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WHAT IS RESEARCH?

Significance
Impact
“Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and
prying with a purpose.” A- accurate
“Research is what I’m doing when I don’t know Able to produce results that are
what I’m doing.” correct
“If we knew what it was we were doing it would not R-rigor
be called research, would it?”
Exact
 RESEARCH Careful
> The systematic investigation into and
C-curiosity-driven
study of materials, sources, etc. in
order to establish facts and reach Starts with an OBSERVED
new conclusions. PROBLEM
> An endeavor to discover new or
collate old facts etc. by the scientific H-holistic
study of a subject or by a course of Applicable to any field
critical investigation.
> It is what we do when we have a The Research Cycle
question or a problem we want to
resolve.
> We may already think we know the Research Problem
answer to our question already. Literature
Review
> We may think the answer is obvious,
common sense even.
> But until we have subjected our
problem to rigorous scientific
scrutiny, our ‘knowledge’ remains Conclusion/ Guesswork/
little more than guesswork or at best, Invention Hypothesis
intuition.
> First priority is to formulate your
question. Rigorous Scientific
> Then figure out how you are going to Scrutiny
answer it
 How have others answered QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE
it? RESEARCH
 How does your proposal fit in
QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE
with what others have done?
 How will you know when
you have answered it? QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
> Then you can present your answer.
To count things in Complete,
RESEARCH an attempt to detailed
Aim
explain what is description of
R-realistic observed what is observed
Doable Contextualization,
Generalizability,
Time-bounded interpretation,
Purpose prediction, causal
Effective understanding
explanation
Practical perspectives
Researcher uses
E-exploration Researcher is the
tools, such as
Tools data gathering
Inquiry surveys, to collect
instrument
Asking questions numerical data
Investigate
Data
S-systematic Structured Unstructured
Collection
Step-by-step Usually a large Usually a small
Scientific method number of cases number of cases
Transferable Sample (Randomly (Respondents
E-end selected selected on their
respondents) experience)
Purpose
WHAT IS THE NATURE OF REALITY? LANGUAGE OF RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE QUANTITATIVE
 Objective  Formal
 Out there  Based on set definitions
 Singular  Impersonal Voice
 Apart from the researcher  Uses accepted quantitative words-
“relationship, comparison, and within-
 Can be measured objectively by using a group”
questionnaire or an instrument
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE
 Informal
 Subjective and multiple as seen by
participants  Evolving decisions
 Constructed by the individuals involved in  Personal voice
the study
 Uses accepted words- “understanding,
 Must report faithfully these realities and rely discover, and meaning”
on voices and interrelations of informants
Assumption: RHETORICAL
Assumption: ONTOLOGICAL
PROCESS OF RESEARCH
RELATIONSHIP OF THE RESEARCHER TO
QUANTITATIVE
THE SUBJECT OF THE RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE  Deductive process

 Independent  Cause and effect

 Researcher to control bias, select a  Static design- categories isolated before


systematic sample, and objective in study
assessing a situation  Context-free
QUALITATIVE  Generalizations lead to prediction,
 Interaction explanation, and understanding

 “Living with”  Accurate and reliable through validity and


reliability
 Observing informants over a prolonged
period of time or actual collaboration QUALITATIVE

Assumption: EPISTEMOLOGICAL  Inductive process


 Mutual simultaneous shaping of factors
ROLE OF VALUES
QUANTITATIVE  Emerging design-categories identified
during research process
 Value-free and unbiased
 Context-bound
 “Accomplished through entirely omitting
statements about values from written report,  Patterns and theories developed for
uses impersonal language, and reports understanding
“facts”  Accurate and reliable through verification
 Arguing closely from the evidence gathered Assumption: METHODOLOGICAL
in the study
QUALITATIVE
 value-laden and biased
 Researcher admits the value-laden nature of
the study and actively reports his or her
values and biases as well as the value nature
of information gathered from the field
Assumption: AXIOLOGICAL
Quasi-
Experime
experime Types of Research
ntal
ntal
Correlat  The Grade 9 SSC students set out to
ional determine the number of teachers in
JGMNHS who planned to retire in the next
Quantit five years, their ages, and their main reasons
Survey
ative for considering retirement.

Descripti
ve  Ms. Gagujas set up a study in Binalonan
Causal- elementary schools to determine the
Compara effectiveness of using computer simulations
tive to teach science versus hands-on labs.
Interpreti
ve
Phenomenolo  John attempted to describe the life style of
Understa
nding a gical Binalonians during the Spanish era
situation Ethnogr
from the aphic
participa Grounde  Pedro investigated a hypothesized
nt d Theory relationship between student's attitude
Qualit perspectiv
ative Critical
e towards the teacher and grades received.
Actio
Understan n
ding and Resear
critiquing ch
Dialec
power tics  Juana conducted an in-depth study of the
within culture of private schools in Binalonan
society
The 3rd Research Paradigm
 Jim investigated the general average of
graduating students at Pangasinan State
University Campus-Urdaneta City (1)
students who were formerly SSC students
QUAL-quant
(2) students who were academic awardees
but were under the regular curriculum
Mixed
Methods QUANT-qual
Historical
QUAL-QUANT Descriptive
Correlational
Causal comparative
TIME ORDER DECISION Ethnographic
Experimental