 0.04 2,808
Casing 48,471 grams 0.10 4,847
SUBTOTAL 803,511
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 3,368 grams 130.00 437,831
Fat 1,513 grams 80.00 121,011
millilite
Native Garlic 598,104 r 0.10 59,810
Black Pepper 30,921 grams 0.05 1,546
Sugar 123,602 grams 0.04 4,944
Rock Salt 63,180 grams 0.02 1,264
millilite
Soy Sauce 35,100 r 0.03 1,053
Cane Vinegar 70,200 millilite 0.04 2,808
Republic Central Colleges 213
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

r
Casing 48,471 grams 0.10 4,847
SUBTOTAL 635,114
TOTAL ₱1,438,625
Republic Central Colleges 214
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 31B
Raw Materials Requirement 2020
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
₱1,243,83
Lean Meat 6,775 grams 183.60 8
Fat 3,043 grams 81.60 248,288
1,203,10 millilite
Native Garlic 9 r 0.10 120,311
Black Pepper 62,200 grams 0.05 3,110
Sugar 248,630 grams 0.04 9,945
Rock Salt 127,089 grams 0.02 2,542
millilite
Soy Sauce 70,605 r 0.03 2,118
millilite
Cane Vinegar 141,210 r 0.04 5,648
Casing 97,502 grams 0.10 9,750
SUBTOTAL 1,645,550
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 6,775 grams 132.60 898,328
Fat 3,043 grams 81.60 248,288
1,203,10 millilite
Native Garlic 9 r 0.10 120,311
Black Pepper 62,200 grams 0.05 3,110
Sugar 248,630 grams 0.04 9,945
Rock Salt 127,089 grams 0.02 2,542
millilite
Soy Sauce 70,605 r 0.03 2,118
millilite
Cane Vinegar 141,210 r 0.04 5,648
Casing 97,502 grams 0.10 9,750
SUBTOTAL 1,300,040
₱2,945,59
TOTAL 0
Republic Central Colleges 215
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 31C
Raw Materials Requirement 2021
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
₱1,300,44
Lean Meat 6,944 grams 187.27 0
Fat 3,119 grams 83.23 259,586
1,233,19 millilite
Native Garlic 3 r 0.10 123,319
Black Pepper 63,755 grams 0.05 3,188
Sugar 254,848 grams 0.04 10,194
Rock Salt 130,267 grams 0.02 2,605
millilite
Soy Sauce 72,371 r 0.03 2,171
millilite
Cane Vinegar 144,741 r 0.04 5,790
Casing 99,940 grams 0.10 9,994
SUBTOTAL 1,717,287
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 6,944 grams 135.25 939,206
Fat 3,119 grams 83.23 259,586
1,233,19 millilite
Native Garlic 3 r 0.10 123,319
Black Pepper 63,755 grams 0.05 3,188
Sugar 254,848 grams 0.04 10,194
Rock Salt 130,267 grams 0.02 2,605
millilite
Soy Sauce 72,371 r 0.03 2,171
millilite
Cane Vinegar 144,741 r 0.04 5,790
Casing 99,940 grams 0.10 9,994
SUBTOTAL 1,356,053
Republic Central Colleges 216
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

₱3,073,34
TOTAL 0

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 31D
Raw Materials Requirement 2022
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
₱1,359,60
Lean Meat 7,118 grams 191.02 5
Fat 3,197 grams 84.90 271,396
1,264,01 millilite
Native Garlic 9 r 0.10 126,402
Black Pepper 65,349 grams 0.05 3,267
Sugar 261,218 grams 0.04 10,449
Rock Salt 133,523 grams 0.02 2,670
millilite
Soy Sauce 74,180 r 0.03 2,225
millilite
Cane Vinegar 148,359 r 0.04 5,934
Casing 102,438 grams 0.10 10,244
SUBTOTAL 1,792,193

Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 7,118 grams 137.96 981,937
Fat 3,197 grams 84.90 271,396
1,264,01 millilite
Native Garlic 9 r 0.10 126,402
Republic Central Colleges 217
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Black Pepper 65,349 grams 0.05 3,267


Sugar 261,218 grams 0.04 10,449
Rock Salt 133,523 grams 0.02 2,670
millilite
Soy Sauce 74,180 r 0.03 2,225
millilite
Cane Vinegar 148,359 r 0.04 5,934
Casing 102,438 grams 0.10 10,244
SUBTOTAL 1,414,525
₱3,206,71
TOTAL 8

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 31E
Raw Materials Requirement 2023
Unit
Particular Quantity Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
₱1,421,48
Lean Meat 7,296 grams 194.84 6
Fat 3,277 grams 86.59 283,748
1,295,63 millilite
Native Garlic 6 r 0.10 129,564
Black Pepper 66,983 grams 0.05 3,349
Sugar 267,752 grams 0.04 10,710
Rock Salt 136,863 grams 0.02 2,737
millilite
Soy Sauce 76,035 r 0.03 2,281
Cane Vinegar 152,070 millilite 0.04 6,083
Republic Central Colleges 218
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

r
Casing 105,001 grams 0.10 10,500
SUBTOTAL 1,870,458
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 7,296 grams 140.72 1,026,629
Fat 3,277 grams 86.59 283,748
1,295,63 millilite
Native Garlic 6 r 0.10 129,564
Black Pepper 66,983 grams 0.05 3,349
Sugar 267,752 grams 0.04 10,710
Rock Salt 136,863 grams 0.02 2,737
millilite
Soy Sauce 76,035 r 0.03 2,281
millilite
Cane Vinegar 152,070 r 0.04 6,083
Casing 105,001 grams 0.10 10,500
SUBTOTAL 1,475,601
₱3,346,05
TOTAL 9
Republic Central Colleges 219
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 220
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 35A
Annual Unit Cost 2019
Pork Longganisa
Direct Materials 803,510.87
Divide by no. of units produced 23,400
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 34.34
Direct Labor 124,800.00
Divide by no. of units produced 23,400
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.33
Republic Central Colleges 221
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Factory Overhead 274,153.63


Divide by no. of units produced 23,400
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 11.72
UNIT COST ₱51.39
Chicken Longganisa
Direct Materials 635,114.44
Divide by no. of units produced 23,400
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 27.14
Direct Labor 124,800.00
Divide by no. of units produced 23,400
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.33
Factory Overhead 274,153.63
Divide by no. of units produced 23,400
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 11.72
UNIT COST ₱44.19

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 35B
Annual Unit Cost 2020
Pork Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,645,550.39
Divide by no. of units produced 47,070
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 34.96
Direct Labor 262,080.00
Divide by no. of units produced 47,070
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.57
Factory Overhead 544,216.13
Divide by no. of units produced 47,070
Republic Central Colleges 222
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 11.56


UNIT COST ₱52.09
Chicken Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,300,039.78
Divide by no. of units produced 47,070
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 27.62
Direct Labor 262,080.00
Divide by no. of units produced 47,070
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.57
Factory Overhead 544,216.13
Divide by no. of units produced 47,070
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 11.56
UNIT COST ₱44.75

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 35C
Annual Unit Cost 2021
Pork Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,717,286.62
Divide by no. of units produced 48,247
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 35.59
Direct Labor 275,184.00
Divide by no. of units produced 48,247
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.70
Factory Overhead 578,093.07
Divide by no. of units produced 48,247
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 11.98
UNIT COST ₱53.28
Republic Central Colleges 223
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Chicken Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,356,053.41
Divide by no. of units produced 48,247
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 28.11
Direct Labor 275,184.00
Divide by no. of units produced 48,247
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.70
Factory Overhead 578,093.07
Divide by no. of units produced 48,247
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 11.98
UNIT COST ₱45.79

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 35D
Annual Unit Cost 2022
Pork Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,792,192.97
Divide by no. of units produced 49,453
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 36.24
Direct Labor 288,943.20
Divide by no. of units produced 49,453
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.84
Factory Overhead 615,147.14
Divide by no. of units produced 49,453
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 12.44
UNIT COST ₱54.52
Chicken Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,414,524.98
Republic Central Colleges 224
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Divide by no. of units produced 49,453


Direct Materials Cost per Unit 28.60
Direct Labor 288,943.20
Divide by no. of units produced 49,453
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.84
Factory Overhead 615,147.14
Divide by no. of units produced 49,453
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 12.44
UNIT COST ₱46.89

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 35E
Annual Unit Cost 2023
Pork Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,870,458.22
Divide by no. of units produced 50,690
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 36.90
Direct Labor 303,390.36
Divide by no. of units produced 50,690
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.99
Factory Overhead 653,288.49
Divide by no. of units produced 50,690
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 12.89
UNIT COST ₱55.77
Chicken Longganisa
Direct Materials 1,475,601.08
Divide by no. of units produced 50,690
Direct Materials Cost per Unit 29.11
Republic Central Colleges 225
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Direct Labor 303,390.36


Divide by no. of units produced 50,690
Direct Labor Cost per Unit 5.99
Factory Overhead 653,288.49
Divide by no. of units produced 50,690
Factory Overhead Cost per Unit 12.89
UNIT COST ₱47.98

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 36A
Projected Selling Price 2019
Pork Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱51.39
Mark Up: (40%) 20.55
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 71.94
Add: 12% VAT 8.63
Projected Selling Price ₱80.58
Round Off 81
Chicken Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱44.19
Mark Up: (40%) 17.68
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 61.87
Add: 12% VAT 7.42
Projected Selling Price ₱69.29
Round Off 69
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 36B
Projected Selling Price 2020
Republic Central Colleges 226
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Pork Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱52.09
Mark Up: (40%) 20.84
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 72.93
Add: 12% VAT 8.75
Projected Selling Price ₱81.68
Round Off 82
Chicken Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱44.75
Mark Up: (40%) 17.90
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 62.65
Add: 12% VAT 7.52
Projected Selling Price ₱70.17
Round Off 70
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 36C
Projected Selling Price 2021
Pork Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱53.28
Mark Up: (40%) 21.31
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 74.59
Add: 12% VAT 8.95
Projected Selling Price ₱83.54
Round Off 84
Chicken Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱45.79
Mark Up: (40%) 18.32
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 64.11
Add: 12% VAT 7.69
Projected Selling Price ₱71.80
Round Off 72
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 36D
Projected Selling Price 2022
Pork Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱54.52
Mark Up: (40%) 21.81
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 76.33
Add: 12% VAT 9.16
Projected Selling Price ₱85.49
Republic Central Colleges 227
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Round Off 85
Chicken Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱46.89
Mark Up: (40%) 18.75
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 65.64
Add: 12% VAT 7.88
Projected Selling Price ₱73.52
Round Off 74
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 36E
Projected Selling Price 2023
Pork Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱55.77
Mark Up: (40%) 22.31
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 78.08
Add: 12% VAT 9.37
Projected Selling Price ₱87.45
Round Off 87
Chicken Longganisa
Unit Cost ₱47.98
Mark Up: (40%) 19.19
Unit Selling Price (exclusive of VAT) 67.18
Add: 12% VAT 8.06
Projected Selling Price ₱75.24
Round Off 75

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 37A
Sales Budget (Inclusive 12% VAT) 2019
Pork Longganisa
Quantity 22,500
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 81
₱1,812,946.4
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
8
Chicken Longganisa
Quantity 22,500
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 69
₱1,559,056.4
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
8
Republic Central Colleges 228
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 37B
Sales Budget (Inclusive 12% VAT) 2020
Pork Longganisa
Quantity 47,047
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 82
₱3,842,616.8
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
0
Chicken Longganisa
Quantity 47,047
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 70
₱3,301,120.8
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
8
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 37C
Sales Budget (Inclusive 12% VAT) 2021
Pork Longganisa
Quantity 48,224
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 84
₱4,028,722.4
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
1
Chicken Longganisa
Quantity 48,224
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 72
₱3,462,578.7
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
5
Republic Central Colleges 229
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 37D
Sales Budget (Inclusive 12% VAT) 2022
Pork Longganisa
Quantity 49,430
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 85
₱4,225,805.9
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
5
Chicken Longganisa
Quantity 49,430
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 74
₱3,633,897.9
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
6
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 37E
Sales Budget (Inclusive 12% VAT) 2023
Pork Longganisa
Quantity 50,665
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 87
₱4,430,764.6
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
2
Chicken Longganisa
Quantity 50,665
Multiply unit selling price (inclusive of VAT) 75
₱3,811,933.9
Total Sales (inclusive of VAT)
8
Republic Central Colleges 230
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 38A
Breakdown of Sales (in Units) 2019
Pork Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 22,500
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 18,000
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 22,500
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 4,500
Chicken Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 22,500
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 18,000
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 22,500
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 4,500
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 38B
Breakdown of Sales (in Units) 2020
Pork Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 37,638
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,409
Chicken Longganisa
Republic Central Colleges 231
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Cash Sales
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 37,638
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,409
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 38C
Breakdown of Sales (in Units) 2021
Pork Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 48,224
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 38,579
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 48,224
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,645
Chicken Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 48,224
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 38,579
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 48,224
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,645

Snap Snacks Company


Schedule 38D
Breakdown of Sales (in Units) 2022
Pork Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 39,544
Republic Central Colleges 232
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Credit Sales
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,886
Chicken Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 39,544
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,886
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 38E
Breakdown of Sales (in Units) 2023
Pork Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 40,532
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 10,133
Chicken Longganisa
Cash Sales
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 40,532
Credit Sales
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 10,133

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 39A
Sales Budget - Cash Sales 2019
Pork Longganisa
Republic Central Colleges 233
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Units to be sold 22,500


Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 18,000
Multiply by 80.58
Cash Sales ₱1,450,357.18
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 22,500
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 18,000
Multiply by 69.29
Cash Sales ₱1,247,245.18

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 39B
Sales Budget - Cash Sales 2020
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 37,638
Multiply by 81.68
Cash Sales ₱3,074,093.44
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 37,638
Multiply by 70.17
Cash Sales ₱2,640,896.71
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 39C
Sales Budget - Cash Sales 2021
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 48,224
Republic Central Colleges 234
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 38,579
Multiply by 83.54
Cash Sales ₱3,222,977.93
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 48,224
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 38,579
Multiply by 71.80
Cash Sales ₱2,770,063.00

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 39D
Sales Budget - Cash Sales 2022
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 39,544
Multiply by 85.49
Cash Sales ₱3,380,644.76
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 39,544
Multiply by 73.52
Cash Sales ₱2,907,118.37
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 39E
Sales Budget - Cash Sales 2023
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 80%
Subtotal in units 40,532
Multiply by 87.45
Cash Sales ₱3,544,611.70
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 80%
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Subtotal in units 40,532


Multiply by 75.24
Cash Sales ₱3,049,547.18

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 40A
Sales Budget - Credit Sales 2019
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 22,500
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 4,500
Multiply by 80.58
Credit Sales ₱362,589.30
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 22,500
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 4,500
Multiply by 69.29
Credit Sales ₱311,811.30
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 40B
Sales Budget - Credit Sales 2020
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,409
Multiply by 81.68
Credit Sales ₱768,523.36
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 47,047
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,409
Multiply by 70.17
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Credit Sales ₱660,224.18

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 40C
Sales Budget - Credit Sales 2021
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 48,224
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,645
Multiply by 83.54
Credit Sales ₱805,744.48
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 48,224
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,645
Multiply by 71.80
Credit Sales ₱692,515.75
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 40D
Sales Budget - Credit Sales 2022
Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,886
Multiply by 85.49
Credit Sales ₱845,161.19
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 49,430
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 9,886
Multiply by 73.52
Credit Sales ₱726,779.59

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 40E
Sales Budget - Credit Sales 2023
Republic Central Colleges 237
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Pork Longganisa
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 10,133
Multiply by 87.45
Credit Sales ₱886,152.92
Chicken Longganisa
Units to be sold 50,665
Multiply by 20%
Subtotal in units 10,133
Multiply by 75.24
Credit Sales ₱762,386.80
Republic Central Colleges 238
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 239
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 240
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 241
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 50A
Raw Materials Ending Inventory 2019
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Republic Central Colleges 242
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Pork Longganisa
Lean Meat 130 kilograms 180.00 ₱23,316.43
Fat 58 kilograms 80.00 4,654.29
Garlic 23,004 milliliter 0.10 2,300.40
Black Pepper 1,189 grams 0.05 59.46
Sugar 4,754 grams 0.04 190.16
Rock Salt 2,430 grams 0.02 48.60
Soy Sauce 1,350 milliliter 0.03 40.50
Cane Vinegar 2,700 milliliter 0.04 108.00
Casing 1,864 grams 0.10 186.43
SUBTOTAL 30,904.26
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 130 kilograms 130.00 16,839.64
Fat 58 kilograms 80.00 4,654.29
Garlic 23,004 milliliter 0.10 2,300.40
Black Pepper 1,189 grams 0.05 59.46
Sugar 4,754 grams 0.04 190.16
Rock Salt 2,430 grams 0.02 48.60
Soy Sauce 1,350 milliliter 0.03 40.50
Cane Vinegar 2,700 milliliter 0.04 108.00
Casing 1,864 grams 0.10 186.43
SUBTOTAL 24,427.48
TOTAL ₱55,331.74

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 50B
Raw Materials Ending Inventory 2020
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
Lean Meat 133 kilograms 183.60 ₱24,377.33
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Fat 60 kilograms 81.60 4,866.06


Garlic 23,579 milliliter 0.10 2,357.91
Black Pepper 1,219 grams 0.05 60.95
Sugar 4,873 grams 0.04 194.91
Rock Salt 2,491 grams 0.02 49.82
Soy Sauce 1,384 milliliter 0.03 41.51
Cane Vinegar 2,768 milliliter 0.04 110.70
Casing 1,911 grams 0.10 191.09
SUBTOTAL 32,250.27
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 133 kilograms 132.60 17,605.85
Fat 60 kilograms 81.60 4,866.06
Garlic 23,579 milliliter 0.10 2,357.91
Black Pepper 1,219 grams 0.05 60.95
Sugar 4,873 grams 0.04 194.91
Rock Salt 2,491 grams 0.02 49.82
Soy Sauce 1,384 milliliter 0.03 41.51
Cane Vinegar 2,768 milliliter 0.04 110.70
Casing 1,911 grams 0.10 191.09
SUBTOTAL 25,478.79
TOTAL ₱57,729.06

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 50C
Raw Materials Ending Inventory 2021
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
Lean Meat 136 kilograms 187.27 ₱25,486.62
Fat 61 kilograms 83.23 5,087.49
Garlic 24,169 milliliter 0.10 2,416.87
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Black Pepper 1,249 grams 0.05 62.47


Sugar 4,995 grams 0.04 199.78
Rock Salt 2,553 grams 0.02 51.06
Soy Sauce 1,418 milliliter 0.03 42.55
Cane Vinegar 2,837 milliliter 0.04 113.47
Casing 1,959 grams 0.10 195.87
SUBTOTAL 33,656.19
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 136 kilograms 135.25 18,407.01
Fat 61 kilograms 83.23 5,087.49
Garlic 24,169 milliliter 0.10 2,416.87
Black Pepper 1,249 grams 0.05 62.47
Sugar 4,995 grams 0.04 199.78
Rock Salt 2,553 grams 0.02 51.06
Soy Sauce 1,418 milliliter 0.03 42.55
Cane Vinegar 2,837 milliliter 0.04 113.47
Casing 1,959 grams 0.10 195.87
SUBTOTAL 26,576.57
TOTAL ₱60,232.76

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 50D
Raw Materials Ending Inventory 2022
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
Lean Meat 139 kilograms 191.02 ₱26,646.14
Fat 63 kilograms 84.90 5,318.94
Garlic 24,773 milliliter 0.10 2,477.28
Black Pepper 1,281 grams 0.05 64.04
Sugar 5,119 grams 0.04 204.78
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Rock Salt 2,617 grams 0.02 52.34


Soy Sauce 1,454 milliliter 0.03 43.61
Cane Vinegar 2,908 milliliter 0.04 116.30
Casing 2,008 grams 0.10 200.76
SUBTOTAL 35,124.20
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 139 kilograms 137.96 19,244.43
Fat 63 kilograms 84.90 5,318.94
Garlic 24,773 milliliter 0.10 2,477.28
Black Pepper 1,281 grams 0.05 64.04
Sugar 5,119 grams 0.04 204.78
Rock Salt 2,617 grams 0.02 52.34
Soy Sauce 1,454 milliliter 0.03 43.61
Cane Vinegar 2,908 milliliter 0.04 116.30
Casing 2,008 grams 0.10 200.76
SUBTOTAL 27,722.49
TOTAL ₱62,846.69

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 50E
Raw Materials Ending Inventory 2023
Particular Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total
Pork Longganisa
Lean Meat 143 kilograms 194.84 ₱27,858.56
Fat 64 kilograms 86.59 5,560.96
Garlic 25,392 milliliter 0.10 2,539.21
Black Pepper 1,313 grams 0.05 65.64
Sugar 5,247 grams 0.04 209.90
Rock Salt 2,682 grams 0.02 53.65
Soy Sauce 1,490 milliliter 0.03 44.70
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Cane Vinegar 2,980 milliliter 0.04 119.21


Casing 2,058 grams 0.10 205.78
SUBTOTAL 36,657.61
Chicken Longganisa
Lean Meat 143 kilograms 140.72 20,120.07
Fat 64 kilograms 86.59 5,560.96
Garlic 25,392 milliliter 0.10 2,539.21
Black Pepper 1,313 grams 0.05 65.64
Sugar 5,247 grams 0.04 209.90
Rock Salt 2,682 grams 0.02 53.65
Soy Sauce 1,490 milliliter 0.03 44.70
Cane Vinegar 2,980 milliliter 0.04 119.21
Casing 2,058 grams 0.10 205.78
SUBTOTAL 28,919.12
TOTAL ₱65,576.74
Republic Central Colleges 247
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 248
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 55A
Finished Goods Ending Inventory 2019
Pork Longganisa
Units available for sales 23,400
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 6 months) 156
Units available for sale per day 150.00
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 900.00
Multiply by Unit Cost 51.39
SUBTOTAL 46,248.63
Chicken Longganisa
Units available for sales 23,400.00
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Divide by no. of days in one year of


production (26 days* 6 months) 156
Units available for sale per day 150.00
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 900.00
Multiply by Unit Cost 44.19
SUBTOTAL 39,771.85
TOTAL ₱86,020.48
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 55B
Finished Goods Ending Inventory 2020
Pork Longganisa
Units available for sales 47,970.00
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 153.75
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 922.50
Multiply by Unit Cost 52.09
SUBTOTAL 48,052.44

Chicken Longganisa
Units available for sales 47,970.00
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 153.75
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 922.50
Multiply by Unit Cost 44.75
SUBTOTAL 41,280.96
TOTAL ₱89,333.40
Meat & Spices Company
Schedule 55C
Finished Goods Ending Inventory 2021
Pork Longganisa
Units available for sales 49,170.00
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 157.60
Multiply by 6 days 6
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Total 945.58
Multiply by Unit Cost 53.28
SUBTOTAL 50,379.62
Chicken Longganisa
Units available for sales 49,170.00
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 157.60
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 945.58
Multiply by Unit Cost 45.79
SUBTOTAL 43,299.93
TOTAL ₱93,679.56

Meat & Spices Company


Schedule 55D
Finished Goods Ending Inventory 2022
Pork Longganisa
Units available for sales 50,399
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 162
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 969
Multiply by Unit Cost 54.52
SUBTOTAL 52,843.49
Chicken Longganisa
Units available for sales 50,399
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 162
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 969
Multiply by Unit Cost 46.89
SUBTOTAL 45,441.71
TOTAL ₱98,285.19

Meat & Spices Company


Republic Central Colleges 251
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Schedule 55E
Finished Goods Ending Inventory 2023
Pork Longganisa
Units available for sales 51,659
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 166
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 993
Multiply by Unit Cost 55.77
SUBTOTAL 55,407.33
Chicken Longganisa
Units available for sales 51,659
Divide by no. of days in one year of
production (26 days* 12 months) 312
Units available for sale per day 166
Multiply by 6 days 6
Total 993
Multiply by Unit Cost 47.98
SUBTOTAL 47,668.77
TOTAL ₱103,076.10
Republic Central Colleges 252
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 253
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 254
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 255
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Republic Central Colleges 256
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Republic Central Colleges 257
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Republic Central Colleges 262
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Financial Ratios.

Test of liquidity. It measures the firm’s ability to

repay currently maturing debts or debts maturing within

the next operating cycle.

Table 79 shows the current ratio for five years

starting 2019 to 2023. It indicates that the company has

sufficient current assets to cover its current

liabilities. For 2019, the company has ₱1.56 to pay for

every ₱1.00 of its current obligations. Current ratio for

2020, 2021, 2022, and 2023 are 2.79, 5.55, 7.86, and

10.05, respectively.

Table 79
Current Ratio

Current Ratio
2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
137,063.6 398,239.9 832,644.0 1,231,458.6 1,651,824.7
Current Assets 2 9 6 9 2
Current 142,581.0 150,007.3
Liabiilities 87,910.86 3 2 156,649.14 164,322.28
CURRENT RATIO 1.56 2.79 5.55 7.86 10.05

Current Assets
Current Ratio =
Current Liabilities

Table 80 shows the quick ratio of the proposed

business. Quick assets are cash and other assets that can
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be converted to cash quickly which include the cash and

accounts receivable of the company. For the year 2019, the

company has ₱2.76 quick assets for every ₱1.00 of its

current obligations. Quick ratio for 2020, 2021, 2022, and

2023, are 4.60, 6.97, 9.30, and 11.46, respectively. It is

important that the company be able to back up its current

obligations with its quick assets in case of urgent

defrayal. In this case, with a ratio of 2.76:1, the

company is said to be in good standing in terms of its

ability to meet currently maturing obligations.

Table 80
Acid Test Ratio

Quick Ratio
2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Quick Assets 242,625.31 656,440.10 1,046,152.85 1,456,943.73 1,882,415.92
Current
87,910.86 142,581.03 150,007.32 156,649.14 164,322.28
Liabilities
QUICK RATIO 2.76 4.60 6.97 9.30 11.46

Quick Assets
Quick Ratio =
Current Liabilities

Table 81 shows the ratio of current assets to total

assets in five years. It indicates the extent of total

funds invested for the purpose of working capital and


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throws light on the importance of current assets of a

firm. For the year 2019, the ratio is 0.2625:1 which means

that 26.25% of the total assets are currently convertible.

Current assets to total assets for 2020, 2021, 2022, and

2023, are 42.53%, 62.26%, 71.74%, and 77.43%,

respectively. These assets are convertible in 12 months.

Table 81
Current Assets to Total Assets

Current Assets to Total Assets


2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

Current Assets 137,063.62 398,239.99 832,644.06 1,231,458.69 1,651,824.72


Total Assets 521,905.64 936,361.25 1,316,213.49 1,716,582.99 2,133,254.67
CURRENT ASSETS
TO TOTAL ASSETS 26.25% 42.53% 63.26% 71.74% 77.43%

Current Assets
Current Assets to Total Assets =
Total Assets

Test of solvency and stability. These are ratios that

measure the long–term financial health of the company to

meet its debt and other obligations as well as its

prospects for growth and safety of investment.

Table 82 reflects the debt ratio of the proposed

business for five years. Debt ratio is a solvency ratio

that measures a firm’s total liabilities as a percentage


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of its total assets. In a sense, the debt ratio shows a

company’s ability to pay off its liabilities with its

assets. Shown in the table, for 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022,

and 2023, of all assets of the proposed business, 16.85%,

15.23%, 11.40%, 9.13%, 7.70%respectively, came from debt

financing. The debt ratio decreases every year which means

that the company performs with decreasing dependence on

short-term and long-term borrowings. It also signifies

that assets increased faster than the liabilities of the

company. This is a positive response in relation to the

financial well-being of the company.

Table 82
Debt Ratio

Debt Ratio
2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Total
Liabilities 87,910.86 142,581.03 150,007.32 156,649.14 164,322.28
Total 1,316,213.4 1,716,582.9 2,133,254.6
521,905.64 936,361.25
Assets 9 9 7
DEBT RATIO 16.85% 15.23% 11.40% 9.13% 7.70%

Total Liabilities
Debt Ratio=
Total Assets

Table 83 reflects the proprietary ratio or the

proportion of the total assets provided by the sole


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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

proprietor of the proposed business. For the year 2019,

of the total assets, 83.15% were provided by the owner

through his/her investment. The owner’s equity or

capital is increased with net income and decreased with

a loss. Hence, the performance of the company dictates

whether the capital would increase or decrease. The

proprietary ratio for 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023 are

84.77%, 88.60%, 90.87%, and 92.30%, respectively.

Table 83
Equity Ratio

Equity Ratio
2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
433,994.7
Owner's Equity 8 793,780.22 1,166,206.17 1,559,933.85 1,968,932.39
521,905.6
936,361.25 1,316,213.49 1,716,582.99 2,133,254.67
Total Assets 4
EQUITY RATIO 83.15% 84.77% 88.60% 90.87% 92.30%

Owner’s Equity
Proprietary Ratio=
Total Assets

Table 84 shows the Debt to Equity ratio of the

proposed business. This ratio indicates how much debt a

company is using to finance its assets relative to the

value of shareholders' equity. For the year 2019, if the

owner’s equity is 100%, the size of the total liabilities


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is 20.26%. The percentage of debt to equity are 20.26%,

17.96%, 12.86%, 10.04%, and 8.35%, in year 2019, 2020,

2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. The decrease from

20.26% to 8.35% indicates a positive effect which means

the business decreases its dependence on borrowings.

Table 84
Debt to Equity Ratio

Debt to Equity Ratio


2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Total
Liabilities 87,910.86 142,581.03 150,007.32 156,649.14 164,322.28
Owner's 1,166,206.1 1,559,933.8
433,994.78 793,780.22 1,968,932.39
Equity 7 5
EQUITY RATIO 20.26% 17.96% 12.86% 10.04% 8.35%

Total Liabilities
Debt to Equity Ratio=
Owner’s Equity

Test of profitability. Evaluate the ability of the

entity in utilizing and operating its asset. Profitability

ratios are combination of asset and debt management

showing their effect to return on equity.

Table 85 shows the gross profit rate of the proposed

business. Gross profit is the profit generated right after

consideration of cost of goods sold. Gross profit margin

is a financial metric used to assess a company's financial


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health and business model by revealing the proportion of

money left over from revenues after accounting for the

cost of goods sold. For 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023,

the gross profit rate is 42.63%, 41.75%, 41.36%, 41.56%,

and 41.28%, respectively.

Table 85
Gross Profit Margin

Gross Profit Margin

2019 2020 2021 2022 2023


2,663,065.4 2,766,536.5 2,916,299.4 3,037,821.0
Gross Profit 1,283,585.95 2 9 8 3
6,378,337.2 6,688,661.7 7,017,592.7 7,359,552.3
3,010,716.93
Net Sales 2 5 8 2
GROSS PROFIT
RATE 42.63% 41.75% 41.36% 41.56% 41.28%

Gross Profit
Gross Profit Margin= Table 86
Net Sales
reflects the rate of return on sales of the proposed

business. This is the amount of the net income per peso of

sales. For the year 2019, for every ₱1.00 of sales, the

net income is 27 centavos and the total cost of goods

sold, selling, and administrative expenses are 73

centavos. While for 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023, the rate of

return on sales is 28 centavos.


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Table 86
Rate of Return on Sales

Rate of Return on Sales


2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Net Income 819,973.91 1,798,927.21 1,862,129.75 1,968,638.39 2,044,992.69
Net Sales 3,010,716.93 6,378,337.22 6,688,661.75 7,017,592.78 7,359,552.32

RATIO 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

Net Income
Rate of return on sales =
Net Sales

Table 87 indicates the profitability on the use of

the total assets or total capital. For the year 2018, for

every ₱1.00 of total assets used, the net income that

flows into the business is ₱2.07. Years 2020, 2021, 2022

and 2023 marked a rate of return on assets of 2.47, 1.65,

1.30, and 1.06, respectively. This purports that every

assetis utilized with efficiency.

Table 87
Rate of Return on Total Assets

Rate of Return on Total Assets


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2019 2020 2021 2022 2023


1,798,927.2 1,862,129.7 1,968,638.3 2,044,992.6
Net Income 819,973.91 1 5 9 9
Average Total 1,126,287.3 1,516,398.2 1,924,918.8
395,952.82 729,133.45
Assets 7 4 3
Rate of Return
on Total Assets 2.07 2.47 1.65 1.30 1.06

Net Income
Rate of Return on Total Assets =
Ave. Total Assets

Payback period. Payback period evaluates the length

of time required to recover the full amount of initial

investment.

Table 88 shows the length of time required to

recovery the amount of initial investment through the

business’ cash inflows. The investment will be recovered

in 2020. The proprietor’s capital of ₱270,000 will be

fully recovered in a short period of 1.61 year. The cash

inflow for 2019 and 2020 amount to ₱819,937.91 and

₱1,798,927.21, which is enough to cover the initial

investment by the sole proprietor.

Table 88
Payback Period of Meat & Spices Company
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Payback Period
Yea
r Net Income Depreciation Bad Debts Cash Inflows
201 ₱
9 ₱ 819,973.91 ₱ 9,739.73 1,686.00 ₱ 821,659.91
202
1,798,927.21 19,479.46 1,970.17 1,800,897.38
0
202
1,862,129.75 19,479.46 352.38 1,862,482.12
1
202
1,968,638.39 19,479.46 371.48 1,969,009.88
2
202
2,044,992.69 19,479.46 387.99 2,045,380.68
3

Yea
r Cash Inflows Needed Years
201
821,659.91 821,659.91
9 1.00
202
1,800,897.38 551,659.90
0 0.31
₱ 270,000.00 0.69
1.61 Years

Net Investment
Payback Period =
Ave. Annual Cash Inflows

Profitability index. Profitability index is the ratio

of the total present value of future cash flows to the

initial investment.

Table 89 shows the profitability index of the

proposed business.The present value factor is derived

using interpolation method. As indicated from the


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computation, the profitability index is higher than 1,

which means that the project is acceptable.

Table 89
Profitability Index

Year Annual Cash PVCI @ 13.94 % PVCI


Inflows
2019 ₱ 821,659.91 0.87765 ₱ 721,133.85
2020 1,800,897.38 0.77028 1,387,191.87
2021 1,862,482.12 0.67604 1,259,109.40
2022 1,969,009.88 0.59333 1,168,269.49
2023 2,045,380.68 0.52074 1,065,106.60
Total 5,600,811.21
Divide by: Cost of Investment 270,000.00
Profitability Index 20.74

Profitability Index Present Value of Cash Inflows


= Cost of Investment

Supporting computations for the rate of return using

interpolation method:

Year Annual Cash


Inflows
2019 ₱ 821,659.91
2020 1,800,897.38
2021 1,862,482.12
2022 1,969,009.88
2023 2,045,380.68
Total 8,499,429.97
Divide by: 5
Ave. Cash Inflow ₱1,699,885.99
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Cost of Investment 270,000.00


=
Ave. Cash Inflow 1,699,885.99
= 0.1588

The present value factor for 5 periods is 0.1588

which is found in between 13% and 14% using the present

value table (see Appendix Q).

Using interpolation method:

13% 0.1401 0.0187


? 0.1588 0.0198
14% 0.1599 0.0011

To compute the exact internal rate of return:

IRR = 13%+(1%x0.0187/0.0198) = 13.94%

IRR = 14%-(1%x0.0011/0.0198) = 13.94%


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7. Feasibility and viability of the manufacturing of

garlic flavored longganisa and chicken longganisa

Test of feasibility and viability.The business is

feasible if the proposed product can be built in a finite

investment wherein the product is safe, reliable, usable,

sustainable, maintainable, manufacturable, and affordable.

Moreover, there are some indicators that the business is

considered viable. These indicators include the returned

of profit and it has assets (cash and other reserve funds)

for day-to-day operations and also to weather those ups

and downs that all businesses.

Table 90.It shows the indicators and results of

garlic flavored longganisa and chicken longganisa is

considered as feasible. The researchers were able to

identify the resources, tools and equipment that are

needed in the operation. These resources, tools and

equipment have met the capacity to produce the desired

product. Also, the production personnel are capable of

converting the raw materials into a finished product.

The researchers were able to determine that the

garlic flavored longganisa and chicken longganisais also

viable. The supporting assumptions to compute the


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necessary accounts on the financial aspect were used to

determine the business solvency and profitability. It

shows that the business hasenough assets to cover its

liabilities for 2019; the company has ₱1.56 to pay for

every ₱1.00 of its current obligations. Furthermore, the

business will generate revenue within the five years of

operation wherein for 2019; it has a net income of

₱819,973.91 with a gross profit rate of 42.63%, rate of

return on sales of 0.27 and a rate of return on total

assets of 2.07. The payback period of the proposed

business that will cover the initial investment of the

owner is for 18 months. Lastly, the business has a 20.74

of profitability index, which means that the project is

acceptable.
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Table 90
Feasibility and Viability of manufacturing Garlic
Flavored Chicken Longganisa and Pork Longganisa
Feasibility and Viability Indicators
Formula
Results
Net income

2019 – ₱ 819,973.91
2020 – 1,798,927.21
2021 – 1,862,129.75
2022 - 1,968,638.39
2023 – 2,044,992.69
Current Ratio
Current Asset
Current
Liabilities

2019 – 1.56
2020 – 2.79
2021 – 5.55
2022– 7.86
2023 – 10.05
Gross Profit Margin
Gross
Profit
Net Sales

2019 – 42.63%
2020 – 41.75%
2021 – 41.36%
2022– 41.56%
2023 – 41.28%
Rate of Return on Sales
Net Income
Net Sales
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2019 – 0.27
2020 – 0.28
2021 – 0.28
2022– 0.28
2023 – 0.28
Rate of Return on Total Assets
Net Income
Ave. Total
Assets

2019 – 2.07
2020 – 2.47
2021 – 1.65
2022– 1.30
2023 – 1.06

Payback Period
Net Investment
Ave. Annual
Cash Inflows

1.61 years
Profitability Index
Present Value
of Cash
Inflows
Cost of
Investment

20.74>1
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Conclusion

Based on the analysis and interpretation on the four

business management aspects, the researchers have

concluded the following:

Sole proprietorship is the most common form of

business used by the Meat Manufacturing Company.

Concerning the type of business organization, the line

type of organizational structure is commonly used. In

order for the business to operate, the following

requirements must be secured: DTI Permit, Mayor’s Permit,

BIR Permit, Municipal License, Health and Sanitary Permit,


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Fire and Safety Certificate and Zoning Inspection

Certificate. Meat ManufacturingCompanyhiredemployees with

the following qualifications: For the selling personnel,

he/she must be at least a high school graduate with at

least have 1 year of working experience.For the production

personnel, he/she must be at least a high school graduate

with at least have 1 year or 2 years of working

experience.Also, for the administrative/managerial

personnel, he/she must have a bachelor’s degree in any

business-related course and shouldatleast have 1 year or 2

years of working experience

The employees will be compensated with not less than

the daily minimum wage set in the region of ₱400.00.The

problems that usually faced by the employers to its

employees are tardiness, lack of concentration and

absenteeism and the possible courses of actions to be

implemented by the management are Open Forum, Re-

orientation and seminars.

The target markets of the business are the local

establishments, public market, grocery stores and general

public.There is an increase in terms of supply and demand

situation.Full manufacturingcost plus mark-up is the


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pricing method commonly used. And the medium of

advertising that commonly used by business are through

giving a free taste and word of mouth. Thecompany

distribute their product by wholesale and retail.

Moreover, the most preferred amount of

longganisafrequently bought by consumers is 250g.The

consumers are well convinced to buy the product if it will

be introduced in the market.

The factors to be considered in choosing the location

of the business are the following: neighborhood services,

environment, and utilities. The most common process

involved are grounding, casing, mixing,

packaging,preserving, filling, and cooling/freezing.

Through this processes,the company encountered

difficulties such as breakage of tools or equipment,

personnel’s performance, lack of supply and weather. The

most common raw materials used which being purchased daily

and weekly is ground pork, garlic, ground pepper, soy

sauce, atsuete, and casing and the common sources of these

materials are Manufacturers. To ensure the quality of the

product, the following are needed: Maintaining the

sanitation of production area selecting good raw


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materials, periodic inspection of tools and equipment,

proper warehousing of inventory, conducting training to

employees/personnel and, ensuring the package quality.The

company’s production waste materials should be disposed of

correctly to guarantee the health and safeness of the

employee and the management itself.

The source of capital commonly used by the companies

bytheir personal savings. The initial working capital

requirement is ₱100,001 and above. The purchases of raw

materials are being paid by cash or installment and often

paid daily.The average weekly sales price is ₱50,001 and

above and the average weekly operating expenses is less

than ₱5,000. And the payback period of the company is 18

months.

Based on the analysis done, the researchers hereby

concluded that the proposed study is feasible and viable

as it shows that it will have a place in the market. Andin

terms of profitability, it is in no doubt profitableas

proven in the financial statement that the indicators like

the payback period is deemed profitable.


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Recommendation

The Meat & Spices Company is proven feasible, viable

and profitable based on the result of the study.So the

researchers are looking forward that The Meat & Spices

Company will be established with the following

recommendations:

The researchers recommend that The Meat & Spices

Company will be established as a sole proprietorand will

have a line type organizational structure which requires

six employees composed of general manager/sales

officer/production supervisor, accountant, sales staff,

delivery man/production staff, and two production

staff.Every employee will be given benefits such us; SSS,

Pag-ibig, Philhealth and 13th month pay and will have a

daily salary of not lower than ₱400.00 following the

minimum wage declared by the region.

The Meat & Spices Companyrecommended target market

are the local establishments, public market, grocery

stores and general public. Based on the analysis done

regarding demand and supply, the projected demand for 2019

of 37,332,555 is higher than the projected supply of

28,317,251. The gap rate is 24% while the market share


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rate is 0.25%.Thus, Chorizo de Pampanga has a niche in the

market place in which the company will be capable of

succeeding considering its competitive advantage

particularly in providing unique and quality longganisa at

an affordable price.In terms of distribution of the

product to its target markets, the company will execute

wholesaling, retailing and direct selling. The projected

selling price for 2019 is ₱81.00 and ₱69.00 for 250grams

for the garlic flavored pork longgansia and chicken

longganisa respectively.

The recommended business name is “Meat & Spices

Company” which will be registered to the Department of

Trade and Industry and will produced longganisa which will

be named as “Chorizo de Pampanga Garlic Flavored

Longganisa”. The recommended location of the business will

be at CHH Place Corner Volga St., Friendship Highway,

Angeles City that has a total land area of 120 square

meters. The company will ensure that all the essential

requirements of the city government regarding sanitation

will be achieved. Moreover, the company will make sure

that the waste management system will be executed strictly

as to what has been planned to maintain the cleanliness


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and healthiness of the workplace, employees, management

and the people nearby.

The recommended initial investment for the proposed

business is ₱270,000. This includes the 6 days working

capital of ₱121,111.25. Moreover, the initial investment

will be recovered after 1.61 years. Also, the current

ratio for the first year is ₱1.56 which means that the

company will be able to meet all its current obligations.

The equity ratios showed that the company is solvent and

the rate of return on sales of 27% for the first year is

sufficient enough to cover all its operating expenses. In

addition, the profitability index of 20.74 is indicative

that the project is acceptable.


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Appendix A

Letter of Approval
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Appendix B

Questionnaire for Manufacturers


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Appendix C
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Questionnaire for Consumers

Name (Optional):__________________________________________________
Address: _________________________________________________________
Gender: ( ) Male ( ) Female Age: ( ) 18 – 27 ( ) 28 – 37 ( ) 38 – 47 ( ) 48 – 57 ( ) 58 and above

Instruction: Mark the appropriate answer with a check (√) in the space provided for each
number. (You can check more than one (1) if needed.)

1. Do you eat longganisa?


____Yes ____No (Proceed to #4)

2. How often do you eat longganisa?


____ Everyday ____ Every other week
____ Every other day ____ Every month
____ Once a week ____ Others (pls. specify) _____________

3. What quantity do you prefer in eating longganisa?


____ 2 pcs. ____ 5 pcs.
____ 3 pcs. ____ Others (pls. specify) _____________
____ 4 pcs.

4. Do you buy longganisa?


____Yes ____No (Proceed to #8)

5. How often do you buy longganisa?


____ Everyday ____ Every other week
____ Every other day ____ Every month
____ Once a week ____ Others (pls. specify) _____________

6. For what purposes do you buy longganisa?


____ For gifts ____ For home consumption (other family member)
____ For giveaways ____ Others (pls. specify) _____________
____ For special occasion

7. What amount do you prefer in buying longganisa?


____ Half dozen (250g) ____ 2 dozen (1kg)
____ 1 dozen (500g) ____ Others (pls. specify) _____________

8. Are you familiar with garlic flavored products?


____Yes ____No
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9. Have you tastedgarlic flavored products?


____Yes ____No

10. If yes, what product?


____ Chips ____ Biscuit
____ Cake ____ Candy
____ Bread ____ Others (pls. specify) _____________

11. Do you want to try chicken and porklongganisa with garlic?


____Yes ____No

12. How much is the average monthly income of your family/household?


____ P 10,000 below ____ P 20,001 – 40,000
____ P 10,001 - 20,000 ____ P 40,001 – above

Appendix D
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Business Tax Table

Appendix E
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Schedule of SSS and EC Contributions

Appendix F
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Phil Health Premium Contributions

Appendix G
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Mayor’s Permit

Appendix H
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Certificate of Zoning Compliance

Appendix I

Sanitary Permit
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Appendix J

Fire Safety Inspection Permit


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Appendix K
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Certificate of Accreditation

Appendix L
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Certificate of Business Name Registration

Appendix M
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DOLE Certificate of Registration

Appendix N
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Business Permit Plate

Appendix O
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BIR Permit

Appendix P
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Barangay Business Clearance

Appendix Q
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Present Value of 1 Table

Appendix R
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Letter for Angeles City Business List

Appendix S
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Letter for Mabalacat City Business List

Appendix T
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Letter for City of San Fernando Business List


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Appendix U

Letter for Suppliers


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AIRALYN JOYCE A. PINLAC


Blk 143 Lot 10 Northville15, Brgy. Cutud,
Angeles City
Cell. No.: +639755416350
E-mail Add: a.pinlac04@gmail.com

Objective  Continue the practice of my profession in a service-oriented


institution where I can be of constructive help in accordance
with my background, training and experience.

Personal Data  September 04,1997


Date of Birth
 Angeles City, Philippines
Place of Birth
 English, Filipino and Pampango
Language Spoken
Education  Tertiary
BSBA Major in Financial and Management Accounting
Republic Central Colleges (2015-Present)
 Secondary
Republic Central Colleges – Valedictorian
Plaridel St., Angeles City (April 2015)
 Primary
Lourdes Northwest Elementary School – Valedictorian
Kalayaan St., Angeles City (April 2011)
Special  Good communication and Writing Skills (English and
Skills Filipino)
 Proficient in Basic Computer Software Systems (Microsoft
Word, Excel and Powerpoint)
 Bookkeeping
Republic Central Colleges 337
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Recognition/  Dean’s Lister (1st Semester S.Y 2017-2018)


Awards Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 President’s Lister (2nd Semester S.Y 2015-2016)
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 President’s Lister (1st Semester S.Y 2015-2016)
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 Rank 1, Top Performer of the Year (Jan. 2017 – Dec. 2017)
L&E Outsourcing Communications and Teleservices
 Rank 1, Top Performer of the Month (May – October 2017)
L&E Outsourcing Communications and Teleservices
 Best in Community Outreach Program
NSTP – CWTS, RCC Chapter, March 29, 2016
 Manny Villar Excellence Award
Republic Central Colleges, April 15, 2015

Work  Student Assistant, Vice President for Academic Affairs


Experience Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
January 2018 – Current
 Student Assistant, High School Library/IMC
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
November 2018 –January 2018
 Customer Care Representative, UPS GBC Clark
Clark International Airport Corporation, DMIA, Pampanga
April 2018 – July 2018
 Call Center Agent, L&E Outsourcing Communications and
Teleservices
Mt. View, Balibago, Angeles City
October 2016 – December 2017
 Student Assistant, Vice President for Academic Affairs
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
May 2015 – October 2016
Republic Central Colleges 338
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Organization/  College of Accountancy – Auditor


Affiliation June 2018 – Present
 Supreme Student Council – Auditor
June 2017 – 2018
 Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants – Board of Director
June 2015 – 2017
 Nazarene Youth International – Secretary
April 2011 – Present

Seminar,  Pre-Employment Seminar


Workshop, RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 04, 2018)
and Training
Attended  Business Analytics
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (January 12, 2017)
 Marketing in the Real World: Banking Industry
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 13, 2017)
 Bayani Ba ‘To? Youth Leaders Forum: Heroism X Pag-ibig
Manila, Philippines (July 2, 2016)
 Pandayan Educational Festival in Central Luzon
UP Diliman Extension Program in Pampanga (August 08, 2016)
 Leadership Training Seminar
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (Sept. 16, 2016)
 Basic Labor Laws
Integrated Bar of the Philippines – Pampanga Chapter
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (November 25, 2015)

Character  Airwin S. Ditianquin


References RCC CBA Instructor
Contact: 0923-666-4485
 Sobie S. Tanique
Supervisor, L&E Outsourcing Communications and Teleservices
Contact: 0927-585-5208
Republic Central Colleges 339
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

KRISCHELLE N. SAMIA
125 Lubao St., Purok 5-B,Citicenter, Pandan,
Angeles City, Pampanga
Cell. No.: 0965-341-1961
E-mail Add: samiakrischelle@gmail.com

Objective  Employ my knowledge and experience with the intention of


securing a career with opportunity for challenges and career
advancement, while gaining knowledge of new skills and
expertise.
Republic Central Colleges 340
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Personal Data  December 6, 1995


Date of Birth
 Angeles City, Pampanga
Place of Birth
 English, Filipino and Pampango
Language Spoken
Education  BSBA Major in Financial and
Management Accounting
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles
City (2015-2018)
 Secondary
Francisco G. Nepomuceno Memorial
High School, Angeles City (2009-
2013)
 Primary
Abelardo G. Tinio Elementary School,
Angeles City (2004-2009)

Qualifications  Has good communication skills in English and Filipino


 Computer literate
 Hardworking
 Responsible
 Adaptive
 Eager and willing to add knowledge base and skills
Republic Central Colleges 341
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Recognition/  Dean’s Lister (1st Semester S.Y 2013-2014)


Awards Holy Angel University, Angeles City
 Best in Community Outreach Project (March 2016)
NSTP-CWTS, Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 Dean’s Lister (1st Semester S.Y 2015-2016)
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 Dean’s Lister (2nd Semester S.Y 2016-2017)
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 Dean’s Lister (1st Semester S.Y 2017-2018)
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City

Affiliation

 Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants – Member


August 2015 – Present
 Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants – VP Finance
June 2016 – March 2017

Seminar, Workshop, and Training Attended

 Basic Labor Laws


Integrated Bar of the Philippines – Pampanga Chapter
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (November 25,2015)
 CBA Forum
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (July 27, 2016)
 Business Analytics
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (January 12, 2017)
 Marketing in the Real World: Banking Industry
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 13, 2017)
Character References

 Airwin S. Ditianquin
RCC CBA Instructor
Contact: 0923-666-4485
Republic Central Colleges 342
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

 Ruel Garcia
Business Manager
Contact:0905-494-1946
 Jonas Henry Quiazon
SPCF Faculty
Contact: 0917-724-1373

GINED M. ALIMURUNG
184 Purok 2, BaboPangulo, Porac, Pampanga
Cell. No.: +639675645594
E-mail Add: ginedalimurung@gmail.com
Republic Central Colleges 343
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Objective  Continue my profession in a way that I can help others with my


education, knowledge, skills, and experience.

Personal  January 12, 1999


Data Date of Birth
 Angeles City, Philippines
Place of Birth
 English, Filipino and Pampango
Language Spoken

Education  BaboPangulo Elementary School


BaboPangulo, Porac, Pampanga (2005 - 2011)
 Porac National Highschool
Poblacion, Porac, Pampanga (2011 - 2015)
 BSBA Major in Financial and Management Accounting
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City (2015-present)

Qualificatio
 Good Communication Skills (English and Filipino)
ns
 Proficient in Microsoft Office
Republic Central Colleges 344
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Recognition/  Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants (RCC Chapter) –


 Rank 3, Accounting
Member( Quiz
June 2015– Bowl (2017)
present)
Awards
Junior Philippine Institute of Accountant
 Republic
National Federation
Central of Junior
Colleges, Philippine
Angeles City Institute of
Accountants – Member(June 2015– present)
 Academic Excellence Awardee (March 29, 2016)
NSTP-CWTS, Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 Best in Community Outreach Project (March 29, 2016)
NSTP-CWTS, Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 Outstanding Dancer (February 2015)
Porac National Highschool
Affiliation

Seminar,
 Pre-Employment Seminar
Workshop,
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 04, 2018)
and Training
Attended  Stress and Time Management
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 13, 2017)

 Business Analytics Seminar


RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (January 12, 2017)

 CBA Forum
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (July 27, 2016)

 Basic Labor Laws


Integrated Bars of the Philippines - Pampanga Chapter
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (November 25, 2015)
 Peer Pressure
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (March 12, 2015)
Republic Central Colleges 345
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY
Republic Central Colleges 346
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Character  Airwin S. Ditianquin


References RCC CBA Instructor
Contact: 0923-666-4485

 Dexter Albert David


Municipality of Porac, Vice Mayor
Contact: 0920-970-0047
Republic Central Colleges 347
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

ALLIAH C. BRIONES
082 Tangle, Mexico, Pampanga
Cell. No.: +639977549436
E-mail Add: acbriones@yahoo.com

Objective  Continue the practice of my profession in a qualityfirm where I


can be of constructive help in accordance with my education,
training, and experience.

Personal  August 02, 1999


Data Date of Birth
 Angeles City, Philippines
Place of Birth
 English, Filipino and Pampango
Language Spoken

Education  Tertiary
BSBA Major in Financial and Management Accounting
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City (2015-present)
 Secondary
Nicanor David Vergara High School
Anao, Mexico, Pampanga (2011 - 2015)
 Primary
Tangle Elementary School
Tangle, Mexico, Pampanga (2005 - 2011)

 Good Communication Skills (English and Filipino)


Qualification
 Skilled with different Basic Computer Software (Microsoft
s
Word, Excel and PowerPoint)
Republic Central Colleges 348
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Recognition/  Rank 1, Accounting Quiz Bowl (2018)


Awards Junior Philippine Institute of Accountant
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City

 Academic Excellence Awardee (March 29, 2016)


NSTP-CWTS, Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City
 Best in Community Outreach Project (March 29, 2016)
NSTP-CWTS, Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City

Affiliation  Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants (RCC Chapter) -


Seminar,
 Secretary GeneralSeminar
Pre-Employment (June 2018 - present
Workshop,
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 04, 2018)
and Training  National Federation of Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants
Attended  –Stress
Memberand Time
(June Management
2015 - present
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 13, 2017)
 Business Analytics Seminar
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (January 12, 2017)
 Basic Labor Laws
Integrated Bars of the Philippines - Pampanga Chapter
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (November 25, 2015)
 Peer Pressure
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (March 12, 2015)
Republic Central Colleges 349
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Character  Airwin S. Ditianquin


References RCC CBA Instructor
Contact: 0923-666-4485

 Rodrigo L. Torres
Brgy. Captain, Tangle, Mexico, Pampanga
Contact: 0927-138-9159
Republic Central Colleges 350
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

KATE SOPHIA ANN B. CRUZA


214 Purok 4B, AgyuTamu Ville, Brgy. Anunas
Angeles City, Pampanga
Cell. No.: +639753498313
E-mail Add: ask.cruza@gmail.com

Objective  To build in organization, where I can get the opportunities to


prove my abilities by accepting all the challenges and climb the
career ladder to continuous learning and commitment.

Personal  December 28, 1999


Data Date of Birth

 Quezon City, Philippines


Place of Birth

 English and Filipino


Language Spoken
Education  BSBA Major in Financial and Management Accounting
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City (2015 - present)

 Tagumpay National High School


Rodriguez, Rizal (2011 - 2015)

 Kasiglahan Village Elementary School


Rodriguez, Rizal (2009-2011)

Experience
 Lriz Kitchen
Clark, Pampanga
December 2018 - present
Republic Central Colleges 351
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Recognition/  Efficiency Award for obtaining the highest efficiency rating both
Awards in Academic and Military Phases of Instruction in ROTC
calendar year 2015 – 2016.

 Honor Award for displaying outstanding proficiency in military


training, intelligence, and attention to duty and for displaying
exemplary conduct and good moral character to his fellow cadets
in the conduct of ROTC training calendar year 2015 – 2016.

 Duty Award for exemplifying high degree of initiative manifested


by best
in attendance and obtaining least demerits in the conduct of
ROTC training conducted by this Department calendar year 2015
– 2016

Affiliation  Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants – Member


June 2015– present
 2nd Air Reserve Center
April 2016 – May 2016

Seminar, Workshop, and  Basic Labor Laws


Training Attended Integrated Bar of the
Philippines –
Pampanga Chapter
RCC Seminar Room,
Angeles City
(November 25, 2015)
 CBA Forum
RCC Seminar Room,
Angeles City (July 27,
2016)

Character  Jenny Santos


References Lriz Kitchen
Contact: 0965-724-7759
 Tsg. Leonardo Timcang Jr.
Republic Central Colleges 352
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

2ndARCen
Contact: 0906-455-4811
 Airwin S. Ditianquin
RCC CBA Instructor
Contact: 0923-666-4485

ALFED G. GARCIA
District 7 Block 69 Lot 24
PandacaquiResettlement,Mexico, Pampanga
Cell. No.: 0956-684-9277
E-mail Add: alfedgarcia213@gmail.com

Objective ● Looking for a very advance, challenging and responsible


position of financial and management accounting that will
allow me to utilize my skills.

Personal Data  June 29, 1995


Date of Birth
 Angeles City, Philippines
Place of Birth
 English, Filipino and Pampango
Language Spoken
Republic Central Colleges 353
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Education ● Tertiary
BSBA Major in Financial and Management Accounting
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City (2015-2018)
● Secondary
High School Graduate
Don Jesus Gonzales High School (2008-2012)
● Primary
Pandacaqui Resettlement Elementary School (2002-2008)

Qualifications ● Has a good communication skills both English and Filipino


● Computer literate
● Hardworking
● Responsible
● Eager and willing to add knowledge base and skills
● Flexible

Experience ● iQor Philippines


Bldg. 36,37Berthaphil CPD. II, Jose Abad Santos Ave.
Clark Freeport Zone, Pampanga 2023
Service Specialist
2013 - Present
Seminar, ● Pre Employment Seminar
Workshop, RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City
and Training July 22, 2018
Attended
● Basic Labor Laws
Integrated Bar of the Philippines – Pampanga Chapter
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (November 25, 2015)
● CBA Forum
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (July 27, 2016)
● Finished course for Call Center Agent NC II
TOP College San Fernando City, Pampanga (October 21, 2013)

Character ● Airwin S. Ditianquin


Reference RCC CBA Instructor
Contact: 0923-666-4485
Republic Central Colleges 354
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

RONEL L. RAYDANAS
Roseville Extension, Telabastagan,
City of San Fernando, Pampanga
Cell No.: 0905-9680-500
E-mail Add: ronelraydanas29@gmail.com

Objective  Continue the practice of my profession in a service-oriented


institution where I can be of constructive help in accordance
with my background, training and experience.
Republic Central Colleges 355
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

Personal Data  June 29, 1999


Date of Birth
 Angeles City, Philippines
Place of Birth
 English, Filipino and Pampango
Language Spoken
Education  Tertiary
BSBA Major in Financial and Management Accounting
Republic Central Colleges (2015-Present)
 Secondary
Telabastagan Integrated School (2011-2015) - Valedictorian
 Primary
San Pablo Elementary School (2005-2011) - 1st Honorable
Mention

Special Skills  Good communication and Writing Skills (English and Filipino)
 Proficient in Basic Computer Software Systems (Microsoft
Word, Excel and Powerpoint)
Recognition/  RCC Swimming Competition: Backstroke CHAMPION
Awards Republic Central Colleges
September 2018
 RCC Modern Dance Interpretation CHAMPION
Republic Central Colleges
February 12-17, 2018
 MasiningnaPagguhitsaSalakot: KAMPYEON
Republic Central Colleges
Agosto 31, 2017

 Academic Excellence Awardee


Republic Central Colleges
March 29, 2016
 Best Community Outreach Project
Republic Central Colleges
March 29, 2016
 The Gleaner: Photojournalism 2nd Placer
Republic Central Colleges
October 1, 2015
Republic Central Colleges 356
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

 JejomarBinay Excellence Award


Telabastagan Integrated School
April 15, 2015

Work  Student Assistant, Office of Student Affairs and Community


Experience Extension Service Office (RCC)
June 2016 – June 2018

Organization/  Supreme Student Council


Affiliation Chairman (A.Y. 2018-2019)
 Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants (JPIA-RCC Chapter)
Vice President for Membership (A.Y. 2018-2019)
 College of Accountancy
Secretary (A.Y. 2018-2019)
 Youth Community Service Club (YCSC-RCC Chapter)
Treasurer (A.Y. 2018-2019)
 Supreme Student Council
Vice-Chairman (A.Y. 2017-2018)
 College of Accountancy
Business Manager (A.Y. 2017-2018)
 Supreme Student Council
Auditor (A.Y. 2016-2017)

 Youth Community Service Club (YCSC-PPC Chapter)


Ad Hoc Committee (A.Y. 2016-2018)

Seminar,  Isantugon 2018


Workshop, Angeles University Foundation, Angeles City
and Training (September 1,2018)
Attended
 Leadership Training Seminar 2018
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City (July 28, 2018)
 AYLAAI Central Luzon GintongAni Talk Series 2018: The
Millennial Project: Media and Information Literacy Campaign
College of Immaculate Concepcion, Cabanatuan City
Republic Central Colleges 357
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

(April 21, 2018)


 Stress and Time Management
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (September 13, 2017)
 Leadership Training Seminar 2017
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (August 28, 2017)
 Health and Hygiene Seminar 2017
SitioBabo, Sapangbato, Angeles City (May 7, 2017)
 Waste Management Seminar 2017
Sitio Quadra, Bamban, Tarlac (May 6, 2017)
 GAT Series 2017
Theme: Human Rights Forum
Holy Angel University, Angeles City (March 4, 2017)
 RCC Business Analytics 2017
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City (January 12, 2017)
 Leader Training Seminar 2016
Republic Central Colleges, Angeles City (September 03, 2016)
 Visual Acquity Training Seminar 2016
SitioBabo, Sapangbato, Angeles City (June 4, 2016)
 First Aid Training Seminar 2016
SitioBabo, Sapangbato, Angeles City (May 13, 2016)
 PagpupulongUkolsaWika at Literaturang Pilipino
Theme: “Filipino: WikangPambansangKaunlaran”
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (August 10, 2015)

 3rd RCC Supreme Student Council Congress of Leaders


Theme: “Taking the Lead, Taking the Leap: Revolutionizing
RCC-Student-Leadership.”
RCC Seminar Room, Angeles City (July 17, 2015)

Character References 


Republic Central Colleges 358
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY