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Ashwani Tyagi

● 13+ yrs teaching experience


● Mentored 50K+ students
● Produced AIR- 2, 4 , 6 , 9 (NEET)
AIR - 3, 4, 9 (AIIMS)
AIR - 10, 14 (JEE Adv)
● 10+ ICHO selections
● 100+ KVPY selections
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The Mole Concept
Matter

“Anything that occupies space and has mass is called matter.”


❏ Ancient indian and greek philosophers believed that the wide variety of
object around us are made from combination of five basic elements:
Earth, Fire, Water, Air and Sky.

❏ The Indian philosopher Kanad (600 BC) was of the view that matter was
composed of very small, indivisible particle called “parmanus”. Ancient Greek
philosopher also believed that all matter was composed of tiny building
blocks which were hard and indivisible.

❏ The Greek philosopher Domocritus named these building blocks as atoms,


meaning indivisible.
Dalton’s Atomic Theory

❏ Matter is made up of very small indivisible particles called atoms.

❏ All the atoms of a element are identical in all respect i.e. mass, shape, size ,
etc. and atoms of different elements are different in nature.

❏ Atoms cannot be created or destroyed by any chemical process.


Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter

Physical Chemical

Solids Liquids Gases Pure Mix

Elements Compounds

homo Hetero

Solutions Suspensions Colloids


Law of Chemical Combinations

The combination of elements to form compounds is governed by the following


basic laws.

(i) Law of Conservation of Mass


(ii) Law of Definite Proportions
(iii) Law of Multiple Proportions
(iv) Law of Reciprocal Proportions
(i) Law of Conservation of Mass

“It states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed.”

❏ During any physical or chemical change the total mass of the products
produced is equal to the total mass of the reactants reacted.
When 20 g of NaHCO3 is heated, 12.62 g of Na2CO3 and 5.24g of CO2 is
EXAMPLE produced. How many grams of H2O is produced?
(ii) Law of Definite Proportions

“A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion


of elements by weight.“

❏ Also referred to as Law of Definite Composition.


When 50 g of ammonia is heated it gives 41.18 g of Nitrogen. When 10 g. of
EXAMPLE Nitrogen is combined with required amount of hydrogen it produces 12.14g
ammonia. Show that the given data follows the law of constant compositions.
(iii) Law of Multiple Proportions

“If two elements can combine to form more than one compound,
the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the
other element, are in the ratio of small whole numbers.”
Sodium and oxygen combine to form two compounds of which one is Na2O.
EXAMPLE The percentage of sodium in the other compound is 59%. Find the formula of
this compound.
11th Grade
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Subjects Timings
Physics 4 PM
Chemistry 5 PM
Biology 6 PM
12th Grade
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Subjects Timings
Physics 4 PM
Chemistry 5 PM
Biology 6 PM
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DPP -1 , Mole Concept , NEET / AIIMS
1. Maximum no. of hydrogen atoms are in:
(A) 16g of CH4 (B) 31.2g of C6H4
(C) 34.2g of C12H22O11 (D) 36g of C6H12O6

2. 3 mol of ammonia contains:


(A) 18 gm of hydrogen (B) 42 gm of nitrogen (C) both (D) None

3. Total no. of protons in 36 ml of water at 4°C (where r of water = 1 g/ml) is


(A) 20 (B) 16 (C) 20 NA (D) 16NA

4. In which of the following pairs both members have same no. of atoms
(A) 1 gm O2, 1 gm O3 (B) 1 gm N2, 2 gm N
(C) Both (D) None
DPP-1 , Mole Concept,NEET / AIIMS

5. The molecular wt. of green vitriol is M0. The wt. of 10-3 NA molecules of it is
(A) M0 gm (B) M0 mg (C) 103 M0 gm (D) 10-3 M0mg

6. A sample contains 200 atoms of hydrogen, 0.05 gm atom of nitrogen, 10-20 gm atom of oxygen.
What is the approximate no. of total atoms
(A) 200 (B) 6223 (C) 3 x1022 (D) none of these

7. The element A at wt.=75 and B at wt. =32 combine to form a compound X. If 3 mol of B combine
with 2 mol of A to give 1 mol of X, the weight of 5 mol of X is
(A) 246 gm (B) 1230 amu (C) 1.23 kg (D) None of these

8. Which of the following has the highest mass


(A) 1g atom of C (B) ½ mole of CH4
(C) 10 ml of H2O (D) 3.011 x 1023 atom of oxygen.
DPP-1 ,Mole Concept, NEET / AIIMS

9. Which one of the following samples contains the largest number of atoms.
(A) 2.5 mole CH4 (B) 10 mole He (C) 4 mole SO2 (D) 1.8 mole S8

10. Which of the following has greatest no. of oxygen atoms


(A) 10 mole water (B) 200 gm of C12H22O11 (C) 144 gm O3 (D) 2.5 mole H2SO3

11. Which of the following substances contains the greatest mass of chlorine
(A) 5 gm Cl2 (B) 60 gm NaClO3 (C) 0.10 mole of KCl (D) 0.5 mole of Cl2

12. Which of the following samples contains the smallest no. of atoms
(A) 1 g of CO2 (g) (B) 1 g of C8H18 (l) (C) 1 g of C2H6 (g) (D) 1 g of LiF (s)