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 Studies show that high classroom temperatures, as well as low classroom temps,
can affect a student’s ability to learn and function. Dunn and Dunn of say that when temperatures are too hot or too cold, the brain
is constantly reminding the body to do something about that condition. Because
of the constant interruption, it is hard for the student to stay focused.
 According to Psych Central, high levels of humidity which is usually accompanied
by hot weather lowered scores on concentration while increasing sleepiness. A
heat wave with high humidity can sometimes cause us to feel like we are lacking
 Another study done by an undergrad at Loyola University found that air
temperature has an impact on memory ability. Using a computer generated
memory test, 52 students randomly participated in memory tests in rooms with
varying temperatures. Room temperatures were set at 72, 80 and 64 degrees F.
The outcome showed that in the environment with temperatures of 80 or 64
degrees, memory was impacted negatively. Test scores were significantly higher
in the classroom where the temperature was 72 degrees.

 Temperature has been shown to have a tremendous impact on student

performance, and it all begins with altering our mood. Temperature’s effect on
mood decreases memory and cognitive ability which is what affects learning
ability. Data collected from a study done by the University of Scranton reveals
that students perform best in controlled temperatures with test scores averaging
in the 90th percentile. When temperatures were too hot scores averaged in the
low 70s, and at the mid-70s when they were too cold.

61 degrees: Students averaged a score of 76%

72 degrees: Student achieved an average score of 90%

81 degrees: Students averaged a score of 72%


The factors affecting technology self-efficacy, utilization, teaching competence

and students’ academic achievement were emphasized. Survey questionnaires,
Focus Group Discussion and Key Informant Interviews were used. Respondents
included 97 Teachers and 436 students that comprising the 19 public and private
secondary schools in District VI, Division of Negros Occidental. Stratified
Random Sampling technique were utilized in the selection of the respondents by
schools. Statistical tools include frequency counts, percentage, mean, Mann-
Whitney, O-test, Kruskall-Wallis H Test, Multivariate Analysis of Variance
(MANOVA) and Multiple Linear Regression. The findings revealed the existence
of significant relationship between students’ academic performance and their
computer literacy as well as students’ technology utilization and their family
income. Data showed that student’s academic performance is highly influenced
by the teacher’s effective teaching and by the teacher’s computer literacy nor by
their competence in technology. Grade 7 students of private and public schools
utilize technology the least while fourth year students utilize technology the most.
No significant difference was found on self-efficacy among year levels.

Technology has changed the way classroom instructions are handled today.
Teaching strategies have undergone a paradigm shift from education‟s traditional
ways to the most recent ones. The teacher‟s role has also changed from being
the sole source of information to being the facilitator of learning.

Students‟ role has also changed from being receivers of spoon-fed information to
being discoverers of learning. With the coming of modern technology, especially
the computer, classroom instruction has been changed forever. Students can
now perform different tasks and take up an active role in learning with the aid of
information technology. And up to this day, researchers have been finding out the
many benefits of modern technology to both students and teachers.


In a study concluded in 2003 by Dr. Harris Cooper he tries to argue that

homework has a positive effect on students, but his studies also found no direct
correlation between increased homework for students and improved test scores.
Cooper himself said that “The analysis also showed that too much homework can
be counter-productive for students at all levels.” Meaning that excessive amounts
of homework can cause negative effects on students, but who is judging what
excessive amounts of homework means? He talks about the “10 minute rule”
meaning that every grade that a student increases they should get 10 more
minutes of homework, meaning that a second grader should get 20 minutes, and
a twelfth grader should get around 2 hours of homework. That would seem ideal,
but in most high school settings teachers don’t interact with each other to see
how much homework each of them give to equal it out to around 2 hours. This
means that one class’s homework could take a student 2 hours alone and that
would be what the ideal amount of homework is, so if it takes 2 hours for one
class’s homework then how are students supposed to have positive benefits from
doing all of their homework? Cooper’s research was also limited because very
little research was done to see if student’s race, socioeconomic status, or even
their ability levels has an affect on how much homework is “good” for said age
range. This means that other aspects than just that they’re students in a certain
grade weren’t taken into consideration. These things could cause major changes
to the data that was collected. Rather than encouraging students to master
material and learn efficiently, homework negatively impacts students and families
by causing more stress and taking away from family time. This is a problem not
just for the overworked students, but also for students who have more complex
personal lives. Many students work or have family obligations that they have to
deal with, but don’t necessarily feel comfortable talking to a teacher about them.
Although teachers might not think that the amount of homework that they give
matters much,its influence goes beyond giving students work to do at home to
how they interact in other important personal aspects of their life.

Bench marking

Benchmarking represents our approach to helping

communities chart a course that keeps school reform both educationally
rigorous and institutionally realistic. By tying performance measures to the
process and expected results of program implementation at each stage along
the way, benchmarking offers the hope of pursuing an ambitious vision by
means of concrete, realizable steps for which all participants are held
This measurement process proceeds from a clear definition of the end goal—
in this case, school-to-career, or community-connected learning. The
educational visions that are most far-reaching are also most subject to being
watered down or simply left on idealistic pedestals, as long as they remain
vague and abstract. In pursuit of reform that fundamentally revises the high
school learning experience, JFF and its communities have worked to translate
lofty goals into a set of concrete practices that schools and their community
partners are responsible for instituting. In this way, performance measures can
be based on a clear, measurable definition of what success looks like.
In maintaining accountability, benchmarking differs from other accountability
methods by focusing participants on the
of reform, not just the results.
By gearing performance measurement to specific action steps associated with
each particular stage of implementation, the efforts of all partners are focused
on priority tasks. Expectations of progress—in implementation and in student
performance—derive from those tasks, rather than from more global (and
possibly unrealistic) standards. This measurement process recognizes that
improvement is not instantaneous, nor does it take place uniformly. Rather,
progress takes time and proceeds in discrete steps, each characterized by unique
challenges and educational rewards. Benchmarking recognizes those steps and
encourages appropriate rewards for achieving them.
Today and in the future, educators at all levels need to justify their professional
judgments—to themselves, their superiors, and the public—on the basis of
measurable goals and results they can stand by. Through benchmarking,
sharply-defined objectives and relevant data can become both their defense
and, ultimately, their beacon, lighting the way toward educational renewal.
this paper explored the effect of Benchmarking practices on performance of public secondary
schools in Nakuru Municipality. The study used a cross-sectional survey to study the four
Benchmarking practices i.e. Internal, Competitive, Functional and Generic /Process
benchmarking. Pearson Correlation model was used to analyze the data to determine the effect of
Benchmarking practices on performance. The specific objective of the study was to establish the
effect of Benchmarking practices on performance of public secondary schools in Nakuru
Municipality. Data was collected from 152 respondents who were Head teachers and Heads of
Departments drawn from the 22 public secondary schools in Nakuru Municipality. Study
findings indicate that practices of Benchmarking practices such as internal benchmarking,
competitive benchmarking, functional benchmarking and process benchmarking were positively
correlated to the level of performance achieved. The study was only limited to academic
performance of schools.

In the act of learning, people obtain content knowledge, acquire skills, and develop work
habits—and practice the application of all three to “real world” situations. Performance-based
learning and assessment represent a set of strategies for the acquisition and application of
knowledge, skills, and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and
engaging to students.

This study was conducted by the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in
(SCOPE) with support from the Ford Foundation and the
Nellie Mae Education Foundation.

High-performing nations integrate curriculum, instruction, and assessment to

improve both teaching and learning. As a large and increasing
part of their examination systems, they use open-ended performance
tasks and school-based assessments to give students opportunities to
develop 21st century skills: The abilities to find and organize informa-
tion to solve problems, frame and conduct investigations, analyze and
synthesize data, and apply learning to new situations. This paper illustrates
how several nations integrate these assessments into the curriculum to create
stronger learning for both students and teachers, resulting in higher and more
equitable achievement.