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Environmental Engineering-II

7th Semester

Engr Aneel Manan

Lecture :02
Swedish College of Engineering
and Technology
Definition of Terms
1) Wastewater: Water when used for different purpose like
domestic, commercial, industrial etc., receives impurities and
become wastewater. Thus wastewater is used water and it has
physical, chemical, and biological Impurities in it.
Definition of Terms

2) Sullage: The Wastewater coming from bathrooms

and kitchens which does not contain fecal matter is
known as sullage.
3) Plumbing System: It is entire system of pipe line for
providing water supply to the building or it is a system of
pipes for disposal of wastewater from the building.
4) Sewer: A pipe carrying sewage/ wastewater is called
Plumbing System
Definition of Terms

5) Waste Pipe: It is a pipe carrying sulluge from bathrooms,

kitchens, sinks, wash basins etc.

6) Sewerage System: A system of sewers of different types and

sizes in a town collecting wastewater from the town and carrying it
to the wastewater treatment plant.

7) Garbage: It is the dry refuse of town containing organic,

inorganic solids, combustible, non-combustible substances. It is
collected separately from sewage and sullage and disposed off
• Sewage
It is the waste or foul water of the community conveyed by a
sewer. It may be pure ( domestic in origin) or it may contain some
industrial or storm sewage.

Types of Sewage

a) Domestic sewage
b) Industrial Sewage
c) Storm Sewage

a) Domestic Sewage:
The sewage from residential buildings, business centers,
institutions etc is known as domestic or sanitary sewage. It
also contain sullage and human body waste( feces and
b) Industrial Sewage
Industrial sewage is used water from manufacturing or
chemical processes
Some examples of industrial wastes are chemical solvents,
pigments, sludge, metals, ash, paints, sandpaper, paper products,
industrial by-products, metals, and radioactive wastes

c) Storm Sewage
Storm sewage, or stormwater, is runoff from precipitation that is
collected in a system of pipes

Industrial Sewage Storm Sewage

Composition of Sewage
The composition of wastewater varies widely. This is a partial list of what it may

•Water which is often added during flushing to carry waste down a drain.

•Pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasitic worms.

•Non-pathogenic bacteria;

•Organic particles such as feces, hairs, food, vomit, paper fibers, plant
material, humus etc.

•Soluble organic material such as urea, fruit, sugars,

soluble proteins, drugs, pharmaceuticals etc

•Inorganic particles such as sand, grit metal (small loose particles of stone or
sand) ,metal particles, ceramics etc
Composition of Sewage

•Soluble inorganic material such as ammonia, road-salt, sea-

salt, cyanide(hydrogen sulfide, thiocyanates, thiosulfates, etc)

•Animals such as protozoa, insects, arthropods, small fish etc

•Gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane etc.

Emulsions such as paints, adhesives, mayonnaise, hair colorants,

emulsified oils etc

•Toxins such as pesticides, poisons, herbicides, etc.

Characteristics of Sewage

The characteristics of sewage can be classified under

following three heads:

•Physical Characteristics

•Chemical Characteristics

•Biological Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
The Physical Characteristics of sewage are determined
using the physical method of analysis:

• Colour

The colour of the sewage indicates the freshness of sewage. If its

colour is greyish brown or yellowish, it indicates fresh sewage. With
passage of time, as putrefaction starts it begins to get black. The
colour of stale (dry) and septic sewage is black( When all the
oxygen has disappeared from sewage, it becomes septic). Other
colors may also be formed due to presence of some specific
industrial waste. The color of the sewage can normally be detected
by the naked eye.
• Odour
The odour of a fresh sewage is not offensive or practically it starts
to get stale, it begins to give offensive odour.
Within 3 to 4 hours, all oxygen present in the sewage gets
exhausted and it starts emitting offensive odour by hydrogen
sulphide gas which is formed due to anaerobic decomposition of

• Anaerobic decomposition:
If free dissolved oxygen is not available to the sewage, then the
anaerobic decomposition, called putrefaction will occur.
Anaerobic bacteria and facultative bacteria operating
anaerobically, will then flourish and convert the complex organic
matter into simpler organic compounds of nitrogen, carbon, and
• Temperature
•The temperature has an effect on the biological activity of
bacteria present in the sewage and it also affects the solubility of
gases in sewage. It also affects the viscosity of sewage (more is
the temperature, lesser is the viscosity of sewage).

•The normal temperature, of sewage is slightly higher than the

temperature of the water supply because of the additional heat
due to utilization of water. Also when the wastewater flows in a
closed pipes, its temperature further increases.

• Turbidity
Sewage is normally turbid representing dirty dish water or
wastewater from baths having other floating matter like fecal
matter, pieces of paper, cigarette ends, match sticks, greases,
vegetable debris, fruit skins, soaps, etc. The turbidity depends on
the quantity of solid matter present in suspension state. The
turbidity can be determined by the turbidity rod or by turbidimeters
e.g. Nephlometric
Chemical Characteristics
•The Chemical Characteristics of sewage helps in indicating the
stage of sewage decomposition, its strength, and extent and type
of treatment required for making it safe
• The chemical characteristics of sewage includes.

• Solids
Solids normally contain 99.9 % water and only 0.1 % of total
solids present in the sewage may be in any of the four:
• Suspended Solids,
• Dissolved Solids,
• Colloidal Solids, And
• Settle Able Solids.
Chemical Characteristics
•Suspended solids are those solids which remain floating in

•Dissolved Solids are those which remain dissolved in sewage just

as a salt in water.

•Colloidal Solids are finely divided solids remaining either in

solution or in suspension .

•Settleable Solids are that solids which settles out, if sewage is

allowed to remain undisturbed for a period of 2 hrs.
Chemical Characteristics
•The proportion of these different types of solids is generally found
to be as given below:
•It has been estimated that about 1000 kg of sewage contains
about 0.454 kg of total solids, out of which 0.225 kg in solution,
0.112 kg is in suspension and 0.112 kg is settle able.
•Also solids can be organic or inorganic. About 45 % of total solids
are organic and the remaining 55 % is inorganic
•Inorganic matter consists of minerals and salts like sand, gravel,
dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, etc.
•Organic matter consists of Carbohydrates like cellulose, cotton,
starch(green plants), sugar etc..
Biological Characteristics

•The sewage contains many microorganisms like bacteria, algae,

fungi, protozoa, etc. bacteria being the most predominant. Most of
the bacteria found in the sewage are harmless non-pathogenic
bacteria. A little no of bacteria, however, are disease producing
pathogens, which are the real danger to the health of the public.
Sewage Tests

A) Physical Tests B) Chemical Tests

● Colour test ● Chlorine demand test

● Taste & odour test ● Chlorine residual test

● Temperature ● Nitrogen test

●Dissolved Oxygen test
● Turbidity
● Chlorine test
● Total solids
● Biological Oxygen Demand test ( BOD)
● Chemical Oxygen Demand test ( COD)
● PH test
• Types of Sewers

• 1. Sanitary Sewer

• It carries sanitary sewage i.e., wastewater from municipality including domestic and industrial wastewater.

• 2. Storm Sewer

• It carries storm sewage including surface runoff and street wash.

• 3. Combined Sewer

• It carries domestic, industrial and storm sewage.

• 4. House Sewer

• It is the sewer conveying sewage from plumbing system of a building to common/municipal sewer.

• 5. Lateral Sewer

• This sewer carries discharge from house sewers.

6. Submain Sewer
This sewer receives discharge from two or more laterals.

7. Main/Trunk Sewer
It receives discharge from two or more submains.

8. Outfall Sewer
It receives discharge from all collecting system and conveys it to point of final
• Types of Sewer Systems
• 1. Separate System
• If storm water is carried separately from domestic and
industrial wastewater, the system is called separate system.
Separate systems are favored when:
• There is an immediate need for collection of sanitary sewage
but not for storm water.
• When sanitary sewage needs treatment but the storm water
does not.
• 2. Combined System
• It is the system in which the sewer carry both sanitary and
storm water. Combined system is favored when:
• Combined sewage can be disposed off without treatment.
• Both sanitary and storm water need treatment.
• Streets are narrow and two separate sewers cannot be laid.
• Types of sewerage pipes
• Following are different types of sewers
according to material
• Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewer
• Brick Sewer
• Cement Sewer
• Cast iron (CT) Sewer
• Steel Sewers
• Plastic Sewers
• 1. Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewer
• Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewers are manufactured from a mixture of
cement and asbestos fiber. Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewers are
suitable for carrying domestic sanitary sewage. Asbestos cement
sewer is best as vertical pipe for carrying sullage from upper floors
of multistory buildings (in two pipe system of plumbing).
• Advantages of Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewer
• Smooth
• Light in weight
• Can easily be cut, fitted and drilled
• Durable against soil corrosion
• Disadvantages of Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewer
• Brittle cannot withstand heavy loads
• They are easily broken in handling and transport.
• 2. Brick Sewers
• Brick Sewers are made at site and used for construction large size
sewer. Brick Sewers are very useful for construction of storm sewer
or combined sewer. Nowadays brick sewers are replaced by
concrete sewer. Brick sewers my get deformed and leakage may
take place. A lot of labour work is required.
• Note: To avoid leakage the brick sewer should be plastered.

• 3. Cement Concrete
• i. PCC – for dia upto 60 cm
• Suitable for small storm drains. Not durable .
• ii. RCC – for dia > 60 cm
• They may be cast in situ or precast, resistant to heavy loads,
corrosion and high pressure. These are very heavy and difficult to
• 4. Cast Iron (CI) Sewers
• These types of sewer are High strength and durability
water tight. Cast Iron sewers can withstand high
internal pressure and can bear external load. Cast
Iron sewers are suitable for the following conditions.
• When the sewage is conveyed under high pressure
• When the sewer line is subject to heavy external load
e.g. under railway line, foundation wall etc, below
• When there is considerable difference in temperature
• 5. Steel Sewers
• steel sewers are Impervious, light, resistant to high
pressure, flexible, suitable when;
• The sewage is carried under pressure
• The sewage has to be carried across a river under water
• The sewer has to cross under a railway track
• They are generally used for outfall.
• 6. Plastic Sewers
• Nowadays PVC sewers are used for carrying sewage.
Plastic sewers are resistant to corrosion. Such types of
sewer are light in weight, smooth and can be bent easily.
But Plastic sewers are having high co-efficient of thermal
expansion and cannot be used in very hot areas.
What is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indirect measurement of the

amount of organic matter in a sample. With this test, you can measure
virtually all organic compounds that can be digested by a digestion
COD contrasts with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which relies on
the use of microorganisms to break down the organic material in the
sample by aerobic respiration over the course of a set incubation period
(typically five days).
BOD and COD correlate with one another in virtually all samples, but
BOD is always lower than COD as the biochemical breakdown of
organics is often not as complete as the chemical method.
• Importance of Chemical Oxygen Demand
• As gauges of organic matter in a sample, BOD and COD are critical in
wastewater for determining the amount of waste in the water. Waste that's
high in organic matter requires treatment to reduce the amount of organic
waste before discharging into receiving waters.
• If water treatment facilities do not reduce organic content of wastewater
before it reaches natural waters, microbes in the receiving water will
consume the organic matter.
• As a result, these microbes will also consume the oxygen in the receiving
water as part of the breakdown of organic waste. This oxygen depletion
along with nutrient rich conditions is called eutrophication, a condition of
natural water that can lead to the death of animal life.
• Wastewater facilities reduce COD and BOD by using these same microbes
under controlled conditions. These facilities aerate chambers injected with
specialized bacteria that can break down the organic matter in an
environment that does not harm natural waters. A reduction in BOD is used
in these facilities as a benchmark for treatment effectiveness.
• Since a BOD test takes five days to complete, COD is used to monitor the
treatment process in day-to-day operations. The COD test takes only a few
hours to complete.
• Biochemical Oxygen Demand - BOD
• Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a chemical procedure for
determining the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological
organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a
given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. It is
not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication
of the organic quality of water. It is most commonly expressed in
milligrams of oxygen consumed per liter of sample during 5 days (BOD 5) of
incubation at 20°C and is often used as a robust surrogate of the degree of
organic pollution of water.

• BOD directly affects the amount of dissolved oxygen in rivers and streams.
The rate of oxygen consumption is affected by a number of variables:
temperature, pH, the presence of certain kinds of microorganisms, and the
type of organic and inorganic material in the water.

• The greater the BOD, the more rapidly oxygen is depleted in the stream.
This means less oxygen is available to higher forms of aquatic life. The
consequences of high BOD are the same as those for low dissolved oxygen:
aquatic organisms become stressed, suffocate, and die.
Sources of BOD
• Sources of BOD include topsoil, leaves and woody debris;
animal manure; effluents from pulp and paper mills,
wastewater treatment plants, feedlots, and food-processing
plants; failing septic systems; and urban stormwater runoff.
Assignment # 1

• List down Pakistan Environmental Engineering

• Write down waste treatment plants in Pakistan
location and function?
• What type of waste come from following industries
1. Glass industry.
2. Paper industry.
3. Sugar industry.
4. Weapon industry.
Thank You