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LNG is an acronym for iquefied atural as.

ͻ LNG is natural gas in its liquid state.

ͻ Natural gas is changed to LNG by cooling it.

ͻ The temperature of LNG is approximately -160ºC at atmospheric pressure which results in a


volume reduction of c. 600:1 compared to when in the gaseous form.

ͻ This volumetric reduction enables long distance transportation of LNG via carrier ships to be
viable.

ͻ Natural Gas formed from LNG is the same as the natural gas used in your home and is
presently used in the UK and transported through its national transmission system.

ͻ Natural gas is composed primarily of methane (typically, at least 90%)

ͻ Natural gas burns only in concentrations between 5% to 15% when mixed with air

ͻ Natural gas is a clean form of energy when compared to oil and coal.

Natural Gas Liquefaction is the process in which natural gas is converted from the gaseous to the liquid
phase. At the end of the Natural Gas Liquefaction process, the product is referred to as Liquefied Natural
Gas" or "LNG."

When natural gas is cooled down to a temperature where it becomes a liquid it is referred to as LNG. At
ambient pressure the temperature is approximately ʹ161°C (ʹ258°F). LNG is odorless, non-toxic, and
non-corrosive. LNG is primarily methane with low concentrations of other hydrocarbon and non-
hydrocarbon components based on a LNG specification.
Liquefied natural gas, or LNG, is natural gas in its liquid form. When natural gas is cooled to minus 259
degrees Fahrenheit (-161 degrees Celsius), it becomes a clear, colorless, odorless liquid. LNG is neither
corrosive nor toxic. Natural gas is primarily methane, with low concentrations of other hydrocarbons,
water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and some sulfur compounds. During the process known as
liquefaction, natural gas is cooled below its boiling point, removing most of these compounds. The
remaining natural gas is primarily methane with only small amounts of other hydrocarbons. LNG weighs
less than half the weight of water so it will float if spilled on water.

It mainly consists of methane. It is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive and nontoxic. It is a clear liquid,
with a density of about 45% the density of water. Generally, LNG is measured in metric tons when it is a
liquid, and in cubic feet when it is in its gaseous state.

Liquefaction reduces the volume by 610 times, making it more economical to transport between
continents in specially designed ocean vessels. LNG technology makes natural gas available throughout
the world.

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Synthesis gas, synthetic gas, or syngas, are the names given to gas of different (yet closely
similar) to composition that are generated in coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas liquefaction
- also known as natural gas to liquids plants and other types of waste-to-energy facilities.

á ‰       


 
A first-of-its-kind, natural gas-to-liquids or "gas liquefaction" facility was built in the U.S. that
produces high-performance, sulfur-free fuel. The gas liquefaction plant produces approximately
70 bbls of ultra clean fuel per day from natural gas.

·      

á Dahej Terminal, Petronet LNG Ltd, Gujrat


á azira Terminal, azira LNG Pvt Ltd, Gujarat
á Dabhol Terminal, Ratnagiri Power (NTPC) LTD, Maharashatra

· ·‰  

á Kochi LNG Terminal(Petronet LNG Ltd.)


á Pipavav LNG Terminal(APM Terminals)
á Mundra LNG Terminal(GSPC/Adani)
For example just in 2009, about 59 MTPA of new LNG supply
from 6 new plants comes to the market, including:

á Northwest Shelf Train 5: 4.4 MTPA


á Sakhalin II: 9.6 MTPA
á †emen LNG: 6.7 MTPA
á Tangguh: 7.6 MTPA
á atargas: 15.6 MTPA
á Rasgas atar: 15.6 MTPA
A natural gas to liquids, or "gas
liquefaction" ultra clean fuels
facility in the U.S.
 ··

LNG has an excellent record in all aspects of liquification, shipping, storage and regasification.
This is due to both the high technical standards that are used in construction and operation, and
the physical properties of LNG which are inherently less hazardous than LPG.

Because the LNG is a cold liquid created through the refrigeration process, it is not stored under
pressure.

LNG is a clear, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cryogenic liquid at normal atmospheric pressure. LNG
cannot ignite and explosions are unlikely to occur within LNG facilities.

For LNG to burn, it must be released, vaporise, mixed with air in the narrow flammable range of
between 5% to 15% gas in air, and be exposed.

If LNG leaks it begins to evaporate into a vapour (methane) which is lighter than air and will be dispersed
by the wind, making ignition unlikely.

c ·
When LNG is received at most terminals, it is transferred to insulated storage tanks that are built to
specifically hold LNG. These tanks can be found above or below ground and keep the liquid at a low
temperature to minimize the amount of evaporation. If LNG vapors are not released, the pressure and
temperature within the tank will continue to rise. LNG is characterized as a cryogen, a liquefied gas kept
in its liquid state at very low temperatures. The temperature within the tank will remain constant if the
pressure is kept constant by allowing the boil off gas to escape from the tank. This is known as auto-
refrigeration. The boil-off gas is collected and used as a fuel source in the facility or on the tanker
transporting it. When natural gas is needed, the LNG is warmed to a point where it converts back to its
gaseous state. This is accomplished using a regasification process involving heat exchangers.

c  ·
Natural gas may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly stored underground
under pressure in three types of facilities. The most commonly used in California are depleted reservoirs
in oil and/or gas fields because they are more available. Aquifers and salt cavern formations are also
used under certain conditions. The characteristics and economics of each type of storage site will dictate
its suitability for use. Two of the most important characteristics of an underground storage reservoir are
its capability to hold natural gas for future use and its deliverability rate. The deliverability rate is
determined by the withdrawal capacity of the associated valves and compressors and the total amount
of gas in the reservoir. In other states, natural gas is also stored as LNG after the natural gas has been
liquefied and placed in above-ground storage tanks. (Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy
Information Administration.)

c  ·
LNG is normally warmed to make natural gas to be used in heating and cooking as well as electricity
generation and other industrial uses. LNG can also be kept as a liquid to be used as an alternative
transportation fuel.

c! · 


Natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. It produces less emissions and pollutants than either coal
or oil. The North American supply basins are maturing and as demand for natural gas increases in
California and throughout the United States, alternative sources of natural gas are being investigated.
Natural gas is available outside of North America, but this gas is not accessible by pipelines. Natural gas
can be imported to the United States from distant sources in the form of LNG. Since LNG occupies only a
fraction (1/600) of the volume of natural gas, and takes up less space, it is more economical to transport
across large distances and can be stored in larger quantities. LNG is a price-competitive source of energy
that could help meet future economic needs in the United States.

 "‰‰#·
When cold LNG comes in contact with warmer air, it becomes a visible vapor cloud. As it continues to
get warmer, the vapor cloud becomes lighter than air and rises. When LNG vapor mixes with air it is only
flammable if it's within 5%-15% natural gas in air. If it's less than five percent natural gas in air, there is
not enough natural gas in the air to burn. If it's more than 15 percent natural gas in air, there is too
much gas in the air and not enough oxygen for it to burn.

 · ·


As a liquid, LNG is not explosive. LNG vapor will only explode if in an enclosed space. LNG vapor is only
explosive if within the flammable range of 5%-15% when mixed with air.

  $   

$   
   
Components
Names
CO2 2S N2 C1 C2 C3 iC4 nC4 iC5 nC5 C6 C7+
Inert Gas x x
Acid Gas x x
LNG x x x x x x
Natural Gas x x x x x x x x x x x x
LPG x x x x
Natural Gasoline x x x x x x x
NGL x x x x x x x x
Condensate (Stabilized) x x x x x x
     % &
 

Boiling Temp Freezing Temp Gas Purity to LNG


Components MW
(oC) (oF) (oC) (oF)
Nitrogen 28.013 -195.80 -320.44 -209.90 -345.82 <1% (Note 1)
<50-100ppmv (Note
CO2 44.010 -78.50 -109.30 -56.60 -69.88
2)
2S 34.080 -85.55 -121.99 -60.35 -76.63 <4ppmv
Methane 16.043 -161.49 -258.68 -182.48 -296.46
Ethane 30.070 -88.63 -127.53 -183.27 -297.89
Propane 44.097 -42.07 -43.73 -187.69 -305.84
i-Butane 58.124 -11.73 10.89 -159.60 -255.28
n-Butane 58.124 -0.50 31.10 -138.35 -217.03 <2%
Neo-Pentane 72.151 9.50 49.11 -16.55 2.21 <5ppmv
i-Pentane 72.151 27.85 82.13 -159.90 -255.82
n-Pentane 72.151 36.07 96.93 -129.72 -201.50 <0.1%
n-exane 86.178 68.74 155.73 -95.35 -139.63 <0.5%
Mcyclopentan 84.162 71.81 161.26 -142.46 -224.42
Benzene 78.115 80.10 176.18 5.53 41.96 1-10ppmv (Note 2)
Cyclohexane 84.162 80.74 177.33 6.55 43.80 1-10ppmv (Note 2)
Mcyclohexane 98.190 100.93 213.68 -126.59 -195.87
Toluene 92.141 110.63 231.13 -94.91 -138.84
E-Benzene 106.169 136.19 277.13 -94.98 -138.96
p-Xylene 106.169 138.85 281.93 13.26 55.87
m-Xylene 106.169 139.10 282.39 -47.87 -54.17
o-Xylene 106.169 144.41 291.94 -25.18 -13.33
n-C7 100.206 98.43 209.17 -90.61 -131.10
n-C8 114.233 125.67 258.20 -56.80 -70.23
n-C9 128.260 150.79 303.42 -53.52 -64.33
2O <0.5ppmv
<0.01microgram/Nm3
Mercury
<10Nanogram/Nm3
Note: 1. Limited by product specifications for particular projects
Note: 2. Depends on overall composition

$·
Natural gas found in oil wells

#$"
Billion cubic feet.

#
British thermal unit, a measure of the energy content of a fuel. The heat required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit at a specified temperature and pressure.
Approximately 1,027 Btus equal one cubic foot of natural gas.

#" ·
Ability of an energy-burning facility to alternately utilize more than one kind of fuel, usually gas and
diesel.

#  ·
One of the natural gas liquids and a component of liquefied natural gas. Stored and delivered in
liquefied form, obtained by processing natural gas or from a process in petroleum refining. Contains
approximately 3,260 Btu per cubic foot.

$$!
Maximum gas throughput a pipeline can deliver over a given period, generally stated MMcfIday.

$!·
A point or measuring station at which a gas distribution company receives gas from a pipeline company
or transmission system.

$‰··  
ighly compressed natural gas utilized by an operation not attached to a fixed pipeline, such as vehicles.

$‰·
Facility which supplies the energy to move gas in transmission lines by increasing the pressure of the
gas.

$$ · #
The highest pressure at which liquid and vapor phases can exist at equilibrium in a multicomponent
system.

$$ · ·‰
The highest temperature at which liquid and vapor phases can exist at equilibrium in a multicomponent
system.

$ #$"
The most common unit of measurement of gas volume. It is the amount of gas required to fill a volume
of one cubic foot under stated conditions of temperature, pressure, and water vapor. One cubic foot
equals approximately 1,027 Btu.

· $$!
Engineering calculation of capacity modeled to build a pipeline, adjusted for added compression and
pipe.

$·‰· 
Method by which one company trades a like amount of gas to another company, even though the gas
itself does not move.
·  ·
The amount of heat obtained by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of material. The gross, or
higher, heating value is the amount of heat obtained when the water produced in the combustion is
condensed. The net, or lower, heating value is the amount of heat obtained when the water produced in
the combustion is not condensed.

 ·· ·
A pipeline company that is engaged in the transportation or sale for resale of natural gas that does not
cross State boundaries, and is not subject to FERC jurisdiction under the NGA, but is subject to state
regulation.

 ·"·   


Natural gas which has been liquefied for storage by reducing the temperature to minus 260 degrees
Fahrenheit.

 ·"··· ‰


A gas containing certain specific hydrocarbons which are gaseous under normal atmospheric conditions
but can be liquefied under moderate pressure at normal temperatures. Propane and butane are the
principal examples.

 
Increasing the capacity of a transmission system by installing an additional pipeline beside the original.

‰$"
Thousand cubic feet.

‰· ·
Primary component of natural gas.

‰‰#
Million British thermal units.

‰‰$"
An abbreviation for one million cubic feet of gas.

 
Naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic
formations. The primary component is methane.

  
ydrocarbon components of wet gas. Natural gasoline and liquefied petroleum gases fall in this
category.

·'% 
Form of load management where supplemental supplies, such as LNG or storage gas, are used to
accommodate seasonal periods of peak customer demand.

(·$"  $ 
Method of financing capital projects whereby a company solicits debt for a project by pledging the
prospective revenues as debt coverage.
 ·
Derivative of petroleum refining which can be mixed with air to form a substitute for natural gas, used
for peak-shaving in some locations.

·· ·
The vapor pressure of a material measured by the Reid Method and apparatus as detailed in ASTM Test
Procedure D-323.

$ ##·
Piece of equipment through which combustion gases are passed in order to remove contaminants,
mostly sulfur oxides. This is done by mixing the gases with suitable agents that absorb or react with the
undesired elements

 % %
Situation in which production is restrained or cut off either by order of a state conservation authority
(prorating) or because the producer is unable to find a buyer at an acceptable price.

 
Gas found in its natural state containing enough sulfur to make it impractical to use without purifying.

·"$!
A subsurface geologic formation suitable for and used to store natural gas that has been transferred
from its original location for the purpose of fuller utilization of pipeline facilities and effective market
delivery or load management.

c··
Gas found in its natural state that can be used without purifying.

$"
Trillion cubic feet.

c##· ‰#·
A number proportional to the heat input to a burner at constant pressure. In British practice, it is the
gross heating value of a gas divided by the square root of its gravity. Widely used in Europe , together
with a measured or calculated flame speed, to determine interchangeability of fuel gases.

c·
Unprocessed or partially processed natural gas, produced from strata containing condensable
hydrocarbons and water.