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Essay Writing/WAT Prep.

Essay Writing
for B Schools innovation

eBook 01
Table of Contents
Sr. No Topic Page No.

1. Essay Writing for MBA Selection 1

1.1 Intro to Essay writing/
WAT Written Assessment
1.2 Evaluation Parameters
1.3 Types of Essay Topics
2. 5 Creative Brain Storming Ideas 8
2.1 PRE-Approach
2.2 SPHELTRI Approach
2.3 POP BEANS Approach
2.4 Stakeholders Approach
2.5 Time Zone Approach
3. Steps to compose an Essay 12
3.1 5 Steps to compose an
impactful essay
4. Sample Essays 18
4.1 Factual/Opinion based Essay
4.2 Abstract Essay
5. Precis Writing 26
Chapter 1: Importance of Essay Writing in MBA
1.1 Intro to Essay writing Task
An essay is a written composition where you express
your views, thoughts, and ideas on a particular topic and
supports it with facts, statements and explanations. You
need to demonstrate that you possess the required
knowledge quotient along with the proper blend of
analytical thinking for the topic asked. The length of the
essay should be apt enough to meet the purpose, keep
the reader engaged, and conform to any pre-stated

Many B schools (including IIMs) have replaced the GD

with a WAT (Written Aptitude Test)/Essay Writing test.
Others have added the WAT to their existing processes.
Generally, time given ranges from 15 to 40 minutes and
the word limit is between 100-500 words. Essay writing
reflects individual thinking, analytical ability, writing skills
as well as your personality traits.

Some essay topics require students to read a set of
circumstances and you are expected to give your opinion
or arguments based on those circumstances. Your essay
will be assessed on the basis of your ability to
communicate your message to the readers. Your score
will be based on your ability to express, organize and
support your ideas.
The theme for topics is from diverse areas: Common
themes that have been asked in previous years fall

 Political scenario
 Indian and world Economy
 Foreign Policy-current scenario
 Management Sector- problems & solutions
 Business & Commerce
 Current national & international affairs
 Technology.
A very important emerging theme during the past few
WAT sessions has been the focus on Social Issues.
Besides, there could also be abstract topics on which

you may be asked to write an essay in final selection

Few topics asked in previous years:

1. There is an increasing demand for making death
penalty compulsory for crimes against women. What is
your opinion? (IIM, Indore)
2. Strategies to improve sports in India. (IIM, Indore)
3.What does the Cashless economy mean for poor in
India? (IIM B)
4. Pros and cons of initiatives like the IPL in other sports
like badminton, kabbadi, etc. What are the impacts of
commercialization of sports? (IIM B)

5. In the light of the Supreme Court’s ruling on the right

of privacy, express your views on Adhaar? (IIM C)

1.2. Evaluation Parameters in WAT/Essay Writing

B-schools conduct essay writing/WAT to evaluate the
candidates on the basis of some specific criteria.

Following are the main parameters on which your essay
is judged:

1. Knowledge about the issue: They try to check how

updated you are with the current trends happening
around you. It’s must to read the current affairs of
last few months.
2. Content: The subject matter on the topic checks
the awareness levels of the writer; more so in case
of factual topics. The content should be
appropriate and relevant to the topic.
3. Analytical skills: How well you can analyze an
issue presented .
a.Ability to see the impact of such topics from
holistic view
b. Are you able to see the Business and Social
impact of the issue/ topic presented.
4. Decision Making Approach: In some topics where
they ask you to decide a course of action, they
check how logical, practical and feasible options
you can generate to address the issues.

5. Organization: This refers to the way you organize
your ideas. The essay is assessed on the basis of
how it is structured; arguments constructed using
examples, and supporting ideas presented from the
introduction to the conclusion. This parameter
displays the writer's logical thinking and ability to
prioritize. It is important to cluster and group
different sets of ideas and arrange them in a
manner that reflects logical progression and proper
6. Presentation: This encompasses your writing style,
use of language, grammar, correct sentences,
spellings, neatness and ease of reading. This
parameter evaluates the writer's communication
skills. It gives the examiner an idea about the
candidate's attitude, aptitude, and vision.

1.3 Types of Essays

Generally, three types of essays feature in essay

1. Factual Essay: This kind of essay deals with real
subject matter. It includes facts and figures.
Sometimes, these topics ask you your opinion
about a specific issue. A particular topic needs to
be discussed in an objective manner with
examples to support your statements. Here, it is
advised to use present tense. You are required to
keep the content within the boundaries of the
2. Abstract Essay: Abstract topics are open to
interpretation in various ways. They can be single
words, such as ‘Pink’, short sentences, such as ‘All
crows are white’, or even images. Such topics do
not have any clearly defined framework of the
topic. The purpose of these essays is to check your
lateral thinking as well as personality traits.

3. Case Study based Essay: Such topics are based on

a case study or simulated situations where a
problem is given. It could be from social or
professional field. It requires you to solve the given

problem. In other words, it checks your problem
solving and analytical ability along with writing

Sample Case Study: A software company was entering a

new area of MIS. This company had a good reputation in
the software areas. The company won a contract for MIS
for a pharmaceutical company. The project was
scheduled for completion in one year. But after 8 months
a large part of the project was incomplete. Not
completing the project on schedule will bring loss of face
and litigation for the company. What should the
company do?

Chapter 2: 5 Creative Brainstorming Ideas
Before you start writing the essay, spend 2 minutes to
generate ideas on the topic. This helps you to think
laterally and divergently on the various issues and
challenges with respect to the given topic.

The following are some powerful tips to brainstorm

2.1 Technique- 1: PRE-Approach
i) Write the topic in a circle
ii) Draw arrows and smaller circles outside
iii) Fill these smaller circles with
a. points
b. rational/ facts
c. supporting example
2.2 Technique-2: SPHELTIR Approach
This approach is a yardstick to evaluate the topic from
multiple perspectives. SPHELTRI is an acronym for-
social, political, historical, economic, legal, technological,
international, and religious. This method is very useful
for brainstorming on factual topics. It gives you an

opportunity to think on the topic on different disciplines
and thereby helps in evaluating the topic in a holistic

2.3. Technique-3: POPBEANS Approach

This is also a useful tool to think about topics that
require both structure and diversity. The tool assesses
the following aspects surrounding a given topic- POP
BEANS is an acronym which stands for - people, objects,
place, behavior, event, action, nature, and society. This
method is particularly useful for abstract topics.

Let’s take up an example topic and see how we can use

this technique.

Sample Topic: "Black"

As you can see, this single-letter is abstract in nature and
requires you to think outside of the box. Using the
POPBEANS approach, you can think of the following
pointers for this topic:
 People - Corrupt/ dishonest people

 Objects - Black hole, manipulated balance sheet
(commerce point)
 Place - Historical monuments, graveyard, South or
North pole
 Behavior - Rude and aggressive behavior
 Event - 26/11, other tragic events
 Actions - Honor killing, female foeticide, negligent
 Nature - Environmental degradation, catastrophic
 Society - Decline in values, morals
Remember, the above are simple pointers that you
can relate with the topic in any way possible. You can
build content on these pointers and take the essay in
any direction.

2.4 Technique -4: Stake Holders Approach

Let, say you have a topic on Impact of Social Media. So,
first identify the various stake holders involved. For eg,
here the various stakeholders can be:
a. Audience

b. Participants
c. Sponsoring Corporates
d. Society at large
e. Ad/ PR agencies
f. Government etc.
g. Regulatory bodies

Once you have identified the stake holders, list the

impact on each entity.

2. 5 Technique - 5: Time Zone Approach

This refers to breaking the topic in three phases and
elaborating on it. Time Zone can -Pre, During/ Current
times and Future.
For example if the Topic is on “Artifical Intelligence”, you
can write about it’s role and impact in the past, in the
present times and in the future.
You can also use the above techniques such as
SPHELTRI or Stake Holder approach to show its impact
in each phase.

Chapter 3: Steps to Compose an Essay

Step 1: Read the Topic

Understand the topic and highlight the key terms of
the topic. See what is expected out of this topic.
Define the purpose – Ask yourself is the essay meant
a. Persuade - whether for or against, you should be
moderately passionate about the issue and
convince with relevant arguments.
b. Explain/Educate - you should be suitably well-
informed about the issue. You should be able to
provide relevant facts and figures to explain or
educate on that topic.

Step 2: Brain Storm

Spend 1- 2 minutes for generating ideas and looking at
the topic from multiple perspectives. If you jot down your
ideas, it is easier to compose and present in a logical

Step 3: Prepare an Outline
Another aspect of organizing your ideas for the essay is
to prepare effective outlines.
a. Note down the main points- consider: chronology,
logic, sequence
b. Put the strongest points at the start and the end,
leaving the weakest in the middle
c. Ensure a logical and structured flow

Step 4 : Writing the essay

In its most basic and traditional form, an essay has three
parts: introduction, body and conclusion. Each of these
parts has a specific purpose which means the reader will
be looking for expected features.
i. Introduction: Any introduction starts with a general
opening statement which informs readers about
the subject and gradually narrows to a specific
thesis. The thesis statement, tells the reader what
you are going to say about your topic.
Thesis statements often come at the end of the
introductory paragraph.

Tips to write a good introduction:
 Define the Key terms mentioned in the topic.
 Attract attention by some quotes, anecdotes,
statistics, etc.
 Give an overview of the essay's focus and flow
 Finish the introduction with the Thesis Statement
 It is not a summary but merely an introduction to
what is to follow
 Introduction should not exceed 10% of the total
length of the essay

ii. The Body

The body is made up of the paragraphs which support
your thesis. These paragraphs contain the evidence,
arguments, and examples that support your ideas. The
number of paragraphs will depend upon on the number
of ideas covered. Try to follow ‘one point-one paragraph’

The following need to be kept in mind at this stage:

 Each main idea becomes a body paragraph
 Start each body paragraph by writing a main point
 Then, write supporting points for the main point
 Elaborate on the supporting points
Effective body paragraphs possess three important
1. Unity: Focus on one main idea.
2. Development: This occurs when the idea is
elaborated in the paragraph. This elaboration
usually consists of the evidence and examples that
support the point you are making in the paragraph.
3. Coherence: Everything in the paragraph relates to
and expands on the main idea of the paragraph.

iii. The Conclusion

The conclusion starts with a summary of the specific
points of your essay, followed by a restatement of your
thesis (usually in a slightly reworded form), and ends
with a rather general statement about the implications of
your thesis). Considering the time given to write an

essay, please try to conclude in a concise way and do not
try to introduce any new idea.

Tips to write a good conclusion:

 Review the main points (but do not restate them)
 Provide a final perspective on the topic
 Remember not to violate the intent specified by the
Thesis Statement

For example, consider the topic "UN-Reforms". Let’s see

which course this topic will take with different lines of
 Persuade: Does the UN need reforms? (list
arguments ‘for’ or ‘against’)
 Explain: The UN needs urgent reforms ( list the
steps proving why)
 Educate: The need for UN reforms (list the areas
that need attention)

There are three kinds of ideation that you can up for

essay topics:

 Theoretical-the underlying basis
 Conceptual- the tools/concepts
 Empirical-the illustrations/examples

All three refer mainly to the body paragraphs:

 Theoretical – the main point of a body paragraph
 Conceptual - the elaboration of the body paragraph
 Empirical -examples to substantiate the body

Step 5: Proof read

Spend 1- 2 minutes to proof read what you have written.
a. Check for grammar
b. Check for spellings
c. Check for logical flow of the ideas and overall

Chapter 4 : Sample Essays
4.1 Factual Topic
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
"Sanitation is more important than Independence"; these
words of Gandhiji have laid the foundation for Swachh
Bharat Abhiyan. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Clean India
Campaign is one of its kind in the history of India led by
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on a perfect day of Gandhi
Jayanti. On 2 October 2014, Narendra Modi launched this
nationwide campaign that aims to clean up the country
in the next five years; for he believes that Gandhiji not
only fought for independence but also for a clean
The campaign aims to cover 4041 statutory towns to
clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country.
The campaign was launched by the Prime Minister
himself by cleaning the roads in Delhi. Its inaugural
proved one of the biggest campaigns when millions of
students, employees and citizens participated in the
event, cleaning various localities. Modi exclaimed "Is
cleaning only the responsibility of the karamcharis? Do

citizens have no role in this? We have to change this
mindset." He asked all the citizens including celebrities,
sports legends and business tycoons to join the
campaign. Modi had invited nine public figures: Mridula
Sinha, Sachin Tendulkar, Baba Ramdev, Shashi Tharoor,
Anil Ambani, Kamal Hasan, Salman Khan, Priyanka
Chopra and Team of Taarak Mehta ka Ooltah Chashmah-
to make a contribution towards Swachh Bharat, share
the same on social media, and invite nine other people to
do the same, hence forming a chain. He has asked
people to share their contributions on social media. He
has asked every Indian to spend 100 hours annually in
this drive. He has even urged the need to build toilets for
proper sanitation. Modi believes that other nations are
clean not only because of the efficient clean drive, but
because of the joint efforts of citizens too. The citizens
over there are aware of their responsibility and thus
refrain from littering.

Volunteer actor Ravi Kishan said, "....We always enforce

our Fundamental Rights but we never try to carry out our

Fundamental Duties. I'm supporting the Clean India
campaign because just like our Prime Minister's concern,
I too share the vision of a Clean India, Green India."
Eminent people have come out themselves shouldering
the responsibility. HRD Minister Smriti Irani has directed
on the use of Corporate Social Responsibility funds for
construction of toilets as part of the Swachh Bharat
Swachh Vidyalaya Campaign. Modi aims to fulfil the
dream of clean India by the 2019, the 150th birth
anniversary of Gandhiji. To check the progress of the
campaign, Modi has himself made surprise visits to
various offices. His team of ministers too, has
contributed by taking up the task of cleaning. Students
of Delhi University have decided to study the impact of
this campaign thereby suggesting scope for
improvement. After the completion of 5 years they will
submit the document including success rate, problems
and various other studies and findings related to the

Clean India can inevitably boost the international tourism
thereby adding to country's growth. The campaign has
just started, for its success every citizen has to put in
efforts. Only then our nation can become a world-class
country like European countries. No matter how
successfully our economy booms; if the country is not
clean at the ground level, the citation of being a
developed nation will also not yield result. Modi
maintains Indians can do it. If Indians can reach Mars
with minimum expense then they can even clean their

4. 2 Opinion based Essay

Is Net Neutrality required in the Indian Perspective?
Net neutrality is the principle that Internet Service
Providers (ISPs) and governments should treat all data
on the Internet equally, not discriminating or charging
differentially by user, type of attached equipment or
mode of communication. The term was coined by
Columbia University media law professor Tim Wu in
2003. Let us examine the pros and cons of net neutrality.

Neutrality proponents claim that telecom companies
seek to impose a tiered service model in order to control
the pipeline and thereby remove competition, create
artificial scarcity, and oblige subscribers to buy their
otherwise uncompetitive services. Many believe net
neutrality to be primarily important as a preservation of
current freedoms, and avoiding creation of monopolies.
Vinton Cerf, co-inventor of the Internet Protocol and
considered a "father of the Internet," as well as Tim
Berners-Lee, creator of the Web, and many others have
spoken out in favor of net neutrality.
Critics of net neutrality argue that data discrimination of
some kinds, particularly to guarantee quality of service,
is not problematic, but is actually highly desirable. Today,
in an age when consumers surf the web, Skype and
watch YouTube videos simultaneously, ISPs face a
deluge of demand for more bandwidth – and naturally,
they want to be paid for providing it. They want the
freedom to charge differential tariffs for different Internet
content. Opponents of net neutrality regulation also
argue that the best solution to discrimination by

broadband providers is to encourage greater competition
among such providers. Recently, German Chancellor
Angela Merkel argued for a two-lane internet. One lane
for special, high priority service and another that's meant
to resemble the internet as it exists today.

In India, the challenge is scarcity, not monopolistic

competition, as the Internet market suffers from small
size, not from dominance by any player or technology.
Given that just 1/4th of the Indian population has access
to the Internet so far, a free Internet service like Free
Basics or Airtel Zero may not be such a bad idea.
Therefore, imposing net neutrality in India may be
counter-productive. It would be best to encourage free
competition among ISPs, so that competition does not
allow any monopolies.

4.3. Sample Abstract Essay

To be or not to be
“Life is really simple, but we insist on making it
complicated” – Confucius. To be or not to be can be

interpreted as a state of dilemma, a state of making a
decision between difficult choices.

A difficult choice in front of the Indian government is

how to handle the diplomatic relations with Pakistan,
given the tumultuous state of affairs at the border.
Whether it is the recent Pathankot and Uri attacks or the
handing over of Dawood, things are tricky to say the
least. Further, a choice being reviewed by the Supreme
Court to consider is whether to lift the ban imposed by
the Tamil Nadu High Court on the entry of women in the
Sabrimala Temple in 1992.
A very difficult decision is to be taken by the Telecom
Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is whether to allow
Internet service providers charging differential rates for
different services of not. Ethical dilemmas come in front
of companies on a daily basis. Whether it is Volkswagen
emission scandal, or the difficult choices faced by
tobacco, liquor and cosmetics companies on how
ethically to pursue their marketing activities.

Also, a nearly impossible choice to make for European
policy makers is whether to continue to allow the influx
of migrants from the Middle East and Africa, or to impose
strict border controls. To summarize, the phrase ‘To be or
not to be’ signifies choices, none of which are easy, but
are integral in our lives and do demand difficult decisions
to be made.

Chapter 5 : Précis Writing
A precis is like a miniature portrait of the passage: it
retains the absolute essential points accompanied with
the mood and tone of the author of the passage. An
important aspect one must be careful about is that one
should not add one’s subjective interpretation or
comments to the précis and should try to retain the
original author’s voice and opinions. As far as the writing
style is concerned, one must ensure that one writes clear
and effective sentences (no rambling) and one’s diction
is flawless. Ultimately, it is the coherence of the views
that you presented in the précis that matters, and this
can be achieved by making sure that one is precise and
to the point in one’s approach. Unnecessarily long
sentences or rambling thoughts are not required in
précis writing, and one should make sure that one sifts
from one point to another in a smooth matter. At the end
of the day, the précis should make sense and be logical
in its presentation.

While keeping the above in mind, you need to keep in
mind what a precis is not. The following are some of
things that should not be a part of or a reflection of the
 simply a summary of a passage.
 simply an abstract of a passage.
 an outline of a passage.
 a mere selection of a few important sentences
from a passage.
 a collection of disconnected facts and statements.

Features of a Good Précis

A good Précis:
 is marked by clarity, brevity and precision.
 is not just lifting of the sentences from the original.
It should be written in the précis writer's own
 is a miniature version of the original passage.
 must have a logical order and be well-knit and well

 must have coherence; must use linking devices
such as so, therefore, and, because further etc.
 and must follow the order of ideas of the original.
 must have a title.
 is written in reported speech.
 must not contain any details not found in the

Do's in a précis
 Start your précis by highlighting the main idea of
the passage and you should create contextual
environment where you can place the necessary
points. Once the main idea is established in the
précis, you can present the methods, points, facts
etc. used by the author of the passage.
 Compress and clarify a lengthy passage, article, or
book, while retaining important concepts, key
words, and important data.
 Remove what is superfluous and retain the core
essence of the work.

 Always remember that mentions about
history/writing about history should be advisably
done in the past tense.
 State the purpose of the research or piece of
writing (why was it important to conduct this
research or write on this topic?)

Don'ts in a précis
 Do not express your own opinion, wish, remark or
 Do not insert any question in your précis. Its
significance, if essential, may be expressed by a
 Do not use abbreviations or contractions.
 Do not be jerky. This suggests that most probably,
you have not understood the sense of the passage

Precis in the Making

When one is writing a précis, one should take care of a
few essential points. The first thing is that one needs to
convey the general idea of the argument with absolute
clarity. The second thing that you need to do is to make
sure that all the important points of the original passage
are included in the precis. Lastly, make sure that the
language of the précis is clear, crisp and concise, and
follows the rule for correct diction.
The following rules are general guidelines you should
follow while writing a précis:

 Closely read the passage, and identify the central

idea of the passage. It is vital to identify the
general idea of the passage and incorporate it in
one’s précis.
 Look-out for the total number of words. If the
number is not provided, quickly calculate the
number using approximations.
 In order to understand the passage clearly, make
sure that you read the passage closely, and give it

a couple of reads before you start writing the
 Highlight the most important points in the
passage, and make notes. Leave out all non-
essential information from the précis.
 Provide an apt heading to your précis.
 Note making is an essential task for writing précis.
You should try to arrange the points in most logical
order, and ensure the order of thought is the same
as the original.
 The three grammatical rules you need to follow
while writing a précis are: write it in third person,
indirect form and appropriate past tense.
 It is advisable to provide designations of officials
rather than names and titles. In case the official
designation is not provided, you can use the
personal name. kindly be consistent with the
pattern you adopt.
 Make sure you review your rough draft, remove the
chinks and ensure that you have made no
language related errors.

 Before writing your précis, make sure you have a
glance over the original to make sure you have not
missed anything.
 Finally, a wise policy would be a count the words of
your precis and put them down in a bracket at the

Sample Passage
There is an enemy beneath our feet - an enemy more
deadly for his complete impartiality. He recognizes no
national boundaries, no political parties. Everyone in the
world is threatened by him. The enemy is the earth itself.
When an earthquake strikes, the world trembles. The
power of a quake is greater than anything man himself
can produce. But today scientists are directing a great
deal of their effort into finding some way of combating
earthquakes, and it is possible that at some time in the
near future mankind will have discovered a means of
protecting itself from earthquakes. An earthquake strikes
without warning. When it does, its power is immense. If it
strikes a modern city, the damage it causes is as great

as if it has struck a primitive village. Gas mains burst,
explosions are caused and fires are started. Underground
railways are wrecked. Buildings collapse, bridges fall,
dams burst, gaping crevices appear in busy streets. If the
quake strikes at sea, huge tidal waves sweep inland. If it
strikes in mountain regions, avalanches roar down into
the valley. Consider the terrifying statistics from the past
1755: Lisbon, capital of Portugal - the city destroyed
entirely and 450 killed. 1970: Peru: 50,000 killed.In 1968
an earthquake struck Alaska. As this is a relatively
unpopulated part, only a few people were killed. But it is
likely that this was one of the most powerful quakes ever
to have hit the world. Geologists estimate that during the
tremors, the whole of the state moved over 80 feet
farther west into the Pacific Ocean. Imagine the power of
something that can move an entire subcontinent! This is
the problem that the scientists face. They are dealing
with forces so immense that man cannot hope to resist
them. All that can be done is to try to pinpoint just where
the earthquake will strike and work from there. At least
some precautionary measures can then be taken to save

lives and some of the property. (330 Words)'
Based on the above paragraph, we-arrive at the following
theme sentences for the four paragraphs:
 Earthquake - the deadly enemy of mankind.
 Damage caused by an earthquake in general.
 Damage caused by an earthquake-in particular,
 What can the scientists do?

The above four theme sentences can be developed into

the following outline:
 Earthquake - the deadly enemy of mankind.
 Earthquake strikes all without a distinction of
national boundary or political affiliation.
 The power of a quake is greater than that of
a man-made weapon of destruction.
 Scientists are trying to find out means to
combat earthquakes; they will find some way
to protect themselves from earthquakes.
 Damage caused by an earthquake in general:
 Strikes without warning.

 Modern city when struck reduced to a
primitive village.

 Damage caused by an earthquake in particular.

 Quake strikes plains, seas and mountains
causing all round destruction.
 In 1755, Lisbon destroyed, 450 killed.
 In 1970, Peru struck, 50,000 killed.
 What can the scientists do?
 In 1968, Alaska hit, subcontinent moved 80
feet into the Pacific Ocean.
 Scientists cannot resist the powerful
 They can predict the place of origin of the
quake so that precaution can be taken to
save man & property.

Based on the above outline, we can make the following

rough draft:
 Earthquake- The Great Destroyer

Earthquake is the deadly enemy of mankind. Earthquake
strikes all without a distinction of nationality or political
affiliation. The power of a quake is greater than that of
any man-made weapon of destruction. An earthquake
strikes mankind without a warning. A modern city when
struck is reduced to a rubble. A quake strikes plains, seas
and mountains causing all round destruction. The quake
struck Lisbon in 1755 killing 450; Peru in 1970 killing
50,000; Alaska in 1968 moving it 80 feet into the Pacific
Ocean. Scientists are trying to find out means to combat
earthquakes and they are able to predict at least where
the earthquake will hit so that precaution can be taken to
save man and property from destruction. As the number
of words in the rough draft is more than required we shall
have to reduce it further without reducing the ideas.
The final draft would look as follows:

 Earthquake - The Great Destroyer

Earthquake is the mankind's deadly enemy. Earthquake
strikes all without a distinction of nationality or political
affiliation. The power of a quake is greater than that of

any man-made weapon of destruction. An earthquake
strikes mankind without a warning. A modern city when
struck is reduced -to a nibble. A quake strikes plains,
seas and mountains causing all round destruction. The
quake struck Lisbon in 1755 killing 450; Peru in 1970
killing 50,000; Alaska in 1968 moving it 80 feet into the
Pacific Ocean. Scientists are trying to find out means to
combat earthquakes, to predict the origin of the quake so
that precaution can be taken to save man and property
from destruction. (115 words)