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## Kelas: 2E-D3-TE GMF

Presensi:15

Rangkuman Hydraulic

What is Hydraulic?

Aircraft Hydraulics is a means of transmitting energy or power from one place to another
efficiently.

It is a system where liquid under pressure is used to transmit this energy. Hydraulics systems
take engine power and convert it to hydraulic power by means of a hydraulic pump. This power can
be distributed throughout the airplane by means of tubing that runs through the aircraft. Hydraulic
power may be reconverted to mechanical power by means of an actuating cylinder, or turbine.

## A hydraulic pump converts mechanical power to hydraulic power , An actuating cylinder

converts hydraulic power to mechanical power, Landing Gear, Engine power (mechanical HP)

Theory of Operation

## (1) Two hydraulic cylinders interconnected:

Cylinder C1 is one inch in radius, and cylinder C2 is ten inches in radius. If the force
exerted on C1 is 10 Ibf, the force exerted by C2 is 1000 lbf because C2 is a hundred times
larger in area (S = rrr2) as C1. The downside to this is that you have to move C1 a
hundred inches to move C2 one inch. The most common use for this is the classical
hydraulic jack where a pumping cylinder with a small diameter is connected to the lifting
cylinder with a large diameter.
(2) Pump and motor:
If a hydraulic rotary pump with the displacement 10 cc/rev is connected to a
hydraulic rotary motor with 100 cc/rev, the shaft torque required to drive the pump
is 10 times less than the torque available at the motor shaft, but the shaft speed
(rev/min) for the motor is 10 times less than the pump shaft speed. This
combination is actually the same type of force multiplication as the cylinder example
(1) just that the linear force in this case is a rotary force, defined as torque. Both
these examples are usually referred to as a hydraulic transmission or hydrostatic
transmission involving a certain hydraulic "gear ratio".

Hydraulic Fluid

Almost any sort of liquid could be used in a hydraulic system, but the special requirements
of aircraft systems have resulted in the use of vegetable, mineral and synthetic-based oils (known as
hydraulic fluids) which have the following properties. They provide good lubrication of components.

Their viscosity is low enough to minimise friction in pipelines and to allow high-speed
operation of motors and pumps, but high enough to prevent leakage from components. Fluids are
coloured for recognition purposes, and fluids to different specifications must never be mixed; fluids
to the same specification, but produced by different manufacturers, may be mixed when permitted
by the appropriate Maintenance Manual. Use of a fluid which is not approved for a particular system
may result in rapid deterioration of seals, hoses and other non-metallic parts, and may render the
system inoperative.

## Vegetable Based Fluids

Vegetable-based fluid is normally almost colourless, and must be used with pure rubber
seals and hoses. It is used in some braking systems, but is not often found in hydraulic power
systems.

## Mineral Based Fluids

Mineral-based fluid is normally coloured red, and must be used with synthetic rubber seals and
hoses. It is widely used in light aircraft braking systems, hydraulic power systems, and shock
absorber struts.
Phosphate Ester Based Fluids

Phosphate ester based fluid is widely used on modern aircraft, mainly because of its fire-
resistance and extended operating-temperature range. It may be coloured green, purple or amber,
and must only be used with butyl rubber, ethylene propylene or Teflon seals and hoses. This fluid
requires extreme care in handling as it is irritant to the skin and eyes. A barrier cream should be
applied to the hands and arms, and fluid resistant gloves should be worn.

Hydraulic Pumps

Most modern aircraft are fitted with either fixed volume or variable volume, multi-piston
type hydraulic pumps, driven from the engines. Other types of pumps, such as gear or vane positive
displacement pumps, may be found in some installations, but these are generally used for powering
emergency systems. Hand pumps, where fitted, are often of the double-acting type. The purpose of
a hydraulic pump is to supply a flow of fluid to a hydraulic system. The pump does not create system
pressure, since pressure can be created only by a resistance to the flow. As the pump provides flow,
it transmits a force to the fluid. As the fluid flow encounters resistance, this force is changed into a
pressure. Resistance to flow is the result of a restriction or obstruction in the path of the flow. This
restriction is normally the work accomplished by the hydraulic system, but can also be restrictions of
lines, fittings, and valves within the system. Thus, the pressure is controlled by the load imposed on
the system or the action of a pressure- regulating device.

Gear Pumps

Gear pumps are classified as either external or internal gear pumps. In external gear pumps
the teeth of both gears project outward from their centres (figure 1.11). External pumps may use
spur gears, herringbone gears, or helical gears to move the fluid. In an internal gear pump, the teeth
of one gear project outward, but the teeth of the other gear project inward toward the centre of the
pump (figure 1.12, view A). Internal gear pumps may be either centred or off-centred

## Spur Gear Pump

The spur gear pump (figure 1.11) consists of two meshed gears which revolve in a housing.
The drive gear in the illustration is turned by a drive shaft which is attached to the power source. The
clearances between the gear teeth as they mesh and between the teeth and the pump housing are
very small.
Gerotor Pump

Another design of internal gear pump is illustrated in figures 1.12 and 1.13. This pump
consists of a pair of gear-shaped elements, one within the other, located in the pump chamber. The
inner gear is connected to the drive shaft of the power source. The operation of this type of internal
gear pump is illustrated in figure 1.13. To simplify the explanation, the teeth of the inner gear and
the spaces between the teeth of the outer gear are numbered

The operation of the radial piston pump. The pump consists of a pintle, which remains
stationary and acts as a valve; a cylinder block, which revolves around the pintle and contains the
cylinders in which the pistons operate; a rotor, which houses the reaction ring of hardened steel
against which the piston heads press; and a slide block, which is used to control the length of the
piston strokes. The slide block does not revolve but houses and supports the rotor, which does
revolve due to the friction set up by the sliding action between the piston heads and the reaction
ring. The cylinder block is attached to the drive shaft.
Axial Piston Pumps (Constant Displacement)

Piston-type constant displacement pumps consist of a circular cylinder block with either
seven or nine equally spaced pistons. Figure 1.17 is a partial cutaway view of a seven-piston pump.
The main parts of the pump are the drive shaft, pistons, cylinder block, and valve plate. There are
two ports in the valve plate

## Engine Driven Pump (EDP)

The Engine Driven Pump is normally the normal supply for the hydraulic system. It is usually
a variable piston type.

The pump is normally installed on the engine gear box and is driven by it. The drive is via a
splined shaft which often has a waisted portion to provide a 'shear point' should the pump seize. The
shearing of the shaft in such a situation is to prevent further damage and overheating and a possible
fire hazard. The RPM of the pump varies with the RPM of the engine. If engine RPM increases, the
RPM of the pump also increases and vice versa. Because the flow of the pump depends on RPM,
most aircraft manuals mention two flow values. These are the flow at minimum RPM (engine idle)
and flow at maximum RPM (engine at maximum thrust).
Electric Motor Driven Pump (EMDP)

Electrical driven pumps are mainly used for ground servicing operations, such as opening the
cargo doors. They can be of the gear type or the variable piston type. But on some aircraft, they are
used as main pumps. In this case, the pump is always running, feeding its own hydraulic system.
These pumps are driven by a 3-phase electrical motor supplied by the aircraft electrical system.
Electrical pumps are usually located somewhere near the landing gear bay. Most aircraft have two
electrical pumps.
Emergency and Auxillary Pressure Generation

There must be a possibility to pressurize the hydraulic system during maintenance without
having to start the engines. This can be done in two ways:

## • by means of a ground service unit.

These pumps are driven electrically or pneumatically and are called "auxiliary pumps". The fluid
supply to the auxiliary pump comes from the same reservoir as that of the main pump (engine
driven pump). In the pressure line coming from the auxiliary pump, the same components are
present as already mentioned for the engine driven pump. The auxiliary pump together with those
components form an independent system, called the "auxiliary system".

## Ram Air Turbine (RAT)

In case of total hydraulic power loss, there must be alternative method to supply hydraulic power to
the aircraft. This can be done by using the ram air to drive a hydraulic pump via a turbine. These
units are called "Ram Air Turbines" and are installed either in the fuselage or near the wing root. If
necessary, an ejection jack extends the RAT into the airflow with the force of a spring. No hydraulic
power is necessary to extend the RAT.

## Power Transfer Unit (PTU)

To transfer power between systems, power transfer units (PTU) are used to pressurize a system
where the pumps have failed. Figure 1.34 shows the sectional view of a PTU. These units can be
either the single direction or the bidirectional type. They are also well known as "nonreversible
motor pumps" or "reversible motor pumps".

## A PTU consists basically of two parts:

• motor

• pump

An alternative method of driving pumps is using bleed air, supplied by the engines. Figure 1.35
shows a fully mechanical system. Speed of the pump is controlled by regulating the flow of air that
drives the turbine.
Hydraulic System Components

Hydraulic Reservoir The hydraulic fluid reservoir holds excess hydraulic fluid to
accommodate volume changes from:

## • temperature driven expansion and contraction, and

• leaks.

The reservoir is also designed to aid in separation of air from the fluid and also work as a
heat accumulator to cover losses in the system when peak power is used. Reservoirs can also help
separate dirt and other particulate from the oil, as the particulate will generally settle to the bottom
of the tank.

Hydraulic Actuators

In a closed static system, pressure exerted on a liquid is transmitted equally in all directions.
Figure 1.42 shows a simple arrangement of pistons, cylinders and pipes, which uses this principle to
obtain mechanical advantage. The area of piston A is 10 mm2, and the force applied to it is 10 N. The
pressure in the liquid is, therefore, 1 N/mm2, which is transmitted undiminished to piston B. The
area of piston B is 100 mm2, and the force exerted upon it is thus 100 N, representing a mechanical
advantage of 10:1. This advantage is obtained at the expense of distance, however, because the area
of piston B is 10 times that of piston A and piston B will move only one tenth the distance of piston
A.

## Differential Pressure Indicator

The AP indicator (also known as the clogging indicator) indicates the difference in pressure
between filter inlet and filter outlet and therefore gives information about the filter's condition to
the maintenance personal. The indicator piston pop's out and can be reset by hand.
Pressure Relief Valves (PRV)

Pressure relief valves prevent failure of components or rupture of hydraulic lines under
excessive pressures. Excessive pressure can be caused by a defect in the pump or by a temperature
increase of an enclosed amount of hydraulic fluid. To open the valve, which connects the hydraulic
fluid to a return line, a pressure that is 10% - 20% higher than the= maximum system pressure (3,300
- 3,600 PSI) is required.

Hydraulic Seals

Seals perform a very important function in a hydraulic system, in preventing leakage of fluid.
Static seals, 'gaskets and packing are used in many locations, and these create a seal by being
squeezed between two surfaces. Dynamic seals, fitted between sliding surfaces, may be of many
different shapes, depending on their use and on the fluid pressures involved. 'LP' and 'V' ring seals
are effective in one direction only, but 'O' rings and square section seals are often used where
pressure is applied in either direction.
Sequence Valves

Sequence valves are often fitted in a landing gear circuit to ensure correct operation of the
landing gear doors and jacks. Examples of mechanically operated and hydraulically operated
sequence valves are illustrated in Figure 1.67.

Mechanically operated sequence valves ensure that the landing gear does not extend until
the doors are open, and that the landing gear is retracted before the doors close. Completion of the
initial movement in the sequence results in part of the mechanism operating the plunger, or striker
pin, of the sequence valve, and allowing fluid to flow to the next actuator.

Shuttle Valves

These are often used in landing gear and brake systems, to enable an emergency system to
operate the same actuators as the normal system. During normal operation, free flow is provided
from the normal system to the service and the emergency line is blocked. When normal system
pressure is lost and the emergency system is selected, the shuttle valve moves across because of the
pressure difference, blocking the normal line and allowing emergency pressure to the actuator. A
typical shuttle valve is shown in Figure 1.61.
Hydraulic Accumulators

## An accumulator is fitted to store hydraulic fluid under pressure, to dampen pressure

fluctuations, to allow for thermal expansion, and to provide an emergency supply of fluid to the
system in the event of pump failure. A non-return valve fitted upstream of an accumulator, prevents
fluid from being discharged back to the reservoir.
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