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Name: SENG Dano

ID: 70824
Class: Leadership Management

Reflection (Chapter 10: Motivation and Coaching Skill)

The purpose of this chapter is is to provide the reader with specific ideas for motivating and coaching
group members. A leader is supposed to be able to inspire people. Nevertheless, influencing others through
specific motivation techniques and coaching is also necessary.
Effective leaders are outstanding motivators and coaches. Motivation and coaching techniques are important
because not all leaders can influence others through formal authority or charisma and inspirational leadership
alone. Face-to-face, day-by-day motivational skills are also important.
Expectancy theory incorporates features of other motivation theories and offers the leader many guidelines
for triggering and sustaining constructive effort from group members. The expectancy theory of motivation is
based on the premise that how much effort people expend depends on how much reward they expect to get in
return. Expectancy theory as applied to work has recently been recast as motivation management. The theory
assumes that people choose among alternatives by selecting the one they think they have the best chance of
attaining. Furthermore, they choose the alternative that appears to have the biggest personal payoff.
A. Basic Components of Expectancy Theory
All versions of expectancy theory have three major components.
1. Valence is the worth or attractiveness of an outcome. Each outcome in a work situation has a valence
of its own. Valences range from – 100 to +100 in the version shown here. A valence of – 100 reflects
intense desire to escape an outcome, whereas +100 indicates intense desire for an outcome. A zero
valence reflects indifference.
2. Instrumentality is the probability assigned by the individual that performance will lead to certain
outcomes. An outcome is anything that might stem from performance, such as a reward. An
instrumentality is also referred to as a performance-to-outcome expectancy because it reflects the link
between performance and outcomes. Each outcome has a valence of its own. And each outcome can
lead to other outcomes or consequences, referred to as second-level outcomes.
3. Expectancy is the probability assigned by the individual that effort will lead to performing the task
correctly. It is also referred to as effort-to-performance expectancy. If you have high self-efficacy
(the confidence in your ability to carry out a specific task), your motivation will be high. For
motivation to occur, the sum of all the valences must deviate from neutral, so that the person will
work hard to attain or avoid the outcome. The expectancy and instrumentality must also be high. A
seeming contradiction in expectancy theory requires explanation: People will engage in low-
probability behaviors provided that the valence is extraordinarily high.
4. A Brief Look at the Evidence. Two researchers performed a meta-analysis of seventy-seven studies
of how well various aspects of expectancy theory were related to workplace criteria such as
performance and effort. Despite mixed evidence, the general conclusion reached was that the three
components of expectancy theory are positively related to workplace criteria. Another finding was
that effort expended on the job was positively correlated with valence.
B. Leadership Skills and Behaviors Associated with Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory has many implications for leaders and managers with respect to motivating others.
Some of these implications would also stem from other motivational theories and would fit good management
practice in general.
1. Determine what levels and kinds of performance are needed to achieve organizational goals.
2. Make the performance level attainable by the individuals being motivated.
3. Train and encourage people.
4. Make explicit the link between rewards and performance.
5. Make sure the rewards are large enough.
6. Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the reward.
7. Explain the meaning and implications of second-level outcomes. Understand individual differences in
The core finding of goal theory is as follows: Individuals who are provided with specific, hard goals
perform better than those who are given easy, nonspecific, “do your best” goals or no goals. At the same time,
however, the individual must have sufficient ability, accept the goal, and receive feedback related to the task. A
goal is what a person is trying to accomplish. Following are consistent findings from goal theory:
1. Specific goals lead to higher performance than do generalized goals.
2. Performance generally improves in direct proportion to goal difficulty. Goals that are too difficult
can be frustrating, yet powerful goals can be inspirational. These powerful goals can be divided
into sub-goals to facilitate attainment.
3. For goals to improve performance, the worker must accept them. (Recent experiments suggest,
however, that the importance of commitment may be overrated.)
4. Goals are more effective when they are used to evaluate performance.
5. Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards. Rewarding people for reaching goals is perhaps
the best-accepted principle of management.
6. Group goal setting is as important as individual goal setting.
7. A learning-goal orientation (wanting to learn) improves performance more than does a
performance-goal orientation (wanting to look good). One explanation of the value of goals is
that they establish a discrepancy between the real and the ideal. The accompanying arousal
prompts the person to achieve the goal.
Behavior modification is an attempt to change behavior by manipulating rewards and punishments. An
underlying principle is the law of effect: Behavior that leads to a positive consequence is repeated, and behavior
that leads to a negative consequence tends not to be repeated.
A. Behavior Modification Strategies
Behavior modification applies to both learning and motivation. The four key strategies are positive
reinforcement, avoidance motivation (negative reinforcement), punishment, and extinction. A guiding principle
for motivating workers through behavior modification is that you get what you reinforce.
B. Rules for the Use of Behavior Modification
Leaders can use behavior modification effectively by following certain rules:
1. Target the desired behavior.
2. Choose an appropriate reward or punishment.
3. Supply ample feedback.
4. Do not give everyone the same-sized reward.
5. Find some constructive behavior to reinforce (behavior shaping).
6. Schedule rewards intermittently.
7. Ensure that rewards and punishments follow the behavior closely in time.
8. Change the reward periodically.
9. Make the rewards visible and the punishments known.
Substantial research indicates that behavior modification leads to important outcomes such as productivity
improvement. An experiment in the operations division of a credit-card processing company found that monetary
rewards based on the principles of behavior modification outperformed routine pay for performance (37 percent
versus 11 percent).
Motivating others by giving them recognition and praise can be considered a direct application of positive
reinforcement. Recognition programs to reward and motivate employees are standard practice.
Recognition is a strong motivator because it is a normal human need to crave recognition, and many
workers feel recognition-deprived. To appeal to the recognition need of others, identify a meritorious behavior
and then recognize the behavior with an oral, written, or material reward. Also, apply the rules for behavior
modification. Because recognition is low cost or no cost, it has an enormous return on investment in comparison
to a cash bonus. However, not everybody (particularly highly technical workers) responds well to recognition.
An effective recognition award possesses at least one of the following qualities: (1) it has symbolic meaning, (2)
it inspires pride of ownership, or (3) it helps to reinforce the philosophy or identity of the giver.
Effective leaders who deal directly with other employees are good coaches. The quality of the relationship
between the coach and the person coached distinguishes coaching from other forms of leader-member
interactions. Coaching is a way of enabling others to act and build on their strengths. Coaching often increases
A. Key Characteristics of Coaching
Evered and Selman regard coaching as a paradigm shift from traditional management, which focuses heavily
on control, order, and compliance. Coaching, in contrast, focuses on uncovering actions that enable people to
contribute more fully and productively. Coaching is also seen as a partnership for achieving results. The link
between leadership and coaching is explained using the following characteristics of coaching.
1. Coaching is a comprehensive and distinctive way of being linked to others in the organization.
2. Coaching is a way of being and relating that might ordinarily be explained away as the “art of
3. Coaching is a two-way process, suggesting that a great coach needs great people to coach.
4. Coaching produces results only through the process of communication.
5. Coaching is a dyad, like leader/group member or director/actor.
6. Coaching requires a high degree of interpersonal risk and trust on the part of both people in the
7. Coaching generates new possibilities for action and facilitates breakthroughs in performance. Coaching
also offers concrete advantages, such as higher motivation and the personal development of the people
who are coached.
B. Fallacies About Coaching
Misperceptions about coaching are relevant to understanding the process.
1. Coaching only applies in one-to-one work. (In reality, the group can also be coached.)
2. Coaching is mostly about providing new knowledge and skills. (In truth, people often need more help
with underlying habits.)
3. If coaches go beyond giving instruction in knowledge and skills, they are in danger of getting into
psychotherapy. (In truth, coaches should simply follow the model of effective parents.) Note that most
mental health professionals would take strong exception to this fallacy.
4. Coaches need to be experts in something in order to coach. (In truth, a great coach does not have to be
a great player.)
5. Coaching has to be done face-to-face. (In truth, telephone and email can be effective substitutes.)
Coaching skills are important because coaching is a direct way of influencing group members. If
implemented with skill, the following suggestions will improve the chances that coaching will lead to improved
1. Communicate clear expectations to group members.
2. Build relationships.
3. Give feedback on specific areas that require improvement.
4. Listen actively.
5. Help remove obstacles.
6. Give emotional support. One facet of giving emotional support is for the leader/ manager to be a toxic
handler, a person who helps others deal with sadness and despair.
7. Reflect content or meaning.
8. Give some gentle advice and guidance.
9. Allow for modeling of desired performance and behavior.
10. Gain a commitment to change.
11. Applaud good results.
An executive coach (or business coach) is an outside or inside specialist who advises a person about
personal improvement and behavioral change. Executive coaches provide such a variety of services that they have
been described as a combination of “a counselor, adviser, mentor, cheerleader, and best friend.” Three examples
of assistance offered by executive coaches are:
o Counseling the leader about weaknesses, such as being too hostile and impatient, that could interfere with
o Serving as a sounding board when the leader faces a complex decision about strategy, operations, or
human resource issues.
o Helping the leader uncover personal assets and strengths he or she may not have known existed. (An
example would be discovering that the leader has untapped creativity and imagination.)
A refinement of individual coaching is for the coach to work with both the individual and his or her work
associates. The coach will solicit feedback from the group members, as well as involve them in helping the
manager improve. Company evidence about the contribution of business coaching is sometimes impressive. In
one study of 127 senior managers, the coached executives scored higher than a contrast group on a long list of
measures including “results obtained,” and “building relationships.” A potential drawback of executive coaching
is that advice and suggestions may backfire because they do not fit the culture. Also, the coach may not recognize
a mental health problem.
The leader/manager should keep in mind available forms of recognition because recognition can be such
a relatively low cost yet highly effective motivator. For the recognition technique to work well, it should have
high valence for the person or group under consideration. Forms of recognition include (a) compliments, (b)
encouragement for a job well done, (c) employee-of the month award, and (d) wall plaque indicating