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International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 23

Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

Analysis the Utility & Comparative Study of Reduction


Techniques of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in OFDM
System & its Performance Analysis
Ishan Seth, Research Scholar, ECE Deptt. BIET, Jhansi
Dr. Deepak Nagaria, Reader & Head Incharge, Electrical Deptt. BIET, Jhansi
Prof. Y.P. Singh, Professor & Director, KLSIET Chandok, Bijnor

ABSTRACT becoming the chosen modulation technique for wireless


communications. OFDM can provide large data rates
In recent year with the advent of information & with sufficient robustness to radio channel impairments.
communication technology by leaps & bounce the ICT In an OFDM scheme, a large number of Orthogonal,
has been taken the front line research & innovation in overlapping, narrowband sub-carriers are transmitted in
the field of ICT. OFDM has opened the various utilities parallel. These carriers divide the available transmission
& make revolution in the communication system. One of bandwidth. The separation of the sub-carriers is such
the main characteristics is PAPR. The efficient Peak- that is a very compact spectral utilization. With OFDM,
to- average power ratio (PAPR) reduction method for it is possible to have overlapping sub channels in the
OFDM signal by decreasing the possibility of Peaks of frequency domain, thus increasing the transmission rate.
the subcarriers signals to occur at the same time. The The attraction of OFDM is mainly because of its way of
achieved result certifies that the proposed method is handling the multipath interference at the receiver. One
capable of reducing the PAPR significantly & therefore disadvantage of the OFDM is that the peak of the signal
improving error performance of the system. can be up to M times the average power (where M is the
number of carriers). These
Keywords Peaks increase the intermodulation distortion which
Orthogonal Frequency Division multiplexing (OFDM), results increase in the error rate. Reducing the PAPR
Peak-to-Average power Ratio (PAPR), Complementary allows a higher average power to be transmitted for a
Cumulative Distribution function (CCDF), partial fixed peak power which improves the overall SNR at
Transmit Sequence (PTS), Selected Mapping the receiver.
(SLM).Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
The PAPR of an OFDM signal can be reduced in
ORGANIZATION OF PAPER several ways such as partial transmit sequence
(PTS)[1,2], selective mapping (SLM) [3,4], clipping
Following the introduction, the rest of paper is [5,6], clipping & filtering [7], coding [8],tone rejection
organized as follows. Heading 2 gives a purpose to (TR) & tone injection (TI) [9]. Each of these methods
reduce the PAPR in OFDM system. Heading 3 describe has a different cost to reduce PAPR.
literature review on OFDM.
Although some the technique for the PAPR reduction
Heading 4 describe about the model of OFDM system that we have discussed in this paper & it is necessary to
& PAPR. Heading 5 gives the CCDF of OFDM signal. give a comprehensive review of PAPR reduction in
Heading 6 describe the various reduction techniques of terms of transmission power data rate loss & BER
the PAPR of the OFDM system. It consists of the 4 performance.
technique which has its own application. Heading 7
consist of the conclusion in which we have compare all 2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
4 technique & chosen that which one is better. Heading
8 consist of the possible direction for future work. As we know to obtain a sufficient transmission power
the transmitter is employed with high power amplifier
1. INTRODUCTION (HPA) so to obtain a maximum output power efficiency
the HPA is usually operated at or near the saturation
The basic idea of OFDM is to divide the available region. Due the nonlinear characteristics of HPA it is
spectrum into several orthogonal sub channels so that very sensitive to variation in signal amplitudes.
each narrowband sub channels experiences almost flat However, due to high PAPR the variation of OFDM
fading. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is signal amplitude is very wide. Therefore, HPA will

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International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 24
Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

introduce inter-modulation between the different frequency-multiplexed. It eliminates inter-channel


subcarriers & introduce additional interference leads to interference. However, this leads to inefficient use of
an increase in BER. In order to reduce BER & signal the available spectrum. To cope with the inefficiency,
distortion, it requires a linear work in its linear amplifier the ideas proposed from the mid-1960s were to use
region with a large dynamic range but this linear parallel data and FDM with overlapping sub channels,
amplifier has poor efficiency & is so expensive. in which, each carrying a signaling 4 rate b is spaced b
apart in frequency to avoid the use of high-speed
Large PAPR also demand the Digital-to –Analog equalization and to combat impulsive noise and
Converter (DAC) with enough dynamic range to multipath distortion, as well as to fully use the available
accommodate the large peaks of the OFDM signals. bandwidth.
Furthermore, OFDM signal has Gaussian distribution
for large no of subcarriers, which means the peak signal 4. MODEL OF OFDM SYSTEM & PAPR
rarely occur & uniform quantization by the ADCs is not
desirable. If clipped, it will introduce in-Band distortion In OFDM system multicarrier signal is the sum of many
& out-Band radiation (adjacent channel interference) independent signals modulated onto sub channels of
into the communication system. Therefore the best equal bandwidth. Let us denote the collection of all data
method to reduce the PAPR before OFDM signal is to symbols Xn, n = 0, 1… N – 1, as a vector X = [X0, X1...
transmit it into nonlinear HPA & DAC. XN–1]T that will be termed a data block. The OFDM
baseband signal consisting of N subcarriers is given by:
3. LITERATURE REVIEW & STUDY
The method of using parallel data transmission that are
used in frequency division multiplexing (FDM) was
published in mid 60’s . Some early development with
this can be traced back to the 50s. The idea of using a
parallel data streams and FDM with overlapping sub Where j=√-1∆f is the subcarrier spacing, and NT
channels to avoid the use of high-speed equalization denotes the useful data block period. In OFDM the
and to reduce the impulsive noise, and multipath subcarriers are chosen to be orthogonal (i.e., ∆f = 1/NT).
distortion the initial applications were in the military
communications. In the Information & communication The PAPR of the OFDM signal is defined as:
technology field, the terms of discrete multi-tone `
(DMT), multichannel modulation and multicarrier
modulation (MCM) are widely used and sometimes
they are interchangeable with OFDM. In OFDM, each
carrier is orthogonal to all other carriers. However, this
condition is not always maintained in MCM.

OFDM is an optimal version of multicarrier An approximation will be made in that only NL


transmission schemes. Weinstein and Ebert applied the equidistant samples of x (t) will be considered where L
discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to parallel data is an integer that is larger than or equal to 1. These ―L-
transmission system as part of the modulation and times oversampled‖ time-domain signal samples are
demodulation process. represented as a vector x = [x0, x1... xNL–1]T and
obtained as:
Various fast modems were developed for telephone
networks. In 1990s, OFDM has been exploited for
wideband data communications over mobile radio FM
channels [37], wireless LAN [36] wireless multimedia The sequence xk is the IDFT of data block with (L-1) N
communication, high-bit-rate digital subscriber lines
zero padding. The PAPR computed from the L times
(HDSL) [38], asymmetric digital subscriber lines oversampled time domain signal samples is given by:
(ADSL) , very high speed digital subscriber lines
(VHDSL), digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and
HDTV terrestrial broadcasting.

In a classical parallel data system, the whole frequency


band is divided into M nonoverlapping frequency sub
channels. Each sub channel is modulated with a
separate symbol and then the M sub channels are Where E[.] is the expectation operator.

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Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

5. CCDF OF THE PAPR 6.1 Clipping & Filtering:-


Simple method for the PAPR reduction is amplitude
The cumulative distribution function(CDF) of the clipping[11]. It limits the peak envelope of the input
PAPR is frequently used performance measure for signalto a predetermined value[12]. After the amplitude
PAPR reduction techniques. The complementry CDF clipping the distortion can be viwed as another source
(CCDF) of the PAPR represents the probability that the of noise. Noise may be in-Band & out-Band.filteringcan
PAPR of the data block exceeds from the given not reduces the In- Band distortion & results in an error
threshold. The real & imaginary parts of the time performance degradation & out band radiation reduces
domain signal samples follow Guassian Distributions as the spectral efficiency. clipping clips the transmit time
from the central limit theorem. The CDF of the domain OFDM signal (reduction of high power).the
amplitude of a signal sample is given by:- combination of clipping & filtering reduces the out-of-
Band radiation but after performing the clipping &
F( z ) = 1 – exp ( z ) (5) filtering the signal will excced the clipping level.to
reduce that signal a repeated clipping & filtering
The CCDF of the PAPR of a data block with Nyquist operation is performed[13,14]. If a phase of baseband
rate sampling is derived as[10] :- OFDM signal is øm & the threshold is A then the
output signal after clipping is :-

P( PAPR > z ) = 1 - P ( PAPR ≤ z ) (6) (7)


N
= 1 - F( z )
= 1- ( 1 – exp ( -z ) )N

Figure 2. time waveform before & after clipping

Fig 1 shows the CCDF of the PAPR of an OFDM signal


with 256 & 1024 subcarriers (N=256,1024) for
quarternary phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation over
sampling factor 4(L=4). The CCDFs of the PAPR that Figure 3.frequency spectrum before & after
are applying on the PAPR reduction techniques(i.e. CAF(clipping & filtering)
selected mapping (SLM) technique ) are shown
in fig 1. The horizontal & vertical axis denote the
threshold for the PAPR & the Probability that the PAPR
of a data block exceeds the threshold, respectively.

6. REDUCTION TECHNIQUES OF THE


PAPR FOR THE OFDM SYSTEM
In this section we have discussed some PAPR reduction
technique for the OFDM system.
Figure 4. The OFDM transmitter including scheme

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International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 26
Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

To find the best phase factor, the Exhaustive search


algorithm (ESA) [18] is used. ESA results in a
exponential search complexity with the no of sub blocks
& to reduce the computational complexity Iterative
Flipping Algorithm (IFA) [19] has been used.

Figure 5. Clipping for PAPR reduction

6.2 Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS):-

In Partial Transmit Sequence [15,16] technique


the input data block of N symbols in X are partitioned
into M disjoint sub blocks X(m) [X0(m)……XN-
(m)
1 ] with Xk = Xk or 0, (0 ≤ m ≤
(m )

M-1) such that

These sub block can be classified into 3 categories:


adjacent partition, interleaved partition & pseudo-
random partition [16, 17] & among them Pseudo-
random partition has been found best choice.
The sub block Xm are transformed into M time domain
partial transmit sequence.

Figure 7. Partial Transmit Sequence method for PAPR


These partial sequence are independently rotated by reduction
phase factor b= {bm = ejØm,m = 0,1…..M-1} &
combined this to produce the time domain OFDM
signal with the lowest PAPR. Suppose these are Q
phase angles are allowed, thus bm has the possibility of
6.3 Selected Mapping Technique (SLM):-
The main objective of this technique is to generate a set
W different values. Therefore, there is Wm alternative
of data blocks at the Transmission which shows the
representation for an OFDM signal.
most favorable block for transmission [20, 21]. In SLM,
The PTS technique significantly reduces the PAPR, but
the input data sequence has been multiplied by each of
there is an exponential increment in the search
the phase sequence to generate alternative input symbol
complexity. To reduce that, the selection of phase
blocks. The IFFT operation is performed by that
factors has been limited to a set of finite no of elements.
alternating input data block & then the block with the
lowest PAPR is selected for transmission [8]. A block
diagram of SLM technique is shown in figure 8. Let us
consider each data block of length N is multiplied by V
different phase factors, Bv = [bv0, bv1……..bvN-1]T (v =
0,1……v-1) resulting in v data block. The vth phase
sequence after multiplication is Xv = [X0bv0,
X1bv1…..XN-1bVN-1]T (v = 0,1…..v-1) & corresponding
OFDM becomes:-

Figure 6. Block diagram of PTS technique Where v = 0, 1, 2….v-1

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Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

& T= OFDM signal duration is subcarrier Let C = C0, C1……CN-1 be the frequency domain
vector .After performing the Tone Reservation the data
spacing.
vector changes to x + c & results in a new modulated
OFDM signal.
Among the modified data blocks, the one with the
lowest PAPR is selected for transmission. The amount
of PAPR reduction for transmission for SLM depends Where C=IFFT(c). The main aim of Tone Reservation
on the number of phase sequence v & the design of is to make a vector with low PAPR for this we have
phase sequence. to find a proper time domain signal c. A convex
Optimization Problem must be solved to find the value
of c.
Tone Injection (TI) uses an additive correction to
optimize C [23]. The basic idea to increase the
constellation size thus the same data points corresponds
to multiple possible constellation points [24]. One
option has been to replicate the original shaded
constellation into several alternative ones. Therefore C
has been a translation vector such that C= .
It should be noted that Tone Injection doesn’t require
any extra side information but only receiver needs to
know that how to map the redundant constellation on
the original one. To obtain a good performance in
PAPR reduction & low complexity for the same
modification have been proposed in Tone Injection (TI).
The Tone Injection (TI) technique is more problematic
Figure 8. Block Diagram of SLM Technique than the Tone Reservation (TR) technique Since the
injected signal occupies the frequency band as the
In SLM technique we needs v IFFT operation * require information Bearing signal.
bits for side information is [log2v]for each data block. In the Tone injection (TI) technique alternative
To reduce the computational complexity & number of constellation points have an increased energy & the
the bits for side information transmission [22], some implementation complexity increase for the
extension has been proposed in SLM technique. computation the optimal translation vector.

6.4 Tone Reservation (TR) &Tone Injection 7. CONCLUSION


(TI) Technique:-
PAPR of OFDM signal is reduced by the TR & TI OFDM is a very attractive technique for multicarrier
technique [8]. Figure 10 shows the block diagram of TR transmission and has become one of the standard
& TI which shows that the subset of tones for choices for high – speed data transmission over a
generating PAPR reduction signal c is reserved in both communication channel. It has various advantages; but
transmitter & receiver & it should be noted that these also has one major drawback: it has a very high PAPR.
tones are not used for data transmission. In this paper, the different properties of an OFDM
System are analyzed and the advantages and
disadvantages of this system are understood.
We have also aimed at investigating some of the
techniques which are in common use to reduce the high
PAPR of the system. Among the three techniques that
we took up for study, we found out that Amplitude
Clipping and filtering results in Data Loss, whereas,
Selected Mapping (SLM) and Partial Transmit
Figure 9. Block Diagram of TR/TI approaches for Sequence (PTS) do not affect the data. From the
PAPR reduction comparison of the SLM and PTS techniques, we could
infer that PTS is more effective in PAPR reduction.
In Tone Reservation (TR) data block dependent time However, no specific PAPR reduction technique is the
domain signal c is added to the original OFDM signal x best solution for the OFDM system. Various parameters
at the transmitter to reduce its Peaks & easily stripped like loss in data rate, transmit signal power increase,
off at the Receiver. BER increase, computational complexity increase
should be taken into consideration before choosing the
appropriate PAPR technique

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Distortionless Power increase Data rate loss


Requires Processing at transmitter(Tx)
& receiver (Rx)
Clipping & No No No Tx: amplitude clipping, filtering
filtering Rx:None
PTS Yes No Yes Tx: M IFFTs, WM-1 complex vector
sums
Rx: side information extraction,
inverse PTS
SLM Yes No yes Tx: v IFFTs
Rx: side information extraction,
inverse SLM
TR Yes Yes Yes Tx: IFFTs, find values of PRCs
Rx: Ignore non data bearing
subcarriers
TI Yes Yes No Tx: IFFTs, search for maximum point
in time, tones to be modified, value of
p &q
Rx: Modulo-D operation
Table 1. Comparison of PAPR reduction technique

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2002, pp.246-247. ISHAN SETH received the B.Tech.
[26] A. E. Jones, T. A. Wilkinson, and S. K. Degree in Electronics & Communication
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Coding for Error Control and Increased Robustness to

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International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR) ISSN: 2319-4413 30
Volume 2, No. 7, July 2013

India. His research interests include Digital


Communication & Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing.

Dr. Deepak Nagaria is a Reader & Head


Incharge in Department of Electrical
Engineering In BIET, Jhansi, India. He
has specialization in the field of Control
System. He has presented & published
more than 38 Papers in National &
International Journal. His research interests in control
system & Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing.

Prof. Y.P. Singh, currently working as


Director, KLS Institute of Engg.&
Technology, Chandok, Bijnor U.P. has
also worked about 27 years as Lecturer,
Dean of academics and Principal in many
Engineering institutions and organization. He has also
served with Training and Technical Deptt. Govt. of
Delhi, almost for 17 years. He has about 33 research
paper published in National and 12 papers published in
international journals in his credit. He has been
selected and awarded by Govt. of Delhi as ―Best
Technical Teacher-2004‖.He is also an expert and
Master Trainer for the Teachers, empanelled by
SCERT/NCERT. He is also the guide of research
scholar for almost dozen of Universities.

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