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From challenges to hope, there is no need to downplay this era of time.

time saw monumental technological and social changes. It was the first era of
the new school in world society. Youth culture and outstanding music
dominated the time. New fashion proliferated along with new Presidents who
never were born before the days of World War II. This post-Cold War era
witnessed globalization and increased trade with the price of economic
displacement for many worldwide. Activists, among many backgrounds,
stood up to advocate for social justice and equality. The WNBA, Michael
Jordan, Lebron James, Kobe Bryant, Venus Williams, Serena Williams, Jackie
Joyner-Kersee, and other athletes expressed incredible talent. History was
made by scientists, politicians, and other leaders of society. We saw the first
African American woman go into space whose name is Mae Jemison, and we
have seen the first African American to be President of the United States
who is President Barack Obama. In the midst of good news and evil events,
we still live as human beings who want the Dream to be fulfilled justly.
Photo by Max Whittaker/Getty Images.

This image showed the crowd of people at the

Denver August 28, 2008 Democratic National
This time period was an explosion George W. Bush was elected after and an across the board tax cut. He
of culture and technology. This is the controversial 2000 election and wanted to stimulate the economy.
the time of the growth of the the Supreme Court decision that He also wanted the partial
Information Age and the gave him the election. privatization of Social Security
Technological Age. Examples of which failed thankfully in
that truth include the fact that Congress. The Bush response to the
during this time, the Internet was Hurricane Katrina disaster of 2005
first readily accessible to people basically ended the Presidency of
worldwide, music further was George W. Bush. So many people
influenced by corporations, and saw black and poor people
new inventions flourished. The suffering, that his Presidency was
Persian Gulf War ended in 1991, over. Democrats controlled
and America was the sole Congress in 2006, and Saddam
superpower on Earth. After the Hussein experienced the death
Cold War, diverse, sometimes penalty later on. President Bush
disorganized terrorist groups ordered a troop surge in 2007 in
sprang up from al-Qaeda to others. charging that it would reduce
Bill Clinton was elected President casualties. In 2008, the economic
in 1992, and he represented a new recession exploded and people lost
era of a different Democrat being This work is also dedicated homes, people lost pensions, and
in the White House. Bill Clinton to those who have nostalgia the country was on the brink of
wasn’t far left as President. He was for the 1990’s as well. total depression. Bush agreed to
a centrist, and he was very savvy bailout the banks, which was
politically as he loved the battle of From the beginning to the end of opposed by many liberals and
politics in general. He loved to talk his Presidency, President George conservatives. While this was going
to people, and his wife Hillary W. Bush possessed controversy. on, the 2008 Presidential election
Clinton was just as focused on September 11, 2001 was a date when came about, and Barack Obama
politics as he was. The Republican innocent people were murdered by defeated John McCain by
control of Congress after the 1994 terrorists. Bush initially had November of 2008. Barack Obama
midterm election caused strife. Bill widespread support in his call for executed his message of hope and
Clinton worked with Democrats unity. Later, he enacted the war on change in a post-partisan, unifying
and Republicans to pass welfare terror in Afghanistan and later fashion. Ordinary people and
reform, the Children’s Health promoted the War in Iraq (when celebrities flocked to him as a signal
Insurance Program (or CHIP), and Saddam had nothing to do with of a new era of a progressive
a balanced budget. Clinton won the 9/11). The Iraq War divided renewal. President Barack Obama
1996 election convincingly. Later, Americans and as time went on, has great intellect and charisma
he experienced the Lewinsky most Americans opposed the Iraq along with his beautiful wife First
scandal when he committed War. The era of the War on terror Lady Michelle Obama. This era
adultery, was impeached in 1998, saw the controversial Patriot Act, ended with the election of the first
and was acquitted by the Senate. militarized police, the Homeland African American President in
The economic boomed in the Security Department being created, United States history, Barack
1990’s until the dot com bubble and other developments. George Obama.
and the early 2000's recession. W. Bush wanted education reform
Technological Change
By the 1990’s, a new technological revolution has taken place involving computers and the Internet. This
situation was decades in the making. Throughout the 20th century, technological developments advanced
quickly. Globalization transformed the U.S. economy too. Orville Wright flew the airplane in 1903.
International jet travel involving civilian passengers came about after World War II. Human beings came on
the Moon in 1969. The modern computer existed by 1946. The World War II events (from atomic research
to radar systems) inspired new inventions to form. Universities and colleges created faster computers. IBM
created one of the first commercial computers by 1964. As time went onward, the microchip, the
microprocessor, and personal computers became more commonplace. Silicon Valley was one major hub of
such inventions. At first, very few people owned personal computers. It was a hobby for some to own one.
By the 1980’s, corporations, labs, and ordinary people used personal computers daily. Computer
technology influenced the development of video games, cell phones, and other electronic devices.
Entrepreneurs worked with the computer advancement situation like Michael Dell, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs,
and others. Steve Jobs was involved with Apple, and Bill Gates focused on Microsoft for a number of years.

Jeff Bezos’s ushered buying and selling goods to millions of Americans. The paradox is that
many of these entrepreneurs want profit, and debates about competition plus their global influence would
exist among their organizations (which grew monopolies among corporations). These leaders amassed
massive wealth and power from these new technologies (just like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller
did long ago). Computer technology and modern medicine has helped to treat diseases, extend human
lives, and reduced pain. We have artificial hearts and organ transplants. There is biotechnology and
agricultural growth in America. Less people work on farms because of new technology and more people
living in urban communities. The communication involving advanced technology has grown in the 1990’s.
By the 1990’s, the Internet, email, cellphones, and other messaging systems became very common in the
Information Age.

Many people have more access to communication simultaneously than ever before. Now, we have Skype
where people, who live in different continents, can speak to each other. Likewise, many corporations
dominate mainstream media services as monopolies dominate the corporate media. Now, microchips are
on people and animals. Satellites have grown technological communication too. Television services and
cellphones rely on satellites on many cases. Ted Turner promoted a satellite to spread CNN. Satellites were
once Cold War inventions, and now it is used by private individuals. The Internet was created long before
1990’s. The U.S. government had Internet services back in the 1960’s. The Internet was modernized by the
World Wide Web in 1990. The Internet spread from the places of universities to the homes of people
worldwide. By the 1990’s, the Internet outlined information simultaneously and internationally. Commerce,
education, research, and entertainment are all enhanced by the Internet. The Internet has a database and
email can connect people in rural and urban communities. This new technological revolution changed the
economy from being more industrial to being a more service economy.

Globalization caused economies, cultures, and politics to be more integrated. The catch is that union
membership has declined over the course of decades, and previous industrial jobs were readily eliminated
or shipped overseas. Globalization caused multinational corporations to have massive power. The
corporations can create plants in multiple countries, have lax wages, and still make large profits at the
expense of the working class people in America (and overseas in other nations). That is a problem.
Computer technology increased the need for STEM related jobs or service jobs. E-commerce can allow a
person to buy a product online from the Internet, and the product can be sent to that person’s home in a
matter of weeks or days. Service workers are research analysts, doctors, lawyers, cops, professional
athletes, and other people. Some are paid low wages and some are paid high wages. The costs of
globalization are lower unions, farm organization declines, and numerous manufacturing jobs being lost.
That is why investments are needed to help people adjust and to have true economic justice.

The 1992 Presidential Election

The 1992 United States Presidential election was one of the most important elections of American history.
It had many major candidates like Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, and Ross Perot desiring the White House.
President George H. W. Bush, during this time, dealt with a recession and resistance from conservatives by
breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes. The Republicans challenged George H. W. Bush for
the Republican nomination. Their names are Pat Buchanan, David Duke, Jack Fellure, Pat Paulsen, and
Harold Stassen. Pat Buchanan is a Knight of Malta and a known critic of President George H. W. Bush. Bush
won the New Hampshire primary on February 18, 1992 with a 53-38% margin. President Bush won 73% of
all primary votes, with 9,199,463 votes. Buchanan won 2,899,488 votes; unpledged delegates won 287,383
votes, and David Duke, a former Republican Louisiana state representative and Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux
Klan won 119,115 votes. Just over 100,000 votes were cast for all other candidates, half of which were
write-in votes for H. Ross Perot. Former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen who had run for President 9
times since 1944 also mounted his final campaign. President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan
Quayle easily won re-nomination by the Republican Party. The conservatives forced Bush to move to the
right during the 1992 Presidential campaign. Many socially conservative planks were established in the
1992 Republican Party platform.

Bush allowed Buchanan to give the keynote address at the Republican National Convention in Houston,
Texas, and Pat Buchanan's culture war speech alienated many moderates. Vice President Dan Quayle was
re-nominated by a voice vote. The Democratic Party nomination was much more diverse and tense at
times. The Democratic candidates who ran for President in 1992 were the following people: Jerry Brown,
Paul Tsongas, Bob Kerrey, Tom Harkin, Douglas Wilder, Eugene McCarthy, and Larry Agran. After the
Persian Gulf War, Bush’s approval ratings existed at 89 percent. Mario Cuomo and Jesse Jackson refused to
seek the Democratic nomination. Yet, other candidates ran. Tom Harkin of Iowa was a popular liberal with
labor union support. Former U.S. Senator Paul Tsongas (Massachusetts) highlighted his political
independence and fiscal conservatism. Former California Governor Jerry Brown, who had run for the
Democratic nomination in 1976 and 1980 while he was still Governor, declared a significant reform agenda,
including Congressional term limits, campaign finance reform, and the adoption of a flat income tax.
Nebraska Senator Bob Kerrey was a candidate based on his business and military background, but made
several gaffes on the campaign trail. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton called himself a New Democrat or a
centrist. Bill Clinton wasn't a progressive on every issue. Some people didn't know that. He was known for
talking about the Gennifer Flowers situation where Flowers accused Bill Clinton of having an affair with her.
Bill Clinton appeared with Hillary Clinton on 60 minutes to deny the affair. Tom Harkin won the Iowa

Paul Tsongas of Massachusetts won the New Hampshire primary on February 18, 1992, but Clinton's
second-place finish, helped by his speech labeling himself "The Comeback Kid," energized his campaign.
Jerry Brown won the Maine caucus and Bob Kerrey won South Dakota. Clinton won his first primary in
Georgia. Tsongas won the Utah and Maryland primaries and a caucus in Washington. Harkin won caucuses
in Idaho and Minnesota while Jerry Brown won Colorado. Bob Kerrey dropped out two days later. Clinton
won the South Carolina and Wyoming primaries and Tsongas won Arizona. Harkin dropped out. Jerry Brown
won the Nevada caucus. Clinton swept nearly all of the Super Tuesday primaries on March 10 making him
the solid front runner. Clinton won the Michigan and Illinois primaries. Tsongas dropped out after finishing
3rd in Michigan. Jerry Brown, however, began to pick up steam, aided by using a 1–800 number to receive
funding from small donors. Brown scored surprising wins in Connecticut, Vermont and Alaska. As the race
moved to the primaries in New York and Wisconsin, Brown had taken the lead in polls in both states. Then,
he made a statement that alienated many people by announcing to an audience of New York City's Jewish
community that, if nominated, he would consider Reverend Jesse Jackson as a vice presidential candidate.
Jesse Jackson had already apologized for his previous remark, but some still hated Jesse Jackson. Clinton
won dramatically in New York (41%–26%) and closely in Wisconsin (37%–34%). Clinton then proceeded to
win a long streak of primaries leading up to Jerry Brown's home state of California. Clinton won this primary
48% to 41% and secured the delegates needed to clinch the nomination. Bill Clinton and Jerry Brown didn’t
like each other back then. Both of them accused each other of corruption and nefarious dealings. It was
personal, and Bill Clinton won the Democratic nomination. Clinton chose U.S. Senator Al Gore (D-
Tennessee) to be his running mate on July 9, 1992. Choosing fellow Southerner Gore went against the
popular strategy of balancing a Southern candidate with a Northern partner. Gore did serve to balance the
ticket in other ways, as he was perceived as strong on family values and environmental issues, while Clinton
was not. Also, Gore's similarities to Clinton allowed him to push some of his key campaign themes, such as
centrism and generational change. Ross Perot announced his candidacy and wanted to cut the national
debt. He was from Texas, and he opposed the North American Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA. He had
major support in the 1992 election. Andre Marrou ran on the Libertarian ticket with. Lenora Fulani led the
New Alliance Party. John Hagelin ran on the Natural Law Party. Howard Phillips ran on the U.S. Taxpayers’
Party as a conservative. Bo Gritz was on the Populist Party, and he was a far right conservative.

George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Ross Perot debated each other, and they wanted votes. At first, Perot
was leading the race. Between, Bush and Clinton, at first, Bush was leading Clinton in early 1992. As the
economy has gotten worse, Clinton’s popularity increased. Many Democrats supported Bill Clinton. Clinton
gave his acceptance speech on July 16, 1992, promising to bring a "new covenant" to America, and to work
to heal the gap that had developed between the rich and the poor during the Reagan/Bush years. The
Clinton campaign received the biggest convention "bounce" in history which brought him from 25 percent
in the spring, behind Bush and Perot, to 55 percent versus Bush's 31 percent. Clinton and Gore used a bus
tour to travel America. Bush and Quayle called Clinton as an adulterer and a draft dodger. The Bush
campaign said that the success of Desert Storm and causing the end of the Cold War would make him
capable of re-election. Clinton’s polling increased caused George H. W. Bush to try to appeal to right wing
conservatives for votes. Buchanan accused Clinton of being far left when obviously Bill Clinton is a centrist.
The campaign continued with a lopsided lead for Clinton through September, until Ross Perot decided to
re-enter the race. Ross Perot's re-entry in the race was welcome by the Bush campaign, as Fred Steeper, a
poll taker for Bush, said, "He'll be important if we accomplish our goal, which is to draw even with
Clinton." Perot’s role in the debates increased his poll numbers. Bush’s numbers remained the same and
Clinton’s numbers declined. Clinton won all of the debates. Bill Clinton’s character was questioned by Perot
and Bush. Clinton talked about marijuana, the Vietnam War, etc.

Bill Clinton won the election to be the President of the United States having 43 percent of the popular vote
against Bush’s 37.5% and Perot's 18.9%. It was the first time since 1968 that a candidate won the White
House with under 50% of the popular vote. Only Washington, D.C. and Clinton's home state of Arkansas
gave the majority of their votes to a single candidate in the entire country; the rest were won by pluralities
of the vote. Even though Clinton roughly received 3.1 million more votes than Democratic nominee Michael
Dukakis had four years earlier, the Democrats recorded a 2.6 percentage point decrease in their share of
the popular vote compared to 1988 due to the higher turnout. His 43% share of the popular vote was the
second-lowest for any winning candidate in the 20th century after Woodrow Wilson in 1912 (41.8%).
President Bush's 37.5% was the lowest percentage total for a sitting president seeking re-election since
William Howard Taft, also in 1912 (23.2%). The election was the most recent in which Georgia and Montana
voted for the Democratic candidate, the last time the state of Florida backed the losing candidate, and the
last time that Colorado voted Democratic until 2008.

The 1992 election was also the first time since Texas' admission to the Union in 1845 that a Democrat won
the White House without winning the state, and the second time a Democrat won the White House without
North Carolina (the first was 1844), and the second time since Florida's admission (also in 1845) that a
Democrat won without winning the state (John F. Kennedy in 1960 was the first). Clinton was also the only
Democrat at that point to win every electoral vote in the Northeast except for Lyndon Johnson in 1964.
Every Democrat since Clinton has repeated this result, except for Al Gore, who narrowly lost New
Hampshire in 2000, and Hillary Clinton, who lost Pennsylvania and Maine's second congressional district in
2016. Also, this was the first time since 1964 that many states voted Democratic, such as California,
Colorado, Illinois, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Vermont. Bill Clinton
won because of many reasons. The economy slowed down. Clinton united the Democratic Party when its
different wings were in conflict. Clinton gained support among moderate and conservative Democrats by
slandering Sister Souljah (who is an author, activist, and hip hop artist). Clinton supported the death penalty
and wanted school uniforms in public schools by force. He believed in affirmative action and he was pro-
choice. Clinton’s election ended the Republican Party controlling the White House after 12 consecutive

Bill Clinton would be the first Democratic President since Franklin D. Roosevelt to serve two full terms in
the White House. The 1992 election made the Democratic Party dominant in the Northeast, the Great
Lakes region (until 2016, and the West Coast. Previously, many of those states were swing states or
Republican leaning). California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, some of Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, and
Vermont remained Democratic ever since 1992. Bill Clinton accused George H. W. Bush of using policies
that wanted the rich to be richer to the detriment of everyone else. Bush didn’t felt self-pity after the loss,
but he was hurt temporarily. African Americans voted heavily for Bill Clinton. Bill Clinton was a New
Democrat or a moderate. He wanted to reconcile liberal and conservative views. He believed in a strong
national defense, tough on crime policies, welfare reform, free trade, and closer ties with corporations.
Clinton had liberal positions on other issues too. A new chapter would develop.
The Clinton Presidency
The Presidency of William Jefferson Clinton started a new era. Years ago, I thought that he was a
progressive. Now, I realize that he was a moderate. We know that Bill Clinton was a president who was in
transition after the Cold War and before the War on terror. Before, he was President, he was the Governor
of Arkansas and he was a member of the DLC. The DLC wanted to promote the Third Way, which is a
philosophy of moderation outside of the old school, progressive New Deal tradition. The Democratic
Leadership Conference promotes neoliberalism, globalization, fiscal conservative views, and balanced
budgets, private-public partnerships and centrism basically. The problem with the Third Way is that every
revolutionary movement for change didn’t occur by centrists, but by social activists, grassroots organizing,
and bold, governmental policies. Bill Clinton used his political intelligence and charisma to get elected on
1992. The inauguration of William Jefferson Clinton took place in 1993. The great African American poet
and writer Maya Angelou spoke at the inauguration.

Maya Angelou spoke eloquently and beautifully about the dream that humankind ought to embrace. Many
people had high hopes for Bill Clinton. As history has shown, President Bill Clinton executed a combination
of legitimate policies and mistakes. Right now, he is one of the most popular Presidents in American
history. Immediately, his cabinet experienced scandals. Many of the far right hate many Clinton cabinet
members, because they were progressive human beings. Zoe Baird didn’t become the Attorney General,
since she admitted that she employed undocumented workers in her home. Back then, xenophobia was
abundant like today. Kimba Wood left the nomination process too. Lani Guinier, a great unapologetic
progressive woman, was slandered so much by the far right that she wasn’t the candidate for a key Justice
Department post back in 1993. She lost her fight for the post of Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights.
Many black people were in his cabinet like Ronald Brown (as Secretary of Commerce), but many black
people opposed the backlash from many Republicans against qualified, progressive black cabinet
candidates. Spellman College President Johnnetta Cole wasn’t allowed to be Secretary of Education,
because conservatives attacked her progressive political views. As early as 1993, Bill Clinton appointed
Hillary Clinton to head the Task Force on National Health Care reform. Hillary Clinton, during this time,
would fight for national health care. The Clinton administration fought for it, but they failed because of
massive opposition, and it was taboo back then for a President to pass national health care. Bill Clinton
reversed restrictions on domestic and international programs involving abortion. Clinton wanted abortion
to be in his words “safe, legal, and rare.” When he was President, the abortion rate in America declined by
about 18.4 percent. Shortly after taking office, Bill Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
on February 5, which required large employers to allow employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a
serious medical condition.

This action had bipartisan support, and was popular with the public. On May 19, 1993, Clinton fired seven
employees of the White House Travel Office, causing the White House travel office controversy even
though the travel office staff served at the pleasure of the President and could be dismissed without cause.
The White House responded to the controversy by claiming that the firings were done in response to
financial improprieties that had been revealed by a brief FBI investigation. One of the most important bills
that Clinton signed was the Budget bill of 1993. It was moderate. In August, Clinton signed the Omnibus
Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which passed Congress without a Republican vote. It cut taxes for 15
million low-income families, made tax cuts available to 90 percent of small businesses, and raised taxes on
the wealthiest 1.2 percent of taxpayers. Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a
number of years through the implementation of spending restraints. In November of 1993, he signed the
Brady Bill, which was a gun control measure. At first, Bill Clinton wanted gay people to openly serve in the
military back in 1992, but he compromised and followed Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell (which means that a gay or
lesbian person can serve as long as he or she doesn’t tell anyone and the military doesn’t ask anyone about
his or her sexual orientation). It was gone by 2011 by the act of President Barack Obama. Surgeon General
Jocelyn Elders wanted to have drug legalization to decline crime and Clinton was a moderate, so he
criticized her remarks. Elders was an expert in social policy and medicine for decades. She was later
removed from office. So, some black cabinet members were treated with blatant disrespect, and that was
wrong. In 1993, Vince Foster died, and Clinton issued a missile attack in Iraq in response to the
assassination plot of Iraqis who tried to assassinate President George H. W. Bush.

On November 1993, the Whitewater controversy grew when David Hale accused Clinton of pressuring him
to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the Clintons' partner in the Whitewater land deal. A
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigation resulted in convictions against the McDougals for
their role in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves were never charged, and Clinton
maintains his and his wife's innocence in the affair. Clinton signed the Brady Bill on November 30, 1993 that
mandated federal background checks on people who purchase firearms in America. The law also imposed a
five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998. He also expanded
the Earned Income Tax Credit, a subsidy for low-income workers.

In December of the same year, allegations by Arkansas state troopers Larry Patterson and Roger Perry were
first reported by David Brock in The American Spectator. In the affair later known as "Troopergate", the
officers alleged that they arranged sexual liaisons for Clinton back when he was governor of Arkansas. The
story mentioned a woman named Paula, a reference to Paula Jones. Brock later apologized to Clinton,
saying the article was politically motivated "bad journalism", and that "the troopers were greedy and had
slimy motives.”

Bill Clinton worked with Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin to sign the historic Oslo Peace Accords. Both Arafat
and Rabin would shake hands on that occasion. The Oslo Peace Accords was the time when peace was so
close, but so far away at the same time in the Middle East. On December 8, 1994, Bill Clinton signed the
controversial North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA (which was implemented on January 1, 1994).
It was opposed by anti-trade Republicans, Democrats who wanted labor rights protections, and supporters
of Ross Perot. NAFTA accelerated globalization and had mixed results. It definitely didn’t prevent millions of
American jobs from being outsourced. Also, research has shown has NAFTA has harmed workers in America
and Mexico. Here are some examples. The Economic Policy Institute estimates that the agreement cost
Ohio 50,000 jobs between 1993 and 2004. In the last seven years (from 2001-2008), Ohio lost more than
200,000 manufacturing jobs--as a consequence of plants moving to the U.S. South, the shallowness of the
2000’s economic recovery and increasing productivity, among other factors. Mexican agriculture has been
devastated by NAFTA because it is unable to compete with U.S. producers, which benefited from subsidies
from the U.S. government that were 20 times higher than Mexico's as of 2005. The truth is that NAFTA was
a problem because NAFTA was a policy of neoliberal globalization that allowed the ruling class to reap
massive benefits while ignoring the legitimate economic needs of many American, Canadian, and Mexican
workers (in other words, workers internationally not just in America should unite to confront the corporate

By 1994, Clinton allowed President Aristide to be in power in Haiti while preventing Haitian refugees from
coming into America. In 1994, the Republican backlash came ahead with Republicans controlling most of
the House. Gingrich led the charge with the Contract with America, which was a list of conservative plans
for America. Bill Clinton was in a tough place, and he worked with his advisors to figure out what was next.
Bill Clinton signed the Crime Bill in 1994. It was opposed by progressives, many African Americans, and
some conservatives (because of its gun control provisions).

Bill Clinton believed that being tough on crime and adding more police in the streets will decrease crime
and cause a better America. The problem was that the Crime Bill expanded death penalty provisions, and it
didn’t understand the complex nature of crime. Crime must require rehabilitation not just punishment. The
Crime Bill definitely expanded the prison industrial complex. Hillary Clinton was wrong to use the racially
charged words of “super predators” to describe many black youth in low income neighborhoods. Back then,
a lot of people didn’t realize the unintended consequences of the Crime Bill.

On October 21, 1994, the Clinton administration launched the first official White House website, The site was followed with three more versions, resulting in the final edition launched in
2000. The White House website was part of a wider movement of the Clinton administration toward web-
based communication. According to Robert Longley, "Clinton and Gore were responsible for pressing
almost all federal agencies, the U.S. court system and the U.S. military onto the Internet, thus opening up
America's government to more of America's citizens than ever before. On July 17, 1996, Clinton issued
Executive Order 13011 – Federal Information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to
utilize information technology
fully to make the information of
the agency easily accessible to
the public."

The 1994 Rwanda was one of the

saddest crises in world history. It
was about Hutus in Rwanda
murdering Tutsis and moderate
Hutus. Over 1,000,000 people
were murdered in Rwanda. While In 1993, Ruth Bader Ginsburg The Nyamata Genocide Memorial is
the slaughter took place, African accepted the nomination to the based around a former church 30
American political scientist Supreme Court from President Bill km (19 mi) south of Kigali in
Clinton. Ruth Bader Ginsburg would Rwanda, which commemorates the
Ronald Walters called on black go on to have express some of the Rwandan genocide in 1994. The
churches to help the Rwandan most progressive jurisprudence in remains of 50,000 people are
refugees. The Clinton White the Supreme Court’s history. buried there.
House had done nothing to
intervene even in humanitarian
aid. Clinton later admitted that this was one of his most bad foreign policy mistakes of his administration.
While this was going on, the Republicans disgracefully attacked affirmative action, economic reforms, and
other progressive policies. During the 1990’s, there was an increase of African American church burnings. I
saw news about this during the late 1990’s too.

According to the Atlanta based Center for Democratic Renewal, between January 1990 and May 1996, 57
cases of firebombing or occurring of African American houses of worship existed (there were 57 cases of
firebombing of vandalism of from January 1995 and May 1996). President Clinton in June of 1996 created a
National Churches Arson Task Force to investigate these racist arson attacks. Many students cleaned up
churches. Many hate crimes against black people and other minorities existed. Religious cults grew. There
was the Waco incident where cult leader David Koresh died in an explosion. Debates about FBI’s response
existed. The Oklahoma City Federal Building was bombed by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nicholas in 1995.
Bill Clinton gave an eloquent speech of advancing resolve including comfort and it was a turning point in his
administration. From that time onward, he gained more popularity and won the 1996 election. The
Heaven's Gate cult ended in a mass suicide. Before that time, attacks on affirmative action continue.
Proposition 209 banned affirmative in action in California. Economist Julianne Malveaux opposed this
plan. The Whitewater scandals continued from 1993 onward. With the 1995 crisis of Yugoslavia, Clinton
allowed NATO to act in Sarajevo and other places. Bosnian Serbs negotiated with NATO to end the
bloodshed. The Dayton, Ohio peace settlement is reached in November of 1995. The government shut of
late 1995 continued and this gave Gingrich unpopularity. The GOP also was blamed by many for the crisis
(of the government shutdown).
One of Bill Clinton’s most controversial acts was the signing of the welfare reform bill. This was an assault
on the New Deal policy of helping the poor. It happened on August 22, 1996. The law is called the Personal
Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act. Bill Clinton promoted the concepts of “personal responsibility”
throughout his Presidency. Many African Americans and liberals opposed the law. Many Democrats and
Republicans helped Clinton to allow him to sign the law. This law ended the AFDC or the Aid to Families
with Dependent Children. Paul Edelman resigned from his post in the Department of Health and Human
Services (HHS) in protest of the law. The law appealed to the far right who falsely scapegoated poor and
black Americans for welfare issues when most black people aren’t on welfare, and welfare is a key part of
helping families worldwide for thousands of years. The usage of states using block grants and drug
requirements involving welfare disrespected the dignity of many struggling families. The NET effect of
Clinton's reforms has been an overall increase in the poverty rate, from 13.7 percent in 1996 to 14.8
percent in 2014. About one in every seven Americans lives below the official poverty line.

The rise in extreme poverty--Americans who live on less than $2 per day--increased by 159 percent
between 1996 and 2011. In the richest country on earth, a total of 1.65 million households are trying to
survive on this meager amount. On September 21, 1996, Clinton signed into law the Defense of Marriage
Act (DOMA), which defines marriage for federal purposes as the legal union of one man and one woman,
allowing individual states to refuse to recognize gay marriages performed in other states. Clinton signed the
law in trying to stop a constitutional amendment banning gay marriages in states. Many people criticized
and supported his decision. During his presidency, Clinton issued two substantially groundbreaking
executive orders on behalf of gay rights, the first lifting the ban on security clearances for LGBT federal
employees and the second outlawing discrimination based on sexual orientation in the federal civilian
workforce. Under Clinton's leadership, federal funding for HIV/AIDS research, prevention and treatment
more than doubled. Clinton also pushed for passing hate crimes laws for gay people and for the private
sector Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which, buoyed by his lobbying, failed to pass the Senate by a
single vote in 1996. The 1996 election had Bill Clinton defeating Bob Dole. There was economic progress by
1996, and Dole had great difficulty in making the case that he would be so much better than Bill Clinton. Bill
Clinton knew this and sent commercials outlining his accomplishments. Bill Clinton also eloquently debated
Bob Dole in numerous debates. Bill Clinton was the only second Democratic President in the 20th century
to win a second term. The first was Franklin Roosevelt. In 1996, he signed the IIRIRA (or the Illegal
Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act) law on September 30, 1996 to try to curb
undocumented immigration. He or Clinton moved on the right on many issues in order for him to gain
votes. Economic growth and many reforms by 1996 propelled Bill Clinton to victory. Bill Clinton defeated
Bob Dole and Ross Perot.

He was inaugurated on January 20, 1997. By 1997, Bill Clinton had some of his greatest accomplishments.
In the January 1997 State of the Union address, Clinton proposed a new initiative to provide health
coverage to up to five million children. Senators Ted Kennedy—a Democrat—and Orrin Hatch—a
Republican—teamed up with Hillary Rodham Clinton and her staff in 1997, and succeeded in passing
legislation forming the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), the largest (successful) health
care reform in the years of the Clinton Presidency. That year, Hillary Clinton shepherded through Congress
the Adoption and Safe Families Act and two years later she succeeded in helping pass the Foster Care
Independence Act. In 1997, he signed the balanced budget bill. It was moderate with tax cuts and tax
increases on the wealthiest Americans. Bill Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Experiment crime where
innocent black people were giving syphilis without their permission and untreated for decades since 1932.
He apologized for America’s involvement in the trans-Atlantic slave trade in 1998. He promoted a
Presidential Race Initiative in order to attack racism and promote interracial dialogue. Historian John Hope
Franklin headed the program, and it was going forward. There were powerful debates on race and

By 1998, Bill Clinton’s Presidency would change. Bill Clinton by January 20, 1998 initially denied a sexual
relationship with Monica Lewinsky, who was a White House intern at the time. Later, he admitted it, and he
committed adultery. This scandal would spread, and many Republicans wanted Clinton to be impeached for
lying under oath. By 1998, the budget has a surplus for the first time since 1969.

In 1992, before his presidency, Clinton proposed sending a peace envoy to Northern Ireland, but this was
dropped to avoid tensions with the UK government. In 1994, Clinton angered London by granting a visa to
Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin, the IRA's political arm. In November 1995, Clinton became the first U.S.
President to visit Northern Ireland, seeing both the divided communities of Belfast and later famously
handshaking Adams, 14 months into an IRA ceasefire during the Troubles. Despite unionist criticism, Clinton
used this as a way to negotiate an end to the violent conflict with London, Dublin, the paramilitaries and
the other groups. Clinton went on to play a key role in the peace talks, which eventually led to the Good
Friday Agreement in 1998.

Clinton supported the Good Friday Peace Accords among Catholic and Protestant leaders in Northern
Ireland. In August of 1998, Osama bin Laden and his forces attacked U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
Osama bin Laden lived in Afghanistan. Later, Bill Clinton would lead bombing strikes in Sudan and
Afghanistan. Bill Clinton wanted to capture Osama Bin Laden. Most of the American public supported Bill
Clinton during the Lewinsky scandal. Bill Clinton apologized, and Jesse Jackson was his counsel on the affair.
Clinton’s popularity soared into new heights by 1999. Clinton will not be impeached by the Senate in 1999.
NATO and U.S. bombing in Serbia started in 1999. Clinton accused Serbia of being involved of
ethnic cleansing of Albanians. He accused Slobodan Milosevic of being a war criminal. The NATO bombings
were controversial since NATO bombed civilian locations not just military targets. In 1999, Clinton signed
into law the Financial Services Modernization Act also known as the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which
repealed the part of the Glass–Steagall Act that had prohibited a bank from offering a full range of
investment, commercial banking, and insurance services since its enactment in 1933.
Bill Clinton continued to try to find peace among Israelis and Palestinians from 1998 into the 21st century.
The USS Cole was bombed in Yemen in October 12, 2000. The end of the Clinton administration saw large
peacetime economic growth. Much of that growth came into the lives of Americans. Also, much of that
growth involves low wage jobs. The stock market grew. There was a new era of change. The end of the
Clinton administration saw new changes, new possibilities, and the increased polarization of the American
people. The Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus between the years 1998 and 2000, the
last three years of Clinton's presidency. Bill Clinton has great intelligence, and he is one of the most astute
political figures in American history. Also, he has his centrist streak that didn’t go far enough at times to
make the Dream real. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U.S. president
since World War II. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American

Many African Americans made great accomplishments during his Presidency, and many African Americans
suffered during that era too (especially involving the prison industrial complex). Today, we know the truth
about Bill Clinton. He is a capitalist politician who has done many policies that represented the transitional
period after the Cold War and before 9/11. Many of his policies are antithetical to the interests of people of
black African descent without question. The Clinton Presidency represented the resiliency of the black
community and how far that we had to go in the fight for freedom and justice.

New Conflicts and Globalization

In the era of President Bill Clinton, there was an expansion of globalization. Globalization is the growth of
free markets. America was the sole superpower back then. Free trade dealt with low costs of trading goods
and services, but the cost was many American jobs being shipped overseas. Big Business loves free trade.
Trade agreements have been debated for years and decades. Republicans typically support big business
while Democrats typically are in favor of union and labor rights. Bill Clinton followed the Third Way
philosophy of supporting free trade agreements. He allied with the European Union (EU). The EU was
formed in 1993. The EU developed the currency called the euro and competed against America for
economic dominance. Clinton also signed 270 global, free trade agreements. He signed the revision of the
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994. He also supported the WTO or the World Trade
Organization. GATT wanted to reduce tariffs. WTO expanded power so much that it replaced GATT to
handle trade disputes. The World Bank was also supported by the Clinton administration. Many
progressives believed that the WTO and the World Bank advanced corporate interests instead of
environmental concerns or workers’ rights. The World Bank deals with debt relief policies, health care, and
human rights issues. That is why there was the famous 1999 WTO protest in Seattle where conflicts
happened. Globalization has expanded new ideas, technological, and communications. It can promote
democratic freedoms. The issue with globalization is that on many occasions, globalization disregards
cultural diversity, workers’ rights, and environmental protections.

Conflicts didn’t end with the end of the Cold War. President Bill Clinton did have to deal with foreign policy
issues. By the late 1980’s, civil war existed in Somalia. In 1991, the government ended and a famine
happened. American troops came in a humanitarian effort in 1994. By 1994, the coalition ended, because
high casualties rates existed among the coalition (i.e. U.S. plus other nations’ troops), and the withdrawal of
troops. Many military events occurred during Clinton's presidency. The Battle of Mogadishu occurred in
Somalia in 1993. During the operation, two U.S. helicopters were shot down by rocket-propelled grenade
attacks to their tail rotors, trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. This resulted in an urban battle that killed
18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and one was taken prisoner. There were many more Somali
casualties. Some of the American bodies were dragged through the streets—a spectacle broadcast on
television news programs. In response, U.S. forces were withdrawn from Somalia and later conflicts were
approached with fewer soldiers on the ground. The UN left and civil war continues for years in Somalia. The
situation in Yugoslavia again was about ethnic strife growing after the end of the Cold War. Communist
leader Tito was gone. Therefore, Greek Orthodox Serbs, Catholic Croats, and Bosnian Muslims formed their
own lands, and conflicts existed. Serbs attacked Bosnians and Croats. Some Bosnians experienced murder
including Croats via ethnic cleansing. The UN gave humanitarian aid, but all sides committed war crimes
against each other. NATO intervened and forced the Serbs to leave Kosovo. By 1993, a terrorist group called
Al-Qaeda bombed the World Trade Center in New York City. It killed six people and injured more than 1,000
others. Al-Qaeda was headed by Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden spread Islamic fundamentalism worldwide.
Osama hated the event of American troops on Saudi soil during the Persian Gulf War. He wanted revenge,
so he attacked many places. While this was going on, alt right and white supremacists bombed churches
and other locations. Clinton’s Presidency saw how international affairs and domestic affairs should be
respected thoroughly.
Domestic Realities
Throughout the 1990’s, domestic issues were prominently shown, especially on the issues of race, sex,
family, sexuality, music, and class. The 1990’s was the time when race was in our conversations constantly.
There can be no denial of that. By 1990, many African Americans suffered poverty, the prison industrial
complex, and discrimination. The decade saw the combination of progress and great setbacks. It was a time
of excellent firsts among black people and the reactionary backlash in full display. On January 1990, R. J.
Reynolds Tobacco, Co. ended its plan to sell the proposed product called Uptown since the cigarettes would
target black Americans. In 1990, Douglas Lawrence Wilder became the first black Governor in America
since the days of Reconstruction. He was governor in Virginia and embraced many liberal and conservative
positions on issues (just like Bill Clinton). By September 1991, the National Civil Rights Museum opened in
Memphis. The museum was conversion of the Lorraine Motel, where Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was
assassinated. In 1992, there was the Los Angeles rebellion. The rebellion was decades in the making. By the
early 1990’s, LA suffered deindustrialization, racial tensions, poverty, and the War on Drugs. Black people in
Los Angeles experienced police brutality and economic deprivation for years. The officers, who beat Rodney
King, were acquitted in 1992. Later, there was an uprising that lasted from April 29-May 1, 1992. LAPD
brutally assaulted Rodney King, and people were legitimately angry about it. Latasha Harlins was murdered
by one Korean store owner too.

The LA rebellion caused 63 people to die and 12,111 people being arrested. Buildings were burned, and
some innocent people were injured. Afterwards, token rulings against the assaulting cops came. Violent
crime in LA has gone down since 1992, but gentrification is ever common. That is why there has been a
massive exodus of African Americans from Los Angeles to the South and other parts of America. Los
Angeles today has massive homelessness and economic inequality because of the expensive housing
situation. Recently, on May of 2019, I have visited Los Angeles, California for 3 days. In 1992, Hurricane
Andrew or a category 5 hurricane caused $36 billion in damage to Florida and other areas of the U.S. Gulf
Coast. It was the second costliest natural disaster in American history (the first is of course Hurricane
Katrina which came in 2005). Terrorism and cults grew in the 1990’s too. By 1993, a truck bomb exploded
in the parking garage under the World Trade Center in New York City. It killed six people and injured over a
thousand. The attack was planned by a group of terrorists including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima,
Mohammad Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin, and Ahmed Ajaj. They received financing from
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle. In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the
bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj, Ayyad, and Salameh. The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of
property, and interstate transportation of explosives. In November 1997, two more were convicted: Ramzi
Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb. In
1993, the Branch Davidians standoff ended in fire near Waco, Texas. To this very day, debates existed about
the federal government’s response. 81 people died including the cult leader David Koresh. Blizzards were
found in the Eastern Seaboard in 1993 too.

The 1994 Northridge earthquake killed 72 and injured 9,000 in the Los Angeles area and caused $20 billion
in damage. By 1994, OJ Simpson was arrested for the charge of murdering Nicole Brown Simpson and
Ronald Goldman. The later trial of OJ Simpson was the biggest trial of the 20th century. It has tons of
coverage, and it dealt with race, sex, power, and other issues. Back then, the trial divided Americans. Back
then, most black people viewed OJ as innocent, and most white people viewed him as guilty in America. He
was acquitted by 1995, and it showed how many communities still had disagreements on many issues. OJ
Simpson is known for his self-hatred. Today, most Americans view OJ as guilty. Carol Moseley-Braun was
the first black woman elected to the U.S. Senate in 1992. Myrlie Evers-Williams became the first
chairwoman of the NAACP. She was the widow of the slain civil rights leader Medgar Evers. Myrlie Evers-
Williams helped to revitalize the NAACP. 1995 was the time of the Oklahoma City bombing. I remember the
bombing when I was in sixth grade on April 1995. We know that Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were
involved. They visited Elohim City prior to the attack. Many people died, and the country united to fight far
right extremism.

750 people died in a heat wave in Chicago in 1995. The heat wave harmed the urban poor and elderly. The
TWA Flight 800 exploded off Long Island that killed all 230 abroad. The Khobar Towers bombing killed 19
U.S. servicemen in Saudi Arabia. The historic 1995 Million Man March allowed tons of black men in
Washington, D.C. to call for the redemption of society (and it was a call for black men to take care of their
communities and families). Louis Farrakhan (who is a conservative black NOI leader) advocated the march.
It was controversial since women didn't have massive leadership say in the composition of the march. It
was heavily praised by people from across the political spectrum despite the controversies. Maya Angelou,
Rosa Parks, and Jesse Jackson spoke at the march including Louis Farrakhan. The people in the march were
right that black men collectively aren't criminals or degenerates. Likewise, it is important to note that
respectability politics won't liberate black people. We need social, economic, and political empowerment
(along with a specific policy agenda) done in progressive ways in order for real black liberation to occur. Not
to mention that black people should never be blamed for every problem in the African American
community. The 1996 Olympic was historic in Atlantic. There was a one bombing there that killed 1 person
and injured 111 people. Also, the 1996 Olympic featured Muhammad Ali lighting the flame, and athletes
shined. In 1997, about 1.5 million black women were in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia. The year
of 1999 saw the terrible school shooting at Columbine. It was when racist teens Eric Harris and Dylan
Klebold murdered 13 students and teachers at Columbine High School in Colorado. I was in the 10th grade
when it happened. The tragedy sparked an international debate on gun control and bullying in general. By
the late 1990's, police brutality and hate crimes were abundant in America. James Byrd Jr. was dragged to
death by white racists in Jasper, Texas. Many black churches were burned nationwide in America in the
1990's. NYPD officers victimized Abner Louima in NYC. Louima is a black Haitian immigrant. Protests existed
nationwide including in NYC. By the end of 1999, people talked about the Y2K bug. Some people were
afraid that computers would die as a product of Y2K. Preparations came, and Y2K didn’t happen. The 1990’s
saw domestic problems shown in the forefront. It made us aware that our creative power was real, racism
must be ended, and it showed our empathy towards the oppressed. The 1990’s was a time of self-

An Overview of the 1990’s (Its Culture and Music)

Most of my childhood was in the 1990’s. I was 7 in 1990 and in 1999, I was 16 years old. Therefore, I have a
great understanding and knowledge about the 1990’s. It was one of the most creative decades in human
history. The 1990’s saw the rise of multiculturalism and the alternative media that continues to this very
day. It saw the rise of new technology and the expansion of other technologies like cable television plus the
World Wide Web. Also, that decade was creativity personified. The 1990’s had flavor from Puma, Nike, the
songs, the dance, the music, TV shows, etc. The 1990’s had both a progressive impulse and a right wing
movement (that saw the expansion of the death penalty and the growth of far right parties in Europe, India,
etc.). Capital markets expanded including neo-liberalism. In the 1990’s, there was cloning of a sleep to
make Dolly, gene therapy, and other events. The 1990’s saw the old school movies influenced culture and
new CGI movies like Pixar’s Toy Story. Titanic was one film that became the highest grossing film of the
decade. It came about in 1997 and grossed over $1.8 billion worldwide. James Cameron directed the film,
and he directed Avatar, which became more grossing than Titanic. The renaissance of Disney movies were
in the 1990’s like Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and The Lion King. The film industry saw some of the
greatest films of all time like Star Wars: Episode I- The Phantom Menace, Jurassic Park, Independence Day,
Forrest Gump, The Sixth Sense, Men in Black, Ghost, Saving Private Ryan, Home Alone, The Shawshank
Redemption, Mission Impossible, etc.

We saw the film of Malcolm X that came about in 1992. It was one of the greatest films in history that
outlined the life of the black hero Malcolm X. Spike Lee directed the movie with funds from many black
celebrities. Also, the 1990’s saw a golden age of African American television shows and movies. All
throughout the 1990’s, I saw shows with people that looked like me as an African American. These shows
outlined the diversity of black life in comedies, dramas, and even thrillers. Moesha was included the actress
and singer Brandy. A Different World inspired black people to experience college life, especially in HBCUs.
The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air and Family Matters had comedy, but they mixed important social messages into
the respective shows too. Roc outlined the real working class Baltimore life story situations. Rhea showed
the power of the black family. Hanging with Mr. Cooper, Smart Guy, and Sister Sister composed of family

Martin was one of the greatest comedic shows in history. There is nothing like that time. It is only recently
in this decade of the 2010’s where some shows outline the diversity of the African American experience in a
higher level. Back during the 1990’s, South Central, Living Single, The Jamie Foxx Show, the Parkers, The
Wayans Brothers, The Steve Harvey Show, In Living Color, The PJs, Malcolm and Eddie, The Parent ‘Hood,
Homeboys in Outer Space, and shows that I watched back then were groundbreaking. They gave many
black actors and black actresses the opportunities to perfect their crafts. Black movies were just as
powerful back then. Boyz in the Hood from 1991 accurately described life in the ghetto. Poetic Justice,
Juice, and Menace II Society made us aware of many relationships in our community. House Party showed
young black human beings dancing in action. The Best Man included stories from black Americans (in
Generation X) coming alive. Dead Presidents and Higher Learning made us aware of the complexities of
problems from war to college life. How Stella Got Her Groove Back in 1998 made us aware that middle
aged black women need love, dignity, and respect too. Posse honored the black experienced in the West
from the 19th century. The Temptations was a classic movie as well. New Jersey Drive exposed police
brutality, crime, and other complications. Boomerang showed black people in the corporate world. South
Central was an emotional tale about a black man risking his life to save his son. Independent films were
abundant. TV shows in general made us see the individual lives of families, kids, adults, and every day,
ordinary human beings. Friends, Living Single, Seinfeld, Cheers, New York Undercover, The Nanny, the
Simpsons, etc. were totally different shows. They were similar in either displaying family life or
characterizing the lives of close friends. The 1990’s didn’t play it safe though. Many shows were
controversial like South Park, Beavus and Buthead, The Sopranos, Oz, NYPD Blue, and Showtime movies
that pushed the envelope. The 1990’s in general was about experimentation to see how far people can go
in human expression.
The music of the 1990’s was iconic as well. Every genre of music during the 1990’s saw innovations,
expansion of financial growth, and further re-invention. One major tend of the music of the 1990’s was the
growth of iconic musical bands. There was the growth of hip-hop music to be a multibillion dollar
institution. Teen pop and dance pop were commonplace. Rock, grunge, and country were very popular.
Contemporary R& B music plus urban music remained very powerful. There were fusion genres like new
jack swing, neo-soul, hip hop soul, and g-funk too. They merged the styles of soul, funk, and jazz. Electronic
music and techno plus house remained visible from the 1980’s and into the 1990’s. Reggae music existed
into another level of vitality. One of the most unique developments of the music of the 1990’s was the rise
of alternative rock. Bands like Nirvana, Alice in Chains, No Doubt, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Oasis, Pearl Jam,
REM, Foo Fighters, etc. talked about many issues from love to angst about how society will go on. Back in
the early 1990’s, there was a recession. Therefore, many individuals were confused about how the future
would develop. Country music reached into new heights with groups like Brooks and Dunn, Shania Twain,
Hootie and the Blowfish, Garth Brooks, Reba McIntyre, and other artists. Many singer songwriters
expressed themselves during the 1990’s with musicians like Norah Jones, Dido, Sarah McLachlan, Alanis
Morissette, Sheryl Crow, Lisa Loeb, Liz Phair, Tori Amos, Fiona Apple, etc. Pop music was dominated by
artists like Michael Jackson with his albums like Dangerous (1991) and History (1995). Teenagers in many
cases loved pop bands like the Backstreet Boys, Nsync, Britney Spears, the Spice Girls, Jennifer Lopez,
Jessica Simpson, 98 Degrees, Christina Aguilera, etc. Early members of Generation Y came to their concerts

Janet Jackson’s historic The Velvet Rope came about in October 1997 and it touched on many issues from
love to human relations. Throughout the 1990's, Janet Jackson showed her independent spirit, and she
wasn't ashamed of her expression at all. Madonna and Celine Dion made successful albums too.
Contemporary Rhythm and Blues had another golden age of talent. Whitney Houston made classic record
after record in the 1990’s. She made just joyful songs and ballads like I Will Always Love You (1992), Step by
Step (1996), etc. Mariah Carey was one of the successful women artists of all time. From her Vision of Love
album to other projects, many of her records define the 1990’s musically. Boyz II Men are known for their
soulful harmonies. They were from the great city of Philadelphia. I have been to Philadelphia in real life in
May of 2019 too. The super group of TLC promoted women’s empowerment and had fans worldwide. The
1990’s just had a dream team of artists in R&B like: Faith Evans, Lauryn Hill, Sade, En Vogue, Toni Braxton,
Mary J. Blige, Dru Hill, Vanessa L. Williams, Groove Theory, Bell Biv Devoe, Jodeici, Diana King, Tony! Toni!
Tone!, Silk, SWV, Blaque, Brandy, Monica, Aaliyah, Destiny's Child, 112, Brian McKnight, Troop, 702, Tara
Kemp, Brownstone, Shanice, Usher, Mya, Total, Tevin Campbell, Next, Babyface, Xscape, and I can go down
the list to list more people too. Dance music was shown in the 1990’s with artists like Cece Peniston, Crystal
Waters, Robin Stone, and other artists. These artists influenced go-go music and house music.
By the mid to late 1990’s, neo-soul arose. D’Angelo, Erykah Badu, Lauryn Hill, and Maxwell shined their
musical talents which blurred the line between R&B and hip hop. Hill's The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill
(1998) remains her only studio album; it received critical acclaim. Some suggesting it was the greatest neo-
soul album of all time. It debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and sold 19 million copies worldwide,
spawning the singles "Doo Wop (That Thing)", "Ex-Factor", and "Everything Is Everything." At the 41st
Grammy Awards, the album earned her five Grammy Awards, including the Album of the Year. By the
1990’s, hip hop expanded from New York City into Los Angeles, Atlanta, Houston, Detroit, Seattle, Virginia,
Miami, and other places. Dr. Dre expanded his music with The Chronic in 1992. Gangsta rap was very
popular, and it was criticized not only by conservatives but by some liberals too (for its usage of the N word,
words about women, and it was accused of glamorizing violence). Snoop Dogg, A Tribe Called Quest, Jay Z,
DMX, Will Smith, Busta Rhymes, Eazy-E, LL Cool J, Nas (with his album Illmatic that was released in 1993.
Illmatic was one of the most lyrical hip hop albums in history), Wu Tang Clan, Outkast, Salt-N-Pepa, Lil’ Kim,
Foxy Brown, Queen Latifah, Master P, Missy Elliot, Trina, Bone Thugs and Harmony, the Notorious B.I.G.,
Tupac Shakur, and other major artists dominated the charts. Tupac Shakur and the Notorious B.I.G. were
the greatest, most influential hip hop artists of the 1990’s (and of all time). Their rivalry was personal,
especially after Tupac was shot in NYC in 1994. The media with magazines like Vibe agitated the so-called
“East Coast v. West Coast” beef, and both artists were murdered in mysterious circumstances (in 1996 and
1997). The 1990’s saw electronic music explode. Pop artists like Seal, Ricky Martin, Jamiroquai, and others
excelled too. The 1990’s was just one exciting decade. I’m appreciative to live through it.

1990’s Hip Hop Musicians

Wu Tang Clan Nas Geto Boys Tupac Shakur

Queen Latifah Lauryn Hill DMX Biggie

From NASA and ESA

Mae Carol Jemison

Don’t let anyone rob you of your
imagination, your creativity, or your
curiosity. It’s your place in the world;
it’s your life. Go on and do all you can
with it, and make it the life you want to
-Mae Carol Jemison
Her wisdom is magnificent. For She conducted many experiments in
example, she has advanced intellectual space too. Jemison has nine She graduated from Sanford in
curiosity, STEM field ingenuity, and honorary doctorates in science, 1977 with a B.S. degree in
inspiration for girls plus women who engineering, letters, and the chemical engineering and B.A.
desire to explore space (and explore humanities. Mae Jemison is the degree in African and Afro-
the beauty of the sciences in general). current principal of the 100 Year American Studies. While she was
She is a hero to anyone who wants to Starship organization. To this very in college, she was the head of
discover more of the wonders and the day, she has been involved in the Black Students Union in
mysteries of the sciences (from biology programs to give people of color and college. She worked in
to physics). She was born in Decatur, women opportunities to pursue engineering and faced racism
Alabama. She moved into Chicago at STEM field related careers. including sexism, but those
the age of 3. Ever since she was a child, repugnant evils never crippled
she wanted to travel into space. She her dreams. She had her M.D.
pursued science, since she loved degree in 1981 at Cornell
science with a deep passion. She was Medical College. She encourages
inspired by the Civil Rights movement black people, other people of
and Dr. King in order for her to work color, girls, women, and
towards her dreams. She experienced everyone in general to love
adversity, but she didn't give up. She STEM fields. STEM deals with the
refuted the naysayers. Mae Jemison cultivation of civilization from
loves the arts and dancing too. At the counting money to handling
age of 16 years old, Jemison came into complicated formulas that relate
Sanford University in 1973. She worked Additionally, she has written to calculus or trigonometry.
in the Peace Corps and NASA. She numerous books. As a fan of Star Therefore, young people and
became the first African American Trek, she appeared on the show as anyone of any age have the right
woman to travel in space when she Uhura. She has been on many other to learn and grow with STEM.
went into orbit aboard the Space TV shows. Mae Jemison always Her intellectual brilliance and
Shuttle Endeavor on September 12, wants science and technology to her magnificent expertise make
1992. enrich human life. Her legacy is society more enriched.
about to never stop advancing
inquiry and that the love of
mathematics, technology, science,
and engineering is not limited to a
few people. It ought to be cherished
by everyone in an inclusive fashion.
The 1990’s saw some of the greatest athletes in human history. In the 1990’s, one sports icon dominated
the NBA. We know who he is. He was in his prime using dunks, shots, playing defense, and making his
teammates better. He is Michael Jordan. He has been called Air Jordan, and he propelled the NBA to reach
into another level of popularity plus influence. In the 1990’s, he won 6 NBA Champions, he won the gold
medal in the 1992 Olympics as a member of the historic Dream Team (with players like David Robinson,
Patrick Ewing, Larry Bird, Scottie Pippen, Clyde Drexler, Magic Johnson, Christian Laettner, Karl Malone,
Charles Barkley, Chris Mullin, and John Stockton). He was the oldest man to win the All Star Game in 1998
at the age of 35. Michael Jordan has been in commercials, a movie, and he has other endorsements. His
Chicago Bulls team of the 1990’s was one of the greatest sports teams in history (with legends like Scottie
Pippen, Toni Kukoc, Dennis Rodman, Horace Grant, and other players). No other player (not even Wilt or
Kareem) retired, played baseball, and returned back to the league to win more champions. Jordan is the
oldest man to score over 40 points as a 40 year old man in the Washington Wizards.

The MLB had stars and a strike. The NHL expanded from 21 to 30 teams. Canadian hockey star Mario
Lemieux led the Pittsburgh Penguins, one of the original NHL expansion teams, to back-to-back Stanley Cup
championships in 1991 and 1992. Canadian hockey star Wayne Gretzky announced his retirement from the
NHL in 1999. Upon his final game on April 18, 1999, he held forty regular-season records, fifteen playoff
records, and six All-Star records. He is the leading point-scorer in NHL history, as well as the only NHL player
to total over 200 points in one season – a feat he accomplished four times. During the 1990’s, many NFL
teams won the Super Bowl like the San Francisco 49ers, the NY Giants, and the Dallas Cowboys (who won it
in 1993, 1994, and 1996). The 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, Spain has worldwide talented athletes. After the
Cold War, many new nations were involved in the games from Estonia to Lithuania. Evelyn Ashford won her
fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have
achieved this in history. Gail Devers won the 100-meter dash in one of the closest races in history. Five
women finished within 0.06 seconds of each other. Jackie Joyner Kersee won the gold in the heptathlon
and bronze in the long jump. Carl Lewis won gold in the 4 X 100m relay and in the long jump in the 1992
games. The 1996 Summer Olympic Games was in Atlanta. It was the Centennial Olympics being 100 years
after the first Olympics. Muhammad Ali lit the flame, and the games started. The US women's gymnastics
team won its first gold medal. Shannon Miller of the United States won the gold medal on the balance
beam event, the first time an American gymnast had won an individual gold medal in a non-boycotted
Olympic games.

The people on the left are the historic women USA soccer team that won the World Cup in
the year of 1999. The human beings on the right are the 1996 Olympic gold medal winning
USA women's basketball team. Many of them played in the WNBA later on. Numerous
women basketball players would also be inducted into the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame
and the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame.

America’s men and women basketball teams won gold too in the 1996 Olympics. Jackie Joyner Kersee and
Carl Lewis won medals in the 1996 games. In track and field, Donovan Bailey of Canada won the men's
100m, setting a new world record of 9.84 seconds at that time. He also anchored his team's gold in the 4 ×
100 m relay. Michael Johnson won gold in both the 200 m and 400 m, setting a new world record of 19.32
seconds in the 200 m (until it was broken by Usain Bolt). In tennis, Andre Agassi won the gold medal, which
would eventually make him the first man and second singles player overall (after his eventual wife, Steffi
Graf) to win the career Golden Slam, which consists of an Olympic gold medal and victories in the singles
tournaments held at professional tennis' four major events (Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon,
and US Open). Gail Devers won the 100m and the 4 X 100m relay in the 1996 Games in Atlanta, Georgia. By
the end of the decade, the golfer Tiger Woods won the Majors. He accelerated the popularity of golf. The
Serena Sisters (Venus and Serena) made great accomplishments in tennis too. Michael Jordan retired for
the second time officially by 1999. By the end of the 20th century, the existence of sports became more
international, more competitive, and more inspirational with athletes of every background expressing their
gifts exceptionally.
The Black American TV show Renaissance of the
I was blessed to live during the 1990’s. These shows are the TV programs that I enjoyed constantly.
They represented us. As an African American, it certainly was great to see people who look like me,
and it was exciting for these television shows to outline the diversity of black people. Black people
aren’t monolithic, and it is a blessing to see the characters and storylines found in A Different World,
Moesha, Martin, etc. Today, we see more shows and movies that describe the black experience in a
multiplicity of ways. These programs (from the 1990’s) outline the glory of black families, black people,
and Black Love. Black Love is eternal and beautiful, as it gave birth to us literally.

A Different World The Fresh Prince of Bel- Martin Moesha


Living Single Family Matters The Parent ‘Hood The Wayans Brothers

Roc The Jamie Foxx show Sister, Sister The Steve Harvey show

Hangin’ with Mr. Cooper Smart Guy Kenan & Kel In the House
More 1990’s TV Shows

ER New York Undercover Friends

Boy Meets World Cheers The X-Files

Full House Law & Order NYPD Blue

Twin Peaks Buffy, the Vampire Slayer The Simpsons

Famous Movies of the 1990’s
1990-1992 1993-1995 1996-1999

Dances with Wolves (1990) Jurassic Park (1993) Independence Day (1996)

Boyz N the Hood (1991) The Shawshank Redemption (1994) Titanic (1997)

movie is
one of
films of
all time.

Malcom X (1992) Dead Presidents (1995) Saving Private Ryan (1998)

Sister Act (1992) Apollo 13 (1995) The Matrix (1999)

For generations, movies have excited the human imagination. The 1990’s consisted of an
explosion of human creativity about personal stories relating to the human experience. It was a
decade that saw more complex stories that described the biographies of important human
beings, fantasies, comedies, action movies, science fiction, and thrillers. These movies and
others reflected the profound diversity among American society. They also made us aware
about the international value of humanity in the four corners of the Earth.
The 2000 Presidential Election
The 2000 United States Presidential election was one of the most controversial elections in American
history. Court cases, voter suppression, and debates on issues were part of the time. This was the 54th
quadrennial Presidential election. The election was ended on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. The candidates
focused on mostly domestic issues like the budget, tax relief, and reforms for federal social insurance
programs. They talked about foreign policy issues too. George W. Bush and Republicans criticized Clinton’s
adulteries and Al Gore criticized Bush’s perceived lack of experience. On the Democratic side, the primary
had many candidates like Al Gore, and Bill Bradley. Bill Bradley promoted himself as an alternative to Al
Gore. Gore was one founding member of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council. Michael Jordan
campaigned for Bill Bradley in early primary states. Bradley announced his intention to campaign "in a
different way" by conducting a positive campaign of "big ideas." The focus of his campaign was a plan to
spend the record-breaking budget surplus on a variety of social welfare programs to help the poor and the
middle-class, along with campaign finance reform and gun control. The Democratic establishment
supported Al Gore. Therefore, Gore defeated Bradley in the primaries. Gore said that Bradley was
indifferent to the plight of farmers. Gore won Iowa. Gore described Bradley as aloof. The closest Bradley
came to a victory was his 50–46 loss to Gore in the New Hampshire primary. On March 14, Al Gore clinched
the Democratic nomination.

None of Bradley's delegates were allowed to vote for him, so Gore won the nomination unanimously at the
Democratic National Convention. Connecticut Senator Lieberman was nominated for vice president by
voice vote. Lieberman became the first Jewish American ever to be chosen for this position by a major
party. Gore chose Lieberman over five other finalists: Senators Evan Bayh, John Edwards, and John Kerry,
House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt, and New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen.

The Republican nomination race was different. John McCain, Alan Keyes, Steve Forbes, Gary Bauer, Orrin
Hatch, Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Pat Buchanan, Lamar Alexander, Bob Smith, John Kasich, and Herman
Cain ran in the 2000 GOP primary race. George W. Bush was an early front runner. He has large funding and
support from his governorship in Texas, etc. Former cabinet member George Shultz used his influence to
allow establishment Republicans to support Bush. As early as 1998, Schultz invited Bush to talk with foreign
policy experts Condoleezza Rice, Michael Boskin, and John Taylor. Schultz encouraged George W. Bush to
run for President. Many candidates left the race early to support George W. Bush. After the Iowa caucus,
John McCain, Bush, Keyes, Forbes, Bauer, and Hatch remained. Bush won the Iowa caucus with 41 percent
of the vote. Forbes came second, then Keyes, Bauer, McCain, and Hatch. Hatch left the race. Bush was
portrayed in the media as the establishment candidate. McCain, with the support of many moderate
Republicans and Independents, portrayed himself as a crusading insurgent who focused on campaign
reform. On February 1, 2000, John McCain won a 49-30 percent victory over Bush in the New Hampshire
primary. Bauer dropped out. After coming in third in Delaware, Forbes dropped out. In the South Carolina
primary, Bush soundly defeated McCain.

Some McCain supporters blamed it on the Bush campaign, accusing them of mudslinging and dirty tricks,
such as push polling that implied that McCain's adopted Bangladeshi-born daughter was an African-
American child he fathered out of wedlock (which wasn’t the case. This racist tactic unfortunately worked
to hurt the McCain campaign). While McCain's loss in South Carolina damaged his campaign, he won both
Michigan and his home state of Arizona on February 22. The primary election that year also affected the
South Carolina State House, when a controversy about the Confederate flag flying over the capitol dome
prompted the state legislature to move the flag to a less prominent position at a Civil War memorial on the
capitol grounds. Most GOP candidates wanted South Carolina voters to decide. Later, McCain said that the
flag should be removed. The GOP primary was personal between McCain and Bush. McCain criticized Bush
for accepting the endorsement of Bob Jones University despite its policy banning interracial dating back
then. McCain called Falwell and Robertson agents of intolerance on February 28, 2000. He lost the state of
Virginia to Bush on February 29. George W. Bush later accepted the nomination for President in
Philadelphia. Dick Cheney was his running mate. Pat Buchanan was from the Reform Party. Ralph Nader ran
as part of the Green Party. Harry Browne ran on the Libertarian Party ticket. Howard Phillips ran from the
Constitution Party.
The general elected focused mostly on domestic issues like budget issues, Social Security, Medicare, health
care, etc. Bush criticized the Clinton administration policies in Somalia and in the Balkans. Bush once said
that he was against nation-building. That is ironic since when Bush would be President, he expressed a
straight up interventionist foreign policy. Al Gore said that Bush didn’t have enough experience to be
President. Republicans criticized the Clinton scandals. Bush wanted to bring what he deemed “honor and
dignity.” Gore and Bush had many debates. Gore avoided to campaign near Bill Clinton. Ralph Nader was
very successful in gathering large crowds. Joe Lieberman and Dick Cheney campaigned nationwide. The
election results were filled with controversy. Bush carried the Southern states except for Florida. Bush had
wins in Ohio, Indiana, and most of the rural Midwestern farming states. Bush gained most of the Rocky
Mountain states and Alaska. Gore swept the Northeastern states except for New Hampshire, most of the
Upper Midwest, Hawaii, New Mexico, and all Pacific Coast states. The voter count in Florida was in dispute.
At first, many news networks like CNN, NBC, FOX, CBS, and ABC declared Gore the winner of Florida’s 25
electoral votes. Yet, the news was retracted. At approximately 2:30 a.m., with some 85% of the votes
counted in Florida and Bush leading Gore by more than 100,000 votes, the networks declared that Bush
had carried Florida and therefore had been elected president. However, most of the remaining votes to be
counted in Florida were located in three heavily Democratic counties—Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm
Beach—and as their votes were reported Gore began to gain on Bush. The dispute of the vote count caused
a recount.

Most of the post-electoral controversy revolved around Gore's request for hand recounts in four counties
(Broward, Miami Dade, Palm Beach, and Volusia), as provided under Florida state law. Florida Secretary of
State Katherine Harris (also the co-chair of George W. Bush's election efforts in Florida) announced she
would reject any revised totals from those counties if they were not turned in by 5:00 p.m. on November
14, the statutory deadline for amended returns. The Florida Supreme Court extended the deadline to
November 26, a decision later vacated by the U.S. Supreme Court. Miami-Dade eventually halted its
recount and resubmitted its original total to the state canvassing board, while Palm Beach County failed to
meet the extended deadline, turning in its completed recount results at 7:00 p.m., which Harris indeed
rejected. On November 26, the state canvassing board certified Bush the winner of Florida's electors by 537
votes. Gore formally contested the certified results. A state court decision overruling Gore was reversed by
the Florida Supreme Court, which ordered a recount of over 70,000 ballots previously rejected as under
votes by machine counters. The U.S. Supreme Court halted that order the next day, with Justice Scalia
issuing a concurring opinion that "the counting of votes that are of questionable legality does in my view
threaten irreparable harm to petitioner" (Bush).
On December 12, 2000, the Supreme Court ruled in a 7–2 vote that the Florida Supreme Court's ruling
requiring a statewide recount of ballots was unconstitutional on equal protection grounds, and in a 5–4
vote reversed and remanded the case to the Florida Supreme Court for modification prior to the optional
"safe harbor" deadline, which the Florida court had said the state intended to meet. With only two hours
remaining until the December 12 deadline, the Supreme Court's order effectively ended the recount, and
the previously certified total held. Though Gore came in second in the electoral vote, he received 547,398
more popular votes than Bush, making him the first person since Grover Cleveland in 1888 to win the
popular vote but lose in the Electoral College. Greg Palast and other scholars documented the voter
suppression in Florida during the 2000 election. The 2000 election ended in the midst of total controversy.
After that, the Bush Presidency started, which was one of the most controversial Presidencies in American

The Presidency of George W. Bush lasted from January 21, 2001 to January of 2009. I was a senior in high
school when Bush's Presidency started. There were massive protests by progressives against his policies. He
would be a much more reactionary Presidency than his father. He made many mistakes. He was right to
send aid to people in Africa. Likewise, his foreign policy was blatantly pro-neoconservative and imperialist.
There is no other way to describe it. One of his first policies was to reinstate the ban on aid to international
groups performing or counseling on abortion. He allowed Roderick R. Paige to be the U.S. Secretary of
Education in the Barnard Auditorium at the Department of Education during the afternoon. Donald
Rumsfeld is soon sworn in as the 21st United States Secretary of Defense. He promoted the faith based
initiatives. He wanted to help religious charities and religious groups to give aid to the poor and
disadvantaged peoples. Supporters love this plan while opponents questioned it as possibly violating the
separation of church and state. On February 1, 2001, President Bush announced a $1.025 billion, five-year
plan to assist disabled persons gain greater independence while seated at a wheelchair-accessible podium
and surrounded by an audience of persons with disabilities and their supporters. He promoted his tax cuts
for the wealthy. His proposal was a $1.6 trillion, 10 year tax cut. It is clear that he wants new federalism or
a lesser role of the federal government in the lives of the people. On March 6, 2001, President Bush issued
a message on the observance of Eid al-Adha, saying in part that those celebrating the holiday will "honor
the great sacrifice and devotion of Abraham as recognized by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. By educating
others about your religious traditions, you enrich the lives of others in your local communities."

Bush abandoned the Kyoto Protocol in March 29, 2001. As 2001 continues, Bush continues to promote his
tax cuts plan and his ending some regulations on energy. On June 7, 2001, President Bush signs a $1.35
trillion tax cut into law. The legislation cuts income tax rates across the board and provides for the gradual
elimination of the estate tax. Bush ended the Vieques bombing in June of 2001. He wants Medicare D
passed too. On August 9, 2001, in an address to the nation, President Bush outlined the federal
government's new policy regarding funding for stem cell research. The policy allows for funding of research
on existing cell lines, but prohibits funds from going towards creating new stem cell lines that result in the
destruction of embryos. Soon, an event that changed the Bush Presidency for ever existed. It was the
terrorist attacks in America. The September 11, 2001 attacks was when commercial jets crashed into the
World Trade Center (in NYC), into the Pentagon (in Arlington County, Virginia), and in a field at Shanksville,
Pennsylvania. 2,996 people were murdered and over 6,000 people were injured. It was the worst attack on
American soil since the 1941 Pearl Harbor attack. Bush was in Florida when 9/11 occurred.

Later, he comes out to condemn the attacks as the actions of a coward. Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda
were blamed for the tragedies. Bush, while he was in NYC, said that the people who brought down the Twin
Towers will hear all of them soon. Bush also visited mosques to condemn the harassment of Arabic people
and Muslims. Immediately after 9/11, many Muslims and those of Arabic descent were assaulted, harmed,
falsely scapegoated, and mistreated. Bush wanted people to respect Islam. The war on terror begins. Since
9/11, the Bush administration became more reckless and brutally nefarious with using torture programs
against human beings, using deception to invade Iraq, promoting a neo-conservative ideology, and other
acts. Many neo-cons exploited the 9/11 attacks as a way for them to try to reshape the Middle East and
gain oil markets in Eurasia plus the Middle East (as cited in the PNAC document). Trilateral Commission
leader Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski discussed such an aggressive foreign policy (in the form of an
American empire) in Central Asia in his 1997 book, "The Great Chessboard." As early as January 30, 2001,
the Bush administration desired to invade Iraq via its first National Security Council meeting. The 9/11
attacks in essence was the start of the 21st century.

The War on Terror

The war on terror is still upon us today after almost 20 years. This situation is more than an era of time. The
war on terror dealt with an expansion of government surveillance of the American people and the
development of new agencies in monitoring society (under the pretext of fighting terrorism). The truth is
that terrorism isn’t just found overseas with groups like Al-Qaeda and ISIS. Terrorism is found domestically
with groups like white supremacists and mass shooters too. The war on terror also dealt with the
curtailment of numerous civil liberties, which is one injustice that people from across the political spectrum
have talked about (and written about in magazines, books, research papers, studies, websites, etc.). The
Office of Homeland Security was created after 9/11. Its first director was the former Governor of
Pennsylvania Tom Ridge. The DHS or the Department of Homeland Security still exists today. The DHS deals
with immigration, border control, customs, and the TSA (or the Transportation Security Administration,
which focuses on airport security). The DHS has jurisdiction over the Coast Guard, INS (or Immigration and
Naturalization Service), the United States Custom Service, and FEMA (or the Federal Emergency
Management Agency). The Homeland Security Act was the most radical change in department structure
since the National Security Act of 1947. Since 9/11, militarized police with AK-47s guard places in New York
City and other cities. George W. Bush signed the Patriot Act on October 26, 2001. The Patriot Act allowed
the sharing of information among the intelligence community.

It expanded government surveillance of “suspected” terrorist. Its definition of terrorist is ambiguous as

found in Section 802. Section 215 has a sweeping warrant provision in it. Also, Bush secretly authorized the
NSA to execute warrantless surveillance of communications in and out of America. Many in the Congress
didn’t even have time to read the Patriot Act before it was passed. The anthrax attacks in America killed
five people and infected 17 via the U.S. Mail system. In late 2001, the American Airlines Flight 587 crashed
in Queens, NYC. It killed 265 people. The 2002 Beltway sniper attacks killed 10 people and injured 2 more
abound the Washington, D.C. area. The 2 convicted people were one man and one teen child. In 2007, a
South Korean student killed 32 students and professors at Virginia Tech University. He later committed
suicide. It was the worst mass shooting in U.S. history during the decade of the 2000’s. In 2008, a student
killed five, injured 21, and then killed himself in the Northern Illinois University shooting. After this incident,
calls were made for more focus on mental health services, and interest grows substantially in the group
Students for Concealed Carry on Campus. Overseas, tons of Americans, Iraqis, Afghanis, and other human
beings have been murdered during the war on terror too. General Tommy Franks was once the commander
of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM).

President George W. Bush organized an invasion plan of Afghanistan which happened on October 7, 2001.
There are many stories of the torture in Guantanamo Bay detention camps. Even John Yoo wrote memos to
support Bush’s torture policies. During the early part of the war on terror, military tribunals were set up to
deal with prisoners. Secret CIA prisons existed in areas worldwide to prevent prisoners to have U.S.
Constitution protections. Bush argued that those in Guantanamo Bay weren’t entitled Geneva Convention
protections since they were “enemy combatants.” Bush supported the act of waterboarding. He felt that
information gauged via that method would gain valuable information about terrorists. Yet, scholars believe
that using waterboarding distorts the human body and won’t cause people to give completely accurate
information. The CIA leak scandal was when in July of 2005, Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney's
respective chief political advisers, Karl Rove and Lewis "Scooter" Libby, came under fire for revealing the
identity of covert Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) agent Valerie Plame to reporters in the CIA leak scandal.
Plame's husband, Joseph C. Wilson, had challenged Bush's assertion that Saddam Hussein had sought to
obtain uranium from Africa, and a special prosecutor was tasked with determining whether administration
officials had leaked Plame's identity in retribution against Wilson. Libby resigned on October 28, hours after
his indictment by a grand jury on multiple counts of perjury, false statements, and obstruction in this case.
In March 2007, Libby was convicted on four counts, and Cheney pressed Bush to pardon Libby. Rather than
pardoning Libby or allowing him to go to jail, Bush commuted Libby's sentence, creating a split with
Cheney, who accused Bush of leaving "a soldier on the battlefield."

In 2005, Congress passed the Detainee Treatment Act, which purported to ban torture, but in his signing
statement Bush asserted that his executive power gave him the authority to waive the restrictions put in
place by the bill. Bush's policies suffered a major rebuke from the Supreme Court in the 2006 case of
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, in which the court rejected Bush's use of military commissions without congressional
approval and held that all detainees were protected by the Geneva Conventions. Following the ruling,
Congress passed the Military Commissions Act of 2006, which effectively overturned Hamdan. The Military
Commissions Act is one of the most disgraceful laws in American history. The Supreme Court overturned a
portion of that act in the 2008 case of Boumediene v. Bush, but the Guantanamo detention camp remained
open at the end of Bush's presidency. Bush supported Israel as President and a two state solution. To this
day, we are impacted by the war on terror in a myriad of ways.
The Iraq War
The Iraq War was one of the most unjust wars in human history. It costs the lives of thousands of Iraqi
civilians. Many American soldiers were killed as a product of the war. Its history goes back long before the
year of 2003. The nation of Iraq was dominated by Saddam Hussein for decades. Under Saddam’s reign,
Sunnis dominated the nation politically amidst a large number of Shia Muslims. Saddam Hussein was once
supported by the U.S. including other nations of the Iraq during the 1980’s. That is why he received real
weapons of mass destruction by America, and Hussein shook the hand of Donald Rumsfeld back in the year
of 1983. This changed with the Persian Gulf War when Iraq invaded Kuwait. After the Persian Gulf War,
America was in total opposition to Iraq. Sanctions harmed children in Iraq. A no-fly zone was enforced by
Western forces throughout the 1990's. Immediately after 9/11, Bush and the neo-conservatives wanted an
invasion of Iraq. They knew that they couldn’t do this immediately after 9/11 since Iraq had nothing to do
with 9/11. Therefore, they used the pretext of “weapons of mass destruction” in order to get the invasion
going. The neo-cons wanted his goal as cited in their PNAC document. Bush was told by Colin Powell that if
he wanted this war to happen, then he had to go into the United Nations first. So, President George W.
Bush made his case to the U.N. We know now that Bush’s arguments were based on faulty intelligence and
outright lies. Iraq wasn’t a direct threat to America. Iraqi never had extensive collaborative relationship
with al-Qaeda before 2003, and Iraq had no massive weapons of mass destruction. Iraq was on the sites of
the neoconservatives like Paul Wolfowitz, Dick Cheney, and others. Congress approved the controversial
October 2002 Iraq Resolution that authorized the use of force against Iraq. The U.N. passed the Resolution
1441 that wanted to end Iraqi’s WMD program. Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei failed to find any Iraqi
WMD program. The anti-war movement increasingly opposed the run up to the war and the war in Iraq

Many people in Germany, China, France, and Russia have shown skepticism about the call for regime
change. Tony Blair or the Prime Minister of Britain back then supported the Iraq War. The war happened on
March of 2003. 145,000 soldiers were involved. In the beginning, Western and coalition forces easily
defeated the Iraqi military. They came into Baghdad in a matter of months. Bush said mission accomplished
in May 1, 2003, but the Iraq War wasn’t over. The U.S. captured Hussein in December 2003, but the
occupation force continued to suffer casualties. Between the start of the invasion and the end of 2003, 580
U.S. soldiers died, with two thirds of those casualties occurring after Bush's "Mission Accomplished"
speech. Many Western forces used de-Ba'athification (which denied government and military jobs to
members of Hussein's Ba'ath Party as executed by Coalition Provisional Authority Paul Bremer), didn’t
know about the religious plus ethnic divisions in Iraq, and underestimated the resistance movement to the
U.S. occupation of Iraqi territories. These factors caused years of civil war and bloodshed among all sides.
Things were so desperate that Iraq was in risk to total collapse. Bush later used the troop surge in trying to
stabilize the nation. By the end of the Iraq War, ISIS was in its infancy, and Iraq would go in ebbs and flows.
By 2005, the vast majority of Americans opposed the Iraq War, especially among black Americans. The Abu
Ghraib torture scandal, the siege of Fallujah, and the elections show that the Iraqi story is filled with new

Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina was the worst natural disaster involving a hurricane in American history. The response to
it among all levels of government (not just by FEMA) all outlined the massive racism and classism found in
America back then and today. It happened in late 2005. The aftermath of Katrina ended the Bush
Presidency. The response to it was that bad. For years before 2005, scientists warned the public that if
infrastructure wasn’t upgraded in New Orleans plus in the rest of the Gulf Coast region, then a Hurricane
would cause catastrophic damage to the region. This Category Five storm was very deadly. August 26, 2005
was when it made landfall on American soil. By August 29, it was all over Louisiana and Mississippi. Almost
2,000 people died from Katrina. It cost $125 billion. The storm breached the levees around the city of New
Orleans. Most of the city was flooded and it would take years for some improvements in infrastructure to
exist. Even now, New Orleans has massive economic, social, and environmental problems. So, Katrina made
us aware about the lax infrastructure plus injustices in America, and we have to work in making sure that
any human being has justice. Many people in New Orleans were poor and lacked transportation to leave.
Some were forced into New Orleans by white, racist vigilante gangs. TV images showed black people
drowning and dead black bodies. This was heartbreaking. Even Kanye West said “Bush didn’t care about
black people.” The Bush administration's response to help victims was heavily criticized and rightfully so.
National and global charities and other responses helped the people. Multiple investigations in the
aftermath of the storm concluded that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which had designed and built the
region's levees decades earlier, was responsible for the failure of the flood-control systems, though federal
courts later ruled that the Corps could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the
Flood Control Act of 1928.

FEMA executed a terrible response in trying to help people. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, Governor
Kathleen Blanco, and President George W. Bush were criticized for their responses too. The storm damaged
Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, the rest of Louisiana, Mississippi, other Southeastern American states, and
other places. Oil spills damaged the Gulf Coast as a product of Katrina too. Katrina displaced over one
million people from the central Gulf coast to elsewhere across the United States, becoming the largest
diaspora in the history of the United States. Houston, Texas, had an increase of 35,000 people; Mobile,
Alabama, gained over 24,000; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, over 15,000; and Hammond, Louisiana, received
over 10,000, nearly doubling its size. Chicago, Illinois received over 6,000 people, the most of any non-
southern city. By late January 2006, about 200,000 people were once again living in New Orleans, less than
half of the pre-storm population. By July 1, 2006, when new population estimates were calculated by the
U.S. Census Bureau, the state of Louisiana showed a population decline to the population of 219,563 or
4.87% in decline. Additionally, some insurance companies have stopped insuring homeowners in the area
because of the high costs from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, or have raised homeowners' insurance
premiums to cover their risk. To keep it real, back then, many people didn’t care about poor black people in
New Orleans. Glen Beck slandered the victims of Katrina (he called the victims “scumbags,” and Beck said
that he hated 9/11 victims. So, Beck is a totally nefarious person). Sean Hannity back then said offensive
comments. So, I remembered what Beck has said, and I have no respect for him.

Racism and class oppression definitely relate to the response to the victims of Katrina in New Orleans. The
mostly African American Ninth Ward suffered heavily. Thousands of evacuees came into the Superdome
and the Convention Center. They suffered days without toilets and running water, electricity, food, and
medical help. The federal, state, and local response in Katrina was deplorable. After Katrina, some private
corporations promoted privatization, gentrification, and economic exploitation. Black scholars like Beverly
Wright, Lani Guinier, Cornell West, Desiree Cooper, and other Brothers and Sisters told the truth about
Katrina. Countless heroes saved victims’ lives, gave aid to the suffering, and expressed strength to stand up
for the oppressed. That ought to be known as well. Michael Knights saved scores of Katrina victims with his
boat. Michael Gilbert and Freddy Hicks saved lives too. Life stories and statistics document the wage gap
among black people and white people in America, institutional racism, and other disparities. The University
of Chicago study found that job applicants with “Black sounding” names–such as LaKeisha or Jamal–were
twice as likely not to be called back for an interview as applicants with “white sounding” names. That is why
when Katrina came about, wealthy and middle class white people, black people, Asian people, etc. readily
fled into more safe locations while poor black people (and poor people of every color) fought for their lives
in struggling to survive a terrible hurricane. Katrina revealed that structural oppression and lax
infrastructure must be addressed in order for lives to be saved literally.
Extra Domestic Issues
In the first decade of the 21st century, tons of domestic issues existed. People debated the topics of
education and taxes. There was the passage of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act. It limited political
donations and expenditures. It closed loopholes on contribution limits on donations to political candidates
by banning the usage of “soft money.” Portions of the law restricting independent expenditures would later
be struck down by the Supreme Court in the 2010 case of Citizens United v. FEC. McCain and Russ Feingold
pushed a bipartisan campaign finance bill in the Senate, while Chris Shays (R-CT) and Marty Meehan (D-MA)
led the effort of passing it in the House. George W. Bush wanted to partially privatize Social Security. He
wanted savings accounts, but tons of people opposed the plan. The AARP definitely disagreed with that
proposal. Even moderate Republicans like Olympia Snowe and Lincoln Chafee refused to back privatization.
In the face of unified opposition, Republicans abandoned Bush's Social Security proposal in mid-2005.
President George W. Bush promoted immigration reform throughout his administration. In May 2006, he
proposed a five-point plan that would increase border security, establish a guest worker program, and
create a path to citizenship for the twelve million undocumented immigrants living in the United States.
The Senate passed the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006, which included many of the
President's proposals, but the bill did not pass the House of Representatives.

After Democrats took control of Congress in the 2006 mid-term elections, Bush worked with Ted Kennedy
to re-introduce the bill as the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. The bill received intense
criticism from many conservatives, who had become more skeptical of immigration reform, and it failed to
pass the Senate. Bush vetoed federal funding of embryonic stem cell research two times. After the
Supreme Court struck down a state sodomy law in the 2003 case of Lawrence v. Texas, conservatives began
pushing for the Federal Marriage Amendment, which would define marriage as a union between a man and
a woman. Bush endorsed this proposal and made it part of his campaign during the 2004 and 2006 election

Bush’s environmental record is controversial with him questioning whether global warming was man-made
or naturally caused. On January 6, 2009, President Bush designated the world's largest protected marine
area. In July 2002, following several accounting scandals such as the Enron scandal, Bush signed the
Sarbanes–Oxley Act into law. The act expanded reporting requirements for public companies. Racial issues
were in existence too during the 2000’s. Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice made history as African
American cabinet members. By 2002, Cynthia McKinney introduced the Martin Luther King Jr. Records
Collection Act. By June 23, 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger upholds the University of
Michigan Law School's admission policy. However, in the simultaneously heard Gratz v. Bollinger the
university is required to change a policy. The Millions More Movement holds a march in Washington D.C.
on October 15, 2005. Rosa Parks passed away at October 25, 2005 at 92 years old. She and other men plus
women spearheaded the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955. Her body lies in state in the Capitol Rotunda in
Washington, D.C. before interment. Coretta Scott King passed away later in 2006. The Jena Six event was
the protest against the mistreatment of six black teenagers in Jena, Louisiana. Before the incident, there
were racial tensions in Jena.

These events included the hanging of rope nooses from a tree in the high school courtyard, two violent
confrontations between white and black youths, and the destruction by fire of the main building of Jena
High School. Extensive news coverage related to the Jena Six often reported these events as linked. The
Jena six were once charged with attempted second degree murder when that wasn’t the case. They were
later charged with lesser charges. The Jena Six situation involved massive protests and caused people to
debate criminal justice issues. On September 20, 2007, between 15,000 and 20,000 protesters marched on
Jena in what was described as the "largest civil rights demonstration in years.” Related protests were held
in other US cities on the same day.

Sean Bell was murdered by NYPD cops on November 25, 2006. He was about to marry his fiancé soon. The
murder happened at Jamaica Queens, NYC. The incident sparked fierce criticism of the police from
members of the public and drew comparisons to the 1999 killing of Amadou Diallo. Three of the five
detectives involved in the shooting went to trial on charges of first- and second-degree manslaughter, first-
and second-degree assault, and second-degree reckless endangerment; they were found not guilty. That
verdict was a disgrace. On July 27, 2010 a settlement was reached. New York City agreed to pay Sean Bell's
family $3.25 million. Joseph Guzman, 34, who uses a cane and a leg brace and has four bullets lodged in his
body was to receive $3 million, and Trent Benefield, 26, was to receive $900,000. The total amount of the
settlement was $7.15 million. Paultre Bell said, "I believe the settlement is fair, but the most important
thing is that our fight, my fight, doesn't end here. No amount of money can provide closure." Many hip hop
artists sent tributes to Sean Bell. The life of Sean Bell will always be remembered. The domestic issues of
police brutality, racial justice, sex, economic issues, etc. would continue to be dealt with into the next
decade of the 2010’s indeed.
The rise of President Barack Obama
The journey of Barack Obama from Hawaii, the Southside of Chicago, and to the Presidency is one of the
most important stories in American history. Barack Obama’s 2008 Presidential candidate was very historic
and unlike any campaign in human history. He is a very intelligent person. He organized millions of people
to vote for him, he has charisma, and he married a beautiful, very smart black woman named Michelle
Obama. He is the reflection of America culturally, psychologically, and in other ways. By 2007, President
George W. Bush had massive unpopularity. So, the Democrats used this as an opportunity to run their own
candidates. The Republicans had their field too. John McCain ran for President again in 2008. The
Republican primary was just as open as the Democratic primary. The Republican field had John McCain,
Mike Huckabee, Mitt Romney, Ron Paul, Fred Thompson, Alan Keyes, Duncan Hunter, Rudy Giuliani, Sam
Brownback, Jim Gilmore, Tommy Thompson, and Tom Tancredo. Mike Huckabee won the Iowa caucus in
January of 2008. Huckabee appealed to the Evangelicals and other conservatives. McCain was supported by
the GOP establishment ironically when he called himself a maverick. Romney was second and McCain was
third in the 2008 Iowa primary. John McCain won the New Hampshire primary. The race was later mostly a
battle between John McCain and Mitt Romney. They targeted Western and Midwestern states. Huckabee
continued to fight. John McCain soon won the Republican nomination after Super Tuesday.

As for the Democratic side, then Senator Barack Obama of Illinois officially announced his candidacy for
President in a cold day at Springfield, Illinois (on the date of February 10, 2007). He invoked Abraham
Lincoln in calling for the nation to be united in the midst of massive political divisions. Barack Obama said
the following words in the rally:

"...That is our purpose here today. That is why I am in this race -- not just to hold an office, but to gather
with you to transform a nation. I want -- I want to win that next battle -- for justice and opportunity. I want
to win that next battle -- for better schools, and better jobs, and better health care for all. I want us to take
up the unfinished business of perfecting our union, and building a better America.

And if you will join with me in this improbable quest, if you feel destiny calling, and see as I see, the future
of endless possibility stretching out before us; if you sense, as I sense, that the time is now to shake off our
slumber, and slough off our fears, and make good on the debt we owe past and future generations, then I
am ready to take up the cause, and march with you, and work with you -- today.

Together we can finish the work that needs to be done, and usher in a new birth of freedom on this Earth.

Thank you very much everybody -- let's get to work! I love you. Thank you."

Springfield was where it started. Immediately, Barack Obama had supporters to use social media, the
Internet, and other means to gain massive financial support for his campaign. Other Democratic candidates
in 2008 were Hillary Clinton, John Edwards, Bill Richardson, Dennis Kucinich, Joe Biden, Mike Gravel,
Christopher Dodd, Evan Bayn, and Tom Vilsack. Early on in the Democratic primary, Barack Obama and
Hillary Clinton were the frontrunners. John Edwards was shown in third in numerous polls. Edwards
focused on an economic message. Hillary Clinton focused on a campaign on experience, since she was a
Senator. Hillary Clinton's supporters were passionate. When Barack Obama won the Iowa primary, then it
sent a historic message worldwide. Independents, women, college students, and black people voted for
Obama in Iowa. Obama presented himself as a “candidate of change.” Hillary Clinton was in a low point and
won the next New Hampshire primary. This was when Hillary said that she found her voice. Clinton's win in
New Hampshire was the first time a woman had ever won a major American party's presidential primary
for the purposes of a delegate selection.

The debates between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton were fierce and personal at times. For a time, the
Obamas and the Clintons couldn’t stand each other. Barack Obama won the South Carolina primary, and
Bill Clinton said that his or Obama’s campaign was a farce. He or Bill Clinton made the slick, racist comment
that if Obama existed decades ago, he would give him some coffee. Later, the Obamas and the Clintons
reconciled. The Louisiana, Nebraska, Hawaii, Wisconsin, U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia,
Maryland, and Virginia primaries and the Washington and Maine caucuses all took place after Super
Tuesday in February. Obama won all of them, giving him 10 consecutive victories after Super Tuesday. At
the end, Barack Obama won the Democratic nomination. He was the first African American to have done
so. He gave his historic Democratic nomination speech at Denver, Colorado to a large crowd. He criticized
John McCain’s policies as policies of the past and linked his views to Bush. Barack Obama was celebrated
and achieved even more popularity. The general election dealt with the issues of the Iraq War, the
economy, health care (as Barack Obama wanted a national health care system with a private system and a
public government option. McCain wanted a more free market health care system), other foreign policy
matters, education, and other issues. John McCain was criticized because of being tied to Bush’s Iraq War
policies, and Barack Obama was criticized because of experience issues. Obama and McCain debated
numerous times. McCain cited his experience as a factor for those to vote for him, and Obama said that he
wanted real change from the past cynicism. Debates came about.

Barack Obama’s strength was that he combined wit, resiliency, and strength. He could take criticism, and
he was tested. Pastor Jeremiah Wright gave a provocative speech about America. Wright ironically told the
truth about many issues about racial injustice, the evil of the genocide of Native Americans, the British
Empire’s evil colonialism against human beings, and the nefarious nature of imperialism. Yet, the far right
and some in the media criticized Barack Obama for associating with him. Later, Barack Obama had his
Philadelphia race speech where he wanted white people to recognize the legitimate frustration of black
people against oppression, while telling black people to continue to fight for justice. Obama criticized
Wright's speech. It was a moderate speech and the Wright controversy didn’t end his campaign. The
general election was very costly. Third Party candidates were abundant like Ralph Nader, Bob Barr of the
Libertarian Party, Chuck Baldwin of the Constitution Party, and Cynthia McKinney of the Green Party.
Allegations of Republican voter suppression existed in 2008. Election Day was on November 4, 2008. As
time came on, Barack Obama won many states never won by Democrats in decades. Obama won Illinois,
the Northeast, Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, and other states. McCain, unlike Bush in 2000 and 2004, failed to win
all the southern states: Obama won Florida, North Carolina, and Virginia. Obama also won the hotly
contested states of Iowa and New Mexico, which Al Gore had won in 2000 and George W. Bush in 2004.
After Obama won California by 11:00 pm. EST, the major American networks cited Barack Obama as the
new President of the United States of America. It was a historic moment as President Barack Obama was
the first African American President in American history.

People celebrated in Grant Park in Chicago, Philadelphia, Houston, Las Vegas, Miami, Atlanta, Harlem, and
other places. 250,000 people were in Grant Park. Jesse Jackson cried, and Oprah Winfrey cheered. Broken
down by age group, voters under 35 voted for Obama by a large majority with McCain most popular among
voters over 60. Voters between 35 and 59 were nearly split 50/50 between the two candidates. Expressed
as a percentage of eligible voters, 131.2 million votes could reflect a turnout as high as 63.0% of eligible
voters, which would be the highest since 1960. This 63.0% turnout rate is based on an estimated eligible
voter population of 208,323,000. Another estimate puts the eligible voter population at 213,313,508,
resulting in a turnout rate of 61.6%, which would be the highest turnout rate since 1968. Even in southern
states in which Obama was unsuccessful, such as Georgia and Mississippi; due to large African American
turnout he was much more competitive than John Kerry in 2004. John McCain gave a gracious concession
speech in Arizona. Barack Obama gave his victory speech at Grant Park in Chicago. Barack Obama talked
about the future and the responsibility of America to make a better America. The election of President
Barack Obama would start a new era of America. It caused an emotional high for people, and it represented
how the same issues of race, class, sex, and culture still impacted American society at the same time. The
legacy of President Barack Obama would be a mixture of his achievements and mistakes. What Obama is to
the liberal movement is akin to what Reagan was to the conservative movement. Nothing would be the
same again with President Barack Obama in office.

Various Celebrations on Election Night (after Obama’s 2008 Election Victory)

Source: Joe Raedle/Getty

Images North America

Chicago Harlem, NYC

Source: REUTERS/Tami

Atlanta, Georgia (at Ebenezer Baptist Church) Washington D.C. (at Howard University)
Appendix A: The Era of the 2000's (involving
Music and Culture)
The first decade of the 21st century was the time of the beginning of my adulthood. I was 18 years old in
the year of 2001. It was the time of the start of the war on terror, the expansion of music, economic global
recession, and the growth of globalization. More environmental issues were discussed (like animal
extinction and climate change), and we saw political leaders arise. The music of the 2000’s was diverse. One
common denominator in the music of that decade was it saw hip hop become the most dominant music of
the human race. Hip hop grown into being embraced by tons of people, and it made corporations earn
billions of dollars in profit. Crunk, snap, hyphy, and alternative hip hop were popular. The center of hip hop
expanded outside of New York City into areas like Atlanta, Houston, New Orleans, the Bay Area, Miami,
Detroit, St. Louis, Virginia, Los Angeles, etc. With its strengths, controversies, and accessibility, hip hop was
potent in the 2000’s. Also, rock, pop, metal, R&B, EDM, country, and indie had their own unique style too
in that decade. Computer technology expanded and Napster went out of business since many musicians
abhorred them using their content without their permission. Ironically, the end of Napster was the
beginning of the end of retail stores selling CDs, etc. Online devices like Ipods and iTunes made buying
songs more accessible. YouTube caused more bands and artists to spread their message quicker than going
into a large corporate meeting. Nu-disco and post-punk was alive. Teen pop continued with groups like
NSYNC, Backstreet Boys, Britney Spears, and Christina Aguilera. Contemporary R& B was one of the most
popular genres of the decade (especially in the early and mid-2000's) which was immensely popular
throughout the decade with artists like Usher, Beyoncé, Alicia Keys, Avant, and Rihanna. In 2004, the
Billboard Year-End Hot 100 had 15 of its top 25 singles as Contemporary R&B.

In Britain, Britpop, post punk revival and rock were at the height their popularity with acts such as Coldplay,
The Libertines, Oasis, Lynda Thomas, Travis, Dido, Blur, The Hives, Björk, and Radiohead, which still
continued at the top of the major charts in the rest of the world since the 1990's. J-pop and K-pop
flourished in the 2000’s. Reggae, reggaeton, and other songs grew. By the year of 2000, Mariah Carey was
celebrated. Craig David debuted his album Born to Do It. Eminem’s The Marshall Mathers LP was released
in 2000 being very controversial. Outkast’s Stankonia took hip hop music into another level. Madonna and
Britney Spears released albums. The summer of 2001 saw the tragic passing of Sister Aaliyah, who was one
of the greatest artists of our generation. Aaliyah loved her fans and enjoyed humor. She was loved by her
friends, she inspired future artists, and she grew into a very humble, charismatic young black woman.
George Harrison of the Beatles passed away in the same year. Michael Jackson released his last studio
album called Invincible in 2001. In 2002, the heart and soul of TLC, Lisa “Left Eye” Lopes died in Central
America. Kelly Clarkson won the first American Idol award in the year of 2002. 2003 was the year of
Beyoncé as it relates to international music. Her album Dangerously in Love, which was released in 2003,
increased her career. She was a songwriter and producer of the album. She won five Grammy Awards the
following year for the album. Dangerously in Love has sold over eleven million copies worldwide and
produced two US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles – "Crazy in Love" and "Baby Boy" – and two top five
singles – "Me, Myself and I" and "Naughty Girl.” Beyonce's future albums of B'Day and I Am Sasha Fierce
would cause her to have superstar status. 21st century music is defined in part by Beyonce. Linkin Park
released Meterora in 2003. Also, Otutkast’s Speakerboxxx/The Love Below opened doors and pushed the
envelope in hip hop. 50 Cent and Gunit made records in 2003 too. The Black Eyed Peas’s Elephunk mixed
pop and hip hop influences. Evanescence’s Fallen was popular too. Nina Simone, Cecil Cruz, June Carter
Cash, Johnny Cash, and other artists passed away in the year of 2003.

Prominent Bands of the 2000’s

Green Day Destiny’s Child Foo Fighters
Kanye West made an impact with The College Dropout in 2004. He can at times speak the truth and in
other times be very narcissistic plus inaccurate. The Grey Album was released by Danger Mouse in 2004.
Green Day’s American Idiot had critical acclaim. In 2005, Mariah Carey released her 10-million selling The
Emancipation of Mimi, the best-selling album of the year worldwide, alongside the album's second single
"We Belong Together", the year's most successful single, and the Song of the Decade 2000–2009. Luther
Vandross and John Herald passed away in 2005. Madonna released Confessions on a Dance Floor, her 10th
studio album. It wins a Grammy award, Brit award, sells in excess of 12 million copies and has the
worldwide hit "Hung Up" which tops the charts in a record-breaking 41 countries. Kanye West’s Late
Registration grew his popularity. Kanye West is not only a great producer. He knows hip hop, and he can
rap. From 2006 to the year of 2008, there were new pop acts like Taylor Swift, Lady Gaga, Katy Perry, and
other people. In 2007, Rihanna’s third studio album called Good Girl Gone Bad made her into the new
superstar. She had music in the mainstream in 2005 with Music of the Sun and A Girl Like Me in 2006.
Rihanna’s Umbrella song was one of the most popular songs of the 21st century. She won her first Grammy
at 2008. One of the most underated artists of this time was Amerie with her songs filled with harmonies
like I Thing, Why Don’t We Fall in Love, Forecast, and Talkin’ to Me. In 2008, Lady Gaga released her first
album called Fame. Lady Gaga explores love, romance, sexuality, and other topics in her music and in her
politics. In 2008, Lil Wayne released Tha Carter III and sold 1 million copies in the first week, becoming the
bestselling album of 2008. Kanye West released 808s and Heartbreak. In 2009, Michael Jackson passed
away in California. His funeral took place at the Staples Center at Los Angeles, California. The Black Eyed
Peas, Flo Rida, Lady Gaga, and other artists show music. By the end of this decade, the seeds of mumble rap
would grow.
Rest in Power Sister
Sweet Dreams.

Aaliyah was a beautiful woman inside and out. She was one of the nicest,
down to Earth musicians of our generation. I remember her passing like it
was yesterday. I was in my grandmother's house in the country, and I saw
images of Aaliyah having fun. When I came home, I saw the news coverage of
her passing. Back then, I was 17 years old. She was very young and only 22
years old at 2001. Aaliyah was born in Brooklyn, NYC, and she was raised in
Detroit, Michigan. Charm and charisma were part of her life. As a youth, she
was very intelligent in school and made early records. Soon, Aaliyah
established more classics like One in a Million, 4 Page Letter, We Need a
Resolution, I Care 4 U, etc. From being on Star Search to making her own
album called Aaliyah in 2001, she exhibited a great light. By the late 1990's,
Aaliyah was on superstar status. As a living legend, Aaliyah loved humor was
on movies. Her friends were Timbaland and Missy Elliot (both human
beings are from Virginia). She collaborated with some of the most famous
artists of the 1990's and the early 2000's. She loved Virginia and I'm from
Virginia too. Her style was unique in combining hip hop fashion mixed with
a down to Earth vibe. She always loved to perform, to talk to people, to show
love to her fans, and to express herself on her terms. Aaliyah (as an excellent
musician) was a very intelligent black woman who talked about romance, life,
and the dreams that she desired. Her passing on August of 2001, and it was a
sad time for people of my generation (and for other generations too). Aaliyah
personified a combination of kindness and strength. Her fans constantly said
that she was "street, but sweet." Her life motivates us to do the right thing
while we are blessed to live today in our time of 2019. Today, we honor her
memory by living our lives to encourage each other and to subsequently
advocate for greatness in our daily lives. Aaliyah Dana Haughton will be
The culture of the 2000's was very expansive. Internet communication expanded with YouTube, Facebook,
and other social media devices. We saw the euro be part of the European Union as a currency. The growth
of China was real. With science, research found full genome sequences. The first self-contained artificial
heart was implanted in Robert Tools. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission successfully reached the
surface of Mars in 2004, and sent detailed data and images of the landscape there back to Earth.
Opportunity discovered evidence that an area of Mars was once covered in water. Both rovers were each
expected to last only 90 days, however both completely exceeded expectations and continued to explore
through the end of the decade and beyond. GPS systems are popular in vehicles. Mobile communications
develop. Text messaging became commonplace.

The iPhone was released in 2007 being the first modern smartphone. It was Steve Jobs’ brainchild. The
iPhone was one of the greatest inventions in human history. It has grown research, accessibility of
information, and entertainment. Google is the most visited website, and broadband internet usage jumped
forward. More people used plastic surgery and antidepressants during the 2000's than the 1990’s. TV
shows and movies were very prominent in the first decade of the 21st century too. Computer generated
films flourished in the 2000’s. 2004's Fahrenheit 9/11 by Michael Moore is the highest grossing
documentary of all time. It was critical of the Bush administration. Online films became popular, and
conversion to digital cinema started. Avatar was a science fiction film directed by James Cameron. He used
cutting edge motion capture techniques. The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, The Passion of
Christ (with massive violence and other controversies), etc. received awards. The superhero film genre
experienced renewed and intense interest throughout the 2000's. With high ticket and DVD sales, several
new superhero films were released every year. The X-Men, Batman and Spider-Man series were particularly
prominent, and other notable films in the genre included Daredevil (2003), The League of Extraordinary
Gentlemen (2003), Hulk (2003), Hellboy (2004), Fantastic Four (2005), Iron Man (2008), The Incredible Hulk
(2008), and Watchmen (2009). Some media commentators attributed the increased popularity of such
franchises to the social and political climate in Western society since the September 11 terrorist attacks;
although others argued advances in special effects technology played a more significant role. The Dark
Knight (released in 2008 and directed by Christopher Nolan) is often considered to be one of the greatest
superhero films ever made. The Dark Knight is a film about Batman.

Fashion in the 2000’s included emo, 80’s fashion, large glasses, crop tops, cargo pants, fitted pants, etc.
Journalism became more opinionated. Opinion journalists back then include Hannity, O'Reilly, Ann Coulter,
Phil Donahue, and others. In the 2000's, African Americans had their own films dealing with drama,
comedy, thrillers, etc. like Love and Basketball (2000), Why Did I Get Married? (2007), The Great Debaters
(2007), I am Legend (2007), Stomp the Yard (2007), Remember the Titans (2000), Brown Sugar (2002), Two
Can Play That Game (2001), The Original Kings of Comedy (2000), Bamboozled (2000), Paid in Full (2002),
Antoine Fisher (2002), Akeelah and the Bee (2006), and other movies. Black TV shows were still in
abundance like Everyone Hates Chris, Girlfriends, The Chappelle Show, One on One, The Parkers, The
Bernie Mac Show, My Wife and Kids, That’s so Raven, Moesha, The Game, The Steve Harvey show, Meet
the Browns, etc. The 2000's saw the rise of reality television from Dancing with the Stars to Survivor
including Flavor of Love. Shows like CSI, Grey’s Anatomy, and the Ghost Whisperer were watched.
Controversial cartoons like South Park and Family Guy were increasingly watched. The decade also saw the
rise of premium cable dramas such as The Sopranos, Deadwood, The Wire, Battlestar Galactica, Breaking
Bad and Mad Men. The critic Daniel Mendelsohn wrote a critique of Mad Men in which he also claimed this
last decade was a golden age for episodic television, citing Battlestar Galactica, The Wire, and the network
series Friday Night Lights as especially deserving of critical and popular attention.

The image on the left shows some members of the Redeem Team (with Kobe Bryant,
Lebron James, Dwyane Wade, and Carmello Anthony. They won gold in both 2008 and
2012). The image to the right shows the 4 X 400m relay winners of the 2008 Summer
Olympics at Beijing, China. Their names are Mary Wineberg, Allyson Felix, Monique
Henderson and Sanya Richards of the United States). The source on the right is
from August 23, 2008 being from Julian Finney/Getty Images AsiaPac.

In terms of sports, many Americans and people globally excelled. From the Redeem Team winning Olympic
gold in 2008 at Beijing to many other champions, human athletes have inspired the world. These athletes
are Usain Bolt, Michael Phelps, LeBron James, Kobe Bryant, Shelly-Ann Fraser, Veronica Campbell-Brown,
Sanya Richards, Allyson Felix, Natasha Hastings, etc. This decade saw Kobe Bryant, Lebron James, and the
Celtics (with Paul Pierce, Ray Allen, and Kevin Garnett) win NBA rings. Sixth and Seventh generation video
games from PlayStation to X-box dealt with action, science fiction, sports, and other genres. The Call of
Duty series was extremely popular during the 2000's; the diverse shooter franchise released multiple
games throughout the 2000's that were positively critically reviewed and commercially successful. The
2000's was the beginning of a new technological revolution indeed.

By Timothy
There is always an artist once in a generation
that inspires people and motivates crowds. She
was one of a kind and the greatest singer of
our generation. She was the one with the
Voice for real. She could sing high and low
with an exquisite clarity that can never be
duplicated by any singer period. She was the
late, great Sister Whitney Houston.
Legendary performances, dynamic charisma,
love for her family plus her community, and
superb music outline the glorious legacy of
Whitney Houston. She was born and raised in
Newark, New Jersey. Many people don't
know that Whitney is all Newark, and she
sang excellently in the church during the
duration of her youth. From her first soloist
album to her last album, she made classic
music. From her debut during the year of 1985,
people knew that Whitney Houston was the
one. Her classic records give me goosebumps.
Throughout her career, she represented the
grace, the talent, and the strength of black
women. She married Bobby Brown and had
one child.

Many of her records were

inspirational and promoted
uplifitment in humanity like The
Greatest Love of All, Step by Step, I
Believe in You and Me, Miracle, etc.
She worked hard, had fans worldwide,
and won many awards. She passed
away at February 2012 when I was 28
years old. She was the most awarded
women artist of all time. She sold over
200 million records worldwide. Also,
people know of Whitney Houston's
philanthropy in her life as well. She
worked with pop artists, gospel artists
(the album of The Preacher's Wife:
Original Soundtrack Album is the
highest selling gospel album in history
selling over 6 million copies. Whitney
Houston was part of that album),
R&B artists, hip hop artists, etc.
Aretha Franklin, Diana Ross, and
Dionne Warwick greatly inspired her
as well. She universally is respected.
Whitney Houston had a lot of love
and proclaimed it in her music and in
her life. Whitney Houston was
always filled with soul.
Sister Latasha Harlins These were the burned These were the 2,000
was just 15 years old buildings in Los Angeles as a California Army National
when she was result of the Los Angeles Guardsmen who patrolled
murdered by an evil rebellion in 1992. The paradox the city during the midst of
person. She lived from is that now, violent crime has the Los Angeles rebellion.
1975 to 1991. To this decreased in Los Angeles, but
very day, we remember homelessness has increased.
Harlins as a person who There have been new buildings,
inspires us to seek but an exodus of the black
change. American population from LA.
So, we have a long way to go.

The many Parties of the civil conflict

1). The people in who 2). The United States 3). Many civilians from
participated in the rebellion government some Korean Americans,
were mostly of African • The 7 Infantry some Asian Americans, and
American and Latinx Division
descent. other communities acted
• 1st Marine Division
• FBI as vigilantes to combat
*It is important to note • United States many people in the
that many people, of Marshal Service rebellion.
every color in Los • Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, and
Angeles, back then and
today desire • United States
reconciliation and justice. Border Patrol,
Federal Bureau of
Causalities Prison, and the
Drug Enforcement
Deaths: 63 Administration..
Injuries: 2,383
The Government of
Arrested 12,111 California: California Army
National Guard, and the
California Highway Patrol
plus County law
From 1984 to 2003, Michael Jordan performed in the NBA in a high level. He is not only the greatest basketball
player in NBA history. His work speaks for itself. He was born in February 17, 1963 at NYC and was raised at
Wilmington, North Carolina. He won 6 NBA Championships, he won 6 NBA Finals MVPs, he was the NBA MVP 5
times, he was a 10 time NBA All First Team, he won 2 Olympic Gold medals (in 1984 and 1992), and Jordan was the
NBA Rookie of the Year (in 1985). He was a NCAA champion (1982), NBA Defensive Player of the Year (1988), ACC
Rookie of the Year (1982), and three times NBA steals leader. He scored 32,292 points. He left the NBA for 18
months and came back to win 3 more championships. No other NBA player has done that before. Michael Jordan
is part of the culture of the 1990’s. Michael Jordan is the GOAT in my view.

Deloris Jordan is
Michael Jordan’s
mother, and she has
always supported him
in sports and in other
MJ is making one of his signature dunks here. Here, Michael Jordan received the NBA MVP
endeavors. Award in 1996.

Michael Jordan and

In his first Finals the Dream Team won
appearance, Jordan posted gold during the 1992
per game averages of 31.2 SummerOlympics at
points on 56% shooting Barcelona. They
from the field, 11.4 assists, represented the best
Michel Jordan won the 6.6 rebounds, 2.8 steals, in basketball and
1988 All Star Game MVP and 1.4 blocks. Jordan won helped to
and the Slam Dunk his first NBA Finals MVP internationalize
Michael Jordan’s game
award in 1991 too basketball further.
winning shot against completion. He is here
Georgetown in 1982 celebrating with his
propelled his basketball father, James Jordan.
career into new heights.
He was in UNC during
that time.

The Bulls during the 1990’s had Pippen

Jordan shoes and Rodman who played with excellence
redefined and courage. They along with Michael
sneakers in Jordan led the Bulls to win a 72-10 record
general. in the historic 1995-1996 season.

Angela Bassett
For years and decades, Angela Bassett has personified great acting
and being a great humanitarian. When I was a child during the
1990’s, I remembered her early roles like Malcolm X and The Tina
Turner Story. To this very day, she loves her family and her
community. Present actors and actresses take inspiration by her
gifts. Her life makes it clear about our duty to show mercy, to follow
integrity, to advance justice, and to believe in truth.

She is an icon who has acted in During high school, Bassett became the
The Jacksons miniseries film,
movies, in theater, and in TV first African-American from Boca Ciega
Malcolm X, Boyz N the Hood,
shows. She has worked hard for to be admitted to the National HonorWhat's Love Got to do with It,
decades in advancing excellence Society. She received her B.A. from Yale
Waiting to Exhale, How Stella
and inspiring younger actresses University in African American studies.
Got Her Groove Back, etc.
and actors to pursue their own showed the world that she is
styles. Sister Angela Bassett is 60 one of the greatest actresses of
years old. She's a gorgeous black
“…Bring your best to the moment. our generation. Today, she has
woman. One can never deny her
greatness. She was born in New
Then, whether it fails or succeeds, Courtney Vance as her
husband, and the couple has 2
York City, and she was raised in at least you know you gave it all
Harlem, NYC. She lived in you had. We need to live the best
Winston Salem, North Carolina that’s in us.”
and then in St. Petersburg,
Florida during her youth. At -Angela Bassett
Boca Ciega High School, Bassett
was a cheerleader and a member Her classmates at Yale were Charles
of the Upward Bound college Dutton and her future husband
prep program, the debate team, Courtney B. Vance. During the 1980's,
student government, drama club she worked in theater constantly before
and choir. She was always a very her acting career took off. By the mid to
intelligent person. late 1980's, she became more known.
During the 1990's, she was part of some
of the greatest movies in history.
Jessica Folcker Gabrielle Mariah Carey Gloria Estefan

Spice Girls Vanessa Williams Diana King Celine Dion

Shania Twain Ace of Base Crystal Waters Dionne Harris

CeCe Peniston Des’ree Alanis Morissette Melanie Thornton

Deee-Lite Adriana Evans Seal Jody Watley

The journey of America continues. The next part of this series will deal with the
events of Presidencies of Barack Obama and Donald Trump. It will go from
2008 to the current time of 2019. The next part of this United States series will
also deal with Lemonade from Beyoncé, Black Lives Matter, new laws, new
social realities, Uber, Netflix, and our current reality near the year of 2020. The
United States of America is the land of my birth, and I understand its culture
and long history greatly.

Peace Y'all.