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Action Research- M. Barberos, A. Gozalo, E.


The teachers, being the focal figure in education, must be competent and knowledgeable in order to impart the
knowledge they could give to their students. Good teaching is a very personal manner. Effective teaching is
concerned with the student as a person and with his general development. The teacher must recognize individual
differences among his/her students and adjust instructions that best suit to the learners. It is always a fact that as
educators, we play varied and vital roles in the classroom. Teachers are considered the light in the classroom. We
are entrusted with so many responsibilities that range from the very simple to most complex and very challenging
jobs. Everyday we encounter them as part of the work or mission that we are in. It is very necessary that we need to
understand the need to be motivated in doing our work well, so as to have motivated learners in the classroom. When
students are motivated, then learning will easily take place. However, motivating students to learn requires a very
challenging role on the part of the teacher. It requires a variety of teaching styles or techniques just to capture
students' interests. Above all, the teacher must himself come into possession of adequate knowledge of the
objectives and standards of the curriculum, skills in teaching, interests, appreciation and ideals. He needs to exert
effort to lead children or students into a life that is large, full, stimulating and satisfying. Some students seem naturally
enthusiastic about learning, but many need or expect their instructors or teachers to inspire, challenge or stimulate
them. "Effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest that brought
students to the course in the first place (Erickson, 1978). Not all students are motivated by the same values, needs,
desires and wants. Some students are motivated by the approval of others or by overcoming challenges.

Teachers must recognize the diversity and complexity in the classroom, be it the ethnicity, gender, culture, language
abilities and interests. Getting students to work and learn in class is largely influenced in all these areas. Classroom
diversity exists not only among students and their peers but may be also exacerbated by language and cultural
differences between teachers and students.

Since 2003, many foreign professional teachers, particularly from the Philippines, came to New York City to teach
with little knowledge of American school settings. Filipino teachers have distinct styles and expressions of teaching.
They expect that: education is interactive and spontaneous; teachers and students work together in the teaching-
learning process; students learn through participation and interaction; homework is only part of the process; teaching
is an active process; students are not passive learners; factual information is readily available; problem solving,
creativity and critical thinking are more important; teachers should facilitate and model problem solving; students
learn by being actively engaged in the process; and teachers need to be questioned and challenged. However, many
Filipino teachers encountered many difficulties in teaching in NYC public schools. Some of these problems may be
attributed to: students' behavior such as attention deficiency, hyperactivity disorder, and disrespect among others;
and language barriers such as accent and poor understanding of languages other than English (e.g. Spanish).

As has been said, what happens in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain students' interests.
Thus, teachers play a vital role in effecting classroom changes.

As stressed in the Educator's Diary published in 1995, "teaching takes place only when learning does." Considering
one's teaching style and how it affects students' motivation greatly concerns the researchers. Although we might think
of other factors, however, emphasis has been geared towards the effect of teacher's teaching style and student

If teacher's teaching style would fit in a class and is used consistently, then students are motivated to learn.

Purpose of the Study

The main thrust of the study was to find out the effect of the teacher's teaching style on students' motivation.

Action Research Questions

This paper attempted to answer specific questions such as: 1. What is the effect of teacher's teaching style using
English As A Second Language Strategies on student's motivation? 2. How does teacher's teaching style affect
students' motivation? 3. What could be some categories that make one's teaching style effective in motivating

Research Design/Methods of Collecting Data

The descriptive-survey method was used in this study, and descriptive means that surveys are made in order to
discover some aspects of teacher's teaching style and the word survey denotes an investigation of a field to ascertain
the typical condition is obtaining. The researchers used questionnaires, observations, interviews, students' class work
and other student outputs for this study. The questionnaires were administered before and after ESL strategies were
applied. Observation refers to what he/she sees taking place in the classroom based on student's daily participation.
Student interviews were done informally before, during, and after classes. Several categories affecting motivation
were being presented in the questionnaire.

Research Environment and Respondents

The research was conducted at IS 164 and IS 143 where three teachers conducting this research were the subjects
and the students of these teachers selected randomly specifically in the eighth and sixth grade. The student
respondents were the researchers' own students, where 6 to 7 students from each teacher were selected. Twenty
students were used as samples.

To measure students' motivation, researchers used questionnaires which covered important categories, namely:
attitudes, student's participation, homework, and grades. Open-ended questions were also given for students'
opinion, ideas and feelings towards the teacher and the subject. The teacher's teaching style covers the various
scaffolding strategies. The data that were collected from this research helped the teachers to evaluate their strengths
and weaknesses so as to improve instruction. The results of this study could benefit both teachers and students.

Research Procedure

Data Gathering
The researchers personally distributed the questionnaires. Each item in each category ranges from a scale of 5-1
where 5 rated as Strongly Agree while 1 as Strongly Disagree. The questionnaires were collected and data obtained
were tabulated in tables and interpreted using the simple percentage. While the open ended questions, answers that
were given by the students with the most frequency were noted.

Review of Related Literature

Helping students understand better in the classroom is one of the primary concerns of every teacher. Teachers need
to motivate students how to learn. According to Phil Schlecty (1994), students who understand the lesson tend to be
more engaged and show different characteristics such as they are attracted to do work, persist in the work despite
challenges and obstacles, and take visible delight in accomplishing their work. In developing students' understanding
to learn important concepts, teacher may use a variety of teaching strategies that would work best for her/his
students. According to Raymond Wlodkowski and Margery Ginsberg (1995), research has shown no teaching
strategy that will consistently engage all learners. The key is helping students relate lesson content to their own
backgrounds which would include students' prior knowledge in understanding new concepts. Due recognition should
be given to the fact that interest, according to Saucier (1989:167) directly or indirectly contributes to all learning. Yet,
it appears that many teachers apparently still need to accept this fundamental principle. Teachers should mind the
chief component of interest in the classroom. It is a means of forming lasting effort in attaining the skills needed for
life. Furthermore teachers need to vary teaching styles and techniques so as not to cause boredom to the students in
the classroom. Seeking greater insight into how children learn from the way teachers discuss and handle the lesson
in the classroom and teach students the life skills they need, could be one of the greatest achievements in the
teaching process.

Furthermore, researchers have begun to identify some aspects of the teaching situation that help enhance students'
motivation. Research made by Lucas (1990), Weinert and Kluwe (1987) show that several styles could be employed
by the teachers to encourage students to become self motivated independent learners. As identified, teachers must
give frequent positive feedback that supports students' beliefs that they can do well; ensure opportunities for students'
success by assigning tasks that are either too easy nor too difficult; help students find personal meaning and value in
the material; and help students feel that they are valued members of a learning community. According to Brock
(1976), Cashin (1979) and Lucas (1990), it is necessary for teachers to work from students' strengths and interests by
finding out why students are in your class and what are their expectations. Therefore it is important to take into
consideration students' needs and interests so as to focus instruction that is applicable to different groups of students
with different levels.


This chapter presents and analyzes data that answer the subsidiary problems of the study. Table I showed that out of
the 20 student respondents, 50% were males and 50% females. Of the male students respondents, only 2 males
belong to the high group while 8 males from the low group. For the females, each of the group had 5 respondents. It
also showed that there were 7 respondents from the high group and 13 came from the low group.

Table 1:Respondents by Gender

Gender Group Male Female Total

High 2 5 7

Low 8 5 13
Total 10 10 20

Table 2 showed that out of the 20 students respondents, 80% of students were of Hispanic origin; 10% of
respondents were White (not of Hispanic origin); and 10% were Black (not of Hispanic origin); while 0% were of
American Indian, Asian or Pacific Islander ethnicity. The results also showed that among the Hispanic, 40% came
from the low and 40% came from the high group. There were only 10% White respondents from both groups. There
were 10% respondents who were Black from both groups.

Table 2: Respondents by Ethnicity

Ethnicity American Hispanic White (not of Hispanic Black (not of Hispanic Asian or Pacific Others Total
Group origin) origin) Islander

High 0 8 1 1 0 0 10

Low 0 8 1 1 0 0 10

Total 0 16 2 2 0 0 20

Table 3 showed that 15% of the respondents had grades between 96-100 in Science, 0% between 91-95, while 15%
scored between 86-90, the same as the range between 81-85. However, on the low group 25% of the respondents
had grades between 71-75, 5% each had a range between 66-70 and 61-65; while 15% of the respondents did not
have Science last year.

Table 3: Grades in Science

Grades 100-96 95-91 90-86 85-81 80-76 75-71 70-66 65-61 Below 60 No Science last year Total

High 3 0 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 10

Low 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 3 10

Total 3 0 3 3 1 5 1 1 0 3 20

Table 4 revealed that for students' motivation-attitude, more than half of the respondents agreed that they are always
excited to attend classes this school year. 75% of the students believed that Science is fun and interesting. Similarly,
80% of the respondents agreed that Science is important for them and 60% said that they love Science.

For student motivation-participation, it showed that more than half of the respondents affirm that they are always
prepared in their Science classes. 75% of the students participated in Science activities; 50% did their Science
assignments consistently.

For student motivation-homework, it could be noted that 60% of the students completed their homework on time and
50% found homework useful and important. 85% of the students said that they got enough support to do homework
at home and 90% said that the teachers checked their homework.

For student motivation-grades, 65% got good grades in Science. 65% of the respondents said that they study their
lessons before a test or a quiz. More than half of the respondents disagreed that the terms or words used in the test
were difficult to understand. Less than half of the respondents agreed tests measure their understanding of Science
concepts and knowledge, while 80% thought that grading is fair. On the other hand, the data under teaching style as
noted on table 4 showed that 65% of the students strongly agreed that they have a good relationship with their
Science teacher and no one disagreed. 75% noted that their Science teachers used materials that were easy to
understand. 60% said that their teachers presented the lessons in many ways. More than half of the students said
that they understood the way their Science teachers explained the lesson while 25% were not sure of their answer.
75% said that they got feedback from their Science teacher.

Table 4: Data on the Five Categories

CATEGORIES 5 Strongly 4 3 Not 2 1 Strongly
Agree Agree Sure Disagree Disagree


1. I am always excited to attend my science class this school year. 10 45 30 10 0

2. Science is fun and interesting. 15 60 15 5 5

3. I hate Science. It is not important for me. 5 0 15 20 60

4. I don't like Science at all. It is difficult to learn. 0 0 10 30 55

5. I love Science. It gives me opportunities to experiment, discover

15 45 30 5 5
and explore the things around me.


1. I'm always prepared in my Science class. 20 35 30 5 5

2. I participate actively in Science activities by asking questions. 35 40 15 10 0

3. I do my Science assignments consistently. 25 25 45 5 0

4. Science activities do not help me understand concepts easily. 5 5 10 40 40

5. I feel bored in my Science class. 0 15 25 20 40


1. I complete my Science homework on time. 15 45 20 20 0

2. I find homework very useful and important. 25 25 30 10 10

3. Science homework is difficult to do. 0 15 25 40 20

4. I don't get enough support to do my homework at home. 0 5 10 40 45

5. My teacher does not check my homework at all. 0 10 0 30 60


1. I got good grades in Science. 25 40 30 5 0

2. I study my lessons before a test or quiz. 20 45 25 5 5

3. The terms/words used in the test are difficult to understand. 0 15 30 45 10

4. The test always measures my understanding of Science concepts

10 30 20 20 20
and knowledge learned.

5. The grading is not fair. 0 10 10 35 45


1. I have a good relationship with my Science teacher. 65 20 15 0 0

2. My Science teacher uses materials that are easy to understand. 45 30 15 5 5

3. My Science teacher presents the lesson in a variety of ways. 30 30 15 20 5

4. I don't understand the way my Science teacher explains the

10 10 25 40 15

5. I don't get any feedback about my understanding of the lesson

15 5 5 5 2
from my Science teacher.

Sample Action Research Proposal


I - Proponent:
Noel R. Dauran
Master Teacher - I
Baya Elementary School
Ragay, Camarines Sur

II - Background of the Study:

The area of focus for my project is improving Reading Comprehension Through the Use of
Higher Order Thinking Skill Activities. Without the solid foundation of reading skill the researcher
feels the children will be struggle hard throughout their schooling and adult life. By learning the best
comprehension strategies and how to best teach these strategies to the pupils, the researcher hopes to
provide the solid foundation needed to succeed . Although the school's NAT result has meet or
exceed its expectation, still the researcher has a thought of a way to improve it. In reading class, the
grade three pupils scored84%, but the scores dropped in the 4th grade. So the researcher concludes
that the pupils score decreases because of the pupils have very poor higher - order thinking skills to
increase reading test scores and develop meaningful reading experience to the pupils.

III - Statement of the Problem:

As the researcher of this research, I have found out that many of my pupils in grade III are
able to read fluently, but still have difficulty in answering the "how" and "why" questions. I am
hoping that by incorporating higher order thinking skills my pupils would be able to transfer and
make connections to reading. This is important in order for a child to be successful. I feel that
incorporating reading strategies and showing students how to reflect about what they have read,
would improve their reading comprehension and to become life-long learners. I am looking forward
to working on this area of concern, and sharing my findings with my co-teachers.

IV- Significance of the Study:

The study will be deemed important for the proper recognition of the improving Reading
Comprehension Through the use of higher - order thinking activities on the academic Performance of
the grade III pupils, Likewise, the findings of this research may prove useful to the following, to wit;
Pupils. Having a clearer view and firsthand experience of the teacher's performance,
this will further enhance pupil's knowledge of the importance of mastering the basic skills of their
competencies so they will make an effort to do best. This may lead to better enthusiasm and develop
good study habit.

Teachers. This study may heighten their awareness in identifying the

learning tasks that are well developed as well as the least. This may further be a motivating
factor to adapt measures and new strategies for the improvement of instructions in reading.

Parents. The result of this study will serve as bird's eye view of the parent
to know the needs of their children with regards to improving their reading comprehension.

School Administrator and Supervisors. Results of this investigation may

encourage administrators and supervisors help their teachers upgrade their teaching
performance in improving reading comprehension through closer supervision and faculty
development and training programs.

Department of Education Camarines Sur Specially Ragay District. With

the use of the results of the study, any educational upliftment will benefit the municipality of
Ragay as it may improve the quality of working force of the municipality or the quality of life
of their respective constituents.

Curriculum Planners. The findings of this study may assists the planners in
the proper selection of methods, techniques, and strategies that need to be reinforced.

Community.The result of this study may benefit the community in as

much they know that the teachers of their children are equipped with the necessary tools
and competence in teaching them.

Researcher Himself. This may serve as inspiration in teaching his pupils

above and beyond his capacity.

Future Researcher. The information and insights that will be gained from
this study may serve as guide for other researcher in framing their conceptual framework
and design and at the same time encourage them to conduct lateral studies within their area
of preferences.

V- Scope of the Study

The general focus of the present study was on the Improving Reading
Comprehension Through the use of Higher Order Thinking Skills Activities of the grade III
pupils in Baya Elementary School, District of Ragay, Division Of Camarines Sur.The study
covered the PHIL-IRI assessment result of the school year 2011-2012 utilizing the post -
test. The aspect s in Improving Reading Comprehension that the present study will look into
the different reading strategies. Predicting, making connections, visualizing, Inferring,
questioning, and summarizing are shown on this research to improve reading

VI - Research Design

A. Methodology
This study employ the pre-Experimental one shot case study.
According to De Jesus
the pre experimental one shot case study is a design in which a single group is
only studied
once, subsequent to a treatment is the instruction of reading strategies . It is
important to teach
the strategies by naming the strategy and how it should be used, modelling
trough think aloud
process, group practice, partner practice and independent use of the strategy.
The second tool used was the Phil-Iri test administered to the pupils in
the grade III
pupils in the first week of July, 2011. This tool used to determine student growth
in reading
The teacher observation checklist was used by the researcher to
gather data
throughout the intervention. This tool provides information of changes on how
well his pupils
understand and use reading comprehension strategies over time.

B. Sampling Design
Purposive sampling was employed in selecting pupils - respondent
of the study. The
pupils who were selected were enrolled in the third grade class for the school
year 2011-2012.

C. Description of Instrument Data and Gathering Form.

The Metacomprehension Strategy Index had a total of 25 questions divided into
three parts that asked about the strategies pupils used to help them better understand the
story. Part I of MSI is consist of statement about the strategies used prior to reading a story,
Part II of the MSI consist of statement about the strategies used while reading a story, and
the part III of the MSI consist of statement about the strategies used after reading the story.

VI - Work Plan

Pre - Implementation

Date Activities
_______________ _________________
_______________ _________________

During Implimentation
_______________ _________________
_______________ _________________

Post - Implementation
_______________ ________________
_______________ ________________

Proposed Budget:

Expected Expenses Proposed Budget

* Computer's Ink Php. 1, 606.00
* Bond paper Php. 108.00

Prepared by:

Teacher- I

School Head

Recommending Approval:
______________________ ___________________
Public Schools District Supervisor ES - I English

Asst. Schools Division Superintendent