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International Conference on Challenges and Opportunities in Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management Studies 188

(ICCOMIM - 2012), 11-13 July, 2012

Finite Element Modelling for Elastic Plastic


Stress Analysis: Development, Validation and
Case Study
Bhavesh Govind Naik and Shivashankar R. Srivatsa

Abstract--- The focus of this paper is on the use of ANSYS software for elastic-plastic stress analysis. NAFEMS
(International association for the Engineering analysis community) India is proposing a benchmark for nonlinear
finite element analysis: Material non-linearity. The objective of this study is to present accurate target solutions to
this test problem. The Finite Element Model is developed using ANSYS. It is validated using another NAFEMS
Benchmark namely a thick walled cylinder under internal pressure for which target solutions are available in the
NAFEMS document [1]. Using this Finite Element Model, Target solutions to the test problem are graphically
presented and discussed. A number of agencies in India and worldwide will be contributing target solutions to the
same problem. This will be consolidated before NAFEMS issuing the Benchmark.

Keywords--- Elastic Plastic Stress Analysis, Non-linear Finite Element Analysis, Material nonlinearity,
Rectangular Plates with Circular cut-out, Linearly Varying In-Plane Tensile Load

I. INTRODUCTION

T HE use of thin plates is very common in many engineering applications, such as offshore platforms, ship decks
and hulls, box sections of bridge girders and aircraft industries. There is often a need for cut-out in the plates for
services, inspection and maintenance, etc. The presence of these holes changes the stress distribution and cause
reduction in its strength and buckling characteristics. Analysis of such systems was mainly carried out for axial
compressive forces resulting in instability [2] and elasto-plastic buckling in the system [3, 4], axial tensile loading to
study on Stress Concentration Factors [5] and non-linear behaviour subjected to shear loading [6]. While in this case
the analysis is carried out in axial tensile loading resulting in Materials to exhibit nonlinearities as loads and
deformations increase.
When ductile metals are loaded beyond elastic range, the initial linear stress response will give way to a
complicated nonlinear response, characterized by a much-reduced modulus and different stress behaviour along load
and unloading path. Finite element elastic-plastic analysis is no longer linear, but a set of nonlinear equations that
needs to be solved iteratively. Typically, we divide the applied load into small increments so as to have a better
numerical performance.
The Finite Element Model is developed using ANSYS software, a pioneer in the discipline of nonlinear analysis.
ANSYS has both penalty-based and Lagrangian multiplier based mixed u-P formulations. Lagrange multiplier based
formulation is available in the 180-series solid elements, and is meant for nearly incompressible elasto-plastic,
nearly incompressible hyperelastic and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials [7]. ANSYS employs the
"Newton-Raphson" approach to solve nonlinear problems. The "top" level consists of the load steps that we define
explicitly over a "time" span. Within each load step, we can direct the program to perform several solutions
(substeps or time steps) to apply the load gradually. At each substep, the program will perform a number of
equilibrium iterations to obtain a converged solution.

Bhavesh Govind Naik, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore.
Shivashankar R. Srivatsa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore.
PAPER ID: MED32

ISBN 978-93-82338-03-1 | © 2012 Bonfring


International Conference on Challenges and Opportunities in Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management Studies 189
(ICCOMIM - 2012), 11-13 July, 2012

II. NAFEMS BENCHMARK


The Finite element modelling for elastic plastic stress analysis using ANSYS software is validated using
NAFEMS Benchmark namely a thick walled cylinder under internal pressure for which target solutions are available
in the NAFEMS document [1].
A thick walled cylinder of internal radius and external radius is subjected to a
uniform internal pressure (fig 1). Exploiting Symmetry, one octant of the cylindrical tube has been modelled. The
sector is discretised using Plane 183 element (8-noded quadrilateral) in ANSYS. A typical mesh generated is shown
in fig 2. Axisymmetric boundary conditions are enforced along lines AB and CD. The internal pressure is applied
along AC. The material properties of the mild steel cylinder are listed in table 1. Bilinear uniaxial stress strain curve
for an elastic perfectly plastic material used in the analysis is shown in fig 3.

Figure 1: Thick Walled Cylinder Figure 2: Finite Element Model of Figure 3: Bilinear Uniaxial Stress
Subjected to Internal Pressure an Octant of Cylinder Strain Curve for an Elastic Perfectly
Plastic Material
1
Case 1 = 80 N/mm2
0.8
σyy/σo Case 2 = 100 N/mm2
0.6
Case 3 = 120 N/mm2
0.4
σyy/σo Case 4 = 140 N/mm2
0.2
Radius r/b Case 5 = 160 N/mm2
0
max P / P max = 0.5
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-0.2
σxx/σo σxx/σo P / P max = 0.625
-0.4
P / P max = 0.75
-0.6
P / P max = 0.875
-0.8
P / P max = 1.0
-1

Figure 4: Stress Distribution for a Cylinder under Internal Pressure


A maximum pressure of 160 N/mm2 is applied in steps. The predicted hoop stress (σyy) and Radial stress (σxx)
along the x-axis are plotted in fig 4. These results arefound to closely match with the target solutions reported in the
NAFEMS document [1].
To study the effect of Tangent modulus on the behavior of the cylinder, computations are performed with
Tangent Modulus =1250 N/mm2.The internal pressure is applied in load steps of 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 and 165
N/mm2. The radial, hoop and von Mises stresses are plotted in fig 5.

ISBN 978-93-82338-03-1 | © 2012 Bonfring


International Conference on Challenges and Opportunities in Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management Studies 190
(ICCOMIM - 2012), 11-13 July, 2012

P =80 N/mm2 P =100 N/mm2 P =120 N/mm2


von Mises

Hoop
Radial

P =140 N/mm2 P =160 N/mm2 P =165 N/mm2

Figure 5: Plot of Radial, Hoop and Von Mises Stress from Inner Radius to outer Radius for Various Load Steps of
80,100,120,140,160 and 165 N/mm2.
Comparison of figure 4 and figure 5 shows the significant influence of the tangent modulus on the stress
distribution.

III. NAFEMS INDIA PROPOSED BENCHMARK


A rectangular plate of uniform thickness with a central circular hole as shown in fig 6 is fixed at one end and
subjected to maximum axial tensile stress of 272 N/mm2 at other end. The material properties of the rectangular
plate are listed in table 2. Bilinear uniaxial stress strain curve for an elastic plastic material used in the analysis is
shown in fig 7. The objective is to perform elastic-plastic stress analysis and to report maximum equivalent plastic
strain and stress and their locations.

Figure 6: Proposed Bencmmark Problem Figure 7: Bilinear Isotropic Hardening Material for
Proposed NAFEMS Benchmark

Table 2: Rectangular Plate Material Properties: No. of Plane 183 Elements = 1144
Elastic Modulus, E 200000 N/mm2
Poisson's ratio, ν 0.3
Yield Stress, σY 400 N/mm2

Tangent Modulus, ET 1250 N/mm2

ISBN 978-93-82338-03-1 | © 2012 Bonfring


International Conference on Challenges and Opportunities in Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management Studies 191
(ICCOMIM - 2012), 11-13 July, 2012

Figure 8: FE Mesh of Proposed Benchmark


Considering symmetry, one half of the problem has been modelled. Plane183 elements (8-noded quadrilateral)
that deal with both small and large strains, with a variety of material options including elasto-plasticity, have been
used to create FE model. Plasticity is defined by yield stress and the elastic-plastic tangent modulus. A typical finite
element model is shown in fig 8. One end is rigidly fixed with all DOF and other end is subjected to axial load,
Symmetric boundary condition is applied across horizontal centre line.
Initial Pressure of 110 N/mm2 initiates the plate to yield. Load is then increased in steps to 130, 150, 170, 190,
210, 230, 250 & 272 N/mm2. The variation of von Mises equivalent stress and the equivalent plastic strain along the
hole boundary are presented in figures 9 and 10.
600

P= 110 MPa
500
P=150 MPa

400 P=190 MPa


vom Mises stress

P=230 MPa
300
P=250 MPa
200
P=272 MPa

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Node path on circumference of hole

Figure 9: Rectangular Plate with Hole stress Distribution

ISBN 978-93-82338-03-1 | © 2012 Bonfring


International Conference on Challenges and Opportunities in Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management Studies 192
(ICCOMIM - 2012), 11-13 July, 2012

0.14
P= 110 MPa
0.12
P=150 MPa
0.1
P=190 MPa
0.08
Plastic Strain

P=230 MPa
0.06
P=250 MPa
0.04
P=272 MPa
0.02

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Node path on circumference of hole

Figure 10: Rectangular Plate with Hole Equivalent Plastic Strain Distribution

IV. CONCLUSION
Finite element modelling using ANSYS is validated for elastic plastic stress analysis using NAFEMS
benchmark. It is then applied to provide target solutions to a test problem of a benchmark proposed by NAFEMS
India. The Maximum Equivalent stress of 547.91 N/mm2 and maximum plastic strain of 0.11787 is observed at
maximum pressure of 272 N/mm2. The results reported are believed to be accurate. Results from other contributors
preferably using different FEA software will be compared with these results before issuing a new benchmark.

REFERENCES
[1] E. Hinton (Editor). NAFEMS - Introduction to Non Linear finite element analysis, NAFEMS, Glasgow, UK,
1992.
[2] M. Aydin Komur, Mustafa Sonmez, Elastic buckling of rectangular plates under linearly varying in-plane
normal load with a circular cutout, Mechanics Research Communications, 2008, 35, 361–371.
[3] M. Aydin Komur, Elasto-plastic buckling analysis for perforated steel plates subject to uniform compression,
Mechanics Research Communications, 2011, 38, 117–122.
[4] Khaled M. El-Sawy, Aly S. Nazmy, Mohammad Ikbal Martini, Elasto-plastic buckling of perforated plates
under uniaxial compression, Thin-Walled Structures, 2004, 42, 1083–1101.
[5] J. Rezaeepazhand, M. Jafari, Stress concentration in metallic plates with special shaped cutout, International
Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2010, 52, 96–102.
[6] Emanuele Maiorana, Carlo Pellegrino, and Claudio Modena, Non-linear analysis of perforated steel plates
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[7] Grama R. Bashyam, ANSYS Mechanical - A powerful Non-Linear Simulation Tool, ANSYS Inc., 2007.
[8] Carlo Pellegrino, Emanuele Maiorana, and Claudio Modena, Linear and non-linear behaviour of steel plates
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[9] Juan José del Coz Díaz, Fco. Suarez Domínguez, Paulino J. Garcia Nieto, Non-Linear Analysis of Base Plates
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ISBN 978-93-82338-03-1 | © 2012 Bonfring