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DROWNING, WATER

ACCIDENTS AND
RESUSCITATION
DEFINITION

Drowning is a
death from
suffocation due to
submersion.
Near-drowning-
Survival, at least
temporarily, of
near suffocation
due to submersion
DEFINITION OF TERMS:

“Wet” drowning-
Drowning in which
water enters the
lungs
“Dry” drowning-
Drowning in which
little or no water
enters the lungs
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Secondary drowning-
Death from
aspiration
pneumonia following
resuscitation after a
water accident
Active drowning-
Drowning in which
the victim is
struggling in the
water and is still
breathing
Passive drowning-
Drowning in which
the victim is not
breathing and is
face-down in the
water
Mammalian diving
reflex- A reflex that
prevents death after
submersion in cold
water
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CAUSES OF DROWNING
REFLEX SPASM OF THE LARYNX

Asphyxia may occur


from reflex spasm of
the larynx, which
closes the airway.
SUBMERSION IN SALT WATER

 If a person aspirates a
large amount of sea
water, the high
concentration of salt
will cause large
amounts of fluid from
his bloodstream to pass
into and flood his lungs.
 Death may occur from
shock, as a sudden fall
in BP brings about
circulatory collapse.
SUBMERSION IN FRESH WATER

 Fresh water sucked


into a person’s lungs
enters his
bloodstream and
dilutes his blood.
 Adequate ventilation
of the lungs after
rescue maybe
impossible because of
water blockage.
 Death may occur from
either asphyxia or
heart failure.
HYPERVENTILATION

 Drowning may result


from excessive deep
breathing or
hyperventilation
(overventilation) of the
lungs before swimming
underwater, diving, or
testing how long the
breath can be held
underwater.
 Swimmer or diver may
not recognize the usual
warning signs that his
oxygen supply is
exhausted.
RESCUE!!!
ENSURING YOUR OWN SAFET Y
 You know how to swim
 You have been trained in water-rescue techniques
 You are not injured
 You are sure you can comfortably handle the victim
considering your and the victim’s height and weight
 You are wearing a personal flotation device
 You are accompanied by other rescuers
 Make sure you have firm, solid footing and cannot slip into
the water
 Keep your body low, and lean backward as you pull the
victim to reduce your risk of being pulled into the water.
 Hold out an object for the victim to grab; the best thing to
use is a rope
 Once the victim has grabbed the object, pull the
victim to shore 13
IF THE VICTIM IS CONSCIOUS BUT TOO FAR
AWAY
TO REACH:
You can try a throwing
assist by throwing
something that will help
the victim stay afloat or
reach the shore. A
number of throwing
devices can be used:
 Ring buoy – a floatable
ring made of buoyant
material attached to a
lightweight tow line or
rope
 Heaving line – a
floatable, buoyant line
that is usually kept
coiled; the line or rope
should be a bright, easily
visible color (such as
yellow or white)
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 Throw bag – a nylon bag
that contains 50 to 75 feet
of coiled floating line; this
is a commercial device
commonly found on boats,
and contains a foam disk to
preserve its shape and keep
it from sinking
 Heaving jug – a homemade
device made of a gallon-
sized plastic container
filled with a half-inch of
sand or water and tied to a
floating line
TAKE THESE STEPS IN A
THROWING ASSIST:
1. Make sure you have firm, solid footing and
that you cannot slip into the water. Assume a
stride position in which the leg opposite your
throwing arm is positioned forward, a stance
that will help you keep your balance. Keep
your feet apart and your knees bent.
2. Step on the end of the floatable line with your
forward foot. Make sure you do not step on
the coiled part of the line with your other foot.
3. Shout at the victim to get his or her attention,
explain that you are going to throw an object,
and instruct the victim to grab the object.
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4. Aiming slightly beyond where the victim is in
the water, bend your knees and throw the object
using a swinging underhand motion; keep a
good length of coiled rope or line in your other
hand.
5. If the object doesn’t reach the victim, rapidly
pull the line back and repeat the throw, aiming
beyond where the victim is in the water.
Don’t try to recoil the rope or line before you
throw it a second time.
6. Once the victim has grabbed the object, rope
or line, keep your knees bent and lean
back – away from the water – as you slowly
and steadily pull the victim to safety.
IF YOU ARE NOT SPECIALLY TRAINED IN
WATER RESCUE:
Do not remove the victim from the water.
Keep the victim afloat on his or her back.
Always support the head and neck level
with the back.
Maintain the airway and support
ventilation in the water.
Wait for help.

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FIRST AID CARE FOR NEAR-DROWNING

1.Remove the victim from the water as quickly


and safely as you can.
2. If you do not suspect spinal injury, place
the victim on the left side so that water,
vomitus, and secretions can drain from the
upper airway.
3. Assess for breathing and pulse.
4. If there is no breathing, establish an airway
as rapidly as you can and begin ventilations.
5. If there is no pulse, begin chest
compressions and perform CPR. Continue
resuscitation until emergency personnel
arrive .
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DIVING EMERGENCIES

Diving in Shallow Water


Deep-Water Diving
Air Embolism
Decompression Sickness
Barotrauma

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AIR EMBOLISM & DECOMPRESSION
SICKNESS
First Aid Care

1. If there is no sign of neck or spine injury, position the


victim on the left side; slant the entire body 15
degrees with the head down to force air or gas bubbles
to stay in the abdomen.
2. Provide basic life support; administer ventilations and
initiate CPR if needed. Life support is critical in these
cases because oxygen reduces the size of nitrogen
bubbles and improves circulation.
3. Monitor the victim continuously until emergency
personnel arrive. The victim needs to be taken to a
recompression chamber for treatment.

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VOCABULARY

 Air embolism- A diving injury in which air bubbles enter


the bloodstream
 Decompression sickness- A diving injury in which gases
(usually nitrogen) enter the bloodstream
 Barotrauma- A diving emergency in which body cavities
are subjected to extreme pressure

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