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Introduction

Designing a knowledge A common theme in contemporary


management organisations is the concern of managers for
performance achieving cultural change through radical
management approaches. Knowledge
framework management is one such management
approach, and is portrayed in the popular
Jinette de Gooijer business literature as an innovation with the
potential to affect the whole of an
organisation's business, especially its processes
and information systems (Cole, 1998; Harvard
The author
Business Review, 1998; Myers, 1996). The
issue of how to measure the success of a
Jinette de Gooijer is the Director of Innovative Practice knowledge management approach is one
Consulting Pty Ltd, Victoria, Australia and also at the which is still being explored by organisations,
Faculty of Constructed Enivronment, RMIT University,
researchers and management consultants.
Melbourne, Australia.
Most of the solutions offered are geared
towards profit-making commercial firms:
Keywords measuring intellectual capital and the
Knowledge management, Performance, Behaviour, intangible assets on a company's balance sheet
Framework, Measurement for example. (Edvinsonn and Malone, 1997;
Sveiby, 1997) These solutions have limited
Abstract application for public sector management, and
especially when applied to measuring cultural
Measuring the business benefits of knowledge
change within an organisation.
management is difficult. Even more so for public sector
In this paper, I will describe an approach for
agencies whose outcomes are social benefits, rather than
embedding knowledge management within
simple profit. Describes an approach for measuring the
the overall business performance
performance of knowledge management strategies for a
management model of public sector
public sector agency in Victoria, Australia. Knowledge
organisations, and for discerning the degree to
management is defined as those actions which support
which people use knowledge management in
collaboration and integration. Two models are presented
their work. This latter point alludes to the
for measuring knowledge management performance and
adoption of knowledge management by an
knowledge management behaviours: a performance
individual and tracking changes in her or his
framework based on the balanced scorecard approach,
behaviour. I will use a case study of the
and a behaviour framework that identifies levels of
Victorian Department of Infrastructure to
practice demonstrated by individuals. The Knowledge
illustrate the two models.
Management Performance Scorecard maps the objectives
for knowledge management across the balanced
scorecard's key result areas The Knowledge Management
Behaviour Framework identifies seven levels of Knowledge management in the
knowledge management skills for demonstrating department
collaborative behaviour. The framework also outlines
Public sector management in the state of
what might be typical behaviours of managers and the
Victoria, Australia is experiencing profound
roles they would assume in relation to individuals at each
level.
change as it adopts a contractual model of
public service. Since 1992, when a
conservative government was elected, a major
Electronic access
reform of government agencies has occurred.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is This is manifest in large reductions in staffing
available at levels and the amalgamation of several small
http://www.emerald-library.com departments into five mega-agencies whose
roles are to develop policy rather than directly
deliver services. Service provision to welfare
Journal of Knowledge Management
Volume 4 . Number 4 . 2000 . pp. 303±310 recipients or users of public utilities, for
# MCB University Press . ISSN 1367-3270 example, is delivered from the private or
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Designing a knowledge management performance framework Journal of Knowledge Management
Jinette de Gooijer Volume 4 . Number 4 . 2000 . 303±310

community sector under contractual strategic approach to the state's infrastructure


arrangements to the relevant government development. The belief was that a new
agency (Alford et al., 1994). business model needed to be created for
In Victoria's public sector, the knowledge achieving this vision, and that knowledge
worker is a policy-maker, strategic planner, management was that model. Thus the
contract manager, information processor and question: what benefit can be demonstrated by
developer of performance management knowledge management for the Department of
systems. With the separation of policy-making Infrastructure's business? was expected to be
from direct service provision, the integration resolved by designing a performance
and connectedness of information concerning management framework that measured
service and policy is critical. This is the crux knowledge management outcomes. These
for knowledge management in the public outcomes included increased collaboration
sector. And for public sector managers, the within the Department and with its
question it gives rise to is: how will we know if stakeholders and project partners, improved
we have achieved a business benefit from information sharing amongst staff and with
taking a knowledge management approach? stakeholders, faster response to the changes in
The Department of Infrastructure is one of the Department's external environment, and
the smaller agencies in Victoria and was better coordination of development projects
formed in 1996 from the departments of under the agency's responsibility.
planning, transport and major projects. It An extensive review of organisational
employs about 700 staff who are engaged in practices in measuring knowledge
policy development, strategic planning, management initiatives had failed to surface a
managing major projects in land use, model that could be directly applied to the
transport and building, the research and Department. Two key differences that needed
monitoring of infrastructure use, and a to be accommodated, and which I aver are
program of privatisation of infrastructure, of what distinguishes public sector management
which public transportation has been one of from management of commercial enterprises,
the largest. Knowledge is an important are that, firstly, public sector agencies are not
commodity used by the Department. It is also involved in a simple transaction of services
a knowledge-creating organisation. between themselves as a supplier and others
Knowledge is created by employees through as customers. The relationship is far more
research and policy-making, and used in the complex and better described as one between
Department's consultation with communities the agency of government and diverse
and businesses. It is a department employing stakeholders. Second, although it is currently
many specialists. Managing the flow of this fashionable to describe public sector agencies
specialist knowledge is one issue the agency as business operations, they are not profit-
recognised early when it focused on making concerns. Financial management is
developing its information technology base. only one accountability of many, and not the
Perhaps being an agency concerned with primary task.
infrastructure helped it recognise the One particular requirement of the
importance of a good information technology Department of Infrastructure was that the
infrastructure to support knowledge flow. framework needed to be clearly linked to
By 1999 the Department had implemented public policy performance indicators. These
a networked information infrastructure that were defined as levels of outcomes, with the
connected all staff in its urban and regional minimum level described as: ``Awareness and
sites. A knowledge management strategy was understanding of knowledge management
defined, and a steering committee in place principles''; the next level as ``Use of tools,
charged with planning, implementation and information and knowledge''; then ``Changed
overall coordination. The problem remained behaviours''; and, at the maximum level of
of developing a performance management performance, ``Improved organisational
framework for measuring the impact of these performance''.
initiatives. These different levels present some
Within the Department of Infrastructure, problems of logic. For instance, the first two
the need for measuring the outcomes of levels have a clearly stepped link: the use and
knowledge management was related to a application of knowledge management is
business vision of achieving an integrated premised on there being an awareness of what
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Jinette de Gooijer Volume 4 . Number 4 . 2000 . 303±310

it is and the tools available for employing the goals, business unit objectives and the
principles. One can assume that awareness organisation's key result areas.
precedes use. I make the assumption here that . There are clear benchmarks against
one needs to know the utility of a tool before which performance can be measured.
one can successfully employ it to a task. . Performance indicators are
There is a monumental leap though from unambiguous.
use of tools to changed behaviours. Behaviour . Knowledge management is a business
is a learned response to the dynamics of a principle and is embedded in all aspects
system. The use of tools is only one of the organisation's work.
component of those dynamics. Here, the
assumption is that one can step from a specific
behaviour to a whole repertoire of behaviours, Knowledge Management Performance
as well as measure the performance of an Scorecard
individual in isolation from their response to
the system. This raises questions of: What are The Department wanted a framework that
the knowledge management behaviours which could provide a practical umbrella for more
need to be exhibited? What is different about detailed performance measures. The
them that would indicate ``changed behaviour'' framework needed to show how knowledge
from otherwise accepted behaviour in the management impacted on all areas of the
organisation? What, other than ``use of tools, Department's operations. Knowledge
information and knowledge'', would constitute management performance measures needed
knowledge management behaviour? What to be embedded in the overall business
other factors in the organisational climate performance model, and not be a marginal
might impact upon behaviour? How will these ``add-on'' to the core measures. Several
be taken into account? approaches were reviewed. None was
The final level, improved organisational identified as specifically applicable to
performance, represents another leap from knowledge management in a public policy
individuals' performance to that of the whole setting. Models considered ranged from the
system. What are the links here that need to intellectual capital approach (Edvinsonn and
be made explicit and unambiguous? Malone, 1997), to reframing existing business
The resolution of these problems lay in two data models (Allee, 1997). Neither of these
areas: linking knowledge management to the alone seemed helpful enough for the
overall business performance framework; and, Department of Infrastructure's environment.
organisational culture change. This lay open Three approaches offered some sensible
the notion that a knowledge management and pragmatic ideas. They were:
performance management framework was not (1) a knowledge management map, based on
one all-encompassing model but two inter- the structure of an information ecology
connected ones. framework that considers the whole of an
By adapting some of the existing models organisation's culture, structure and
described in the literature to the requirements processes (Russell, 1995);
of the Department of Infrastructure, a viable (2) tacit and explicit knowledge transfer
processes (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995);
model emerged. The model is comprised two
and
frameworks: a Knowledge Management
(3) the notion of sensemaking as a key
Performance Scorecard, and a Knowledge
element in electronic work and computer-
Management Behaviour Framework.
mediated communication, described by
Some assumptions about a knowledge
Weick in a very early study on information
management performance management
technology use (Weick, 1997).
system have been made by the author. These
are: I don't have the space to describe each of
. A Knowledge Management Performance these approaches, but it is sufficient to say
Framework is not in isolation from the that they provided pointers to the
organisation's business performance performance areas the Department needed to
framework. consider. The elements in the knowledge
. There is clear and direct alignment management map ± strategy, infrastructure,
between individual work plans, team products and services, relationships, culture
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and behaviour, processes, and content ± The second feature of the balanced
offered a structure which could be applied in scorecard that needed review was the key result
a public sector performance management area of (organisational) growth. In an era of
system. small government, the idea of organisational
Ultimately, it was by considering the overall growth is ludicrous. Since growth, in terms of
business performance model in which a the balanced scorecard, encompasses the
knowledge management performance notion of organisational learning for growth, it
framework had to sit, that a solution was made sense to reframe this into organisational
found. This was by considering a balanced learning and name this key result area People.
scorecard as the overall performance model, The four revised organisational key result areas
and then mapping the knowledge appear in Table I.
management performance elements across The next step in formulating a performance
the model. This formed the Knowledge management framework involved mapping
Management Performance Scorecard. the key result areas for knowledge
The Knowledge Management Performance management across the scorecard. The key
Scorecard adapts the balanced scorecard result areas were considered to be:
approach (Kaplan and Norton, 1996) in . strategy;
which an organisation measures its . products and services;
performance in four key result areas: . information infrastructure (technology
(1) financial performance; and content);
(2) internal business processes; . processes;
(3) customers; and . relationships; and
(4) growth. . culture and behaviour.
The model, in its original conception, is Inevitably strategy is embedded in every aspect
focused on broadening out the measures of of the organisation, and thus the performance
performance in a profit-making firm. In of a knowledge management strategy will be
recognition that the overall success of a firm measured in all four areas of the scorecard.
depends on all aspects of its business Products and services is also an element that
performing well, the balanced scorecard takes lends itself to being measured in more than
into account internal factors as well as the one key result area.
relationship a firm has with its customers and The final framework is given in Table II.
shareholders. The model is highly attractive The next step was in setting objectives,
for this reason, especially in its capacity to expected outcomes, initiatives and
embrace the knowledge characteristics of an performance indicators for each of the
organisation's business. knowledge management key result areas. The
In choosing to use the balanced scorecard as expected outcomes for each of the defined
an umbrella for developing a knowledge objectives were grouped under the
management performance framework, there Department's public policy performance
were features which sat at odds with the indicators. This provided a clear connection
purpose and tasks of a public sector agency. between the policy performance framework
For the Department of Infrastructure in its role and knowledge management objectives. An
as an agent of government, the idea of example of this is given in Table III.
customers is problematic. First, the The design allows for high detail at the
Department is not engaged in an economic business unit and individual level. This is its
transaction with consumers. Second, the major advantage, that it can be cascaded
services the Department provides are strategic clearly down from the organisational level to
policy and planning advice on public
infrastructure. Third, if the Department has a Table I Balanced scorecard for public sector performance management
customer, in the strict sense of the word, it is Financial Internal business
probably its government ministers, who performance processes Stakeholders People
determine the funding of the Department.
What do we What business How should we How will we
Since the outcomes of the Department's work
need to do processes do we appear to our sustain our
are experienced by the residents, businesses
to succeed need to excel at? stakeholders? ability to learn
and investors of Victoria, the term stakeholders
financially? and develop?
makes far greater sense than customers.
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Table II divisional, group and individual workplans.


Financial Internal business
Its major disadvantage is that people's
performance processes Stakeholders People behaviour and organisational culture cannot
be realistically framed in terms of such a
What do we What business How should we How will we
rational planning model. Another approach
need to do processes do we appear to our sustain our
was needed for this. This is the function of the
to succeed need to excel at? stakeholders? ability to learn
Knowledge Management Behaviour
financially? and develop?
Framework.
Knowledge management key result areas
Strategy Strategy Strategy Strategy
Products and information relationships culture and Knowledge Management Behaviour
services infrastructure Product and behaviour Framework
(technology and services
content) processes There is a basic premise about introducing
knowledge management to any organisation
which informs the Knowledge Management
Behaviour Framework. It is that knowledge
management is a radical innovation or change
to an organisation's operations, and thus is to
be regarded as an intervention on the
organisation's culture. The value of regarding
Table III Knowledge management performance objectives it as an intervention is that the principles and
Key result area practices for managing change processes will
Objectives Expected Initiatives Performance be considered in implementing knowledge
outcome indicators management.
The second framework designed for the
Stakeholders: relationships
Department of Infrastructure identifies and
To increase the Changed Encourage more No. of team
describes the use of knowledge management
capacity for behaviours formal and rooms and
tools, systems, resources and practices as
integration and % increase informal participants in
behaviours to be learnt when individuals
collaboration in inter- networks using each
progressively adopt knowledge management
organisational team rooms
in their work. The behavioural framework,
communications
defined in terms of learning and learned
Internal business processes: behaviours, is directly linked to the key result
information infrastructure area people: culture and behaviour in the
(technology and content) Knowledge Management Performance
To build Awareness and FAQ page on Metrics on use Scorecard.
awareness understanding knowledge of FAQ page The framework is informed by the
amongst all All staff are management is and concerns-based-adoption-model (CBAM)
staff of familiar with the placed on refreshment developed by Gene Hall and his associates at
knowledge concepts and intranet rate of its the University of Texas at Austin in the early
management practices of All staff attend contents 1970s (Somerset, 1995). CBAM has two
tools, knowledge awareness No. of staff dimensions to its system of describing how
processes and management training in trained organisations and individuals adopt
practices Use of tools, knowledge No. of innovations. One is that individuals feel
information, management participants in various concerns about adopting new ways of
knowledge tools and doing things, and that secondly their
Increase in use of Knowledge contributions behaviour will reflect these concerns through
knowledge management to knowledge differing levels of use they make of the new
management team room is management innovation or change.
tools and established and team room The CBAM makes several assumptions about
adoption of attracts growing discussions change. It assumes that change is a process, not
knowledge number of and an event, is made by individuals first then
organisations, is a highly personal experience,
management members documents
[and] entails developmental growth in feelings
practices
and skills (Somerset, 1995).
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CBAM asserts that people go through knowledge management by individuals, is that


predictable stages in adopting an innovation. it is directly linked to the development of a
These stages are shown in Table IV. person's knowledge. This builds an inherent
Individuals exhibit a progressive order of integrity into the framework: learning and
adoption from non-use to renewal. Non-use knowledge are directly linked.
might arise because individuals do not have How was the CBAM system adapted for
the time to learn about the new way of doing describing knowledge management
things, or perhaps because they are concerned behaviours within a performance
that the new way is counter-productive. When management framework?
individuals begin to take action in learning First, it was assumed that knowledge
more about the changes to be adopted, they management was an innovation to be adopted
are exhibiting a new level of use, that of throughout the whole organisation by every
orienting themselves to what the change has individual.
to offer. In deciding to begin using a changed Second, the levels of use were described in
practice or innovation, individuals are terms that related to people's skills in
preparing themselves for more fully adopting knowledge management. The order from 0-6,
the new. A person who begins to use the representing first to last stages, was retained.
innovation has to grapple with organising and Table V shows these levels.
managing her or his program of work in order Third, it was beneficial to describe what
to establish a basic effectiveness. This is role an individual might take up at each level,
coined as mechanical use in the CBAM and what behaviours would characterise both
system. At the routine level, individuals have the level and the role. Table VI outlines these.
attained a degree of stabilisation, and it is a The framework as it is presented in Table
small step from here to developing some VI bears a close relationship to the kind of
refinements by which the impact of the competency models found in many
innovation can be modified to suit specific organisations that have implemented
needs of the work. The final stages describe employee performance management systems.
individuals engaged in integrating the An element missing in these systems, and one
innovation within a team or larger group which I consider critical when implementing
context, and finally, having fully integrated change, is the role supervisors or managers
the innovation or change, individuals begin to adopt in assisting staff to learn and adapt their
seek modifications in response to the need for work to the changes expected of them.
improved business performance. This relationship between supervisor and
What is especially attractive about this supervisee is a critical success factor in both
system of describing levels of use, is that it implementing change and assessing its
legitimises the learning that people experience effectiveness. The Knowledge Management
when adopting organisational change. Too Behaviour Framework includes this element,
often, the implementation of change in and is what gives it further integrity.
organisations is accompanied by an implicit
expectation that individuals will leap from Table V Levels of skill in adopting knowledge
non-use to integration in one rapid step. management
Another feature that makes this model Level Knowledge management skills
attractive for assessing the adoption of
0 Awareness but non-use of knowledge
management tools or practices
1 Seeks information about knowledge
Table IV Levels of use in the CBAM
management
Order Level 2 Personal experimentation with knowledge
Last 6 Renewal management tools and practices
| 5 Integration 3 Personal implementation of knowledge
| 4b Refinement management practices
| 4a Routine 4 Engaged with impact and consequences of
| 3 Mechanical use knowledge management behaviour
| 2 Preparation 5 Actively collaborates in all aspects of work
| 1 Orientation 6 Refocussing knowledge management skills
First 0 Non-use on new business opportunities

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Table VI Roles and behaviours for the levels of knowledge management skill
Possible role for
Knowledge someone at this
Level management skills level Typical behaviours
0 Awareness but non-use Maintainer of current Has little concern and low awareness about
of knowledge competency and knowledge management tools or practices
management tools behaviour Interest may or may not be present
or practices Needs to understand how knowledge management
will directly benefit individual's interests
1 Seeks information Early learner Wants descriptive information and opportunities to
about knowledge see knowledge management tools in use
management Explores realistic expectations about benefits and
costs in acquiring knowledge management skills
2 Personal Follower Establishes rapport with people more skilled in
experimentation with knowledge management practices
knowledge Accesses and uses knowledge management
management tools resources and tools provided by others
and practices Seeks personal support through access to facilitators
and other help
3 Personal Implementer Begins to focus more on team issues and
implementation of collaborative opportunities
knowledge Clarifies how knowledge management can be
management practices applied to other aspects of individual's work
Is continually building skill and increasing use of
knowledge management tools, probably on a
daily basis
Identifies knowledge resources, creates and
contributes own knowledge to organisation's
knowledge systems
4 Engaged with impact Problem-solver Independently and routinely applies knowledge
and consequences of management practices
knowledge Competent in capturing and organising knowledge
management behaviour for others' use
Clearly demonstrates collaborative knowledge
behaviours
Encourages other people to share expertise and
participate in group problem-solving
5 Actively collaborates in Leader Advocates and promotes collaboration to others
all aspects of work Models knowledge management practices,
especially learning and feedback into business
processes
6 Refocussing knowledge Investigator/ Engages in creative inquiry and analysis of business
management skills on Innovator outcomes and strategies
new business
opportunities

Knowledge management is defined Framework specifically defines this interface.


specifically within the Department of Table VII describes the roles and behaviours
Infrastructure as those actions which support anticipated of managers.
collaboration and integration. Clearly All of these actions are supported by the
collaborative action in the relationship knowledge management tools, systems,
between a manager and her or his staff resources and practices of the organisation. At
establishes a core practice of knowledge the Department of Infrastructure these
management at its most critical interface. The include: tools such as Lotus Notes team
Knowledge Management Behaviour rooms; an intranet system that enables access
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Table VII Roles and behaviours for managers organised, accessed, shared, applied, weeded
Role for manager in
and archived by each individual in the normal
response to someone
course of daily work.
Level at this level Typical behaviours of manager
0 Provide vision Focus on the individual
Acknowledge that little concern and low
Conclusions
awareness is legitimate
Implementation of the frameworks is still at
Make individuals aware in a positive way
an early stage. The design is to be trialled
Use promotional tools
within one divisional group, then evaluated
1 Information provider Focus on the individual
and refined before full implementation.
Get them in touch with an enthusiastic
By distinguishing between organisational
person competent in knowledge
performance and individual behaviour, the
management
design of these frameworks provides for
Help the early learner clarify needs and
``hard'' business measures to be linked to
identify training opportunities
``fuzzy'' social measures in a coherent way.
2 Counsellor Focus on the individual, supported by
Importantly, learning, which is a fundamental
group processes
precursor to and an activity within knowledge
Answer all questions, listen to problems,
processes, is explicitly acknowledged and
build success expectancy
included in knowledge management
Establish milestones and realistic timelines
performance.
in developing knowledge management
behaviours: celebrate and reward
achievements
3 Leader Focus on team development and References
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