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1.

Introduction

1.1.

Background

It is widely recognised within the oil and gas industry that corrosion is the main contributor to process containment barrier failure. Effective management of corrosion will contribute towards achieving the following benefits as well as assuring the ‘Asset Integrity’ of COMPANY facilities:

Statutory or Corporate compliance with Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) policies.

Prolong the life of asset.

Reduction in leaks.

Increased plant availability.

Reduction in unplanned maintenance.

Reduction in deferment costs.

The key elements of this Corporate Management Code of Practice are based upon:

(1) Manage effectively the Integrity of all Assets within COMPANY.

(2) Satisfies the requirements of Group Operational Excellence in Production standard (EP2009-9002).

To this end, the Corrosion Management CoP defines the standards, procedures, responsibilities and authorities that shall be in place within COMPANY to ensure that the corrosion management process satisfies these requirements and applies ‘best practice’ throughout the asset life cycle.

Operational Excellence is defined as:

Competent people working in team with an ‘enterprise first’ mindset, understanding where improvement areas exist and executing a plan that delivers results in a business where:

There is no harm to people or the environment.

(HSE)

All assets are safe and we know it.

(Asset Integrity)

Every drop is produced as economically as possible.

(Production)

Spend is only what it takes to ensure value is protected.

(Cost)

Each individual contributes to their full capacity.

(People)

1.2.

Purpose

This Code of Practice (CoP) defines the COMPANY’s basis for effectively managing corrosion at all phases of the asset lifecycle.

1.3.

Target Audience

This Corrosion Management CoP is primarily ‘high level’ and is targeted at:

Asset owner and delivery team leader.

Functional Discipline CDFHs/CDFPs (Technical Authority).

Materials, Corrosion and Inspection discipline engineers.

Maintenance and Integrity Personnel.

Project Engineers.

Inspection Contractors.

Corrosion Engineering Companies and contractor personnel who have been allocated authority and responsibility to carry out activities identified.

Contractors who are involved in the material selection, quality assurance, quality control, corrosion control, inspection, and integrity assessment activities.

2.

Scope & Objectives

2.1. Scope

The Corrosion management CoP defines the Corrosion Management requirement to be implemented through complying with the required standards, procedures and practices where applicable. It identifies management activities, roles and responsibilities, and deliverables at each stage of the asset lifecycle.

2.2. Basis for Corrosion Management

Foundation of corrosion management process is a threats and barrier matrix.

Barriers are the functional groupings of safeguards and controls in place to prevent major accident. These barriers can be grouped into eight generic types, shown in the Figure below, reference to the integrity barrier model also often referred to as the ‘Swiss Cheese’ model.

Structural

Process Integrity Ignition Containment Safe Control Detection Operation Systems Protection Shutdown Systems
Process
Integrity
Ignition
Containment
Safe
Control
Detection
Operation
Systems
Protection
Shutdown
Systems
Emergency
Systems
Response
Lifesaving
- Pressure
Vessels
Major
- Sand
-Heat
Accident
Exchangers
filters
-Tanks
-Chemical
-Piping
Injection
Systems
-Pipelines
-Well
Containment
!

Corrosion management in COMPANY is concerned with the maintenance of process containment and protection systems barriers. The corrosion management is effectively identifying the threat and ‘plugging’ the holes in these barriers to safeguard integrity throughout the life of the asset.

2.3. Review and Improvement

This Corrosion Management CoP is part of the Technical Integrity Process. It is owned by the Engineering and Operation Director (UEOD) and shall be reviewed and updated on regular basis of minimum three years.

The feedback and change request shall be addressed to the CFDH of Material, Corrosion and Inspection who is the Custodian of this document.

2.4. Practices to Be Followed - Integrity Life Cycle

The main phases of the asset integrity lifecycle are defined in CP-114. These are Design, Construct, Operate, Maintain, Suspend and Abandon.

2.5.

Corrosion Management Model

In all projects phases within COMPANY, corrosion management is an essential requirement including a number of contractors’ organisations. It is therefore important that corrosion management activities are carried out within a structured framework that is visible and understood by all parties.

The management system model described in Figure below is based on safety management model, and shall be used as a model for COMPANY Corrosion Management.

BestPractices DEP & PDO Standards ClearPolicies & Successful Corrosion Management Strategy Organisational
BestPractices
DEP & PDO Standards
ClearPolicies &
Successful Corrosion Management
Strategy
Organisational
Accountability
Structure &
Competency
Responsibilities
Training
Risk assessment through
application of CMM, pipe
RBA & RBI
CM
Review
Planning &
Correct TIWG
Execution Process
Update
Monitor trend
Monitoring &
Anomaly tracking
Measuring
KPI’s
Performance
Yes
No
CMprocedures &
process aligned with
changes in business
plans & production
requirement
Review
Meeting
System
The Control
Performance
Criteria?
Independent
Audit
Management of Change

The Basic Corrosion Management Process Model

The basic Corrosion Management Process relies upon the organisation having a clearly defined policy and written objectives of how to meet the policy.

Underpinning this is the need for an organisational structure that clearly defines the roles and responsibilities of departments and individuals that can carry out the activities involved in achieving Asset Integrity.

A corrosion risk assessment for all facilities should be carried out that defines the activities and the schedule required. This would be regularly updated as part of the system review procedure. Implementation of these activities and analysis of the data created by competent engineers enables an understanding of the current and future condition of the asset and allows the objectives of the policy to be met.

Measuring the performance of the Corrosion Management Systems via technical and management performance indicators (KPI) enables constant improvement of the system.

Periodic reviews that enable feedback into the system and transfer of experience to other asset areas is essential to ensure an efficient system that reflects changes in the field and the organisation.

Corrosion management is a live process throughout all stages of the asset lifecycle from project conception through to abandonment.

For new developments the corrosion management process starts at project concept phase with the selection of materials in line with DEP 39.01.10.11. and the Operational Excellence Standard (EP 2009).

For existing and brown field developments corrosion management is concerned with operational practices in line with the Operational Excellence Standard. However, upgrades and modifications to existing facilities should be treated as a “project,” and lessons learned from existing facilities fed back into the process, in additions to carrying out a full review of downstream effects of any modification.

3.

Organization, Roles & Responsibilities

Corrosion Management is multi functions discipline and is incorporated across COMPANY organisation.

The corrosion management related positions shall have the following key elements in the job profile:

Roles, Responsibilities.

Competency and TA.

3.1. Roles & Responsibilities

The Material Integrity group resides in the Engineering and Operation Function Organization UEOD and provide the following primary services:

Provide the required function role such as developing standards for material, corrosion, and Inspection discipline, competency, new technology and assurance.

To act as an independent verification body not involved in the active execution of maintenance and inspection tasks.

To provide a detailed level of technical service with expert advice on material selection, corrosion control, monitoring and inspection and integrity management of all COMPANY Assets and project team.

The Asset owners are responsible and accountable for the budgeting, planning and execution of the preventive and corrective maintenance activities related to corrosion management Refer to CP-114.

DCAF (Discipline Controls Assurance Framework) shall be applied in all phases of the project.

The current functional organisation as it relates to the Materials, Corrosion and Inspection with Roles and Responsibilities is shown below:

Material Integrity Manager CFDH Materials, Corrosion & Inspection - UEOC

Specific materials, corrosion and inspection responsibility throughout the facility lifecycle from concept selection, design, construct, operate, maintain and abandon. It also covers the quality assurance of goods and services supplied by vendors in all aspects of material selection inspection and corrosion control. The responsibilities include:

CFDH (TA1) for Material, Corrosion and Inspection.

Define and maintain strategic direction for the discipline.

Reduction in life cycle cost/technical integrity enhancement and advice on cost effective technology planning.

Identify risks and advise risk managers on mitigation and control in material integrity of equipment and pipelines.

Custodian of the discipline standards including the development, maintenance and dissemination of fit for purpose guidance documents (GU) and standards (SP & DEP) which reflects group/industry norms.

Responsible for approving TA levels for individual engineers and ensures the deployment of competent corrosion and materials personnel to the Asset teams.

Corrosion management improvement process including Audit and Review Plan.

Provide specialized technical service for all project phases and support integrity management of facilities and wells.

Materials & Corrosion Engineering – UEOC/1

Specific materials and corrosion responsibility for project activities and front-end study including:

Responsible for cost effective material selection for engineering projects during the design phase and for operating assets.

Peer review materials and corrosion engineering design recommendations.

Conduct review of FEED contractors’ material selection to ensure compliance with company standards and conceptual material selection recommendations.

Provide specialized consultancy service in materials and corrosion engineering.

Evaluating and implementing use of new materials and corrosion monitoring techniques including expand the envelope of currently used non-metallic materials.

Responsible for maintaining/updating materials and corrosion engineering discipline standards.

Sour Gas & Oil Major Project Support – UEOC/2

Lead materials engineering team support for major sour gas and oil projects. Activities include:

Responsible for the cost effective selection of materials through the Concept and FEED phases of the project.

Coordinate and supervise activities with designated material and corrosion engineers in the project team to ensure activities are complying with DCAF.

Establish a link with custodians of the technical standards to ensure material specifications are met.

Assess and develop corrosion management document and strategies to manage integrity of the assets throughout their design life.

Provide workshop and training in material selection and corrosion management in sour gas environment and organise visits to other operating companies and lab facilities to expose Omani materials and corrosion engineers to operation experience in sour gas environment.

Corrosion Management & Control – UEOC/3

Specific corrosion control responsibility for all operational activities including:

Provide specialized technical consultancy service in corrosion management and control across COMPANY assets.

Develop and maintain corrosion management manuals for all assets across COMPANY directorate South, North, Infrastructure and Gas.

Evaluate the corrosion monitoring data and assess the performance of internal and external corrosion barriers for all facilities.

Qualify, evaluate and optimise corrosion inhibitors.

Conduct corrosion analysis, corrosivity studies and surveys across COMPANY fields and facilities.

Initiate and assess corrosion rate.

Evaluate and implement technology where possible in the area of managing and monitoring corrosion.

Conduct corrosion failure investigations.

Perform compliance audits and assurance within asset teams, contractors and other suppliers to ensure compliance with company code of standards and procedures.

Discipline Advisor – UEOC/4

Specific responsibility to manage the development and application of Technical Skills, Capabilities, Tools, Processes and Practices in order to maximise the value creation in the management of asset integrity. Activities include:

Ensure effective & efficient system for deployment of staff and that the deployment plan links to Company priorities.

Work with staff in developing PDP.

Provide technical review and support development ventures.

Support in the development of related Material, Corrosion and Integrity Standards.

Identify and support the application/development of new technology.

Promote best practice sharing.

Participate in VAR and peer reviews as required.

Static Inspection and Integrity Engineering – UEOC/5

Specific Inspection and integrity responsibility including:

(TA2) for Inspection of Static equipment and pipeline.

 

Develop and implement RBI, maintenance strategies and define inspection requirements, plans and techniques.

Manage provision of inspection services to the asset teams.

Maintain inspection histories in SAP, CIMS and Equipment files and ensure the timely updating with quality data.

Carry out remnant life assessments and defect analysis using inspection results.

Identify and implement proven inspection techniques, technologies and fitness for service analysis.

Perform compliance audits and assurance within asset teams, inspection contractors and other suppliers to ensure compliance with company code of standards and procedures.

Provide mentoring and coaching for inspection staff in the assets.

3.2.

Competency

The Engineering Maintenance Programme Development Schedule (EMPDS) is implemented within the Materials Corrosion and Inspection function. This enables engineers to build up competency in the materials and corrosion field. On completion of 3-5 years in the EMPDS programme, staff progress to the CBD (Competency Based Development) where they are working toward the Technical Authority (TA) level in accordance with SP-2061 Technical Authority System.

The minimum requirement for a Corrosion Engineering position is TA3. TA assessment should be carried out for staff and contractors involved in Corrosion Management.

4.

Corrosion Management Planning and Execution Process during Life Cycle

For new developments the corrosion management process starts with the concept materials selection. This is primarily a process of short-listing technically acceptable materials for an application, and then selecting the most cost-effective in the context of the life cycle.

4.1. Design and Construct Phase

All MSR for concept shall be developed, peer reviewed and approved within the

UEOC Function.

Where the new project wills tie-into an existing installation, the materials in place, and their current condition, shall be ascertained in the concept definition phase.

The material selection shall be based on at least one primary/robust corrosion barrier; and/or at least two secondary barriers.

Examples of primary and secondary barriers to corrosion can be found in Appendix 2

It is the responsibility of the project manager to assure that materials are specified, procured, manufactured and constructed in full compliance with the DEPs and Standards in order to maintain their integrity barriers and corrosion resistance properties throughout their design life. Any deviation to standards shall be documented according to COMPANY procedure, and the CMM shall be updated to reflect these changes/ deviations.

The project manager shall ensure that material selection at the various stages of the project (concept, feed and detail design) is peer reviewed as follows:

Project <$50mln (no CRA), two material corrosion TA2.

Project <$50mln (CRA), two material corrosion TA2 and CFDH.

Project <$500mln two material corrosion TA2 and CFDH.

Project > $500mln, two material corrosion TA2, CFDH and external peer reviewers.

The project manager shall establish a corrosion management system which shall address the selection, design and specification of the followings:

Cathodic protection system.

Corrosion monitoring facilities.

Chemical injection facilities.

Pigging facilities.

Protective coatings.

The project manager shall ensure that:

Risk based inspection study is conducted in line with S-RBI process.

Maintenance reference plans, and Corrosion Management Manual are in line with relevant DEPs and standards.

The documents identified above shall be uploaded into the Operational S-RBI database, CIMS and SAP.

The figure below addresses the scope of Material Integrity Department in each phase of Opportunity Realisation Process (ORP) during Design and Construct phase

IDENTIFY&ASSESS SELECT DEFINE EXECUTE OPERATE Detailed design Start up Project Feasibility Concept Basis for
IDENTIFY&ASSESS
SELECT
DEFINE
EXECUTE
OPERATE
Detailed design
Start up
Project
Feasibility
Concept
Basis for
Project
Procure, Construct,
Produce
Initiation
Study
Selection
Design
Specification
Pre-commission
Maintain
VAR1
VAR2
VAR3
VAR4
VAR5
UEOCSCOPE
UEOCSCOPE
UEOCSCOPE
UEOCSCOPE
UEOCSCOPE

!

• Identification of

target materials of construction / corrosion control systems (barriers).

• Conceptual MSR

and corrosion

management

strategy after

internal Peer

review.

•Selection of

engineering design

standards.

• Ext Peer review of MSR for project >

$500mln.

• Conduct

material

compliance

review for

projects >

$500mln and

on routine

basisfor

other

projects.

4.2. Handover to Operations

Review FEED

detail design.

Review the

material

compliance with

the specification

(hardness,heat

treatment ,

chemical

composition,

welding

procedure,

,

• Review design

forinspection .

• Execute

S-RBI.

etc).

Corrosion

Inspection

Management

System.

on corrosion riskto develop corrosion inspection strategy (from the project

phase).

Developmentof

Applyknowledge

Continue at Operate & Maintain Phase
Continue
at Operate
& Maintain
Phase

The commissioning team shall consult the relevant specialist engineer in UEOC for specific related technical issues as per the DCAF requirement.

Key deliverables are as per the Discipline Control and Assurance Framework, and the main ones are summarized below, electronic copy shall be handed over to the responsible corrosion control, inspection and integrity engineers.

The following documents shall remain live and shall be reviewed and updated at least every three years. This is the responsibility of the corrosion control and inspection engineers.

Handover Documents

Asset register with basic information uploaded into CIMS.

Material Selections & Peer Review including Material testing and qualification.

Corrosion Management Manual including:

Chemical Management Manual (Corrosion Inhibitor, Oxygen Scavenger and Biocide) selection, testing and qualification.

Corrosion barriers spreadsheet.

Corrosion related KPIs.

Pigging Programme.

Operations

manuals

for

elements

belonging

to

corrosion

control.

PFSs marked with Corrosion Circuits.

Maintenance Reference Plan.

Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA).

Risk Based Inspection (RBI) plan uploaded into CIMS.

4.3. Operate and Maintain Phase - Existing Infrastructure

Once the facility has been handed to operation, the corrosion risk assessment will be updated on the basis of inspection and monitoring data. In addition, in cases where corrosion damage is encountered, the materials and corrosion damage reports shall also be used to update the risk assessment.

Throughout the planning stage the corrosion management strategy should agree with the current planned asset field life. Consequently, future business and operational requirements for an asset should, where practicable, be made known to those responsible for setting and implementing the corrosion management plan.

The CMF process and linkage between all activities in Operate and Maintain phase is depicted in Figure below.

in Operate and Maintain phase is depicted in Figure below. 4.3.1. Maintaining Corrosion Barriers The key

4.3.1.

Maintaining Corrosion Barriers

The key to the corrosion management process during the Operation phase is the maintenance of the corrosion barriers which have been defined during the design phase.

The Head of Corrosion Control UEOC/3 shall ensure:

All facilities have corrosion management manuals reviewed and updated every three years.

The effectiveness of corrosion barriers for pipelines shall be reported to the asset Operation manager on quarterly basis.

The corrosion control engineers shall form part of PIWG & SIWG and shall be responsible for related Corrosion Performance Standard and developing the ACR on annual basis.

Examples of typical barriers and the appropriate compliance check and verification measure to assure integrity in operate and maintain phase can be found in Appendix 3.

4.3.2. Inspection and Integrity Assessment:

Compliance with the barrier requirements is only the first step in the corrosion management process. In essence, all of the barriers are maintained to ensure that material degradation is properly managed.

Inspection of Static Equipment and Pipelines is intended to verify its technical integrity and to provide information for corrective maintenance to ensure that technical integrity is maintained throughout the asset’s life-cycle.

The objective is to apply the necessary inspection and maintenance effort that optimises the asset life-cycle cost.

The Head of Inspection and Integrity shall ensure the following:

The annual Inspection Reference Plan (IRP) for piping and (MRP) for pipelines are in place and updated on quarterly basis. Static equipment inspection plans are not issued as they are extracted from SAP by the asset team. The annual inspection plan (DRAFT) shall be issued in quarter 3 of a prior year. The final plan should be issued by the end of the year.

and integrity

The integrity assessment for the following facilities is executed status report shall be issued :

SCE pipelines- Annually.

Non-piggable pipelines – Annually.

Facility Integrity Status report for all facilities – Monthly.

Main Production Stations - 3 years.

The integrity assessment shall look into overall technical integrity of the facility taking into consideration corrosivity study, compliance to CMM and any field future development.

Revamp and rejuvenation proposal projects shall be developed after integrity assessment takes place to avoid like-for-like replacement.

Annual Pipeline integrity reports shall be produced for each asset by UEOC/5 highlighting any specific concerns and proposals for improvements. The assurance values for the assurance measures and assurance tasks for the relevant performance standards should be recorded by the assurance task owner in CIMS or SAP QM to give visibility in SAP and FSR.

This CoP recognizes fitness-for-service concepts for evaluating in-service damage of pressure-containing components. Main criteria to apply fitness for service are detailed below:

Equipment defects that are outside post-construction code limits should be subject to a fitness-for-service analysis.

Defects found to be unacceptable should be mitigated.

More details about method of inspection, integrity assessment and related Codes & Standards can be found in Appendix 4.

4.3.3. Failure investigations

Asset operation manager and project manager shall report and investigate all material and corrosion related failures according to HSE (Process Safety) Requirement.

Material Integrity manager shall nominate the appropriate specialist to participate in the RCA, all investigation actions shall be recorded and monitored through Fountain Incident Management.

4.3.4. UEOC Scope “Operate and Maintain Phase”

During the Operate and Maintain phase of the Asset the following chart process addresses the scope of Material Integrity Department.

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!

4.4.

Communication

The following table summarises the meetings relevant to Corrosion Management.

Meeting/Group

Frequency

Chair

Relevant attendees

Chemical Services

   

UEOC/3, chemicals vendors and corrosion integrated production chemical services contractor.

Contract

Monthly

UEOC/3

PIWG

Monthly

UEOC/5

 

UEOC/3/5 and Asset integrity team

SIWG

Monthly

UEOC/5

 

UEOC/3/5 and Asset integrity team

 

A

s

s

e

t

Asset Technical

Integrity

Monthly

O p e r a t i o n Manager

UEOC/3/5 participate as needed

Material, Corrosion

 

and Inspection

2 - Monthly

UEOC

 

All UEOC staff

Discipline

Operation manager

Monthly

UEOD

 

UEOC participate as needed

meeting

Process Safety / CFDH update to

TDG

Weekly

TD

UEOC participate as needed

4.5.

Deliverables

The following summarises the formal reports and documents that should be issued and the frequency of issue. In addition to these reports, subcontractors will produce reports in alignment with contract requirements.

Frequency

Document

Responsible

Party

 

Corrosivity study per field CMM for Production Station Main Production Station Integrity Status Report

UEOC3

3 yearly

UEOC3

UEOC5

 

Pipeline Integrity Report ACR for Pipeline CMM for Non-piggable pipeline Performance Standard for Pipeline IRP and MRP

UEOC5

UEOC3

Annual

UEOC3

UEOC/3/5

UEOC5

Quarterly

CMM Report for piggable pipelines

UEOC3

Monthly

Facility Integrity Status Report

UEOC5

When required

RCA Report

As appointed

4.6.

Decommissioning Asset Preservation (Mothballing)

It is the responsibility of the asset managers to preserve the decommissioned assets to prevent any material degradation and to follow the recommendations given by Material Integrity Department

5.

Monitoring and Measuring Performance

Setting up key performance indicator and using it in for measuring the performance is a key step in achieving successful corrosion management.

KPIs are used to monitor and measure the extent to which the policy objectives are being met by the Corrosion Management System.

It should be noted that by Monitoring & measuring performance refers to the normal in- house review of the overall KPIs and does not cover the detailed review of corrosion monitoring / corrosion inspection process and data (which is covered in sections 4) or any formal audit of the system (which is covered in Section 6).

Technical Periodic Integrity Reviews shall be carried out via the integrity working group.

Compliance against the planned maintenance and inspection activities shall be measured and monitored according to Maintenance and Integrity Management (CoP) CP-114.

5.1. Setting Performance Measures

The performance of corrosion management system shall be measured as following:

Pipelines % have completed annual integrity reviews - Target 98%

Pipelines and facilities % with CMM reports achieved versus planned - Target 95%

Main production stations integrity status reports achieved versus planned-Target 100%

Issue of integrity status report –Target 12 Report/Year/Asset

Assurance reviews (peer review, audits commitment- Target 90%

etc)

achieved versus planned and

6.

Assurance

Material Integrity manager is responsible to initiate Internal Audit every 2 years (within Department) to review

Implementation of procedures and processes.

Competency.

Checks in place.

Compliance.

In addition COMPANY Internal audits/external reviews should be carried out every 3 years.

Audit report recommendations shall be disseminated to relevant personnel and remain ‘live’ until identified actions have been acted upon.

7.

Application & Step-Out Approval

7.1. Application

This Corrosion Management CoP is part of the Technical Integrity Process. It is owned by the Engineering and Operation Director (UEOD) and shall be reviewed and updated on regular basis of minimum three years.

7.2. Step-out and Approval

Any proposals that deviate from this Code of Practice must be submitted to CFDH of Materials, Corrosion and Inspection for formal approval.

Any such proposal shall be raised via Change Control System (Compliance Audit and Variance Tracking Tools).

Appendix 1, Glossary of Definitions, Terms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Description

ACR

Assessed Corrosion Rate

CA

Corrosion Allowance

CBD

Competency Based Development

CC

Corrosion Coupon

CFDH

Corporate Functional Discipline Head

CI

Corrosion Inhibitor

CIMS

Corrosion Inspection Management System

CMF

Corporate Management Framework

CMM

Corrosion Management Manual

CoP

Code of Practice

CP

Cathodic Protection

CRA

Corrosion Resistant Alloys

CR

Corrosion Rate

DEP

Design and Engineering Practice

DCAF

Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework

EMPDS

Engineers Monitored Professional Development Scheme

FEED

Front End Engineering Design

FSR

Facility Status Report

HEMP

Hazards Effects Management Process

HSE

Health, Safety and Environment

IRP

Inspection Reference Plan

KPI

Key Performance Indicator

MRP

Maintenance Reference Plan

MSR

Material Selection Report

NDT

Non Destructive Testing

COMPANY

Petroleum Development Oman

PDP

Personal Development Plan

PFS

Process Flow Schematic

RBA

Risk Based Assessment

PIWG

Pipeline Integrity Working Group

RBI

Risk Based Inspection

SAP

System Application and Products in data Processing

SCE

Safety Critical Element

SIWG

Static Integrity Working Group

TA

Technical Authority

TDG

Technical Director Group

Appendix 2 - Examples of primary and secondary barriers to corrosion

Group

Barrier

Material Selection

Corrosion Allowance**

Resistant Material*

 

Dehydration/Anhydrous operation*

Process Control

Flow Control**

Operational Pigging**

 

Corrosion Inhibition**

Oxygen Scavenger**

Chemical Treatment

H 2 S Scavenger**

Biocide**

pH control**

 

Non-metallic linings*

Coatings & Linings

Internal Coatings**

External Coatings**

Cathodic protection

Impressed current**

Sacrificial (galvanic)**

*

**

Primary corrosion barriersSecondary corrosion barriers

Appendix 3 – Examples of typical barriers & compliance check during operate and maintain phase

Group

Barrier

Compliance Checks

Verification

Responsible Party

 

Corrosion

 

Wall thickness measurements by NDT at frequencies determined by RBI/ RBA Visual inspection (External loss), pit depth measurement

Corrosion control

Allowance

Metal loss < CA

Material

Selection

Resistant

 

Monitoring of process and operation conditions

Asset owners

Material

Operating envelope

 

Dehydration

Process control

Dew point

Asset owners

Process

Flow Control

Flow rate

Process flow data

Asset owners

Control

Operational

Pigging frequency Pigging effectiveness

Pigging activity log Pigging records

UIP/4

Pigging

 

Dehydration

Process control

Dew point

Asset owners

Process

Flow Control

Flow rate

Process flow data

Asset owners

Control

Operational

Pigging frequency Pigging effectiveness

Pigging activity log Pigging records

UIP/4

Pigging

 

Corrosion

 

Tank levels Residual inhibitor level CI Availability

UIK

Inhibition

Injection rates

Oxygen

 

Tank levels Oxygen concentration

UIK

Scavenger

Injection rates

Chemical

H 2 S Scavenger

Injection rates

Tank levels H 2 S concentration

 

UIK

Treatment

Biocide

Injection rates

Logged activity Tank levels Bacteria concentration Biocide residues

UIK

+ UIP4

pH control

Injection rates

pH

Asset owners

 

Corrosion monitoring

FSM, Corrosion coupon, LPR, ER

etc

CC

Engineer

Organic

Coating and

Coating degradation

Coating survey

 

CC

Engineer

Coating

Painting

 
 

Impressed

Structure potential

Potential

CC

Engineer

Current

measurement

 

Cathodic

Protection

 

Structure potential

Potential

CC

Engineer

Sacrificial

measurement

 
 

Anodes

 
     
 

Anode wastage

Visual assessment

CC

Engineer

Appendix 4 – Method of Inspection, Code and Standards

Methods of Inspection

Due to the diversity of equipment criticality, sizes and shapes the methods of inspection can vary greatly from one item to another. However, the following general principles apply:

Wherever practicable, assessment of the internal condition of equipment by non-intrusive techniques shall be considered.

Where non-intrusive techniques cannot be applied due to the shape/complexity of the equipment or suspected/known internal degradation, the equipment must be taken out of service for internal inspection.

In addition, the external condition of equipment can be assessed by visual external inspection supplemented by non-destructive techniques such as magnetic particle inspection and ultrasonic examination.

The methods of inspection for each item of equipment should be determined during the RBI process and this shall be updated as necessary following the periodic inspection.

Each technique has its limitations and attributes and should be used depending upon the type and accuracy of the information required.

Where internal and/or external fittings and coverings are encountered these need to be removed sufficiently to enable an adequate inspection. Random or selected sampling of metal surfaces under insulation, for instance, is approved provided inspection is extended sufficiently when adverse results are encountered.

The conditions of service, materials of construction etc, vary widely between individual items of equipment. However, using RBI techniques, these variables are considered and the period between inspections is determined.

Codes and Standards

Inspection engineers, inspectors and design engineers should have access to the latest edition of key industry codes and standards for inspecting and maintaining pressure equipment.

The following in-service and post-construction codes and standards are recognized by COMPANY:

1. American Petroleum Institute API-510, “Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration”.

2. American

Petroleum

Reconstruction.

Institute

API

653

Tank

Inspection,

Repair,

Alteration,

and

3. American Petroleum Institute API 570 Piping Inspection Code: Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems.

Exceptions to applicable post construction codes and company standards should be documented and submitted to UEOC team for approval.

Inspections shall be carried out in accordance with PR-1013 Static Equipment Maintenance and Inspection Procedure. For pipelines the frequency of inspection shall be updated based on SP-1210 specification for pipeline operation and maintenance and PR-1416 procedure for the use of pipe RBI.

Methodology UEOC/5 is responsible for implementing inspection programmes. The inspection data is used to determine Assessed Corrosion Rate (ACR). ACR shall be established in accordance with procedure PR1503. The barriers can only be considered effective if the ACR is within the accepted design limits and the threat to integrity is managed. The ACR shall be reviewed at least annually. It is the responsibility of the Integrity Engineers in UEOC to initiate ACR reviews.

Any anomalous or unexpected results, particularly indicating premature degradation, should be brought to the attention of the relevant Asset Manager and Head of Inspection, and Integrity and Head of Corrosion Control.

Different practice is recognized to carry out Fitness for service including:

API 579 provides detailed assessment procedures for specific types of damage.

Shell 92, DNV101, B31G , EPDM for pipelines.

Applicability of FFS criteria will be under approval of UEOC5 team.

This CoP code recognizes risk-based inspection (RBI) concepts for determining inspection intervals according. API 580 provides guidelines for conducting a risk-based assessment and implementation COMPANY will be based on documents below.

OG.04-30260 Risk and Reliability Management version 2 ( S-RBI Manual).

OG.03.20735 S-RBI Degradation Library.

OP.01.20087

Pipeline

Integrity Management. Guideline to Pipeline Risk based

Assessment.

OG-05-50160 RBI Quality Review.

A RBI assessment determines risk by combining the probability and the consequence of equipment failure. When an owner/user chooses to conduct a RBI assessment, it must include a systematic evaluation of both the probability of failure and the consequence of failure in accordance with API 580. Identifying and evaluating potential damage mechanisms, current equipment condition and the effectiveness of the past inspections are important steps in assessing the probability of a pressure vessel failure. Identifying and evaluating the process fluid(s), potential injuries, environmental damage, equipment damage, and equipment downtime are important steps in assessing the consequence, of a pressure vessel failure.