Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

# 9/26/2012

CE 315
DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES-I
3 Hours per Week
No. of Credit: 3.0

Flexure in Beams

By
Prof. Dr. Md. Jahangir Alam

## Department of Civil Engineering

Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology

Flexure in Beams

0.85
  . 


  .  
!





 
#\$\$% '()*
     

! "

1
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

## From similar triangles

of the strain diagram-
+, /

-. / 0 /1

0.003

0.003 0 /1

Or,

3.334
+,  -
3.334567 .

Flexure in Beams

## Calculation of  for Balanced Beam

Since,
87
/1  9 (where, ;<  29 ? 10A BCD )
:

Hence,
+, 0.003 0.003
 
-. 1 1
0.003 0 0.003 0
;< 29 ? 10A

2
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

##  0.003 E, 

 

 0.003 0 /1 E,  0 

Where,

## +, = balanced neutral axis depth

-. = effective depth to extreme tensile reinforcement layer
1 = yield point of steel

Flexure in Beams

## Reinforcement Ratio G at Balanced Condition

I<J,KLKMNOP I<J,KLKMNOP
H,  RS, -. 
Q-. QH,

  E, 
 

QH,

## E,  I<J,KLKMNOP

H, 
E,  0  Q+,

But,
W  X ⇒ I<J,KLKMNOP 1  0.85 ZQ  0.85 [\ +, Q

3
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

## Reinforcement Ratio G at Balanced Condition

Hence,
I<J,KLKMNOP 0.85 [\ +,

Q 1

## E,  I<J,KLKMNOP E,  0.85 [\ +,

H,  
E,  0  Q+, E,  0  1 +,


E,  0  1

 0.003
H,  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 /1

Flexure in Beams

## Steel Ratio Formula for Balanced Beam

The following formula can be used to determine the steel ratio at
balanced condition-

##  E, 

H,  . ab
 E,  0 
Where,
 = Compressive strength of concrete (psi)
 = Yield strength of steel (psi)
ab =factor that depends on 

4
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

## Lower Limit for Steel Reinforcement

 The ACI Code established a lower limit on the amount of
tension reinforcement.

##  The Code states that where tensile reinforcement is required,

the steel area I< should not be less than the following-

3  200
I<, cdM  Qe - f Q -
1 1 e

## For rectangular beam, g  

Flexure in Beams

Steel Ratio
 The steel ratio (or, reinforcement ratio) is given by-

I<
H
Q-
NA

## For ductile behavior, ACI Code recommends that HcKh ranges

from 50 to 60 % of H,

5
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

##  The nominal flexural strength of a concrete member is

reached when the net compressive strain in the extreme fiber
reaches the ACI Code assumed limit of 0.003.

##  It also stipulates that when the tensile strain in then extreme

tension steel /. is sufficiently large at a value equal or
greater than 0.005, the behavior is fully ductile.

Flexure in Beams

## The reinforced concrete beam is characterized by

ACI as-
 Tension-controlled
Ductile mode of failure, with ample warning of failure as
denoted by excessive cracking and deflection (preferred)

 Compression-controlled
Brittle mode of failure, with little warning

 Transitional
Beams with small axial load and large moment

6
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

## ACI 318-02 Code Strain Limits

 Tension-controlled
H
/.  0.005 ijkSk,  0.63
H,

 Compression-controlled
/.  0.002
 Transitional
0.002 m /. m 0.005

Flexure in Beams

## Maximum Steel Ratio by ACI Code

The maximum steel ratio HcKh allowed by the ACI Code can be
obtained using /1  0.005.
 0.003
HcKh  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 0.005

According to the ACI Code, when the tensile strain is greater than
or equal to 0.005, the strength reduction factor is 0.9.
When /1 f 0.005 then ∅  0.9

7
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

 0.003
HcKh  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 0.005
 0.003
H,  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 /1

∅ p 0.9

Flexure in Beams

## Minimum Steel Ratio by ACI Code

q33
HcdM  when,  p 4,500 BCD
87

4 8st
HcdM  when,  f 4,500 BCD
87

J1 Du BCDP

## When HcdM m H m HcKh the section meets the ACI Code

limitations for tension controlled section.

8
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

## Maximum Steel Ratio by ACI Code

1
HcKh 0.003 0 /1 0.003 0 ;<
 
H, 0.008 0.008

 (ksi)  (ksi) ab Gv w G
40 0.85 0.0203 0.0371
3
60 0.85 0.0135 0.0214
40 0.85 0.0271 0.0495
4
60 0.85 0.0181 0.0285
40 0.80 0.0319 0.0582
5
60 0.80 0.0213 0.0335

Flexure in Beams

## Strain Limits in terms of Neutral Axis Depth

   .    . 



!

!

  .    . 
+ 0.003 + 0.003
  0.375   0.6
-. 0.003 0 0.005 -. 0.003 0 0.002
  . E
   . y


Tension-controlled Compression-controlled

9
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

## Variation of the ∅ value for the range of strain between

/.  0.002 and /.  0.005 can be linearly interpolated to
give the following expression-

Spirally-Reinforced Sections:
. E m ∅  . yE 0 yy. E m . z

Other Sections:
. y m ∅  . { 0 .  m . z

Flexure in Beams

## Variation of ∅ as a Function of Strain

Compression Transition Tension
0.95
Controlled Zone Controlled
0.90 Spiral
∅  . yE 0 yy. E ∅  . z
0.85

0.80

0.75

∅  . E
0.70 Other
∅  . { 0 . 
0.65
∅  . y
0.60
0 0.001  0.002
.  0.003 0.004  0.005
.  0.006

10
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

## Determine the steel required to create a balanced condition for

the beam shown.
b = 10 in, h = 25 in,
d = 22 in

Given:
1  60 CD
  4 CD
;  29 ? 10A BCD

Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

## The strain at which steel yields is-

1 60,000
/.    0.00207
;< 29 ? 10A

+, -. +,

0.003 0.00207

+, 22 +,

0.003 0.00207
+,  13 Du

11
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

Again,
[\  0.85 Qk+ZCk   4,000 BCD

Z  [\ +  0.85 ? 13  11.05 Du

## X,  0.85 ZQ  0.85 ? 4 ? 11.05 ? 10

 375.7 DBC

Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

And,
X,  W,  I<J,KLKMNOP 1
Therefore,
W, 375.7
I< ,KLKMNO    6.26 Duq
1 60

Hence,
Required steel for balanced condition = y. y 

12
9/26/2012

Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

Alternatively,
 E, 
H,  . ab
 E,  0 

## {,  E, 

 .  ? .  ?  .  
y,  E,  0 y, 

## I< ,KLKMNO  H, Q-  0.0285 ? 10 ? 22

 y. E  (SAME ANSWER)

13