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9/26/2012

CE 315
DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES-I
3 Hours per Week
No. of Credit: 3.0

Flexure in Beams

By
Prof. Dr. Md. Jahangir Alam

Department of Civil Engineering


Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology

Flexure in Beams

Calculation of  for Balanced Beam


0.85
  . 


  .  
!







 
#$$% '()*
     

 ! "

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Flexure in Beams

Calculation of  for Balanced Beam

From similar triangles


of the strain diagram-
+, /

-. / 0 /1

0.003

0.003 0 /1

Or,

3.334
+,  -
3.334567 .

Flexure in Beams

Calculation of  for Balanced Beam

Since,
87
/1  9 (where, ;<  29 ? 10A BCD )
:

Hence,
+, 0.003 0.003
 
-. 1 1
0.003 0 0.003 0
;< 29 ? 10A

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Flexure in Beams

Calculation of  for Balanced Beam

 0.003 E, 


 

 0.003 0 /1 E,  0 

Where,

+, = balanced neutral axis depth


-. = effective depth to extreme tensile reinforcement layer
1 = yield point of steel

Flexure in Beams

Reinforcement Ratio G at Balanced Condition


I<J,KLKMNOP I<J,KLKMNOP
H,  RS, -. 
Q-. QH,

  E, 
 

 I<J,KLKMNOP E,  0 


QH,

E,  I<J,KLKMNOP


H, 
E,  0  Q+,

But,
W  X ⇒ I<J,KLKMNOP 1  0.85 ZQ  0.85 [\ +, Q

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Flexure in Beams

Reinforcement Ratio G at Balanced Condition


Hence,
I<J,KLKMNOP 0.85 [\ +,

Q 1

E,  I<J,KLKMNOP E,  0.85 [\ +,


H,  
E,  0  Q+, E,  0  1 +,

E,  0.85 [\



E,  0  1

 0.003
H,  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 /1

Flexure in Beams

Steel Ratio Formula for Balanced Beam


The following formula can be used to determine the steel ratio at
balanced condition-

 E, 


H,  . ab
 E,  0 
Where,
 = Compressive strength of concrete (psi)
 = Yield strength of steel (psi)
ab =factor that depends on 

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Flexure in Beams

Lower Limit for Steel Reinforcement


 The ACI Code established a lower limit on the amount of
tension reinforcement.

 The Code states that where tensile reinforcement is required,


the steel area I< should not be less than the following-

3  200
I<, cdM  Qe - f Q -
1 1 e

For rectangular beam, g  

Flexure in Beams

Steel Ratio
 The steel ratio (or, reinforcement ratio) is given by-

I<
H
Q-
NA

For ductile behavior, ACI Code recommends that HcKh ranges


from 50 to 60 % of H,

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Flexure in Beams

 The nominal flexural strength of a concrete member is


reached when the net compressive strain in the extreme fiber
reaches the ACI Code assumed limit of 0.003.

 It also stipulates that when the tensile strain in then extreme


tension steel /. is sufficiently large at a value equal or
greater than 0.005, the behavior is fully ductile.

Flexure in Beams

The reinforced concrete beam is characterized by


ACI as-
 Tension-controlled
Ductile mode of failure, with ample warning of failure as
denoted by excessive cracking and deflection (preferred)

 Compression-controlled
Brittle mode of failure, with little warning

 Transitional
Beams with small axial load and large moment

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Flexure in Beams

ACI 318-02 Code Strain Limits


 Tension-controlled
H
/.  0.005 ijkSk,  0.63
H,

 Compression-controlled
/.  0.002
 Transitional
0.002 m /. m 0.005

Flexure in Beams

Maximum Steel Ratio by ACI Code

The maximum steel ratio HcKh allowed by the ACI Code can be
obtained using /1  0.005.
 0.003
HcKh  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 0.005

According to the ACI Code, when the tensile strain is greater than
or equal to 0.005, the strength reduction factor is 0.9.
When /1 f 0.005 then ∅  0.9

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Flexure in Beams

Maximum Steel Ratio by ACI Code


 0.003
HcKh  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 0.005
 0.003
H,  0.85[\
1 0.003 0 /1

When H m HcKh tension controls and ∅  0.9

When H o HcKh section will be in the transition region and


∅ p 0.9

Flexure in Beams

Minimum Steel Ratio by ACI Code


q33
HcdM  when,  p 4,500 BCD
87

4 8st
HcdM  when,  f 4,500 BCD
87

J1 Du BCDP

When HcdM m H m HcKh the section meets the ACI Code


limitations for tension controlled section.

When H p HcdM section is not acceptable.

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Flexure in Beams

Maximum Steel Ratio by ACI Code


1
HcKh 0.003 0 /1 0.003 0 ;<
 
H, 0.008 0.008

 (ksi)  (ksi) ab Gv w G
40 0.85 0.0203 0.0371
3
60 0.85 0.0135 0.0214
40 0.85 0.0271 0.0495
4
60 0.85 0.0181 0.0285
40 0.80 0.0319 0.0582
5
60 0.80 0.0213 0.0335

Flexure in Beams

Strain Limits in terms of Neutral Axis Depth


   .    . 



!

!

  .    . 
+ 0.003 + 0.003
  0.375   0.6
-. 0.003 0 0.005 -. 0.003 0 0.002
  . E
   . y


Tension-controlled Compression-controlled

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Flexure in Beams

Variation of ∅ as a Function of Strain

Variation of the ∅ value for the range of strain between


/.  0.002 and /.  0.005 can be linearly interpolated to
give the following expression-

Spirally-Reinforced Sections:
. E m ∅  . yE 0 yy. E m . z

Other Sections:
. y m ∅  . { 0 .  m . z

Flexure in Beams

Variation of ∅ as a Function of Strain


Compression Transition Tension
0.95
Controlled Zone Controlled
0.90 Spiral
∅  . yE 0 yy. E ∅  . z
0.85

0.80

0.75

∅  . E
0.70 Other
∅  . { 0 . 
0.65
∅  . y
0.60
0 0.001  0.002
.  0.003 0.004  0.005
.  0.006

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Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

Determine the steel required to create a balanced condition for


the beam shown.
b = 10 in, h = 25 in,
d = 22 in

Given:
1  60 „CD
  4 „CD
;  29 ? 10A BCD

Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

The strain at which steel yields is-


1 60,000
/.    0.00207
;< 29 ? 10A

+, -. +,

0.003 0.00207

+, 22 +,

0.003 0.00207
+,  13 Du

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Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

Again,
[\  0.85 Qk+Z…Ck   4,000 BCD

Z  [\ +  0.85 ? 13  11.05 Du

X,  0.85 ZQ  0.85 ? 4 ? 11.05 ? 10



 375.7 „DBC

Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

And,
X,  W,  I<J,KLKMNOP 1
Therefore,
W, 375.7
I< ,KLKMNO    6.26 Duq
1 60

Hence,
Required steel for balanced condition = y. y †‡

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Flexure in Beams

EXAMPLE

Alternatively,
 E, 
H,  . ab
 E,  0 

{,  E, 


 .  ? .  ?  .  
y,  E,  0 y, 

I< ,KLKMNO  H, Q-  0.0285 ? 10 ? 22


 y. E †‡ (SAME ANSWER)

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