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Techniques of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in OFDM

System & its Performance Analysis

Ishan Seth, Research Scholar, ECE Deptt. BIET, Jhansi

Dr. Deepak Nagaria, Reader & Head Incharge, Electrical Deptt. BIET, Jhansi

Prof. Y.P. Singh, Professor & Director, KLSIET Chandok, Bijnor

communications. OFDM can provide large data rates

In recent year with the advent of information & with sufficient robustness to radio channel impairments.

communication technology by leaps & bounce the ICT In an OFDM scheme, a large number of Orthogonal,

has been taken the front line research & innovation in overlapping, narrowband sub-carriers are transmitted in

the field of ICT. OFDM has opened the various utilities parallel. These carriers divide the available transmission

& make revolution in the communication system. One of bandwidth. The separation of the sub-carriers is such

the main characteristics is PAPR. The efficient Peak- that is a very compact spectral utilization. With OFDM,

to- average power ratio (PAPR) reduction method for it is possible to have overlapping sub channels in the

OFDM signal by decreasing the possibility of Peaks of frequency domain, thus increasing the transmission rate.

the subcarriers signals to occur at the same time. The The attraction of OFDM is mainly because of its way of

achieved result certifies that the proposed method is handling the multipath interference at the receiver. One

capable of reducing the PAPR significantly & therefore disadvantage of the OFDM is that the peak of the signal

improving error performance of the system. can be up to M times the average power (where M is the

number of carriers). These

Keywords Peaks increase the intermodulation distortion which

Orthogonal Frequency Division multiplexing (OFDM), results increase in the error rate. Reducing the PAPR

Peak-to-Average power Ratio (PAPR), Complementary allows a higher average power to be transmitted for a

Cumulative Distribution function (CCDF), partial fixed peak power which improves the overall SNR at

Transmit Sequence (PTS), Selected Mapping the receiver.

(SLM).Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)

The PAPR of an OFDM signal can be reduced in

ORGANIZATION OF PAPER several ways such as partial transmit sequence

(PTS)[1,2], selective mapping (SLM) [3,4], clipping

Following the introduction, the rest of paper is [5,6], clipping & filtering [7], coding [8],tone rejection

organized as follows. Heading 2 gives a purpose to (TR) & tone injection (TI) [9]. Each of these methods

reduce the PAPR in OFDM system. Heading 3 describe has a different cost to reduce PAPR.

literature review on OFDM.

Although some the technique for the PAPR reduction

Heading 4 describe about the model of OFDM system that we have discussed in this paper & it is necessary to

& PAPR. Heading 5 gives the CCDF of OFDM signal. give a comprehensive review of PAPR reduction in

Heading 6 describe the various reduction techniques of terms of transmission power data rate loss & BER

the PAPR of the OFDM system. It consists of the 4 performance.

technique which has its own application. Heading 7

consist of the conclusion in which we have compare all 2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

4 technique & chosen that which one is better. Heading

8 consist of the possible direction for future work. As we know to obtain a sufficient transmission power

the transmitter is employed with high power amplifier

1. INTRODUCTION (HPA) so to obtain a maximum output power efficiency

the HPA is usually operated at or near the saturation

The basic idea of OFDM is to divide the available region. Due the nonlinear characteristics of HPA it is

spectrum into several orthogonal sub channels so that very sensitive to variation in signal amplitudes.

each narrowband sub channels experiences almost flat However, due to high PAPR the variation of OFDM

fading. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is signal amplitude is very wide. Therefore, HPA will

International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 24

Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

subcarriers & introduce additional interference leads to interference. However, this leads to inefficient use of

an increase in BER. In order to reduce BER & signal the available spectrum. To cope with the inefficiency,

distortion, it requires a linear work in its linear amplifier the ideas proposed from the mid-1960s were to use

region with a large dynamic range but this linear parallel data and FDM with overlapping sub channels,

amplifier has poor efficiency & is so expensive. in which, each carrying a signaling 4 rate b is spaced b

apart in frequency to avoid the use of high-speed

Large PAPR also demand the Digital-to –Analog equalization and to combat impulsive noise and

Converter (DAC) with enough dynamic range to multipath distortion, as well as to fully use the available

accommodate the large peaks of the OFDM signals. bandwidth.

Furthermore, OFDM signal has Gaussian distribution

for large no of subcarriers, which means the peak signal 4. MODEL OF OFDM SYSTEM & PAPR

rarely occur & uniform quantization by the ADCs is not

desirable. If clipped, it will introduce in-Band distortion In OFDM system multicarrier signal is the sum of many

& out-Band radiation (adjacent channel interference) independent signals modulated onto sub channels of

into the communication system. Therefore the best equal bandwidth. Let us denote the collection of all data

method to reduce the PAPR before OFDM signal is to symbols Xn, n = 0, 1… N – 1, as a vector X = [X0, X1...

transmit it into nonlinear HPA & DAC. XN–1]T that will be termed a data block. The OFDM

baseband signal consisting of N subcarriers is given by:

3. LITERATURE REVIEW & STUDY

The method of using parallel data transmission that are

used in frequency division multiplexing (FDM) was

published in mid 60’s . Some early development with

this can be traced back to the 50s. The idea of using a

parallel data streams and FDM with overlapping sub Where j=√-1∆f is the subcarrier spacing, and NT

channels to avoid the use of high-speed equalization denotes the useful data block period. In OFDM the

and to reduce the impulsive noise, and multipath subcarriers are chosen to be orthogonal (i.e., ∆f = 1/NT).

distortion the initial applications were in the military

communications. In the Information & communication The PAPR of the OFDM signal is defined as:

technology field, the terms of discrete multi-tone `

(DMT), multichannel modulation and multicarrier

modulation (MCM) are widely used and sometimes

they are interchangeable with OFDM. In OFDM, each

carrier is orthogonal to all other carriers. However, this

condition is not always maintained in MCM.

transmission schemes. Weinstein and Ebert applied the equidistant samples of x (t) will be considered where L

discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to parallel data is an integer that is larger than or equal to 1. These ―L-

transmission system as part of the modulation and times oversampled‖ time-domain signal samples are

demodulation process. represented as a vector x = [x0, x1... xNL–1]T and

obtained as:

Various fast modems were developed for telephone

networks. In 1990s, OFDM has been exploited for

wideband data communications over mobile radio FM

channels [37], wireless LAN [36] wireless multimedia The sequence xk is the IDFT of data block with (L-1) N

communication, high-bit-rate digital subscriber lines

zero padding. The PAPR computed from the L times

(HDSL) [38], asymmetric digital subscriber lines oversampled time domain signal samples is given by:

(ADSL) , very high speed digital subscriber lines

(VHDSL), digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and

HDTV terrestrial broadcasting.

band is divided into M nonoverlapping frequency sub

channels. Each sub channel is modulated with a

separate symbol and then the M sub channels are Where E[.] is the expectation operator.

International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 25

Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

Simple method for the PAPR reduction is amplitude

The cumulative distribution function(CDF) of the clipping[11]. It limits the peak envelope of the input

PAPR is frequently used performance measure for signalto a predetermined value[12]. After the amplitude

PAPR reduction techniques. The complementry CDF clipping the distortion can be viwed as another source

(CCDF) of the PAPR represents the probability that the of noise. Noise may be in-Band & out-Band.filteringcan

PAPR of the data block exceeds from the given not reduces the In- Band distortion & results in an error

threshold. The real & imaginary parts of the time performance degradation & out band radiation reduces

domain signal samples follow Guassian Distributions as the spectral efficiency. clipping clips the transmit time

from the central limit theorem. The CDF of the domain OFDM signal (reduction of high power).the

amplitude of a signal sample is given by:- combination of clipping & filtering reduces the out-of-

Band radiation but after performing the clipping &

F( z ) = 1 – exp ( z ) (5) filtering the signal will excced the clipping level.to

reduce that signal a repeated clipping & filtering

The CCDF of the PAPR of a data block with Nyquist operation is performed[13,14]. If a phase of baseband

rate sampling is derived as[10] :- OFDM signal is øm & the threshold is A then the

output signal after clipping is :-

N

= 1 - F( z )

= 1- ( 1 – exp ( -z ) )N

with 256 & 1024 subcarriers (N=256,1024) for

quarternary phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation over

sampling factor 4(L=4). The CCDFs of the PAPR that Figure 3.frequency spectrum before & after

are applying on the PAPR reduction techniques(i.e. CAF(clipping & filtering)

selected mapping (SLM) technique ) are shown

in fig 1. The horizontal & vertical axis denote the

threshold for the PAPR & the Probability that the PAPR

of a data block exceeds the threshold, respectively.

PAPR FOR THE OFDM SYSTEM

In this section we have discussed some PAPR reduction

technique for the OFDM system.

Figure 4. The OFDM transmitter including scheme

International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 26

Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

algorithm (ESA) [18] is used. ESA results in a

exponential search complexity with the no of sub blocks

& to reduce the computational complexity Iterative

Flipping Algorithm (IFA) [19] has been used.

the input data block of N symbols in X are partitioned

into M disjoint sub blocks X(m) [X0(m)……XN-

(m)

1 ] with Xk = Xk or 0, (0 ≤ m ≤

(m )

adjacent partition, interleaved partition & pseudo-

random partition [16, 17] & among them Pseudo-

random partition has been found best choice.

The sub block Xm are transformed into M time domain

partial transmit sequence.

These partial sequence are independently rotated by reduction

phase factor b= {bm = ejØm,m = 0,1…..M-1} &

combined this to produce the time domain OFDM

signal with the lowest PAPR. Suppose these are Q

phase angles are allowed, thus bm has the possibility of

6.3 Selected Mapping Technique (SLM):-

The main objective of this technique is to generate a set

W different values. Therefore, there is Wm alternative

of data blocks at the Transmission which shows the

representation for an OFDM signal.

most favorable block for transmission [20, 21]. In SLM,

The PTS technique significantly reduces the PAPR, but

the input data sequence has been multiplied by each of

there is an exponential increment in the search

the phase sequence to generate alternative input symbol

complexity. To reduce that, the selection of phase

blocks. The IFFT operation is performed by that

factors has been limited to a set of finite no of elements.

alternating input data block & then the block with the

lowest PAPR is selected for transmission [8]. A block

diagram of SLM technique is shown in figure 8. Let us

consider each data block of length N is multiplied by V

different phase factors, Bv = [bv0, bv1……..bvN-1]T (v =

0,1……v-1) resulting in v data block. The vth phase

sequence after multiplication is Xv = [X0bv0,

X1bv1…..XN-1bVN-1]T (v = 0,1…..v-1) & corresponding

OFDM becomes:-

International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 27

Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

& T= OFDM signal duration is subcarrier Let C = C0, C1……CN-1 be the frequency domain

vector .After performing the Tone Reservation the data

spacing.

vector changes to x + c & results in a new modulated

OFDM signal.

Among the modified data blocks, the one with the

lowest PAPR is selected for transmission. The amount

of PAPR reduction for transmission for SLM depends Where C=IFFT(c). The main aim of Tone Reservation

on the number of phase sequence v & the design of is to make a vector with low PAPR for this we have

phase sequence. to find a proper time domain signal c. A convex

Optimization Problem must be solved to find the value

of c.

Tone Injection (TI) uses an additive correction to

optimize C [23]. The basic idea to increase the

constellation size thus the same data points corresponds

to multiple possible constellation points [24]. One

option has been to replicate the original shaded

constellation into several alternative ones. Therefore C

has been a translation vector such that C= .

It should be noted that Tone Injection doesn’t require

any extra side information but only receiver needs to

know that how to map the redundant constellation on

the original one. To obtain a good performance in

PAPR reduction & low complexity for the same

modification have been proposed in Tone Injection (TI).

The Tone Injection (TI) technique is more problematic

Figure 8. Block Diagram of SLM Technique than the Tone Reservation (TR) technique Since the

injected signal occupies the frequency band as the

In SLM technique we needs v IFFT operation * require information Bearing signal.

bits for side information is [log2v]for each data block. In the Tone injection (TI) technique alternative

To reduce the computational complexity & number of constellation points have an increased energy & the

the bits for side information transmission [22], some implementation complexity increase for the

extension has been proposed in SLM technique. computation the optimal translation vector.

(TI) Technique:-

PAPR of OFDM signal is reduced by the TR & TI OFDM is a very attractive technique for multicarrier

technique [8]. Figure 10 shows the block diagram of TR transmission and has become one of the standard

& TI which shows that the subset of tones for choices for high – speed data transmission over a

generating PAPR reduction signal c is reserved in both communication channel. It has various advantages; but

transmitter & receiver & it should be noted that these also has one major drawback: it has a very high PAPR.

tones are not used for data transmission. In this paper, the different properties of an OFDM

System are analyzed and the advantages and

disadvantages of this system are understood.

We have also aimed at investigating some of the

techniques which are in common use to reduce the high

PAPR of the system. Among the three techniques that

we took up for study, we found out that Amplitude

Clipping and filtering results in Data Loss, whereas,

Selected Mapping (SLM) and Partial Transmit

Figure 9. Block Diagram of TR/TI approaches for Sequence (PTS) do not affect the data. From the

PAPR reduction comparison of the SLM and PTS techniques, we could

infer that PTS is more effective in PAPR reduction.

In Tone Reservation (TR) data block dependent time However, no specific PAPR reduction technique is the

domain signal c is added to the original OFDM signal x best solution for the OFDM system. Various parameters

at the transmitter to reduce its Peaks & easily stripped like loss in data rate, transmit signal power increase,

off at the Receiver. BER increase, computational complexity increase

should be taken into consideration before choosing the

appropriate PAPR technique

International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 28

Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

Requires Processing at transmitter(Tx)

& receiver (Rx)

Clipping & No No No Tx: amplitude clipping, filtering

filtering Rx:None

PTS Yes No Yes Tx: M IFFTs, WM-1 complex vector

sums

Rx: side information extraction,

inverse PTS

SLM Yes No yes Tx: v IFFTs

Rx: side information extraction,

inverse SLM

TR Yes Yes Yes Tx: IFFTs, find values of PRCs

Rx: Ignore non data bearing

subcarriers

TI Yes Yes No Tx: IFFTs, search for maximum point

in time, tones to be modified, value of

p &q

Rx: Modulo-D operation

Table 1. Comparison of PAPR reduction technique

IEEE VTC 2004-Fall, vol. 7, Sep. 2004, pp. 4781-4785.

We have found the different classes of such techniques. [5] G.Hill and M.Faulkner, ―Comparison of Low

As we know that clipping & filtering method the signal Complexity Clipping Algorithms for OFDM,‖ IEEE

is recovered at the receiver side. Although this method International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and

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to-base station traffic where the expensive signal Trans. on communications, Vol.50, No.1, January 2002,

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OFDM by Repeated Clipping and Frequency Domain 10. ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Filtering,‖ IEEE Electronics Letters, Vol.38, No.5, May

2002, pp.246-247. ISHAN SETH received the B.Tech.

[26] A. E. Jones, T. A. Wilkinson, and S. K. Degree in Electronics & Communication

Barton, ―Block Coding Scheme for Reduction of Peak in 2009 from the KCNIT, Banda of

to Mean Envelope Power Ratio of Multicarrier UPTU, Lucknow, India. & Presently

Transmission Scheme,‖ Elect. Lett., vol. 30, no. 22, pursuing M.Tech.. in Digital

Dec. 1994, pp. 2098–99. Communications from BIET, Jhansi,

[27] A. E. Jones and T. A. Wilkinson, ―Combined

Coding for Error Control and Increased Robustness to

International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 30

Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

Communication & Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing.

Incharge in Department of Electrical

Engineering In BIET, Jhansi, India. He

has specialization in the field of Control

System. He has presented & published

more than 38 Papers in National &

International Journal. His research interests in control

system & Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing.

Director, KLS Institute of Engg.&

Technology, Chandok, Bijnor U.P. has

also worked about 27 years as Lecturer,

Dean of academics and Principal in many

Engineering institutions and organization. He has also

served with Training and Technical Deptt. Govt. of

Delhi, almost for 17 years. He has about 33 research

paper published in National and 12 papers published in

international journals in his credit. He has been

selected and awarded by Govt. of Delhi as ―Best

Technical Teacher-2004‖.He is also an expert and

Master Trainer for the Teachers, empanelled by

SCERT/NCERT. He is also the guide of research

scholar for almost dozen of Universities.

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