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Rajeev

ALTERNATORS
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om
t.c
po
gs
Constructional features

lo
Principle of operation

.b
s8
Types

te
EMF Equation
si
eb
Distribution and Coil span factors
w
ld

Predetermination of regulation by
or

Synchronous Impedance Method


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w

OC and SC tests.
w
w

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• Constructional features

om
Alternator is an electromechanical energy

t.c
conversion device which converts

po
mechanical energy into electrical energy in

gs
lo
alternating form.

.b
s8
AC generator or alternator works on the

te
si
same principle of electromagnetic
eb
induction as in DC generator
w
ld
or
.w
w
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• Like DC generators Alternator also

om
consists an armature winding and

t.c
magnetic field.

po
• In DC generator Armature rotates and the

gs
lo
field system is stationary.

.b
s8
• Whereas in Alternator, the armature

te
si
winding is mounted on a stationary
eb
element called STATOR and field system
w
ld

on a rotating element called ROTOR


or
.w
w
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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• The Stator consists of a cast-iron frame


which supports the armature core having

om
slot on its inner periphery for housing the

t.c
po
armature conductors

gs
• The rotor is like a flywheel having alternate

lo
.b
N and S poles fixed to its outer rim.

s8
te
• The Magnetic poles are excited from a
si
direct current supplied by a DC source.
eb
w

• Because the field magnets are rotating the


ld
or

excitation is supplied through TWO


.w
w

SLIP-RINGS along with brushgear.


w
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• When Rotor rotates the stator conductor


are cut by the magnetic flux.

om
t.c
• Hence the stator conductor have induced

po
emf produced in them.

gs
lo
• Because the magnetic poles are

.b
s8
alternatively N and S, Induced EMF in the

te
si
stator conductors is also alternating EMF.
eb
• The frequency of the alternating EMF
w
ld

depends on the number of N and S poles


or
.w

moving past the conductor in one second.


w
w
w

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WHY STATIONARY ARMATURE?

om
• The output current can be led directly from

t.c
fixed terminals on the stator to the load

po
circuit without passing it through brush

gs
contacts.

lo
.b
• It is easier to insulate stationary armature

s8
te
conductor for high voltages.
si
eb
• The slip-rings are transferred to the low
w

voltage, low power dc field circuit.


ld
or

• The deformation of the armature


.w
w

conductors can be eliminated.


w
w

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Details of Construction

om
• Stator Frame:-

t.c
• Stator Frame is used for holding the

po
armature stampings and windings in

gs
position

lo
.b
s8
• For low speed alternators the frame is

te
made up of cast iron sections.
si
eb
• But in modern construction the frames is
w

fabricated from mild steel plates welded


ld
or

together
.w
w
w
w

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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• Stator Core:-

om
• The armature core is supported by the stator

t.c
frame and is built up of laminations of special

po
magnetic iron or steel alloy.

gs
• The core is laminated to minimise eddy current

lo
.b
losses

s8
te
• The lamination are stamped out in complete
si
rings (for smaller machines) or in segments (for
eb
w
large machines)
ld
or

• The slots for housing the armature conductors


.w

lie along the inner periphery of the core.


w
w
w

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• Shapes of armature slots:

om
• Wide open type slots has the advantage of

t.c
easy installation of former wound coils and

po
their easy removal incase of repair.

gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
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• But the disadvantage with wide open type

om
slots is they tend to disturb the distribution

t.c
of air-gap flux into bunches that produces

po
ripple in the wave form of the generated

gs
lo
EMF.

.b
s8
• Semi-closed type slot do not disturb the

te
air-gap flux distribution.
si
eb
• Totally closed type are rarely used due to
w
ld

many disadvantages.
or
.w
w
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ROTOR

om
• Two types of Rotors are used in

t.c
po
Alternators

gs
• i) salient-pole or projected pole type

lo
.b
• Ii) smooth-cylindrical or non-salient type

s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• Salient-pole type rotor:-

om
• It is used in low and medium speed
alternators

t.c
po
• It has a large number of projected (salient)

gs
poles having their cores bolted to a heavy

lo
.b
magnetic wheel of cast iron or steel of

s8
good magnetic quality.

te
si
• Salient pole type alternators are
eb
w
characterised by their short axial length
ld
or

and large diameters.


.w

• Poles and pole shoes are laminated.


w
w
w

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• Smooth cylindrical type rotor:-


• It is used for steam turbine driven alternator

om
(high speed)

t.c
• The rotor consists of smooth solid forged steel

po
gs
cylinder having a number of slots milled out at

lo
intervals along the outer periphery for

.b
accommodating field coils

s8
te
• Rotor of this type are generally designed for 2 or
si
4 poles only. eb
w
• Turbo generator are characterised by short
ld

diameter and long axial length


or
.w

• The cylindrical construction gives better balance,


w

quieter operation and also less windage losses


w
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Relation between speed and


frequency

om
t.c
• In alternators there exists definite relation

po
between N,P and f.

gs
• One cycle of emf induces in a conductor when

lo
.b
one pair of poles passes over it.

s8
• The number of cycles of EMF produced in one

te
revolution of the rotor is equals to the number of
si
pairs of poles.
eb
w
ld
or

• So f=P*N/120
.w
w
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ARMATURE WINDINGS

om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
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or
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• Armature windings in alternator are different from those


used in DC machines

om
• The DC machines windings are closed circuit windings

t.c
but alternator windings are open circuit windings

po
• With reference to the arrangement of coils used in an

gs
alternating-current machines, windings may be divided

lo
into two general classes as follows

.b
s8
• I Distributed Windings.

te
– 1. Spiral or chain.

si
– 2. Lap. eb
– 3. Wave.
w
ld

• II. Concentrated Windings.


or

– 1. Lap.
.w

– 2. Wave.
w
w
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An armature winding which has its Coils of any


one phase under a single pole placed in several

om
slots, is said to be distributed.

t.c
• When these coils are bunched together in one

po
slot per pole, per phase, the winding is called

gs
concentrated.

lo
.b
• It is usual in a distributed winding to distribute

s8
the series inductors in any phase of the winding

te
si
among two or more slots under each pole.
eb
• This tends to diminish armature reactance and
w
ld

gives a better emf wave, besides offering a


or

better distribution of the heating due to armature


.w
w

copper loss than in concentrated windings.


w
w

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• Principle of AC winding

om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
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ld
or
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• The above figure shows single layer one-


turn full pitched winding for 4 pole

om
machine.

t.c
po
• There are 12 slots in all which means 3

gs
slots per pole or 1 slot per phase per pole.

lo
.b
• The pole pitch is 3.

s8
te
• To get the maximum emf two sides of the
si
eb
coil should be one pole pitch apart.
w

• In the above case the resultant emf


ld
or

induced in the coil is simply an arithmetic


.w
w

addition of induced emf in each coil side.


w
w

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• From the above diagram it can be

om
concluded that

t.c
– R phase conductors can be placed in slot

po
numbers 1,4,7 and finishes at slot No. 10

gs
lo
– Y phase conductors can be placed in the slot

.b
numbers 3,6,9 and finishes at slot No.12

s8
te
– B phase conductors can be placed in slot
si
eb
numbers 5,8,11 and finishes at slot No.2
w
ld


or
.w
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Short-pitch winding

om
t.c
• For a 4 pole 24 slot stator pole pitch is

po
gs
24/4=6

lo
.b
• For a full pitched winding the coil side in

s8
slot no 1 needs to be connected to coil

te
side in slot number 7
si
eb
w

• But if the coil sides are placed in slot 1 and


ld
or

slot 6 then the coil is said to be short-


.w
w

pitched or fractional pitched


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w

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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• In the above case the coil pitch is 5/6th of


the pole pitch

om
t.c
• The coil falls short by 1/6th or by 180/6=

po
30 degrees electrical

gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• short-pitched winding is deliberately used

om
because of the following advantages

t.c
– They save copper of end connections

po
– They improve the wave form of the generated EMF i.e

gs
the generated emf can be made to approximate to a

lo
sine wave more easily and the distorting harmonics

.b
s8
can be reduced or totally eliminated

te
– Due to elimination of high frequency harmonics, eddy

si
current and hysteresis losses are reduced thereby
eb
increasing the efficiency
w
ld

But the disadvantage is that the total voltage around the


or
.w

coils is some what reduced.


w
w
w

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• Pitch factor or coil span factor is defined


as the ratio of vector sum of induced EMF

om
t.c
per coil to the arithmetic sum of induced

po
EMF per coil

gs
lo
• Pitch factor is always less than unity

.b
s8
• In general, if the coil span falls short of full

te
si
pitch by an angle α (electrical),
eb
w

• Then Kc=cos α/2


ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• Distribution or Breadth Factor or


Winding Factor or Spread Factor

om
t.c
• In AC winding each phase winding coils

po
are not concentrated or bunched in one

gs
slot but are distributed in a number of slots

lo
.b
under each pole.

s8
te
• These coils/phase are displaced from
each other by a certain angle si
eb
w

• The result is that the EMF induced in coil


ld
or

sides are not in phase with each other but


.w

differ by an angle equal to angle equal to


w
w

the angular displacement of the slots.


w

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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• The end connections of a 3 phase single


layer winding for 4 pole 36 slot alternator

om
t.c
shown in the above figure

po
• Obviously there are 3 slots/phase/pole

gs
lo
• Coils 1,2 and 3 of R phase are placed not

.b
s8
in a single slot as a bunch but are placed

te
si
in three consecutive slots
eb
• Angular displacement between any two
w
ld

adjacent slot is 180/9=20 degrees


or
.w
w
w
w

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• If the three coils are bunched in one slot

om
then the total induced emf in the three coil

t.c
sides would be the arithmetic sum of the

po
three induced emf

gs
lo
• Since the coils are distributed the

.b
s8
individual EMF have a phase difference of

te
20o
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• The distribution factor Kd is defined as

om
• Kd= EMF with distributed winding

t.c
• EMF with concentrated winding

po
gs
lo
.b
• In general

s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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EMF EQUATION

om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
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• Effect of harmonics on pitch factor and


distribution factor

om
t.c
• Kc=COS α/2 FOR fundamental

po
for 3rd harmonic

gs
• Kc= COS 3α/2

lo
for 5th harmonic

.b
• Kc= COS 5α/2

s8

te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• Alternator on load

om
• As load on the alternator is varied its

t.c
terminal voltage is also found to vary as in

po
gs
DC generator

lo
.b
• This variation in the terminal voltage V is

s8
due to

te
si
– Drop due to armature resistance Ra
eb
w

– Drop due to leakage reactance XL


ld
or

– Drop due to armature reaction


.w
w
w
w

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• Armature resistance/phase Ra causes a

om
voltage drop/phase of IRa which is in

t.c
phase with armature current I

po
• Armature leakage reactance:-

gs
lo
• When currents flows through armature

.b
conductors, fluxes are set up which do not

s8
te
cross the air gap but leaks in different
si
eb
paths. Such fluxes are known as leakage
w
flux. This leakage flux set up an EMF of
ld
or

self inductance generally known as


.w

reactance EMF and it is ahead of I by 90


w
w

degrees
w

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• Armature reaction:-

om
• Armature MMF remains constant with time

t.c
po
• It is 90 degrees behind the main field MMF

gs
• It rotates synchronously round the

lo
.b
armature

s8
te
• In case of alternator the power factor of
si
eb
the load has a considerable effect on the
w
ld

armature reaction
or
.w
w
w
w

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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• Unity power factor

om
• In this case armature flux is cross

t.c
magnatising

po
gs
• As a result of this, the flux at the leading

lo
tip is reduced while it is increased at the

.b
s8
trailing tips.

te
si
• Armature reaction with UPF load is
eb
distortional
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• In case of Zero power factor lagging the

om
armature flux is directly opposing the main field
flux.

t.c
po
• Hence the main field flux decreases

gs
• Armature reaction in this case is wholly

lo
.b
demagnatising

s8
te
• In case of ZPF leading the main field flux and
si
armature flux are in phase thereby increases the
eb
w
air gap flux. So, the armature reaction in this
ld

case is wholly magnatising


or
.w

• For any other pf the armature reaction is partly


w
w

demagnatising and partly cross magnatising


w

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• Synchronous reactance:-

om
• the drop in voltage due to armature

t.c
reaction may be accounted for by

po
assuming a fictitious reactance Xa in the

gs
lo
armature winding

.b
s8
• The leakage reactance XL and Armature

te
si
reactance Xa may be combined to give
eb
synchronous reactance.
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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Vector diagram of a loaded


alternator

om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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• Voltage regulation:-

om
• The voltage regulation of an alternator is

t.c
defined as the rise in terminal voltage

po
gs
when full load is removed (field excitation

lo
and speed remains constant) divided by

.b
s8
the rated terminal voltage

te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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om
t.c
po
gs
lo
.b
s8
te
si
eb
w
ld
or
.w
w
w
w

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