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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Punctuality and honesty are more than just values; they are the building

blocks of good governance. Both define the success of any undertakings by

personal or by community who shared the same aspirations and goals.

Categorically, as the old adage says “time is gold” to denote how punctuality

and wise utilization of time affect efficiency and success and honesty pinned it

as commitment to oneself to do the desirable and expected tasks even

unsupervised.

Individual employees are the tools through which organizations can

achieve their set goals (Caroline,2015) a nd keeping employees who do not

know how to value time and honesty by and large affect the efficiency of the

company and its working environment. Tensions will most likely build up

among workers when employees who come to work regularly and on time feel

frustrated as their workload increased and forced to fill in the work of the late

or absent co-worker and perceived the latter as lazy. Also, when it is the

management member who is always late, the staff will feel that she/he is

abusing her/his authority and not leading by example. The end result will be

low morale and potentially high turnover as employees seek work elsewhere

(Saez, 2016).
In the same way, telling a lie has become a protracted dilemma. There

was a survey conducted which revealed that nearly 20 percent of people tell lies

at work each week, and 15 percent of people reported they had actually been

caught lying (http://www.management-issues.com/opinion/6600/the-ripple-

effects-of-work place-lies/, retrieved on October 28, 2016).

Dishonesty in the workplace can take many different forms including

false claims of illness as reason for absence from work, punching an absent

employee's clock card, getting another employee to punch one's clock card in

one’s absence, telling lies to cover up work errors or for other reasons,

misrepresentation or falsification of employment qualifications or other

credentials and receiving bribes among others and any other forms of

deception, illegal or unethical acts detrimental to the employment relationship

(Israelstam,2016). Root (2016) mentioned how detrimental dishonesty in the

workplace for it can result in lost revenue, a drop in productivity and lower

morale.

Tardiness in schools by teachers takes two forms: tardiness for school

and tardiness for classes throughout the school day and in either way if left

unchecked can create serious systemic problems. The length of class periods

will be shortened and leave students unsupervised for substantial period of

time and these students are then free to misbehave and disturb nearby classes.

More so, it encourages students to come to classes late by knowing the teacher

will also be late. Failure to address this practice will lead to a marked decline in
the academic climate and performance of the institution

(https://goo.gl/rcZWcV, retrieved on October 28, 2016).

In India, the study conducted by Balaramulu and Mehdipour (2013) on

the influence of teacher’s behavior on the academic achievement of university

students, they found out that students responded positively to teachers who

are punctual, honest, hardworking, friendly, confident and competent and

significantly correlated to the academic achievement of the students.

In the Philippines, being late and starting things late has always been

part of Filipino culture. Many Filipinos seems to either practice it or accept it,

so much that a term “ Filipino Time” was coined (Tan, 2015). To rebuke this

habit, Republic Act 10535 was enacted requiring government offices, private

televisions and radio stations to calibrate and synchronize their time devices

with the Philippine Standard Time (www.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-

10535/retrieved on October 28, 2016) to ensure the same time reference of

punctuality.

DepEd Memorandum No. 410 s. 2009 was issued and implemented the

“Project We Advocate Time Consciousness and Honesty (WATCH) program to

advocate time consciousness and honesty as a significant campaign for core

development of individual’s vis-à-vis to minimize the corruption of time by the

Department of Education employees and to insure quality education. In spite of

this effort, corruption of time is still a normal thing that happens in some
schools done by most of its teaching personnel and there are lots of factors

which hinder the attainment of its goals (Capining, 2015).

Given the said issues, the researcher becomes eager to conduct an

evaluation of the implementation of the mentioned program. Thus, this

research is given birth. This will basically delve more on the evaluation of the

Project WATCH implementation using CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product)

model.
Statement of the Problem

This study aims to evaluate Project WATCH implementation using CIPP

Model in terms of the five key areas namely

1. curriculum integration;

2. INSET Training (Professional Development in relation to WATCH);

3. integration of WATCH to school project;

4. home, school, community involvement; and

5. punctuality and attendance.

Consequently, the following research questions will be considered:

1. What is the level of implementation of the Project WATCH in terms of

CONTEXT as analyzed according to the five key areas?

2. What is the level of the actions taken and resources used on the

concerns regarding Project WATCH implementation as articulated in

INPUT in terms of the five key areas?

3. What is the level of the efficacy of the actions taken on the concerns

regarding Project WATCH Implementation as stated in PROCESS in

terms of the five key areas?

4. What is the level of attainment of the Project WATCH Implementation

based on its PRODUCT in terms of the five key areas?


5. Is there a significant influence of the INPUT to the efficacy of the process

when analyzed according to the five key areas?

6. Is there a significant influence of the INPUT to the attainment of the

product when analyzed according to the five key areas?

7. Is there a significant influence of the PROCESS to the attainment of the

product when analyzed according to the five key areas?

8. Is there a significant influence of the INPUT to the implementation of the

CONTEXT when analyzed according to the five key areas?

9. Is there a significant influence of the PROCESS to the implementation of

the CONTEXT when analyzed according to the five key areas?

10. Based on the findings of the study, what are the feasible activities,

measures or mechanisms to be formulated to strengthen and improve

the implementation of Project WATCH in the school under study?


Objectives of the Study

This study will be conducted to meet the following objectives considering

these five key areas:

1. curriculum integration;

2. INSET Training (Professional Development in relation to WATCH);

3. integration of WATCH to school project;

4. home, school, community involvement; and

5. punctuality and attendance.

1. To determine the level of implementation of the Project WATCH as

articulated in the CONTEXT of the given five key areas.

2. To find out the level of the actions taken and resources used on the

concerns regarding Project WATCH implementation as articulated in

INPUT in terms of the given five key areas.

3. To evaluate the level of the efficacy of the actions taken on the concerns

regarding Project WATCH Implementation as stated in PROCESS in

terms of the given five key areas.

4. To evaluate the level of attainment of the Project WATCH Implementation

based on its PRODUCT in terms of the given five key areas.

5. To find out if there is a significant direct influence of the INPUT to

PROCESS, INPUT to PRODUCT, PROCESS to PRODUCT, INPUT to


CONTEXT, and PROCESS to the implementation of the CONTEXT when

analyzed according to the given five key areas.

6. To generate information as bases for the formulation or development of

activities, measures or mechanisms to strengthen and help improve the

implementation of Project WATCH in the school under study.

Hypotheses of the Study

The following are the hypotheses of this study which are based on the

five key areas namely

1. curriculum integration;

2. INSET Training (Professional Development in relation to WATCH);

3. integration of WATCH to school project;

4. home, school, community involvement; and

5. punctuality and attendance.

1. There is no significant influence of the INPUT to the efficacy of the

process when analyzed according to the five key areas.

2. There is no significant influence of the INPUT to the attainment of the

product when analyzed according to the five key areas.


3. There is no significant influence of the PROCESS to the attainment of the

product when analyzed according to the five key areas.

4. There is no significant influence of the INPUT to the implementation of

the CONTEXT when analyzed according to the five key areas.

5. There is no significant influence of the PROCESS to the implementation

of the CONTEXT when analyzed according to the five key areas.

Significance of the Study

Results of this study will generally strengthen the WATCH Program in

advocating its two core values- punctuality and honesty. Specifically, this study

is very significant to the many involved individuals in the educative process.

First, this study will benefit the Department of Education because this would

give them vivid information that would help them to figure out how effective the

Project WATCH is, along with identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the

program in integrating to curriculum, trainings, schools projects, home, school

and community involvement, and punctuality and attendance of its employees

for future reference in policy making.

Next, results of this study would serve as guide for school administrators,

teachers, students and other stakeholders especially in developing and

concretizing additional strategies in the implementation of Project WATCH

program in the coming years. To school administrators, this will help them in
planning the activities that will promote the two core values. To teachers, this

will pose many recommendations in the integration of WATCH to their lesson

planning and many activities. To students, this study will constantly remind

them of the importance of punctuality and honesty. To the stakeholders, this

study calls for their participation and commitment in valuing and promoting

punctuality and honesty.

Lastly, this study would help in encouraging the community such as the

LGUs to be partners in the attainment of its goals of promoting punctuality and

honesty.
Scope and Limitation

This study will evaluate the effectiveness of Project WATCH

Implementation using CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) model of Daniel

Stufflebeam. This study will limit to the evaluation of the efficacy of Project

WATCH to curriculum integration, INSET Training (Professional Development

in relation to WATCH), integration of WATCH to school project, home, school,

community involvement, and punctuality and attendance.

CIPP Model of Stufflebeam was chosen to be used in evaluating the

program for it is a decision-focused approach to evaluation and it emphasized

the systematic provision of information for programme management and

operation. In fact, it has been widely and internationally used by many projects

and programs in evaluating its efficacy.

This will be conducted in the biggest secondary school of Mati City

Division which is Mati National Comprehensive High School. This school is

chosen because aside from the fact that the researcher teaches on it, this

school has also participated for more than two years in the “Search for the

BEST WATCH School”. The respondents of this study will be the selected

teaching personnel of MNCHS from all year levels. This study is descriptive-

inferential design which will only employ quantitative method in gathering data

with the use of researcher made survey questionnaire which will be subjected

for validity-reliability content test.


Definition of Terms

This paper contains varied terms. They will be defined operationally to

promote understanding among the readers.

CIPP Model. This is an evaluation model that requires the evaluation of

context, input, process and product in judging a program’s value. This is the

model employed in analyzing and evaluating the results of this study.

Curriculum Integration. This is the process of integrating WATCH in lesson

planning and in the delivery of instruction.

Home, School, Community Involvement. This is the link and partnership

among parents, school employees and community that will help promote and

attain the goals of WATCH.

INSET Training (Professional Development in relation to WATCH). This is

the training conducted every sembreak for professional development. Of which,

WATCH is included.

Integration of WATCH to school project. This is the process of considering

and integrating WATCH is the school projects.


Project WATCH. This stands for We Advocate Time Consciousness and

Honesty. This is an advocacy of time consciousness and honesty as a

significant campaign for core development of individuals that is used as the

dependent variable of the study.

Punctuality and Attendance. This refers to the regularity and punctuality of

attendance of the teachers which are transparent in their Biometric records

and logbooks.
Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL

FRAMEWORK

This chapter contains both the review of related literature and the

theoretical framework of this study. The related literatures being used were

empirical studies that investigated the WATCH program as to how it operates

in some other schools. The CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) model of

Daniel Stufflebeam will be used as the conceptual framework in analyzing and

evaluating the program’s value.

Review of Related Literature

This section reviews several studies, orders and articles that focused on

Project WATCH. Since there have been only few empirical studies conducted

yet on Project WATCH, only few researches were reviewed too.

Why does Project WATCH exist?

Time is one of the many things that could not be taken back when it has

gone but for Filipinos, it is always better late than never attending at all.

According to Fr. Miguel Bernad, who wrote an essay about Filipino Time in his
book “Budhi: A Journal of Ideas and Culture”, this term was coined by

Americans in the 1900’s because they were irritated by the lack of punctuality

of Filipinos (https://medium.com/@btantheman/why-filipinos-follow-filipino-time-

d38e 2c162927, Retrieved on October 29, 2016).

To dispel perceptions that “Filipino time” is synonymous with tardiness,

though there are individuals who are habitually tardy, others inadvertently

arrive late for appointments because watches are not synchronized under an

official standard time, the government made effort to synchronize timepieces

nationwide and several initiatives in recent years to promote punctuality

(Philippine Star, May 25, 2013, Retrieved on October 31, 2016 from

https://www.scribd.com/document/186887093/Literature).

The enactment of Republic Act 10535, the campaign for punctuality may

finally get off the ground requiring not only government offices but also private

television and radio stations to calibrate and synchronize their time devices

with the Philippine Standard Time. Failure to comply will cost TV and radio

stations fines ranging from P30,000 to P50,000. For subsequent offenses, they

can lose their franchise. (www.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-

10535/retrieved on October 28, 2016). The public can then synchronize personal

timepieces with the PST, which will be set by the Philippine Atmospheric,

Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration

A law was called for to discipline Filipino people to be time-conscious and

equate “Filipino Time” to be “on time” yet the old notions and perceptions of
Filipino time have persisted. Since education is seen as government’s arm for

transformation and the best channel to educate until to the grass roots, the

Department of Education strengthens the mandates of RA 10535 and released

Dep Ed Memorandum Nos.160 and 387 in 2008 as a significant step in

bringing about fundamental change or societal transformation in all DepEd

officials and employees to strengthen the values of punctuality and honesty.

In support of the said goal, W.A.T.C.H (We are Time Conscious and

Honest) was being conceptualized. Further, the then President Gloria

Macapagal Arroyo issued Presidential Proclamation No. 1782 on May 21,2009

entitled “Declaring the Month of June as W.A.T.C.H Month and enjoining All

Schools Colleges, Universities and Local Government Units (LGUs) to

undertake Programs of Activities Relating Thereto Every Second Week of June”.

Its major goal is to push forward the recognition of punctuality and honesty as

two core values in national renewal and development. For the sustainability of

this under taking, it was being listed in the Calendar of Activities S.Y 2014-

2015 ( Dep Ed Order.# 18, s. 2014) as one of those activities mandated by law.

To ensure the continuing success of this project W.A.T.C.H schools will still be

using the guidelines set forth in DepEd Memo # 410, s.2009.

Project We Advocate Time Consciousness and Honesty (W.A.T.C.H.) is a

joint Values advocacy movement of the JCI Senate Philippines, Department of

Education (DepEd), Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Technical

Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), Office of the President


for Education and Education Related Organizations of the Philippine

Association of Colleges and Universities (PACU), PRISAA which maintain

objective to inculcate to the Filipino youth the value of Punctuality and Honesty

in the development and productivity of our Nation.

The movement was officially launched last January 11, 2008 at the

Ramon Magsaysay High School in Quezon City, which is also the Pilot school

led by 2008 JCI Senate National President Carlos Co, PACU President Gonzalo

Duque, DepEd Secretary Jesli Lapus and Mayor Sonny Belmonte and 2007-

2008 HP – W.A.T.C.H. Chairman JCI Sen. Cesar Ochoa.

By mandate, JCI Senate Chapters Nationwide together with JCI

Philippines conducted free half-day and one-day WORKSHOPS for students

and teachers as part of their Memorandum of Agreement with the DepEd,

CHED and TESDA. Consequently, the Search for the 2010-2011 Search for

W.A.T.C.H Schools was announced.

Rationale of Project WATCH

An advocacy for time consciousness and honesty is a significant

campaign for core development of individuals. If everyone is punctual and

honest there will be a concomitant valuing for self-respect and for respecting

others’ time. These values cannot be taught but they can be caught by simply

modeling the practice and making it a habit. Awareness of the benefits we can
derive from being a WATCH implementer is basically the end goal in

establishing a WATCH School.

FIVE KEY AREAS

1. Curriculum Integration

It has been reiterated by a lot of people that as educators, we are

constantly searching for new ways to help students make sense of the

multitude of life’s experiences and the bits and pieces of knowledge they gain

from a traditionally departmentalized curriculum

(www.users.miamioh.edu/shermalw/edp603_group3-f00.html, Retrieved on October

27, 2016). Students today continue to move from one discipline to the next

forcing the information to be disconnected to anything that resembles real life

situations. To lighten some of the fragmentation our students and teachers

experience, holistic and integrated curriculums are being proposed and

adopted by many school districts.

Beane (1991) stated that curriculum integration is successful in making

students more aware of content area connections, challenging students,

providing a learning environment supporting academic and social needs,

dissolving the boundaries among the disciplines, and fostering stronger

student-teacher relationships. Students participating in an integrated

curriculum have demonstrated a more positive attitude about themselves and


school. Similarly, teachers are provided with a new opportunity to work

together, increasing collegiality. They have worked together to provide

enhanced learning experiences and a variety of instructional approaches

through integrated curriculum. It is our opinion that integrated curriculum is a

valuable innovation. Its effectiveness is widely supported. However, school

districts need to evaluate the degree to which this innovation will be effective

within the district and within which classrooms integrated curriculum will

allow for optimal success. This also poses a problem of how often curriculum

integration is done by teachers.

Moreover, as children spend a better part of their day in educational

institutions, it becomes imperative that teachers take over the responsibility of

creating an ideal environment so that qualitative values can be restored

(http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/teachers-must-integrate-moral values -with-

the-curriculum/533758/, Retrieved October 30, 2016). Part of this ideal

environment is the environment that teaches both cognitive and values. When

punctuality and honesty are integrated in the curriculum, students will most

likely present at all times and thus, learning of all competencies is possible.

Attendance and punctuality are essential to ensure that child gets the

most out of their time at school. They are also important life skills that a child

will need as they become young adults and enter the world of work

(http://www.oakwoodips.org/attendance-and-punctuality.html , retrieved on

October 30, 2016). In a survey conducted by Young Enterprise to more than


2000 respondents, they said the government of UK should make it a top

priority to put the learning of the ‘employability skills’ such as honesty,

reliability, teamwork and punctuality in the National Curriculum to boost

young people’s job prospect and to prepare Britain’s young people better for the

world of work (http://www.the3rdimagazine.co.uk/2011/09/schools-must-teach-

pupils-honesty-to-get-a-job-say-65-of-british-adults-young-enterprise-poll/, retrieved

on October 31, 2016).

Teaching how to value punctuality at schools, it saves not only the

academic endeavor of the students but their future as well. If students left

undisciplined or reinforced of always showing up late to school, students may

develop the notion that tardiness is acceptable behavior and it becomes

habitual. This belief can negatively impact their future work ethic and

employment opportunities. Inculcating the values of punctuality in curriculum

reminded students to develop of the habit of being punctual with important

commitments. This habit can serve high school students well through college

and into their future careers (http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-being-

time-vs-being-late-school-3477.html, retrieved on October 31, 2016)

Furthermore, Lipson (2008) mentioned that honesty is important for its

own sake—it should be a central pillar of character—and it's vital for

education. One can't learn how to write if one just simply downloads his/her

papers from the Internet. One can't learn calculus if s/he just copies the

problem sets from a friend or an answer book. Honesty matters. Honesty helps
us learn new things on our own. Honesty trains our students to be

independent learners. Hence, the value of honesty should be imparted to

students.

2. INSET Training (Professional Development in relation to WATCH)

Punctuality speaks integrity and professionalism. To be late and opted

owns will when to show up is never a civil neither a basic right that one has to

enjoy, but it is a moral obligation committed against other whom ones keeps to

wait.

To Philippine law as mandated by CSC MC 23, s. 1998 on tardiness and

Memorandum Circular No. 16, s. 2010 promulgating the guidelines on under-

time , held anyone committed the acts liable for a simple misconduct and/ or

conduct prejudicial to the best interest of the service

(http://www.depedmalaybalay.net/article/habitual-tardiness-undertime-and-

absenteeism-considered-administrative-offenses.html, retrieved on October 31,

2016).

The DepEd as one of the biggest agencies and responsible for producing

a citizen that is good-natured and functional, its employees should model first

of what work ethics is. This goal can be best achieved and transpired through

holding seminars, fora and the like.


The INSET is a program mandated by the GASTPE Law (R.A. 8545) that

emphasizes the need for the DepEd to implement programs improve the quality

of education the country by maximizing the use of resources in the private

education sector.

Sec. 12 of R.A. 8545 provides the INSET Fund for the purpose of

improving the quality of teaching in the private secondary education and to

provide for the upgrading of content and teaching competencies in critical

subject areas and for innovative teaching techniques and strategies, to include

multimedia and other technologies to assist instruction. In the INSET

Trainings, WATCH orientation and concerns can also be included and

addressed to educate teachers and help them build a working community that

is stress-free. Lateness leads to stress, and stress leads to poor workplace

performance (Ketchum, 2016)

3. Integration of WATCH to school project

WATCH can also be integrated to school projects by taking into account

the reminder it can give to all individuals in the academe. This is one way of

promoting the two core-values of WATCH-punctuality and honesty. School

projects include those activities done by the school in order to achieve the goals

of WATCH.
4. Home, School, Community Involvement

Based on Obrien (2012) recent MetLife Survey of the American Teacher,

teachers, parents and students all agree that parent engagement in schools

has increased over the past 25 years. Given the role that family engagement

plays in not only academic success, but life success, that is great news.

However, the survey also noted that parent engagement remains a challenge for

many schools (Bosman, 2010).

In Philippine Education, creating a bridge among parents, school and

community towards an attainment of the goal means giving much greater

chance for the education to prosper. Thus, while the work has just begun, this

engagement effort is already showing what can happen when schools and the

community commit to working together. When a school earns a commitment

and a helping hand from the parents, strengthening the lessons and values

taught in schools become easier. When parents and the community commit in

strengthening punctuality and honesty, a successful attainment of its goals

becomes imaginable.

5. Punctuality and Attendance

Regularity of attendance and punctuality are required in all classes.

These are transparent in their Biometric records and logbooks. DO 18 s. 1991


is a verification of this requirement. This is a directive to all DepEd employees

regarding absenteeism and tardiness.

More so, Andersen (2016) said that punctuality is also a key workplace

skill which must be learnt at school and adhered to. Employees who are

regularly late to work lose their jobs. In the educative process, you should

come before the time to be on time. This principle holds true in all schools.

Also, Sundius (2014) asserted that while attendance has typically

focused on student absenteeism, a new study released by the National Council

on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) reveals that poor teacher attendance can also be a

significant challenge. It sheds light on how often teachers are missing school

and why. It points out that teacher absenteeism can affect student

achievement when teachers miss as few as 10 days a year.

Theoretical Framework

CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) MODEL


CIPP evaluation model is a program evaluation model which was

developed by Daniel Stufflebeam and colleagues in the 1960s. CIPP is an

acronym for Context, Input, Process and Product. CIPP is an evaluation model

that requires the evaluation of context, input, process and product in judging a

program’s value. According to Robinson (2002), CIPP is a decision-focused


approach to evaluation and emphasizes the systematic provision of information

for program management and operation.

The (2015) said that the intention of this model is not to prove, but

rather, to improve upon the program itself. The CIPP Evaluation Model may be

applied to educational / training programs, to best determine the merit and

worth of the training program, as well as to determine how to improve upon it.

The CIPP framework was developed as a means of linking evaluation with

the program’s decision-making. It aims to provide an analytic and rational

basis for the program’s decision-making, based on a cycle of planning,

structuring, implementing and reviewing and revising decisions, each

examined through a different aspect of evaluation –context, input, process and

product evaluation. This is an attempt to make evaluation directly relevant to

the needs of decision-makers during the phases and activities of a program.

Stufflebeam’s context, input, process, and product (CIPP) evaluation model is

recommended as a framework to systematically guide the conception, design,

implementation, and assessment of service-learning projects, and provide

feedback and judgment of the project’s effectiveness for continuous

improvement. This model is best understood when its four aspects are

explained well.

Context Evaluation

(What needs to be done? Vs. Were important needs addressed?)

CIPP begins with Context Evaluation. It establishes the goals of the


program (Teh, 2015). At this stage, the beneficiaries and their needs are also

identified, along with potential resources available on hand, and potential

problems that will need to be overcome. At this stage, the background of the

program will need to be evaluated, and any social / economic / political /

geographical / cultural factors within the immediate environment are to be

accounted for.

Context evaluation involves studying the environment of the program. Its

purpose is to define the relevant environment, portray the desired and actual

conditions pertaining to that environment, focus on unmet needs and missed

opportunities and diagnose the reason for unmet needs (Ghazali, 2015).

Stufflebeam, the proponent of this model said that the results of a context

evaluation are intended to provide a sound basis for either adjusting or

establishing goals and priorities and identifying needed changes. One

suggested use of context evaluation is a means for a school district to

communicate with the public to achieve a shared understanding of the

district’s strengths, weaknesses, needs, opportunities and pressing problems.

Other uses are to convince a funding agency of the worth of a project, to

develop objectives for staff development, to select schools for priority

assistance, and to help parents or advisers focus on developmental areas

requiring attention.

Context evaluation is really a situational analysis – a reading of the

reality in which the individuals find themselves and an assessment of that

reality in light of what they want to do. This diagnosis stage of evaluation is not
a one-time activity. It continues to furnish baseline information regarding the

operations and accomplishments of the total system.

Moreover, Tseng (2010) said that Context evaluation deals with whether a

curriculum includes focus, goals and curriculum objectives, meaning the

organizational parameters. It also assesses the environment where evaluation

takes place. The aggregate data and information gathered serve as a basis for

curriculum decisions and the subsequent development of objectives. Therefore,

context evaluation includes: policy, surroundings, needs assessment, at the

least.

Evaluation “contexts” focus on environment which is the change will

occur and problems will appear. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify

the appropriate environment in order to achieve the mission and objective of

the program (Yahaya, 2001). This evaluation aspect can also serve as

“planning-decisions” aspect.

Input Evaluation

(How should it be done? Vs. Was a defensible design employed?)

The second stage of the model, input evaluation is designed to provide

information and determine how to utilize resources to meet program goals.

Input evaluators assess the school’s capabilities to carry out the task of

evaluation; they consider the strategies suggested for achieving program goals

and they identify the means by which a selected strategy will be implemented.

Input evaluates specific aspects of the curriculum plan or specific components


of the curriculum plan. An important component of this analysis is to identify

any barriers or constraints in the client’s environment that may influence or

impede the operation of the program. In other words, the purpose of Input

Evaluation is to help clients consider alternatives in terms of their particular

needs and circumstances and to help develop a workable plan for them.

Input Evaluation carries the idea that stakeholders will need to be

engaged in the implementation of the program and suitable strategies of the

program execution should be identified. Competing or conflicting strategies

may also be identified in order to strengthen the program implementation. That

is why this aspect serves as the “structuring decisions” aspect.

Process Evaluation

(Is it being done? Vs. Was the design well executed?)

The focus of process evaluation is the implementation of a program or a

strategy. The main purpose is to provide feedback about needed modification if

the implementation is inadequate. In addition, process evaluation should

provide a comparison of the actual implementation with the intended program,

the costs of the implementation, and participants’ judgments of the quality of

the effort. Process evaluation includes three strategies. The first is to detect or

predict defects in the procedural design or its implementation stage, the second

is to provide information for decisions and the third is to maintain a record of

procedures as they occur. This stage, which includes the three strategies,

occurs during the implementation stage of the curriculum development. It is a


piloting process conducted to debug the program before district-wide

implementation. From such evaluation, project decision makers obtain

information they need to anticipate and overcome procedural difficulties and to

make decisions. Partners (2015) said that although the main purpose is to

provide feedback on the extent of implementation, process evaluation can fulfill

two other functions. They are 1) to provide information to external audiences

who wish to learn about the program and 2) to assist program staff, evaluators,

and administrators in interpreting program outcomes. This process evaluation

aspect serves as the “implementing decisions” aspect.

Product Evaluation

(Is it succeeding? Vs. Did the effort succeed?)

Stufflebeam who is the proponent of this model stated that the primary

function of product evaluation is to measure, interpret, and judge the

attainments of a program. Product evaluation, therefore, should determine the

extent to which identified needs were met, as well as identify the broad effects

of the program.

This product evaluation stage measures outcomes (The, 2015).

This aspect has three significant terms. They are the impact, effectiveness and

sustainability. These three will help assess the product of the implemented

program. The impact will answer whether or not WATCH reach its targeted

audience. Effectiveness is assessed through the efficacy of the WATCH program


in terms of its quality and significance by evaluating its positive and negative

outcomes. The findings will be used by all stakeholders to determine whether

the implementation is a success or a failure. On the other hand, sustainability

will be measured through its findings and will find out whether the WATCH

program should be continued or not.

This evaluation should document both intended and unintended effects

and negative as well as positive outcomes. The primary use of product

evaluation is to determine whether a program should be continued, repeated

and/or extended to other settings. However, it should also provide direction for

modifying the program to better serve the needs of participants and to become

more cost effective. Finally, product evaluation is an essential component of an

“accountability report”. At this stage, product evaluation helps evaluators to

connect activities of the model to other stages of the whole change process.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

PRODUCT EVALUATION

INPUT EVALUATION PROCESS EVALUATION

CONTEXT EVALUATION
KEY AREAS
1. Curriculum integration;
2. INSET Training (Professional
Development in relation to WATCH);
3. Integration of WATCH to school project;
4. Home, School, Community Involvement;
5. Punctuality and Attendance

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework for the Project WATCH Evaluation


According to figure 1, there are five key areas being reviewed and

evaluated in relation to WATCH. They are Curriculum integration; INSET

Training (Professional Development in relation to WATCH); Integration of

WATCH to school project; Home, School, Community Involvement; and

Punctuality and Attendance. These five key areas are in every evaluation

process of the CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) Model.

Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) Model is used in the evaluation of

this Project WATCH implementation in order to measure, translate and

authenticate the progress of the program. This model does not only illustrate

the over-all evaluation framework but also relates to the research questions of

this study. This is also used to identify the weakness and the strength of the

WATCH program. Using CIPP, each area will be dissected.

In the Context Evaluation aspect, the questions “what needs to be done

vs. were important needs addressed?” will be answered. There will be an

assessment of the Context of WATCH implementation in terms of the five key

areas or five constructs. In this evaluation process, problems and needs in

Project WATCH of MNCHS are diagnosed and assessed. This helps in planning

decisions by identifying unmet needs, unused opportunities and underlying

problems about Curriculum integration; INSET Training (Professional

Development in relation to WATCH); Integration of WATCH to school project;

Home, School, Community Involvement; and Punctuality and Attendance that

prevent the meeting of needs of implementing Project WATCH. In this process,


the question whether or not WATCH is integrated in the curriculum will be

assessed. Also, it will help the administration to revisit its goal and redefine its

means of feed backing to ensure if WATCH is observed during teaching-

learning process and if WATCH is utilized during Home, School, Community

Involvement activities. This will also evaluate the feasibility of WATCH during

INSET Trainings. Lastly, this evaluation process aims to determine the

occurrence of monitoring of punctuality of attendance during duty or class

days.

Next is the input evaluation. This aspect involves examining potentially

relevant approaches and strategies to strengthen Project WATCH

implementation in MNCHS. If Context evaluation serves as planning decisions,

this aspect is in structuring decisions. For it structures alternative strategies to

meet the needs of the objectives of WATCH. It generally answers the question

“how should the implementation be done Vs. was a defensible design

employed?”

Another evaluation aspect is the Process evaluation. This aspect focuses

on the processes done to achieve the objectives of WATCH. This shall see and

scrutinize the weaknesses of the program. It will study the WATCH

implementation adjustments other than the monitoring problems. This process

evaluation shall get and provide additional information for changes, document

the process and will run regular monitoring on WATCH implementation. If

context evaluation serves as planning decisions, while input evaluation is in

structuring decisions, this one is different. It serves as implementing decisions


as it offers information during the WATCH implementation stages. It also helps

in decision-making and contributes ideas on what else could be done to

strengthen WATCH implementation.

Last is the Product Evaluation. This aspect contains the impact,

effectiveness, and sustainability of Project WATCH implementation. The impact

tells us whether WATCH reach its targeted audience. This is very significant to

all stakeholders for it gives an assurance that the WATCH program truly

reaches its intended and right beneficiaries. Effectiveness is assessed through

the efficacy of the WATCH program in terms of its quality and significance by

evaluating its positive and negative outcomes. The findings will be used by all

stakeholders to determine whether the implementation is a success or a

failure. The other one is sustainability. Sustainability , through its findings will

find out whether the WATCH program should be continued or not.

This figure also shows the relationship that may arise from INPUT to

PROCESS, INPUT to PRODUCT, PROCESS to PRODUCT, INPUT to CONTEXT

and PROCESS to CONTEXT. First, this will evaluate and find out whether the

input stated on the above statements has an influence to process. It will assess

and see if the “structuring decisions” aspect affects the “implementing

decisions”. Same with input to product, in this arrow movement, the

“structuring decisions” aspect is evaluated so to know its influence to the

impact, effectiveness and sustainability of the program.


Another is the process to product aspects. Does the “implementing

decisions” aspect affect the impact, effectiveness and sustainability of the

program? This question will then be answered.

Next is the input-to-context aspect which will assess whether or not the

“structuring decisions” aspect influence or affect the “planning decisions”. It

will check if the approaches and strategies to strengthen Project WATCH affects

the context.

Last is the process to context aspects. It will judge the influence of the

“implementing decisions” aspect to the “planning decisions”. It focuses on the

evaluation of the effects of processes implemented to strengthen the WATCH

implementation to the “planning decisions”.

Chapter III
METHODOLOGY

The research method and design, the sampling technique, and the data

collection technique are in this chapter to carry out credibly the needed data to

come up with truthful results. Furthermore, this chapter will also discuss how

the findings will be presented.

Design

This study will utilize quantitative research design, employing descriptive

inferential method following CIPP model of evaluation. This is quantitative

because it will gather numerical data and will generalize it across groups of

people or to explain a particular phenomenon (Babbie, 2010). It emphasizes

objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical

analysis of data collected through questionnaires. It is descriptive because its

process will begin with description based on observation (Lomax, 2013) and

inferential to help assess strength of the relationships between and among

variables and to establish evidences to understand the impact and effectiveness

of the input to the outcomes (https://goo.gl/HLP1DK & https://goo.gl/bkqpe2,

retrieved on October 29, 2016 ). CIPP evaluations is used to provide sound

information that will help service providers regularly assess and improve

services and make effective and efficient use of resources, time, and technology
in order to serve the well-being and targeted needs of rightful beneficiaries

appropriately and equitably( Zhang et. al, 2011).

Sampling

Mati National Comprehensive High School is purposively chosen by the

researcher as the school under study for she is also one of the agents of this

institution advocating Project WATCH and it is only her focus of interest to

evaluate how intensive and effective the implementation mechanism of the said

school. By using Slovin Formula, out of 115 faculty, only 89 teachers will be

chosen to represent as the sample of interest through random sampling and be

done by lottery. Number that corresponds to the name of the faculty in the

plantilla will be drawn to avoid biases and to give equal opportunities among

teachers to participate in this study. This study will be conducted on the fourth

quarter of the academic year, 2016-2017.

Data Collection

Research made questionnaire will be used in gathering data. This

questionnaire is contextualized to evaluate the Context, Input, Process and

Product of the activities and programs undertaken by the school under study

concerning its implementation on Project WATCH in terms on the five key

criteria namely: curriculum integration; INSET Training (Professional

Development in relation to WATCH); integration of WATCH to school project;

home, school, community involvement; and punctuality and attendance.


Furthermore, five experts will be consulted to test content validity and

reliability of this tool using sampling and formative validity and inter-rater

reliability, respectively. Suggestions and comments of the panel validating the

instruments will be collated and considered for the refinement of the

instrument.

Responses for each item of the indicator will use the following scale:

Range of Mean Adjectival Rating Descriptive Interpretation

4.50-5.00 Very High This means that the given criteria are

all evident and always manifested

3.50-4.49 High This means that the given criteria are

evident and manifested most of the

time

2.50-3.49 Moderate This means that the given criteria are

sometimes evident and manifested

1.50-2.49 Low This means that the given criteria are

seldom evident and manifested

This means that the given criteria are


1.00-1.49 Very Low
never evident and manifested

Data

The data gathered will be interpreted statistically in order to satisfy the

questions of this study. These data are the response of the respondents to a

research-made questionnaire.
Presentation

Tables will be used for easier appreciation of the data. Each table will

have a discussion and interpretation of the data. Implications will also be

added.

Locale of the Study

Mati National Comprehensive High School (MNCHS) is located at Mangga

St., Brgy. Sainz, Mati City. MNCHS is accessible by all kinds of transportation.

For it can be located in the center of the City of Mati. It teaches students in

grades seventh through eleventh in Mati City, Davao Oriental of Davao (Region

XI). The school has 95 rooms - 81 of which are for instructional purposes and

the remaining 14 for non-instructional uses, which are all powered by a power

grid. In this SY 2016-2017, 3,257 students are enrolled in the said school.

All in all, the school has at least one canteen, clinic, computer lab,

general academic classroom, home economics, industrial/workshop,

laboratory, library, and office. Of the instructional rooms, all of them are

standard rooms, meaning they meet the DepEd's guidelines for safety and

usability.
Figure 2. Geographical Sketch of Mati National Comprehensive High
School