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1.

The graph below represents changes in the size of populations of a pioneer species and a climax
species during a process of succession.

P e rio d P e rio d P e rio d P e rio d


I II III IV
S iz e o f p o p u la tio n

P io n e e r s p e c ie s

C lim a x s p e c ie s

T im e

(a) For the pioneer species during periods I and II and the climax species during periods III
and IV, state whether positive or negative feedback mechanisms are most significantly
affecting their population dynamics.

Pioneer species, I .................................... Climax species, III ...................................

Pioneer species, II .................................. Climax species, IV ....................................

(2)

(b) Sketch on the axes below the shape of the survivorship curves you would expect for each
of these species.

P io n e e r s p e c ie s C lim a x s p e c ie s
Log of Log of
num ber of num ber of
s u rv iv o rs s u rv iv o rs

% L ife s p a n % L ife s p a n

(2)

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(c) Compare the strategies these two species are likely to have in terms of specific growth
rate, parental care and competitive advantage.

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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

2. The bar-graph below shows the number of bird species found at different altitudes in the
Himalayan Mountains. These mountains, in northern India, show a transition from tropical
forest at the base, to a tundra-like ecosystem at high altitudes.

9000
8000
7000
6000
A ltitu d e / m

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0 100 200 300
N u m b e r o f b ird s p e c ie s

[G M Macdonald, Biogeography: Space, Time and Life (Blackwell, 2003), p. 414.


Reproduced by permission of Wiley-Blackwell]

2
(a) (i) Define the terms species diversity and habitat diversity.

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(2)

(ii) Use the data in the graph to state and explain the relationship between species
diversity and habitat diversity.

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(2)

(b) (i) In an African country the proportion of adult female elephants occurring naturally
without tusks increased from 10.5 % in 1969 to 38.2 % in 1989. Suggest a possible
reason for this change.

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(2)

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(ii) Suggest what might happen if a small population of elephants were to be isolated
from other elephants for a number of years.

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(3)

(iii) Explain the purpose of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered
Species (CITES), and state one limitation or weakness of the convention.

Purpose: ............................................................................................................

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Weakness: .........................................................................................................

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(2)

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(iv) Describe a named example of the species-based approach to conservation, and
evaluate its success.

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(4)

(c) “Human activities often simplify ecosystems, making them unstable.” Explain this
statement.

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(5)
(Total 20 marks)

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3. The following diagram represents three stages of pollution:

L o n g -te rm
P ro d u c tio n o f R e le a s e o f
im p a c ts o f
p o llu ta n t p o llu ta n t
p o llu ta n t

(a) With reference to named pollutants, explain how a strategy of pollution management
could be introduced at each of these three stages to reduce the impacts of pollution.

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(3)

(b) Discuss a possible disadvantage of each of the three strategies of pollution management
you described above.

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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

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4. The Inuit are indigenous aboriginal people of Northern Canada. The data below come from a
study of a Inuit fish farming community. The Inuit fish in the open sea but have also sectioned
off a large fjord (a long narrow inlet of the sea) which they use for farming salmon and shrimps.
The shrimps eat microscopic plants in the sea called phytoplankton. Salmon and kawai (a wild
fish) both eat shrimps.

Figure 1

–2 –1
All units in KJm yr

Insolation on fjord 185000.0

Insolation on open sea 1972000.0

Farmed shrimp consumed by Inuit 26.0

Gross primary production by phytoplankton 3470.0

Shrimp consumed by kawai 847.0

Respiratory loss by kawai (open sea) 572.0

Shrimp consumed by salmon (farmed) 461.0

Respiratory loss by salmon 410.0

Kawai consumed by Inuit 6.2

Salmon consumed by Inuit 4.3

Energy used in managing salmon farm 4.1

Energy used in fishing for kawai 6.7

Energy used in managing shrimp farm 14.0

Energy used in other human activities including trading furs 12.5

(a) Use the data in figure 1 to complete the diagram below.

7
Sun

F jo rd O pen sea

F a rm e d s h rim p 847

26

410

F is h in g fo r
k a w a i 6 .7

(6)

(b) (i) Define what is meant by the term gross primary productivity (GPP).

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(1)

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(ii) State how GPP differs from net primary productivity (NPP).

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(1)

(iii) Identify the factors other than insolation which affects rates of gross primary
productivity.

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(2)

(c) Using the data in figure 1, determine whether salmon or kawai is more efficient at
converting food into biomass.

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(3)

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(d) Compare the efficiency of aquatic food production system with terrestrial food production
system.

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(3)

(e) Calculations based on the data in figure 1 would suggest that farming and eating shrimp
is the most energy efficient food source for the Inuit. Suggest why the Inuit continue to
farm salmon.

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(1)

(f) Suggest ways in which this indigenous food production system might differ from a
large-scale commercial food production system.

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(3)
(Total 20 marks)

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5. (a) Define the following terms.

(i) Negative feedback

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(1)

(ii) Positive feedback

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(1)

(b) Suggest why most ecosystems are negative feedback systems.

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(1)

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The diagram below represents a coal fired power station.

sm oke . ...... ..... .. ...

coal

w a rm w a te r

[Source: Adapted from D D Kemp, Global Environment Issues, A Climatological Approach, (Taylor & Francis,1994)
p. 7. Reproduced by permission of Cengage Learning]

(c) Complete the diagram above by naming the missing input and the two missing outputs.

(2)
(Total 5 marks)

12
6. The figure below describes some features of an ecosystem at early and late stages during the
process of succession.

Feature Early Late

Organic matter Small Large


Nutrients External Internal
Nutrient cycles Open Closed
Role of detritus Small Large
Diversity ............................. .............................
Nutrient conservation Poor Good
Niches Wide Narrow
Size of organisms ............................. .............................
Life-cycles Simple Complex
Growth form r-species K-species
Stability Poor Good

[Source: D Briggs et al., Fundamentals of the Physical Environment, (Routledge, 1997) page 380.
Reproduced by permission of Taylor & Francis Books UK (Cengage Learning)]

(a) Complete the figure above for diversity and size of organisms.

(2)

(b) Distinguish between r-species and K-species.

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(2)

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(c) Explain why the amount of organic matter increases as succession occurs.

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(2)

(d) (i) Outline what is meant by the term ecosystem stability.

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(1)

(ii) Explain why ecosystems in the later stages of succession are likely to be more
stable.

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(2)
(Total 9 marks)

7. (a) (i) State the first law of thermodynamics.

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(1)

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(ii) Calculate the amount of energy output in the model below.

In p u t 1 5 % s to re d
1 0 % lo s s to
1000 kJ a fte r lo s s to
a tm o s p h e re
e n e rg y a tm o s p h e re

O U TPU T = ?

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(2)

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(b) The diagram below represents a simplified hydrological cycle.

ATM O SPH ERE

2.
3.
1.

4.
G R O U N D

(i) Identify the processes corresponding to the arrows labelled 1 to 4 in the diagram.

1. ................................................................

2. ................................................................

3. ................................................................

4. ................................................................

(2)

(ii) Suggest one weakness in the model above.

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(1)

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The graph below shows the estimated world water withdrawals from 1960 to 2000.

W a te r w ith d ra w a ls /
1 0 3 k m 3 y r–1 2

0
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

[J Loh, The Living Planet Report, © [2002] WWF (panda.org). Some rights reserved.]

(iii) Calculate the percentage increase in world water withdrawals from 1960 to 2000.

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(2)

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(iv) Suggest three reasons for the increase in water withdrawals during the period 1960
to 2000.

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(3)
(Total 11 marks)

8. The graph below shows the interdependence of population size of two species of mites.
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus serves as the food supply for Typholodromus occidentalis.

2500 50
E . s e x m a c u la tu s
T . o c c id e n ta lis (p re y )
2000 (p r e d a to r) 40
E . s e x m a c u la tu s

T . o c c id e n ta lis
1500 30

1000 20

500 10

0 0
5 15 25
5
10
15
20
25
30
5
10
15
20
25
30
5
10
15
20
25
30 10 20 30 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 25

J u ly A u gust S e p te m b e r O c to b e r N ovem ber D ecem ber Ja n u a ry F e b ru a ry

[Source: C B Huffaker, (1958), Hilgardia, Volume 27, pages 343–383.


Reprinted by permission of University of California Press.]

(a) Predict when the next population maximum of T. occidentalis will occur. Show your
working.

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(2)

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(b) Determine the numbers of both organisms on September 30.

T. occidentalis: ............................................................................................................

E. sexmaculatus: ......................................................... . ..............................................

(1)

(c) (i) Identify the five day period for which the rate of increase of E. sexmaculatus is at
its maximum.

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(1)

(ii) Determine when the difference in numbers between both populations is at a


maximum.

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(1)

(d) (i) Calculate the time lag between the maximums of both species in the period from
October 5 through November 5.

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(1)

(ii) Suggest a reason for this time lag.

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(1)

(e) (i) Describe the role that negative feedback might play in this species interaction.

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(2)

(ii) Explain why the global human population is less prone to negative feedback
control than other organisms.

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(3)

(f) Outline two examples of feedback in global warming.

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(2)
(Total 14 marks)

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9. Map of Chesapeake Bay showing areas of low and no oxygen content in estuary waters.

[MILLER, Living in the Environment, 15E. © 2007 Brooks/Cole, a part of Cengage Learning, Inc.
Reproduced by permission. www.cengage.com/permissions]

Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. Human population in the area grew
from 3.7 million in 1940 to 15 million in 1995. Levels of phosphates and nitrates have risen
considerably in Chesapeake Bay over the last four decades. Studies show that point sources
contribute about 60 % of the phosphates and non-point sources contribute about 60 % of the
nitrates. Commercial harvests of oysters, crabs and several important fish have fallen sharply
since 1960. As a result of cleanup programs, between 1985 and 1992 phosphate levels declined
by 16 % and nitrate levels by 7 %. These decreases led to a 75 % increase in submerged
vegetation during the same time period.

(a) Describe the process which causes the presence of anoxic areas (no oxygen) and low
oxygen areas in Chesapeake Bay. Include references to positive feedback in your answer.

(6)

21
(b) Evaluate the impacts of the process given in (a) on the aquatic environment of
Chesapeake Bay.

(5)

(c) Describe the types of action that could have led to the improvements in water quality
described above in recent years. Your response should include actions from all three
levels of the pollution management model.

(6)
Expression of ideas (3)
(Total 20 marks)

10. (a) Outline two management strategies for dealing with solid waste.

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(2)

(b) (i) Name the process which is accelerated by fertilizers washing into lakes and rivers.

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(1)

(ii) Outline two impacts of the process you named in (b) (i) on aquatic ecosystems.

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(2)

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(c) (i) State whether the model shown in the figure above illustrates an open system, a
closed system or an isolated system.

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(1)

(ii) Justify your answer to (c) (i).

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(2)

(iii) A model is a simplified description designed to show the structure or workings of


an object, system or concept. Discuss the strengths and limitations of the model
shown in the figure above.

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(4)
(Total 12 marks)

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11. Figures 1 and 2 represent the food webs for two ecosystems.

Figure 1. Terrestrial Grassland

S u n lig h t

G ra ss
a u to tro p h

In o rg a n ic
m a te ria l

D ecay
a n d m in e ra liz a tio n H e rb iv o re
h e te ro tro p h

D e a th

C a rn iv o re
h e te ro tro p h

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Figure 2. Marine Food Web

H um an

S p e rm w h a le
B a le e n w h a le
S m a ll-to o th e d
w h a le

C ra b e a te r
seal L e o p a rd se a l E le p h a n t
seal

S e a b ird
F is h
S q u id
C a rn iv o ro u s p la n k to n

K rill H e rb iv o ro u s
p la n k to n
P h y to p la n k to n

[Source: Tudge, C (1991) Global Ecology, The Natural History Museum, pp. 112–113]

(a) (i) State, giving two reasons, which of the food webs, Figure 1 or Figure 2, is likely to
be more stable.

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(2)

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(ii) Deduce what would happen to the ecosystem in Figure 1 if rabbits were removed.

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(2)

(iii) Predict two changes that may occur if foxes were removed from the food web in
Figure 1.

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(2)

Figure 3. Antarctic Marine Food Web

B a le e n w h a le s

K rill

S e a ls F is h

P e n g u in s
S q u id

[Source: Trudge C (1991) Global Ecology, The Natural History Museum, pp. 113]

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(b) In Figure 3, the size of the circle represents the relative biomass of each animal species
within the food web.

Identify which of the diagrams in Figure 4 below best illustrates what would happen to
the food web balance in Figure 3,

(i) if humans hunted for seals and fish.

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(1)

(ii) if humans harvested krill.

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(1)

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Figure 4.

D ia g ra m A

D ia g ra m B D ia g ra m C

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(c) “Current production may not be sustainable under present circumstances.”
[FAO cited in World Fisheries Beyond Sustainability (2002)]

(i) Define the term sustainable.

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(2)

(ii) Suggest what measures could be taken to ensure that krill are harvested sustainably.

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(4)
(Total 14 marks)

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12. The table below shows the productivity of different farming systems.

Table 1

System A B C
Migratory pastoralist, Kenya 0.025 0.01 0.004
Shifting cultivation, Papua New Guinea 1.5 0.5 0.3
Cattle, UK 3.5 0.7 0.6
Wheat, UK 97 20 17
Maize, USA 104 18 18

total food energy


–1 –1land area
A = harvested food energy (GJ ha yr ), expressed as
–1 –1
B = food energy used per person in the area (GJ ha yr )

C = if food energy use per person were equivalent to that used by an average American in the
1990s

[Source: adapted from Primack, R B (1993), Essentials of Conservation Biology, OUP, pp. 111]

(a) (i) State which farming system produces the greatest amount of food energy.

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(1)

(ii) Suggest why the farming system you identified in (a) (i) has such a high
productivity.

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(3)

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(iii) In table 2 below, list the farming systems (from table 1) as either low input or high
input systems.

(2)

Table 2

Low Input Systems High Input Systems

(b) (i) State how MEDCs (more economically developed countries) and LEDCs (less
economically developed countries) differ in terms of their dietary composition.

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(2)

(ii) Explain the differences between the ecological footprint of a LEDC and a MEDC.

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(4)

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(iii) Suggest how intensive maize production may cause damage to the environment.

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(2)

(iv) Suggest how migratory pastoralists may cause damage to the environment.

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(1)
(Total 15 marks)

13. Four main factors affect the erosion of soil: crop type, climate, soil type and topography
(landscape shape). The figure below shows the interactions between these factors.

Soil Erosion Model

A B C D
C ro p C lim a te S o il T y p e To p o g ra p h y

In fu e n c e s s tru c tu re R a in fa ll m a g n itu d e a n d C la y, s a n d , s ilt a n d lo a m a ll S lo p e a n g le a n d le n g th


a n d c o h e s io n o f s o il. A ls o fre q u e n c y. h a v e d iffe re n t q u a litie s . a ffe c t s o il e ro s io n ra te .
p ro te c ts s o il s u rfa c e .

S o il lo s s

[T O’Riordan, Environmental Science for Environmental Management, 1995, p. 233.


Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education]

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(a) Suggest how humans may have an impact on soil loss with reference to factors A, C and
D in the figure above.

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(3)

(b) (i) Outline the cause of global warming.

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(3)

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(ii) Explain how global warming may affect soils.

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(4)

(c) (i) Define the term open system, and state an ecological example of such a system.

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(2)

(ii) Outline the Gaia hypothesis.

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(2)

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(iii) Suggest one weakness in the model shown in the figure above.

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(1)
(Total 15 marks)

14. Diagrammatic representation of a eutrophic lake:

(a) Define the term eutrophication.

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(2)

(b) Identify process A and process B.

Process A: ....................................................................................................................

Process B: ....................................................................................................................

(2)

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(c) Suggest one agricultural source and one non-agricultural source that may account for
high phosphate levels.

Agricultural source: ....................................................................................................

Non-agricultural source: ..............................................................................................

(2)

(d) Suggest how an environmental manager may reduce the impact of eutrophication.

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(3)
(Total 9 marks)

15. The diagram below shows succession in a sand dune ecosystem.

A B

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(a) (i) Define the term succession.

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(2)

(ii) State what variable may be appropriate for the x-axis in the diagram above.

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(1)

(iii) Outline what will happen to soils as the ecosystem in the diagram above changes
from A to B.

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(2)

(b) State what is happening within a system when a decrease in variable “P” leads to a
decrease in variable “Q” which in turn leads to a further decrease in variable “P”.

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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

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