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Day 1 August 2018

11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00


Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Day 1 11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00

Definition of Smart Grid


Discussion of examples from Europe
and South East Asia

2nd Training on RE Grid Integration, Bangkok, 13th August 2018


Thomas Ackermann, PhD.
Dr.-Ing. Eckehard Tröster
Energynautics GmbH

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 1
Day 1 August 2018
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

OUTLINE

Definition of Smart Grids

Examples of Smart Grids in Europe (1):


• iNES
• grid4EU
• Grid storage implemented in the French Demonstrator

Status and Examples of Smart Grids in ASEAN countries

Examples of Smart Grids in Europe (2):


• Cell Controller Pilot Project

Discussion

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 2
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRIDS

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 3
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID - IEC

The IEC defines a Smart Grid as


follows:

• A Smart Grid employs innovative


products and services together
with intelligent monitoring,
control, communication, and
self-healing technologies to
accomplish all 5 tasks.

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEC, CONT.

• It can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it in order to efficiently deliver
sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies.
- Generators
- Consumers
- Those that do both (storage, customers with wind turbines or rooftop PV installations)

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – US


DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

The U.S Department of Energy


defines a Smart Grid as:

• A grid that uses digital


technology to modernize the
electric system – from large
generation, through delivery
systems to electricity
consumption – and is defined by
seven enabling performance-
based functionalities.

Eckehard Troester
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – WORLD


ECONOMIC FORUM

The World Economic Forum


breaks down the definition of a
Smart Grid into 6 qualifying
characteristics:

Eckehard Troester
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEA


TYPES OF SMART GRID PROJECTS AND THEIR FUNCTION

Project type Hardware Systems and Function


software
AMI Smart meter, in-home Meter data Revenue collection,
displays, servers, management system, reduction of electricity
relays, communication communication theft, outage
equipment software, workforce notification, service and
management systems maintenance
(WMS) scheduling
Customerside Smart appliances, Energy dashboards, Broad range, but can
systems routers, in-home energy management include energy use
display, building systems, energy awareness, support for
automation systems, applications for smart demand response
thermal accumulators, phones and tablets, (DR), control of
smart thermostat, energy billing, EV individual appliances,
electric vehicle (EV) billing and charging for provision of smart G2V
charging infrastructure, smart grid-to-vehicle and V2G, management
batteries, inverters (G2V) charging and of heating and cooling
discharging vehicle-to- devices
grid (V2G)
methodologies

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e.troester@energynautics.com 8
Day 1 August 2018
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEA


TYPES OF SMART GRID PROJECTS AND THEIR FUNCTION, CONT.

Project type Hardware Systems and software Function

Distributed energy Power-conditioning Control, management and


resources (DERs): equipment for bulk power monitoring of variable and
and grid support, dispatchable DG assets,
DG
communication and control system-impacts (e.g. line
hardware for generation voltage) management
and enabling renewable
and nonrenewable
generation technology that
may or may not be
connected to the main grid,
such as CHP, wind, solar
and others
DERs: Demand AMI systems, targeted Energy management Shift the load to decrease
response (DR customer appliance control system (EMS), distribution peak demand, increase
devices or systems management system customer awareness and
(DMS), geographic choices, improve system
information system (GIS) flexibility, counteract
system events, avail
cheaper time-of-use (TOU)
tariff options and take
advance of TOU pricing

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 9
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEA


TYPES OF SMART GRID PROJECTS AND THEIR FUNCTION, CONT.

Project type Hardware Systems and Function


software
DERs: Storage Power-conditioning Control, management
equipment for bulk and monitoring of
power and grid support, storage assets
communication and
control hardware for
generation and
enabling storage
technology, as well as
conversion into other
energy carriers (e.g.
power to gas)

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEA


TYPES OF SMART GRID PROJECTS AND THEIR FUNCTION, CONT.

Project type Hardware Systems and software Function

Substation Automated re-closers, GIS, DMS, outage Optimize substation


automation switches and management system and support upstream
capacitors, remote- (OMS) and WMS and downstream use of
controlled DG and assets
storage, transformer
sensors, wire and cable
sensors installed within
the substation
Distribution Automated re-closers, GIS, DMS, outage Operation and
automation switches and management system management of the grid
capacitors, remote- (OMS) and WMS during normal, outage
controlled DG and or maintenance
storage, transformer conditions, minimizing
sensors, wire and cable impacts on customer
sensors

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e.troester@energynautics.com 11
Day 1 August 2018
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEA


TYPES OF SMART GRID PROJECTS AND THEIR FUNCTION, CONT.

Project type Hardware Systems and software Function

Control centre Information and GIS, DMS, outage Optimize substation and
systems communication technology management system support upstream and
(ICT) equipment such as (OMS) and WMS downstream use of assets
data storage, monitors,
communications security
and back-up systems and
supporting systems to GIS,
DMS, OMS, WMS
Crosscutting: ICT Communication equipment Enterprise resource Collect, transmit and
integration (power line carrier, planning software, analyse electricity system
worldwide interoperability customer information data for specific purposes
microwave access, long- system
term evolution, radio
frequency mesh network,
cellular), routers, relays,
switches, gateway,
computers (servers)
Asset management Sensor technology on Models and methodologies Manage and optimise asset
some or all assets, to assess healthy and safe utilisation and maintenance
communications loading for devices and
circuits

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEA


EXAMPLES OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

Renewable Non-renewable
Dispatchable • Biomass Fossil fuel generation (e.g. diesel,
• Small hydroelectric dams gas and coal)
(including reservoir hydro)

Variable • Photovoltaic • Industrial process co-


• Run-of-the-river hydro generation (i.e. waste gas or
• Wind mills power generation from waste
heat, but in both cases without
storage)
• Waste gases from refineries

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID – IEA


POSSIBLE STRUCTURE OF A SMART GRID ROADMAP

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEFINITION OF SMART GRID - IEC STANDARD

The table below shows the IEC standards which apply to Smart Grids. Each of these standards
can be further broken down into many more specific standards. The standards can be seen in
further detail by clicking on the following link: http://www.iec.ch/smartgrid/standards/

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS - INES

• The intelligent distribution grid management system (iNES) has been integrated
by more than 8 distribution grid operators in Germany.
• It has been implemented both in problematic, rural grid structures as well as in
highly intermeshed urban grid structures
• iNES is a modular system and can be adjusted and expanded according to
customer requirements offering additional benefits.

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – INES, CONT.

Objective #1: Low-voltage substation monitoring

Benefits
Reduction of downtime
Overview of the substation utilisation
Load flow direction detection in the LGS
Logging and archiving of the actual values
Simple display of the substation status with a simple traffic light system

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – INES, CONT.

Objective #2: Grid Monitoring

Benefits
Identification of critical and/or overloaded power districts (bottleneck
detection)
Improvement of planning criteria via knowledge of grid status history
Reduction of downtime
Overview of substation and grid utilization
Load flow direction detection in the local grid substation and low-voltage gri

Logging and archiving of the actual values

Simple traffic light system for displaying the substation status

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – INES, CONT.

Objective #3: Grid Automation

Benefits
Secure and autonomous operations at the low-voltage level
Reduction/delay of cost-intensive/conventional investments (e.g.
refurbishment of the grid, replacement of local substation transformers etc.)
Better use of existing grid capacity
Reduction of downtime
Self-regulating local system with optional connection to the control center

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – INES, CONT.

Objective #4: Medium-Voltage Substation Monitoring

Benefits
Very high measurement accuracy for power and voltage in the medium-
voltage grid
Factory calibrated – no need for later costly and elaborate recalibratio
Quick and easy installation
No external power supply needed
Retro-fitting – no changes required to the substation

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – INES, CONT.

The previous objectives are


achieved by using a control
box, which communicates
back and forth between the
control room (via UHF),
measuring boxes (mBox, via
PLC) & actuator boxes (aBox,
via PLC)1

1 Ultra-High Frequency (UHF); Power Line Communication (PLC)


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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – INES, CONT.

Overview of BOX types and where they are installed in the network

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – GRID4EU

• Designed in response to a call for projects from the European Commission,


GRID4EU is a Large-Scale Demonstration of Advanced Smart Grid Solutions with
wide Replication and Scalability Potential for EUROPE.

• The project was led by six electricity Distribution System Operators (DSOs) from
Germany, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Czech Republic and France, in close partnership
with a set of major electricity retailers, manufacturers and research organizations

• GRID4EU consisted of six Demonstrators, which were tested over a period of 51


months in six different European countries.

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e.troester@energynautics.com 24
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – GRID4EU, CONT.

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator

• A variety of applications
provided by electricity
storage systems can be
identified along the
electricity value chain,
from generation support
over transmission and
distribution support to
end-consumer uses.

• These uses are


summarized in the figure
to the right.

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e.troester@energynautics.com 26
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator, cont.

• In France, grid storage assets have been involved in three Use Cases:
• “Islanding of a low voltage area”
• “Manage maximized PV production on LV network”
• “Reduce power demand”

• A strength of the French Demonstrator is to have studied, implemented and


operated storage solutions at different levels of the distribution grid
• Primary substation
• Secondary substation
• Low voltage grid
• On premises of residential customers

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator, cont.

• The four grid storage


systems used in the French
Demonstrator are installed
at three levels on the public
distribution grid:
• Primary substation (high
voltage [HV] / medium voltage
[MV])
• Public distribution substation
(MV/LV)
• LV grid

• Power Converter Systems


(PCS) and batteries in black

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator, cont.

• Four assets were operational:

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator, cont.

• Secondary substation storage


• Supplies 8 commercial customers
• Peak consumption ≈ 250 kW
• Solar PV capacity = 430 kW
• LV grid storage
• Approx. 400 m away from their respective secondary substations
• Connected to dedicated feeders with HMI that allows DSO to manage the following
functions:
 Send load/unload remote orders
 Remote operation of the main circuit breaker
 Get alarms’ data
 Collect information on the battery status

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator, cont.

• After the installation and start-up phases, and following training provided by the
manufacturers, the French Demonstrator team was able to take control of the storage tools
through a control interface.

• After a “break-in period”, these systems had an approximate availability of around 90%. The
main failures observed were:

• The failure of an ESSU storage unit, requiring servicing by a technician, though the system
can continue to operate
• Failures related to the innovative communication infrastructure
• Failures or performance setting issues in HVAC systems.

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator, cont.

• The storage systems proved to be very versatile:


• Fast start-up (Although it is possible that the systems can take 2-3 minutes to start, for
example if they have not been used for several days)
• Remote control systems allow the systems to react instantly

• Other findings:
• it is important not to discharge the storage system too much during periods of low
consumption, in order to avoid over-voltages
 Therefore, necessary to have real-time voltage measurements available in a user
interface
 Necessary to size batteries and power converters based on local environment
 Preliminary planning analyses of maximum power and energy orders of magnitude are
necessary for optimal storage usage

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – GRID4EU


Grid storage implemented in the French
Demonstrator, cont.

• Storage represents a robust and reactive lever, compared to flexibilities linked


with clients where effectiveness depends on clients’ engagement and
participation.

• Impact is significant, with 43% of the power between 6:00 and 8:00pm in winter
coming from the grid storage during the winter test 2014/2015.

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

EXAMPLES OF SMART GRIDS – GRID4EU

Many more demonstrations were carried out during the GRID4EU project.

To read further, please follow the link provided:

http://grid4eu.blob.core.windows.net/media-prod/29375/grid4eu-final-
report_normal-res.pdf

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Indonesia

• Indonesia has recently begun to take steps toward a Smart Grid


• They developed a Smart Grid Roadmap for the country with help of the Simens
trademarked method, Smart Grid Compass®.
• This method highlights the four business areas in which come together to form a
Smart Organization

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Indonesia, cont.

Key Goals for Smart Grid Roadmap

1. Enhancement of grid reliability, e.g. through successful outage management


and efficient planning of grid/generation enhancement projects

2. State-of-the-art management processes

3. Increased electrification in rural areas and islands along with improved


reliability in these regions

4. Integration of renewable energy

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Indonesia, cont.

• Pilot projects are being tracked through the Smart Grid Compass® framework

• Only a few current pilot projects exist and are listed below:
• Nusa Penida, Morotai, Karimun, and Sumba islands – hybrid micro-grids with PV, wind
power, and storage
• AMI project in Jakarta
• Further activities are planned through GIZ to integrate photovoltaic and biogas generation
plants on multiple Indonesian islands

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Malaysia

•“25-Year Electricity Technology Roadmap (TRM)” by


TNB since 2009. Smart meter trials with over 5,000
participating customers in different types of usage
environments
 Bayan Lepas in Penang (industrial customers)
 Bukit Bintang in the capital city Kuala Lumpur (commercial customers)
 Medini in Johor, southern Malaysia (general customers)

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Malaysia, cont.

3 Phases of Malaysia‘s 25 year Electricity Technology Roadmap


Phase 1 (2010- Improve Reliability
2011)
Phase 2 (2011- Increase customers participation and improve energy
2013) efficiency
Phase 3 (2011- Reducing CO2
2015)

• Malaysia has only carried out a few pilot and micro-grid projects to date, but
have a concrete plan of action
• A couple of completed projects are:
•Installment of 1,000 Smart Meters in Putrajaya and Malacca
•Kema Microgrid

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Philippines

• In the Philippines, the current step in the overall Smart Grid vision is to integrate
“smart intelligence” into the distribution network to help consumers better
manage their electricity consumption
• A few projects have been completed in the Philippines:
• Advanced SCADA Project
• Overall Command Center Project
• FS for First Smart Substation in Philippines
• Renewable energy integration

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Singapore

• Intelligent Energy System (IES) pilot project


• $30 million investment funded by Singapore Power and the Energy Market Authority
(EMA)
• Phase 1: Developing the enabling infrastructure (2010-2012)
• Phase 2: Rolling out smart meters to assess applications and consumer response (2012-
2013)
• Advanced Metering and Communication Infrastructure
• Demand response management systems
• Management system for distributed energy source
• Experimental Power Grid Centre
• Pulau Ubin micro-grid

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Thailand

PEA Smart Grid Roadmap:

The combination of smart energy, smart life, and


smart community
Stage 1: Laying the foundations (2012-2016)
Stage 2: Large scale integration (2017-2021)
Stage 3: Optimal stage (2022-2026)
Stage 4: Ultimate stage (2027-2031)

Current projects:
• MEA smart grid roadmap including SAS/DAS, SCADA-DMS, Smart meter, EV related
business development and technical impacts
• Mae hong son smart grid national pilot project
• Renewable energy generation developing project at Kood island and Maki island

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam

• In November 2012, the Vietnam government has approved the project “Smart Grid
Development Plan – Vision 2022 and Beyond”.
• Phase 1 (2012-2016): Improving the operational efficiency of the power system
• Install SCADA / EMS systems in EVN NLDC territory at three Regional Load Dispatch Centers
and at power plants & substations at 500kV, 220kV, & 110kV levels.
• Enhance reliability, optimize transmission and distribution grids, reduce power loss,
enhance monitoring and fault awareness system of 500kV lines
• Building Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for electricity distribution companies which
will support Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)
• Integrate renewable energy sources into the transmission grid

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

• Phase 2 (2017-2022): Improving the Information & Control Technology (ICT)


infrastructure for distribution grid
• Install SCADA / EMS for EVN Transmission and Distribution companies at all distribution
transformers
• Optimize transmission grid operation
• Extend AMI installation for all major customers, implement Demand Response application to
enable the electricity market at the transmission grid level
• Integration of distributed resources in the medium-voltage grid and low-voltage grids.
• Encourage smart home and smart city research programs

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

• Phase 3 (2022 and Beyond): Complete the ICT infrastructure for distribution grid
and provide Smart Grid services.
• Install SCADA / DMS for all provincial electricity companies
• Demand Response application deployment at user level, electricity prices in real time
• AMI system for residential customers, enable the retail electricity market at the distribution
level
• Develop distributed power plants

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

• A few projects were completed in Phase 1:


• AMR project in Ho Chi Minh City by EVN SPC
• MiniSCADA project in Da Nang City by EVN CPC
• Wide-area surveillance system in 500kV transmission networks via Optical Ground Wires
(OPGW)

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

AMR project in Ho Chi


Minh City:

• Meters were installed


between:
• Transmission and distribution
• Gerneration and the trans/dist
grid
• Major customers and the
trans/dist grid

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11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

AMR project in Ho Chi Minh City:

• A total of 86 meters were deployed and connected to a Data Meter Management


System

• All 110kV, 220kV, and 500kV substations are connected with OPGW, therefore the
meters at these locations communicate over the fiber lines

• Major customers communicate through xDSL/FTTx lines or through a GPRS/3G


wireless network

• Meters connected to on-pole transformers use the wireless solution as well

48

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 48
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

AMR project in Ho Chi Minh City:

• Advantages and disadvantages of communication means:

• Wire solution
• Advantages: no fee for sending data, no additional cost for installation and security due to
using private lines of utility
• Disadvantages: Number of users is currently limited due to high traffic

• Wireless solution
• Advantages: Can send and receive rapidly without needing to set up a private network or
telephone cable to pull the location of the measuring points
• Disadvantages: monthly fees

49

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 49
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

MiniSCADA project in Da Nang City:

• Background prior to project start:

• SCADA system already installed in the 500kV, 220kV, and 110kV substations to monitor and
control the transformers, reclosers, and Load Break Switches (LBS) inside the substation

• On the 22kV grid, communication networks were also already available between the control
center and on-grid reclosers and LBS in some urban cities such as:
 Da Nang city, Hue city, Quy Nhon city and Buon Ma Thuoc city

50

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 50
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Examples of Smart grids – SE Asia


Vietnam, cont.

MiniSCADA project in Da Nang City:

• To overcome the drawbacks of the UHF communication method, EVN CPC


upgraded the city to use a hybrid fiber/UHF solution
• Affected by weather, terrain and noise
• Limited number of devices

• By the end of 2013, the miniSCADA system in Da Nang city has covered all
distribution grid in city

• The next step of the project is developing application such as DMS, Wide Area
Control and Protection based on the miniSCADA system.

51

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 51
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SMART METER PENETRATION RATE FORECAST – SE ASIA

52

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 52
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

The Cell Controller Pilot Project

53

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 53
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MOTIVATION

54

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 54
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

ENERGINET.DK
- PART OF THE EUROPEAN TRANSMISSION SYSTEM -

55

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 55
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

... PART OF EUROPEAN SYSTEM

Boundary between the


Nordel and UCTE
synchronous areas

Boundary between the NordPool and


the Continental market systems

56

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 56
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

THE SURROUNDINGS OF THE WESTERN


DANISH POWER SYSTEM
600 MW HVDC connection over
Extra 600 MW HVDC connection over Skagerrak
The Great Belt
(pol 4)
DK West is a regular transit
area with large
interconnections to the
neighbouring areas:
Norway (HVDC ”Skagerrak”):
Capacity, import: 1,000 MW
Capacity, export: 950 MW
Sweden (HVDC ”KontiSkan”):
Capacity, import: 460 MW
Capacity, export: 490 MW
Germany (AC):
Capacity, import: 800 MW
Capacity, export: 1,200 MW

Source: Energinet.dk 57

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 57
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DEVELOPMENT FROM THE 1980S


TO THE 1990S

Primary generation Local generation

58

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 58
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

POWER BALANCE 2006

West:
Load 1.250 – 3.700 MW
Central power plants 3.400 MW
Local CHP units 1.700 MW
4100 MW
Windpower 2.400 MW

East:
Load 880 – 2.600 MW
Central power plants 3.800 MW
Local CHP units 650 MW
1400 MW
Windpower 750 MW

Many annual hours, where RE covers the entire demand

Source: Energinet.dk 59

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 59
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

DISTRIBUTION OF
PRODUCTION CAPACITY

Range of central control


Interconnections
400 kV 4 primary units: 1,488 MW

Interconnections 5 primary units: 1,914 MW


150 kV 80 wind power units: 160 MW

Interconnections
60 kV 15 local CHP units: 569 MW

10-20 kV
545 local CHP units: 1,087 MW
4,074 wind power units: 2,214 MW
400 V
Non-dispatchable and beyond central control
Source: Energinet.dk 60

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 60
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

THE WESTERN DANISH ”WIND POWER CARPET”


High concentration
By March 1st, 2004:

4,175 wind turbines: 2,374 MW

Average size of wind turbines:


approx. 570 kW

Average rotor diameter:


approx. 40 meters

Average hub height:


approx. 40,5 meters

75 per cent of the installed Horns Reef


wind capacity in Denmark. off shore
wind farm

61

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 61
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

WIND POWER YEAR 2003


(2004 MAX: 120 %)

130% Acc. wind production in % of acc.


consumption
120%
Hourly wind production in % of hourly
110% consumption
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2003-01-01

2003-02-01

2003-03-01

2003-04-01

2003-05-01

2003-06-01

2003-07-01

2003-08-01

2003-09-01

2003-10-01

2003-11-01

2003-12-01
62

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 62
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

WIND POWER YEAR 2003

15

12
Wind power production gradient [MW/min.]

9
Increase Decrease
6

-3

-6

-9

-12

-15
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%
Number of events in % of all year 2003

63

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 63
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

AGGREGATED WIND PRODUCTION


CURVE (PC) FOR WESTERN DENMARK

120%
% of installed capacity
Production in % of total installed capacity

100%

80%

60%

A deviation of just +/- 1 m/s can have an impact of


40% +/- 320 MW (With a 2,374 MW installed base).

20%

0%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Wind speed [m/s]

64

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 64
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

IDENTIFIED SECURITY PROBLEMS IN


THE WESTERN DANISH POWER SYSTEM

 Local grids cannot maintain normal n-1 security if local


generation exceeds local demand and if separation of
generation and consumption is insufficient
 Security analysis has become less accurate due to
missing information on local generation and
unpredictable wind power
 Protection relays trip local generators after distant
faults on the high-voltage transmission grid
 Traditional under-frequency load shedding schemes
will disconnect both load and generation
 Restoration after fault has become more complicated
and more time consuming

65

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 65
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CONCEPT

66

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 66
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Cell Controller
for
Decentralized Grid Management

A project of
Energinet.dk, Energynautics and Spirae

67

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 67
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

THE CELL CONTROLLER PILOT


PROJECT TIME SCHEDULE
Phase
2004
Information gathering through 3 international workshops.
Identification and selection of 60 kV Pilot Cell Area.
A

Requirements spec and prelim design of Pilot Cell.


2005
Implementation of measurement and monitoring system in Pilot
B1 to B3

Cell. Detailed modeling and simulation of Pilot Cell. Detailed


design and laboratory-scale testing of Cell Controller in Colorado
State University Diesel Engines Lab.

2009
C1 to C3

Pilot implementation and testing of Cell Controller


in test area 1, 2 and 3 of Pilot Cell.

2011

68

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 68
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

IDENTIFIED TARGETS OF THE REDESIGN PROCESS

 Increased security of supply


 Sufficient domestic resources must be available to
maintain a balance between demand and generation
 Improved operator knowledge of actual system
conditions both locally and centrally
 Efficient system control particularly during emergencies
 Active usage of distributed passive generators
 Black starting capabilities using distributed generators
 Organising distributed generators into controllable
Virtual Power Plants

69

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 69
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Input Output
150 kV 150 kV
Cell
controller

60 kV

60 kV 60 kV 60 kV

10 kV 10 kV 10 kV


60 kV


60 kV 60 kV 10 kV

10 kV 60 kV


10 kV

70

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 70
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

THE CELL CONTROLLER

71
71

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 71
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CELL CONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE

Layered control hierarchy using


Agent Level 4 (Dist. company B) distributed agent technology and high
speed fiber network
Agent Level 5 (Energinet.dk) Each agent consists either of an
industry CPU, a high-end RTU or an
intelligent meter
Agent Level 4 (Dist. company A)

Agent Level 3 (150/60 kV station)

Agent Agent Agent Level 2 (60/10 kV stations)

Agent Agent Agent Agent Level 1 (Assets)

Agent Agent Agent Agent Agent Agent Level 0 (Units)

~ ~ ~

72

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 72
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

PRIMARY DESIGN CRITERIA CELL


CONTROLLER PILOT PROJECT

High Ambition:
In case of an emergency situation reaching the point of
no return the Cell disconnects itself from the HV grid
and transfer to controlled island operation

Moderate Ambition:
After a total system collapse the Cell black-starts
itself to a state of controlled island operation

High Ambitions to ensure that new features can be


implemented as
pure software development without replacement or
installation of
new hardware
73

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 73
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

LOCATION OF DEMONSTRATION AREA


Skjern Syd Hadrup
Skerris Gosmer
Lille Gedved
Tarm Elbæk
Tarm Vest STOUSTRUP THYREGOD Ås
Skodbjerge
Egebjerg
Barslund
HATTING Blirup Lerdrup
Knaplund Honum Lund
Ådum Bygholm Fussingvej
Åboulevarden
Hemmet Kollemorten Drosselbo Horsens Kraftvarmeværk
Give
Sdr Omme Sønderhov Torsvang
Østergårde Hauge Korning Ternevej

Nymindegab Filskov Krollerup


Ølgod Glud
Uhe Farre Lindved Løsning
Lindbjerg Nollund Stilbjerg Årup Bjerge
Nr Nebel Lummerbæk Grindsted Nord
Jelling Grejs
Malle
Grindsted Øst Hedensted
Grindsted
Lysholt
Billund Mørup Ollerup
Henne Nr Marken Bredballe
Barrit
Billund Nord Sandegraven
Horne Skelvangen Ørumgård
Tistrup Juelsminde
Ansager Billund Syd KNABBERUP Vejle Elværk
Outrup
Sydkajen
Vejle Ibæk Strandvej
Krogager Hejnsvig Havn
Ulvehaven
Bindeballe Jerlev
Karlsgårde
Nybro Nordenskov
Sdr Marken
Vinding
Gauerslund

Rugstedlund
Gårslev
Oksbøl Varde
Vorbasse Egtved
Præstemarken
Agerbæk
Varde Øst RYTTERGÅRDEN
Egeskovvej
Alminde Sdr FAF
Lindknud BredstrupvejTreldevej
Årre Vilstrup Stovstrup
Oksby Søbjerg Oldenborggade
Glejbjerg LANDERUPGÅRD Børup

Tobøl
Jegsmark
Vr Nebel
Endrup Bække
Lilballe Taulov
Erritsø
Sandal

BRAMDRUP Snoghøj
Brøndumdam
Edelsborg Gejsing Højrup SVS
Sædding Gjesing Surhave
Vibevej
Nygårdsvej
Hedelund

Tjæreborg
Bramminge Gørding
Holsted Holsted Syd Vejen Vest
Harte Brogård
Svineryggen
ANDST Ålegård
Estrupvej Bramminge Øst
Brørup
Askov Vejen Nagbøl Vonsild

Føvling Sdr Bjert


Rindby
Lykkegård Skodborg Skudstrup
Vamdrup
Åstorp
Kongeå
Gredstedbro

Hjortvad Rødding Nord

Ribe Nord Brøstrup Christiansfeld


Tyrstrup
Syd Energi Net A/S Ribe Centrum
Ribe
Sønder Hygum

Gram
Rødding Syd
Jels Revsø

Sommersted

Thomashus
Fjelstrup

Hviding Nustrup Jegerup


Vojens Øst
Magstrup
Haderslev Vest
Spandet
Vojens Nord Hammelev Åstrupbro Øsby
Haderslev Øst
Vojens Vest
Vandling
Langkær
Hejsager
Brøns Frifelt Tislund Bevtoft Over Jerstal
Åved
Toftlund Hoptrup

Skærbæk Øst Hyrup


Rømø
Skærbæk Syd
Nr Løgum Agerskov

Løjt

Rødekro Brunde
Vest Rise-Hjarup
Hellevad
Ballum
Bredebro Løgumkloster Mårbæk Rødekro Øst
Åbenrå Nord
Vennelyst
Nordborg
Søst Åbenrå Vest
Åbenråværket Havnbjerg
Rejsby Hede Åbenrå Syd

Kassø Hjordkær
Enstedværket Hardeshøj
Mjels
Lunden
Danfoss

Visby Varnæs Blåkrog


Ballebro Stevning
Bolderslev Lundsbjerg
Abild Bredevad Guderup
Lendemark Blans
Felsted
Højer Rosinfelt
Avnbøl Asserballe
Tved Tønder Nord Lund Bro
Tinglev Nord QSØ Augustenborg
Kliplev Kværs
Tønder Vest Jejsing Vester Sottrup
Tønder Øst Tinglev Syd Mjang
Alnor Egernsund Ragebøl
Broager Nord Tandslet
Rens
Bajstrup
Øster Gejl
Gråsten Sønderborg
Rojumvej
Kastanie Allé
Sarup
Broager Syd

Bov
Kruså

Frøslev Padborg

Stadtwerke
Uw-Nord

Kort & matrikelstyrelsen (G. 17-01) Copyright 74

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 74
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

PILOT CELL:
HOLSTED 60 KV GRID AREA
Test Area 1
MØR
BID
Installed CHP: 37 MW
8,8 MW G
Installed Wind: 39 MW
Max Load: 61 MW 2 MW HEJ BIO
BIS
G Wind
150/60 kV Trafo: 100 MVA
4 MW

AGB
3,3 MW VOB
Wind
ÅRR Wind LIK
7 MW
Wind
2 MW
2 MW
GLE
HOD Wind
REV

G 3,8 MW
3 MW
GØR G
HOS BRØ VJV
G BMØ
Wind
15,5 MW 2 MW
FØV
Test Area 2
Wind
3,6 MW
75

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 75
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

LEVEL OF FUNCTIONALITY
OF THE 150/60 KV CELL CONTROLLER

 Monitoring total load and production within the Cell


 Active power control of synchronous generators
 Active power control of wind farms and large wind turbines
 Reactive power control by utilising capacitor banks of wind turbines and grid
 Voltage control by activating AVRs on synchronous generators
 Frequency control by activating SGSs on synchronous generators
 Capability of operating 60 kV breaker on 150/60 kV transformer
 Capability of operating breakers of wind turbines and load feeders
 Automatic fast islanding of entire 60 kV Cell in case of severe grid fault
 Automatic fast generator- or load shedding in case of power imbalance
 Voltage, frequency and power control of islanded Cell
 Synchronising Cell back to parallel operation with the transmission grid
 Black-starting support to transmission grid in case of black-out
76

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 76
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CELL CONTROLLER CONCEPT EXPECTATIONS

 Each Cell can be regarded as a Virtual Generator with same or better


controllability compared to a traditional power station unit of equal
size
 Local distribution companies attain strongly increased possibilities of
distribution network on-line monitoring and active control
 Automatic Cell transition to controlled island operation in case of
imminent transmission system break-down
 Black-start of transmission system
 Robust Cell Controller Concept designed to encompass all new types
of DG units and controller functionalities

Increase in security of supply


Any new functionality as pure software development
Re-design for the future Danish electric power system

77

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 77
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MODELING AND
SIMULATIONS

78

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 78
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SIMULATION SETUP

Cell Controller,
Substation Controllers

OPC Server

grid
Local asset
controllers

Modeled in PowerFactory
79

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 79
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CELL GRID SIMULATION MODEL (1)

Topology: 60 kV lines, 60/10 kV transformers


10 kV feeders: Aggregate model (one load per feeder),
representing available data
Cell monitoring system: extensive data recording in the Cell Area grid
Analysis of hourly, daily and seasonal load variation
constant impedance characteristic for short term dynamic simulations
80

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 80
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CELL GRID SIMULATION MODEL (2)

DIgSILENT
Shaft_Generic:

pw tw
- tdif
0
1/(2H.. 0
H pt_t pt
Spring RatePt 1
Ktg,Dtg,ombase Ptbase,Pgbase
1

speed_gen
1

Wind turbines: Danish type constant speed turbines with induction


generators and controlled capacitor banks. The simulation model
includes a two-mass drive train model.
Asset Controllers:

Synchronous Condenser, and CHP plants (synchronous generators)


Secondary Load Controller (fast switching load)
81

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 81
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CELL GRID SIMULATION MODEL (3)

PowerFactory provides built-in OPC interface

OPC interface must be configured by inserting “external


data” interface objects into the model database tree,
and connecting these objects to input and/or output
signals.

User-defined models created to translate the raw input


data into usable signals for control models

Time synchronization between dynamic simulation and


Cell Controller software application

82

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 82
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CELL CONTROLLER TEST PLANNING

Critical tests are islanding tests, because of risk of


consumer black-out
Development of test scenarios
Gradually increasing complexity:
 Start with one generator and one load
 Increase number of involved load feeders
 Add generators
 Add wind turbines
Simulate tests in a real machine test laboratory with
multiple loads and generators
Static calculations and dynamic simulations in the
software environment

83

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 83
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SIMULATION TESTING

Simulate aspects of Cell Controller operation in different


scenarios:
 Virtual generator operation
 Islanding under various conditions

Arbitrary load steps of increasing size to investigate


stability margin of islanded system

Validate simulation results against asset protection


limits: over-/undervoltage, over-/underfrequency
(automated result processing)

Visual inspection of simulation results plots to identify


unexpected behavior

84

Eckehard Troester
e.troester@energynautics.com 84
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SIMULATION:
ISLANDOPERATION WITH WINDTURBINES

Islanding Resynchronisation

DIgSILENT
0.20 1.005

Frequency
0.00 1.002

-0.20 0.999
Active Power
-0.40 0.996

Reactive Power
-0.60 0.993

-0.80 0.990
0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0
Grid Breaker: Active Pow er Import in MW Grid Breaker: Electrical Frequency/Terminal i
Grid Breaker: Reactive Pow er Import in Mvar Grid Breaker: Electrical Frequency/Terminal j

1.08 200.00
Frequency Dip
1.06
100.00

1.04
0.00
1.02 85
-100.00
1.00

Eckehard Troester
0.98 -200.00
e.troester@energynautics.com
0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 85
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SIMULATION: DUMP LOAD (SLC)

DIgSILENT
1.00 1.04

0.75 1.02 Frequency


Active Power 1.00
0.50

0.98
0.25

0.96
Voltage
0.00
0.94
-0.25
0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 0.92
SLC Loadbank: Total Active Pow er in p.u. 0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0
SLC BL Control: Setpoint SLC Loadbank: Electrical Frequency
SLC BL Setpoint Calc: CtlSetpoint SLC Loadbank: V oltage, Magnitude in p.u.

1.2E-5 2.25

1.0E-5 2.00

7.5E-6 1.75

5.0E-6 1.50

86
2.5E-6 1.25

0.0E+0 1.00

Eckehard Troester
-2.5E-6 0.75
e.troester@energynautics.com
0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 86
Day 1 August 2018
11:00 – 12:30 // Break-Out 15:30 – 17:00
Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SIMULATION: WINDTURBINE

0.80 3.0E-9

0.0E+0
0.60

Active Power -3.0E-9


0.40
-6.0E-9
0.20
-9.0E-9
Reactive Power
0.00
-1.2E-8

-0.20 -1.5E-8
0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 0.000 100.00 200.0 30
Trf 50366: Psum WT1 Trf 50368: Psum WT3
Trf 50366: Qsum WT1 Trf 50368: Qsum WT3
Switching of
0.80 capacitor bank 3.0E-9

0.0E+0 87
0.60

-3.0E-9
Eckehard Troester 0.40
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SIMULATION: SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER

DIgSILENT
0.050 1.0250

0.025 1.0125
Frequency
0.000 1.0000
Active Power
0.9875
-0.025

0.9750
-0.050

-0.075
0.9625 Voltage
0.9500
-0.100 0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0
0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 Synchronous Condenser: Electrical Frequency
Synchronous Condenser: Total Active Pow er in p.u. Synchronous Condenser: V oltage, Magnitude in p.u.

0.250 2.50

2.00
0.125

Reactive Power 1.50


0.000 Switching of
1.00
-0.125 capacitor bank
0.50

-0.250
0.00

-0.375 -0.50
0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0 0.000 100.00 200.0 300.0 400.0 [s] 500.0
Synchronous Condenser: Total Reactive Pow er in p.u. Selector: ic
Qctrl: Ref Synchronous Condenser: Current, Magnitude in p.u.

Cell Controller Pilot Project pSC Date: 11/5/2008


C1 Test Simulations Test Case 8 Annex: run19 /7

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SIMULATION RESULTS

Detect invalid operation conditions: Active/reactive


power balance cannot be achieved
Adjust test scenarios

Dynamic stability margins for islanding and operation in


island
General verification of Cell Controller functionality
Improved asset selection for individual scenarios
Tuning of Cell Controller configuration for given scenario to
achieve smoothest possible transition to island
Identify high-risk scenarios

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

FIELD TESTS

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CHPS IN TEST AREA 1

Billund: 3x 3.6 MVA

Hejnsvig: 2x 1.3 MVA

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

WINDTURBINES IN TEST AREA 1

4x 1000 kW Windturbine
NEG Micon NM60/1000
Monitoring

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER AND DUMP LOAD (SLC)

1000 kW dump load for frequency


control

800 kVA synchronous condenser for


voltage control

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MEASUREMENT RESULTS

Cell
Controller
VOB AGB STI BIS

Hejnsvig Billund
BID HEJ

KT21 KT22 KT21

KLN GLB FUG CHP TRØ GRØ KVV MØL CEN SØK

Mini Island

60 kV
HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ BID BID BID 10 kV
GEN1 GEN2 SC SLC WT1 WT2 WT3 WT4 GEN1 GEN2 GEN3 0,4 kV

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MEASUREMENT TEST 1: „MINI ISLAND“


FREQUENCY

10. November 2008, 11:43 – 11:48

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

Measurement Test 1: „Mini Island“


Voltage

10. November 2008, 11:43 – 11:48

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MEASUREMENT TEST 2: ISLAND OPERATION

Cell
VOB AGB STI BIS
Controller
Hejnsvig Billund
BID HEJ

KT21 KT22 KT21

KLN GLB FUG CHP TRØ GRØ KVV MØL CEN SØK

60 kV
HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ BID 10 kV
GEN1 SC SLC WT1 WT2 WT3 GEN1 0,4 kV

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MEASUREMENT TEST 2: ISLAND OPERATION


FREQUENCY

At time of
island, cell
generation
(which includes
over 1 MW of
wind power)
exceeds load by
470 kW.

Frequency
increases
immediately, but
SLC and CHP
governors react During island, cell frequency fluctuates as Cell reconnected to
to compensate. wind generation varies from 800 to 1350 grid.
kW. Cell Controller reacts and maintains
cell within all grid code given boundaries.
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MEASUREMENT TEST 2: ISLAND OPERATION


SYNCHRONIZATION

Once a reconnection to the grid is requested,


the Cell Controller brings cell frequency and
voltage phase within range of grid values.
The Master Synchronizer reconnects only
when cell frequency and voltage phase are
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MEASUREMENT TEST 3: IMPORT/EXPORT CONTROL

Cell
VOB AGB STI BIS
Controller
Hejnsvig Billund
BID HEJ

KT21 KT22 KT21

KLN GLB FUG CHP TRØ GRØ KVV MØL CEN SØK

60 kV
HEJ HEJ HEJ HEJ BID
10 kV
GEN1 WT1 WT2 WT3 GEN1 0,4 kV

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

MEASUREMENT TEST 3: IMPORT/EXPORT CONTROL


14. November 2008, 12:15 – 13:16
Billund CHP

Setpoint

Actual value

Hejnsvig CHP

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

CELL CONTROLLER FIELD TEST RESULTS

Despite careful testing, a number of black-outs occurred


during the field tests:
 There were unknown details in the grid configuration
(couplings between load feeders) that led to too high load
changes on load shed/restore
 The power supply of one CHP plant was provided via another
load feeder. Shedding this feeder therefore also disconnects
the CHP plant…
 Intentionally risky scenarios with regard to power balance,
involving very high contribution of wind generation.

No black-out due to Cell-Controller problems!

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

ACHIEVED TEST RESULTS

 Grid connected import/export control (virtual generator operation)


 Emergency transfer to sustained hybrid island operation
 Islanded wind only operation with SC and SLC

 A utility scale „Micro“grid concept has been successfully


demonstrated.

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

LESSONS LEARNT

• By adding ICT to the system a higher security of supply can be


achieved, however it also adds new sources of failure.

• Modelling and simulations are powerful tools to test new control


strategies before going into the field. In case of island operation
dynamic simulations are necessary!

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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

PUBLICATIONS

The final report can be downloaded here:

 http://energynautics.com/content/uploads/2017/08/energynautics_energinetdk_report_cell_controller_pi
lot.pdf

Papers

• P. Lund, S. Cherian, T. Ackermann, 2005, "A Cell Controller for Autonomous Operation of a 60 kV Distribution Area",
International Journal of Distributed Energy Resources, vol.1, No.1, 83-100.

• P. Lund, 2007, "The Danish Cell Project – Part 1: Background and General Approach", IEEE Power Engineering Society
General Meeting, Tampa, USA.

• S. Cherian, V. Knazkins, 2007, "The Danish Cell Project – Part 2: Verification of Control Approach via Modelling and
Laboratory Tests", IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Tampa, USA.

• H. Kley, N. Martensen, P. Lund, S. Cherian, O. Pacific, 2009, "The Cell Controller Pilot Project: Testing a Smart Distribution
Grid in Denmark", Grid Interop 2009: The Road to an interoperable Grid, Proceedings, Denver, USA.

• N. Martensen, P. Lund, N. Mathew, 2011, "The Cell Controller Pilot Project: From Surviving System Black-Out to Market
Support", CIRED 2011, Proceedings, Frankfurt, Germany.

• N. Martensen, H. Kley, P. Lund, 2011, "Demonstrating DER-based Voltage Control in the Danish Cell Project", CIGRÉ
Symposium 2011, Proceedings, Bologna, Italy.
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Smart Grid Examples from Europe and South East Asia

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

Q&A

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