Sie sind auf Seite 1von 497

NONRESIDENT

TRAINING
COURSE

September 2015

Tools and Their Uses

NAVEDTRA 14256A
Notice: Naval Education and Training Professional Development and Technology
Center (NETPDTC) is no longer responsible for the content accuracy of the
Nonresident Training Courses (NRTCs).

For content issues, contact the servicing Center of Excellence: Surface Warfare
Officers School Command (SWOS) at (757) 444-5332 or DSN 564-5332.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is


unlimited.
PREFACE
By obtaining this rate training manual, you have demonstrated a desire to improve
yourself and the Navy. Remember, however, this manual is only one part of the total
Navy training program. Practical experience, schools, selected reading, and your desire
to succeed are also necessary to successfully round out a fully meaningful training
program.
THE MANUAL: This manual is organized into subject matter areas, each containing
learning objectives to help you determine what you should learn, along with text and
illustrations to help you understand the information. The subject matter reflects day-to-
day requirements and experiences of personnel in the rating or skill area. It also reflects
guidance provided by Enlisted Community Managers (ECMs) and other senior
personnel, technical references, instructions, etc., and either the occupational or naval
standards that are listed in the Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower and Personnel
Classifications and Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068(series).
THE QUESTIONS: The questions that appear in this manual are designed to help you
understand the material in the text. The answers for the end of chapter questions are
located in the appendixes.
THE EVALUATION: The end of book evaluation is available on Navy Knowledge
Online. The evaluation serves as proof of your knowledge of the entire contents of this
NRTC. When you achieve a passing score of 70 percent, your electronic training jacket
will automatically be updated.
THE INTERACTIVITY: This manual contains interactive animations and graphics. They
are available throughout the course and provide additional insight into the operation of
equipment and processes. For the clearest view of the images, animations, and videos
embedded in this interactive rate training manual, adjust your monitor to its maximum
resolution setting.
VALUE: In completing this manual, you will improve your military and professional
knowledge. Importantly, it can also help you study for the Navy-wide advancement in
rate examination. If you are studying and discover a reference in the text to another
publication for further information, look it up.

September 2015 Edition Prepared by

LT Ervin Henley
MRC (SW) Karrie Coleman
MRC (SW) Joshua Wieber
Mrs. Delphine Jackson
Mrs. Debra Harrison-Youngs

NAVSUP Logistics Tracking Number


0504-LP-114-1727
i
NAVEDTRA 14256A COPYRIGHT MATERIAL

Copyright material within this document has been identified and approved and is listed below.

Copyright Owner Date Chapter Pages Remarks

ii
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
1. Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1-1
2. Safety and Safety Equipment ............................................................................ 2-1
3. Reading Measuring Scales ............................................................................... 3-1
4. Measuring and Layout Tools ............................................................................. 4-1
5. Fastening and Prying Tools............................................................................... 5-1
6. Sawing and Cutting Tools ................................................................................. 6-1
7. Boring and Clamping Tools ............................................................................... 7-1
8. Smoothing Tools (Wood and Metal Surfaces) ................................................... 8-1
9. Brushes ............................................................................................................. 9-1
10. Shop Tools ...................................................................................................... 10-1
11. Portable Hand Tools ....................................................................................... 11-1
12. Pneumatic Tools ............................................................................................. 12-1
13. Taps, Dies, and Extractors .............................................................................. 13-1
14. Benders ........................................................................................................... 14-1
15. Pullers ............................................................................................................. 15-1
16. Digging Tools .................................................................................................. 16-1
17. Chopping Tools ............................................................................................... 17-1
18. Timber-Handling Tools .................................................................................... 18-1
19. Climbing and Rigging Tools ............................................................................ 19-1
20. Concrete and Masonry Tools .......................................................................... 20-1
21. Interior Finish Tools ......................................................................................... 21-1
22. Jacks ............................................................................................................... 22-1

APPENDIXES
I. References ....................................................................................................... AI-1
II. The Metric System and Equivalents ................................................................ AII-1
III. Answers to End of Chapter Questions ........................................................... AIII-1

Index ................................................................................................................... Index 1

iv
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The following chapter is designed to provide an introduction to the purpose and how to use this
manual. Refer to the remaining chapters for individual tools.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. State the purpose of this manual.
2. Describe the reason for selecting the correct tool.

PURPOSE
This manual provides information on the use and care of selected hand tools and measuring tools. It
will explain the types and uses of a large number of tools, a practical application of a selected group
of tools, safety requirements, general care, and limited repair. A user must have, choose, and use the
correct tools in order to do the work quickly, accurately, and safely. Without the proper tools and
knowledge of how to use them, the user wastes time, reduces efficiency, and may face injury.

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL


When you need information about a specific tool or operation, simply refer to the alphabetical index at
the end of the manual and turn to the pages that apply. The introduction to each tool chapter will
furnish information on:
• How to choose and use the tools covered.
• The various types of tools a.vailable.
• An example of their use.
Instructions on the care of tools and safety precautions follow.

1-1
End of Chapter 1
Introduction
Review Questions
1-1. The Tools and Their Uses training manual will explain the types and uses of a large number of
tools, a practical application of a selected group of tools, and what other information?

A. Safety requirements
B. Tool checkout forms
C. Where to purchase tools
D. Extensive repair of selected tools

1-2. Without the proper tools and knowledge of how to use them, what action may occur?

A. The user may be more efficient


B. The user may face injury
C. The task could be accomplished in half the time
D. The user may collect many tools for the job

1-3. When you need information about a specific tool or operation, what action is the easiest way to
find the information?

A. Refer to the numerical tool index at the front of the text


B. Refer to the tool color coding chart at the end of the text
C. Flip through the text and look for the appropriate illustrations
D. Refer to the alphabetical index at the end of the manual and turn to the pages that apply

1-2
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

1-3
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

Chapter 2
SAFETY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT
No matter how small the job, safety must be practiced at all times. A tool may be efficient, essential,
time-saving or even convenient; but it is also dangerous. When using any hand tool you must use it
correctly, following the methods prescribed in this manual. You must also be alert for any conditions
that might endanger yourself or fellow workers. Take the time necessary to acquaint yourself with the
safety guidelines in this chapter. Remember, you are the most important part of safety procedures.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. State the general safety procedures for common hand tools.
2. Identify good tool work habits.
3. List the types of tool boxes.
4. List the safety precautions that apply to power tools.
5. Identify the types of personal protective equipment.

GENERAL SAFETY RULES


There will undoubtedly be a safety program to follow for the shop or area in which you will be working.
The following general safety rules are furnished as a guide.
• LEARN the safe way to do your job before you start.
• THINK safety, and ACT safely at all times.
• OBEY safety rules and regulations; they are there for your protection.
• WEAR proper clothing and protective equipment.
• CONDUCT yourself properly at all times; horseplay is prohibited.
• OPERATE only the equipment you are authorized to use.
• INSPECT tools and equipment for safe conditions before starting work.
• ADVISE your supervisor promptly of any unsafe conditions or practices.
• REPORT any injury immediately to your supervisor.
• SUPPORT your local safety program and take an active part in safety meetings.
In addition to the above, there are other good tool habits which will help you perform your work more
efficiently as well as safely.

TOOL HABITS
“A place for everything and everything in its place” is just common sense. You cannot do an efficient,
fast repair job if you have to stop and look around for each tool that you need. The following rules, if
applied, will make your job easier.

2-1
Keep Each Tool in Its Proper Storage Place
A tool is useless if you cannot find it (Figure
2-1). If you return each tool to its proper
place, you will know where it is when you
need it.

Keep Your Tools in Good


Condition
Keep them free of rust, nicks, burrs, and
breaks.

Keep Your Tool Set Complete


When have been issued a toolbox, make
sure each tool remains inside the box when Figure 2-1 — Improper tool storage.
not in use. When the toolbox is not actually
at the worksite, it should be locked and
stored in a designated area.

NOTE
An inventory list is kept in every toolbox to be checked
before and after each job or maintenance action, to ensure
that all tools are available to do your work and to ensure
that they are accounted for after you have completed your
work.

Use Each Tool Only on the Job for Which It Was Designed
If you use the wrong tool to make an
adjustment, the result will probably be
unsatisfactory. For example, if you use a
socket wrench that is too big, you will
round off the corners of the wrench or
nut. If this rounded wrench or nut is not
replaced immediately, the safety of your
equipment may be endangered in an
emergency.

Keep Your Tools Within Easy


Reach and Where They Cannot
Fall on the Floor or on Machinery
Avoid placing tools anywhere above
machinery (Figure 2-2) or electrical
apparatus. Serious damage will result if
the tool falls into the machinery after the
equipment is turned on or running.
Figure 2-2 — Keep tools within reach.

2-2
Never Use Damaged Tools
Notify your supervisor of broken or damaged tools. A battered screwdriver may slip and spoil the
screw slot or cause painful injury to the user. A gage stretched out of shape will result in inaccurate
measurements.

NOTE
Return broken tools to section chief.

Remember, a worker’s efficiency is often a direct result of the condition of the tools being used.
Workers are often judged by the manner in which they handle and care for their tools. You should
care for hand tools the same way you care for personal property. Always keep hand tools clean and
free from dirt, grease, and foreign matter. After use, return tools promptly to their proper places in the
tool box. Improve your own efficiency by organizing your tools so that those used most frequently can
be reached easily without sorting through the entire contents of the box. Avoid accumulating
unnecessary items.

TOOL BOXES
Tool boxes (Figures 2-3 through 2-8) are used for storing tools. They are usually made of steel but
sometimes of wood or plastic. Portable tool boxes are used for carrying and storing a variety of hand
tools. Both special and common tools, such as mechanic’s, electrician, and carpentry tools can be
found in tool boxes. Chest-type tool boxes generally contain larger tools, such as specialized
automotive tools or machinist’s tools, requiring a more permanent location.
Some larger tool boxes are mounted on wheels so they can move easily from place to place. Tool
bags are usually made of canvas. Like the boxes, they are available in a variety of sizes and serve
similar functions.

Figure 2-3 — Portable tool box. Figure 2-4 — Cantilevered tray tool box.

2-3
Figure 2-5 — Removable tray tool box.

Figure 2-6 — Mechanics tool box (chest type).

Figure 2-7 — Canvas tool bag.

Figure 2-8 — Five drawer portable tool box.

2-4
POWER TOOL SAFETY RULES
Safety is a very important factor in the use of power tools and cannot be overemphasized. By
observing the following safety guidelines, you can ensure maximum benefits from the tools you use
and reduce to a minimum the chances of serious injury.
• Never operate any power equipment unless you are completely familiar with its controls and
features.
• Inspect all portable power tools before using them. See that they are clean and in good
condition.
• Make sure there is plenty of light in the work area. Never work with power tools in dark areas
where you cannot see clearly.
• Before connecting a power tool to a power source, be sure the tool switch is in the “OFF”
position.
• When operating a power tool, give it your FULL and UNDIVIDED ATTENTION.
• DO NOT DISTRACT or IN ANY WAY DISTURB another person while they are operating a
power tool.
• Never try to clear a jammed power tool until it is disconnected from the power source.
• After using a power tool, turn off the power, disconnect the power source, wait for all
movement of the tool to stop, and then remove all waste and scraps from the work area. Store
the tool in its proper place.
• Never plug the power cord of a portable electric tool into a power source before making sure
that the source has the correct voltage and type of current called for on the nameplate of the
tool.
• Do not allow power cords to come in contact with sharp objects, oil, grease, hot surfaces, or
chemicals, or to kink.
• Never use a damaged cord. Replace it immediately.
• Check electrical cables and cords frequently for overheating. Use only approved extension
cords, if needed.
• See that all cables and cords are positioned carefully so they do not become tripping hazards.
• Treat electricity with respect. If water is present in the area of electrical tool operation, be
extremely cautious and, if necessary, disconnect the power tool.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Safety equipment is for you. It will protect you from injury and may possibly save your life. Some of
the more common types of safety equipment for your personal protection follow.

2-5
Safety Shoes
Safety shoes (Figure 2-9) protect feet and
prevent injury or loss of toes. Some safety
shoes are designed to limit damage to your
toes from falling objects. A steel plate is
placed in the toe area of such shoes so that
your toes are not crushed if an object falls on
them. Other safety shoes are designed for
use where danger from sparking could cause
an explosion. Such danger is minimized by
elimination of all metallic nails and eyelets
and the use of soles which do not cause
static electricity.

Figure 2-9 — Safety shoes.

Eye Protection
Proper eye protection (Figure 2-10, frames 1
through 3) is of the highest importance for all
personnel. Eye protection is necessary
because of hazards caused by infrared and
ultraviolet radiation, or by flying objects such
as sparks, globules of molten metal, or

Interaction Available
chipped concrete and wood, etc. These
hazards are always present during welding,
cutting, soldering, chipping, grinding, and a
variety of other operations. It is absolutely
necessary for you to use eye protection
devices such as helmets, handshields, and
goggles during eye-hazard operations.
Appropriate use of goggles will limit eye
hazards. Some goggles have plastic
windows which resist shattering upon impact.
Others are designed to limit harmful infrared
and ultraviolet radiation from arcs or flames
by the use of appropriate filter lenses.
Remember, eye damage can be extremely Figure 2-10 — Eye protection.
painful. Protect your eyes.

2-6
Helmets
Protective helmets (Figure 2-11), also known as
hard hats, come in a variety of shapes. They may
be made of tough polyethylene or polycarbonate,
one of the toughest hat materials yet developed.
When falling objects strike the hats, the shock-
absorbing suspension capabilities minimize
injuries.
Regular hard hats must be insulated so that
personnel may be protected from accidental head
contacts with electrical circuits and equipment at
comparatively low voltages (less than 2,200 volts).
Electrical workers requiring head protection
necessary to perform their duties or to suit the
working environment must wear insulating safety
helmets or all-purpose protective helmets that
must be capable of withstanding 20,000 volt
minimum proof-tests.
Figure 2-11 — Protective helmet.
Gloves
Use gloves whenever you are required to handle rough, scaly, or splintery objects. Special flameproof
gloves (Figure 2-12) are designed for gas and electric welding in order to limit danger and damage
from sparks and other hot, flying objects. Personnel working with electricity are usually required to
wear insulating rubber gloves (Figure 2-13). Be sure to follow all regulations prescribed for the use of
gloves. Gloves must not be worn around rotating machinery unless sharp or rough material is being
handled. If such is the case, extreme care should be used to prevent the gloves from being caught in
the machinery.

Figure 2-12 — Flameproof gloves.


2-7
Safety Belts and Safety Straps
The safety belt and safety strap (Figure 2-14)
are a must when working in high places. The
safety belt, strapped around the waist, contains
pockets for small tools. It also has two D-rings
used to attach the safety strap. The safety
strap is a nylon-reinforced leather belt that is
placed around the item to be climbed. It is then
attached to the two D-rings on the safety belt.
Detailed use of the safety belt and safety strap
is described in chapter 49 of this manual.
Figure 2-13 — Insulated gloves.

Ear Protection
Proper hearing protection (Figure 2-15) is a must when
working with or around certain types of power tools. Some
tools are capable of producing dangerously high noise
levels which, if ignored, can result in serious hearing loss or
injury. Use hearing protection regularly.

Figure 2-15 — Hearing protection.

Figure 2-14 — Safety belt and


safety strap. 2-8
End of Chapter 2
Safety and Safety Equipment
Review Questions
2-1. Who is the most important part of safety procedures?

A. Your immediate supervisor


B. The executive officer
C. The safety officer
D. You

2-2. Before starting work, what action should you accomplish first?

A. Notify the supervisor


B. Inspect your tools
C. Insert hearing protection
D. Operate the tool on a test item

2-3. Who should you notify for an unsafe condition?

A. Supervisor
B. Safety officer
C. Division officer
D. Commanding officer

2-4. What equipment can you operate?

A. Any tool in the shop


B. Any tool in the portable toolbox
C. The tool type you are authorized to operate
D. The tools needed for maintenance only

2-5. What tool habit states a tool is useless if you cannot find it?

A. Keep your tool set complete


B. Keep each tool in its proper place
C. Keep your tools within easy reach
D. Keep your tools in good condition

2-6. What tool habit states keep an inventory list in the box and check it after each job?

A. Keep your tool set complete


B. Keep you tools within easy reach
C. Keep each tool in its proper place
D. Keep your tools in good condition

2-9
2-7. Always keep your tools clean and free from dirt and what other substance?

A. Rags
B. Paint
C. Grease
D. Saltwater

2-8. What type of material are tool boxes usually constructed of?

A. Canvas
B. Fiber
C. Nylon
D. Steel

2-9. What type of tool boxes are used to carry a variety of hand tools?

A. Chest
B. Combination
C. Portable
D. Stationary

2-10. What type of tool box generally contains larger tools?

A. Chest
B. Combination
C. Portable
D. Stationary

2-11. What component allows larger tool boxes to move easily from place to place?

A. Electric motor
B. Hydraulic pump
C. Rollers
D. Wheels

2-12. Before connecting a power tool to a power source, what position should the tool switch be in?

A. OFF
B. ON
C. LOCKED
D. STANDBY

2-13. Do not allow power cords to kink or come in contact with oil, grease, or what other item?

A. Non-skid
B. Hot surfaces
C. The machinery
D. Another electrical cord

2-10
2-14. When safety shoes are designed to prevent sparks from causing an explosion, what item is
removed?

A. The heel
B. Shoelaces
C. Steel toe plate
D. Metallic nails

2-15. In the protective helmet, what factor minimizes injuries from falling objects?

A. The fiberglass bill


B. The electrical rating
C. Shock-absorbing suspension
D. The construction shape

2-16. What safety item is a must when working in high places?

A. Gloves
B. Helmet
C. Hearing protection
D. Safety belt and safety strap

2-11
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

2-12
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 3
READING MEASURING SCALES
The following chapter provides a basic understanding of how to read scales, dials, and gauges. It will
not provide any information on the actual use of the tools. Reference to this chapter will be made
throughout the remainder of the manual.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Describe the different types of measuring scales.
2. Explain the scale of a rule or tape.
3. Explain how to read scales, dials, and gauges.

READING THE SCALE OF A RULE OR TAPE


In one sense, the term “scale” means the scale of a drawing. In another sense, it means the
succession of graduations on any graduated standard of linear measurement, such as the
graduations on a steel tape or a thermometer.
The more common type rules and tapes are divided into fractions, inches, and feet. Explained here
are the scales on a 12-inch steel machinist’s rule (Figure 3-1).

Figure 3-1 — 12-inch machinist’s rule.


The rule is divided into twelve inches. The inches
are further divided into eighths, sixteenths, thirty-
seconds, and sixty-fourths.
Look at the rule. There is a small numeral
marked on the end of the rule nearest the 1-inch
mark. This numeral indicates the number of
divisions per inch (Figure 3-2).
Figure 3-2 — Divisions per inch.
When referring to fractions, always use the
reduced name. This is the smallest numerator
(top number) and denominator (bottom number).
For example, 3/6 can be reduced to 1/2 by dividing
both the top and bottom by 3. Generally,
fractions may be reduced to their lowest forms by
repeated division by 2 or 3.
Look at the section between the “2” and the “3”
on the edge marked with an “8” for eighths Figure 3-3 — 1/8-inch scale.
(Figure 3-3).
There are eight equally spaced lines. The lengths of these lines differ and indicate different fractions
or parts of an inch.

3-1
The longest line is in the center and is equal to 4/8- or 1/2-inch.
Each half-inch is divided in half by a slightly shorter line indicating 2/8- or 1/4-inch on the left and 6/8- or
3
/4-inch on the right.
Each 1/4-inch is divided in half by the shortest line which indicates 1/8-inch, and will indicate 1/8-, 3/8-,
5
/8- and 7/8-inch.
Now turn the rule and look at the edge with a 16
marked on it (Figure 3-4).
There are now 16 equal divisions between each
inch. Since 2/16-inch reduces to 1/8-inch, divide
each 1/8-inch into two equal parts producing 1/16-,
3
/16-, 5/16-, 7/16-, 9/16-, 11/16-, 13/16-, and 15/16-inch.
Figure 3-4 — 1/16-inch scale.
Common tapes and rules usually are not
graduated smaller than sixteenths. However, precision measurements require smaller graduations.
Look at the back of the machinist’s rule. Find the edge marked 32 (Figure 3-5) and once again look
between the numbers “2” and “3.”
To read this rule, remember:
1. Sixteen divisions (16/32) are equal to 1/2-
inch.
2. Eight divisions (8/32) are equal to 1/4-inch.
3. Four divisions (4/32) are equal to 1/8-inch.
Figure 3-5 — 1/32-inch scale.
4. Two divisions (2/32) are equal to 1/16-inch.
To read 2 5/8-inches on the scale, first find the two inch mark, then determine the number of 32nds in
5
/8-inch.
To determine the number of 32nds in 5/8-inch, remember four divisions or 4/32 are equal to 1/8-inch. If
1
/8-inch is equal to 4/32-inch, then 5/8-inch is equal to 20/32-inch as shown:
• If 1/8 = 4/32, then 5/8 = 20/32-inch
• (4 x 5 = 20)
1. Find the 20/32-inch reading on the scale as shown above.
2. Write the new fraction 2 20/32-inches.
Finally, look at the edge marked 64 (Figure 3-6). Each inch is now divided into 64 equal parts.
To read this rule, remember:
1. Thirty-two divisions (32/64) are equal to 1/2-
inch.
2. Sixteen divisions (16/64) are equal to 1/4-
inch.
3. Eight divisions (8/64) are equal to 1/8-inch.
4. Four divisions (4/64) are equal to 1/16-inch. Figure 3-6 — 1/64-inch scale.
5. Two divisions (2/64) are equal to 1/32-inch.
To read 2 3/4 -inches on this scale, first find the two inch mark. Next, determine the number of 64ths in
3
/4 -inch.
3-2
To determine the number of 64ths in 3/4 -inch, remember every sixteen divisions or 16/64 are equal to
1
/4-inch. If 1/4-inch is equal to 16/64-inch, then 3/4-inch is equal to 48/64-inch as shown:
• If 1/4 = 16/64, then 3/4 = 48/64-inch
• (16x3=48)
1. Locate the number 48 between the 2- and 3- inch marks on the scale.
2. Write the new fraction 2 48/64-inches.

READING A METRIC RULE


The metric system is based upon multiples of ten. For example, there are 10 millimeters in a
centimeter and 100 centimeters in a meter.

Figure 3-7 — Metric rule.


The example provided will deal only with millimeters (mm).
The meter is the starting point. From that point, there are two scales for measuring. A meter divided
by 100 equals a centimeter (cm), 1/100 or 0.01 meter.
Next divide a centimeter (cm) by 10. This will equal a millimeter (mm), 1/1000 or 0.001 meter.
Now let’s look at a section of the rule between 2 cm and 3 cm.
There are 10 equal divisions which are equal to 1/10 cm or 1 mm.
To measure 26 mm, first locate the longest line designated 2 cm or 20 mm.
Next count 6 additional lines to find 26 mm.
There is a table for converting from U.S. Common to metric or vice versa in the inside back cover of
this manual.

READING A DIAL OR GAUGE


Pressure, vacuum, compound, and duplex gauges are
used to measure the difference between atmospheric
pressure, pressure, and temperature in a system.
A typical pressure gauge is constructed of a Bourdon tube
connected by mechanical linkages and gearing to a
pointer. The movement of the pointer, with respect to a
fixed dial, indicates pressure changes with graduated
markings representing magnitudes of pressure.

Figure 3-8 — Pressure gauge.

3-3
End of Chapter 3
Reading Measuring Scales
Review Questions
3-1. What term describes the succession of graduation on any graduated standard of linear
measurement?

A. Dial
B. Unit
C. Scale
D. Gage

3-2. What measurements are common rules and tapes divided into?

A. Hours
B. Inches
C. Angles
D. Seconds

3-3. On a machinist’s rule, what does the small numeral marked on the end nearest the 1-inch
mark indicate?

A. Manufactured date
B. Manufacturer’s identification
C. Number of inches of the rule
D. Number of divisions per inch

3-4. Common tapes and rules are usually not graduated below what minimum increment, in
inches?
1
A. /64
1
B. /32
1
C. /16
1
D. /8

3-5. On a machinist’s rule edge marked 32, how many divisions are equal to a 1/2-inch?

A. 8
B. 16
C. 32
D. 64

3-6. On what multiple is the metric system based?

A. 2
B. 8
C. 10
D. 12

3-4
3-7. To find 26 millimeters, how many lines after the 2 centimeter line should you count?

A. 4
B. 6
C. 8
D. 10

3-8. What indicator is used to measure the temperature in a system?

A. Gauge
B. Pointer
C. Repeater
D. Rule

3-9. What type of tube is used in a typical pressure gauge?

A. Bourdon
B. Compound
C. Graduated
D. Metric

3-5
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

3-6
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 4
MEASURING AND LAYOUT TOOLS
There are many types of tools used to measure and lay out projects. Measuring tools include flat steel
rules, measuring tapes, wooden folding rules, digital measuring devices, and measuring wheels.
Levels are used to check that project components are level and/or plumb. Plumb bobs are used to
check that project components are perfectly upright. Squares are used to mark, check, and measure
components of construction projects. When you consider which of these tools to use, keep in mind
the following points:
• The tool must be accurate.
• The tool should be easy to use.
• The tool should be durable.
• Numbers on the tool must be easy to read. Black numbers on a yellow or off white background
work well.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of measuring and layout tools and their uses.
You will also learn how to select the right tool for the job, use and read various types of tools, and
provide the proper care of the measuring and layout tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of measuring tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of measuring tools.
3. Determine the proper care of measuring tools.
4. Identify the different types of layout tools.
5. Recognize the proper uses of layout tools.

Interaction Available
DIVIDERS
Types and Uses
Dividers are instruments used for measuring distances between
two points, transferring or comparing measurements directly
from a rule, or for scribing an arc, radius, or circle.

Spring Divider
A spring divider (Figure 4-1, frames 1 through 3) consists of two
sharp points at the end of straight legs, held apart by a spring
and adjusted by means of a screw and nut. The spring divider is
available in sizes from 3 to 10 inches in length.

Figure 4-1 — Spring divider.

4-1
Wing Divider
A wing-type divider (Figure 4-2) has a steel bar that separates the
legs, a lock nut for setting a rough measurement, and an adjustment
screw for fine adjustments. The wing-type divider is available in 6, 8,
and 12-inch lengths. Also available is a divider with one removable
leg, so that a pencil may be inserted.

Using a Divider to Scribe a Circle


1. Set the desired radius on the dividers using the appropriate
graduations on a rule (Figure 4-3, frame 1).
2. Place the point of one of the divider legs on the point to be
used as the center (Figure 4-3, frame 2).
3. Lean the dividers in the direction of movement and scribe the
circle by revolving the dividers (Figure 4-3, frame 3).
Figure 4-2 — Wing divider.

Interaction Available
Figure 4-3 — Using a divider to scribe a circle.

Care of Dividers
Observe the following guidelines when working with dividers:
• Keep dividers clean and dry.
• Protect the points against damage.
• Store dividers where they will not become bent or broken.

CALIPERS
Types and Uses
Simple calipers (Figure 4-4) are used in conjunction with a scale or rule to determine the thickness or
the diameter of a surface, or the distance between surfaces. A caliper is usually used in one of two
ways. Either the caliper is set to the dimension of the work and the dimension transferred to a scale,
or the caliper is set on a scale and the work machined until it checks with the dimension setup on the
caliper.
To adjust a caliper to a scale dimension, hold one leg of the caliper firmly against one end of the
scale and adjust the other leg to the desired dimension. To adjust a caliper to the work, open the legs
wider than the work and then bring them down to the work.
4-2
Outside calipers for
measuring outside
diameters are bow-
legged; those used for
inside diameters have
straight legs with the
feet turned outward.
Calipers are adjusted
by pulling or pushing
the legs to open or
close them. Fine
adjustment is made by
tapping one leg lightly
on a hard surface to
close them, or by
turning them upside
down and tapping on
the joint end to open
them.

Simple Calipers
The simple outside
calipers are bowlegged.
Those used for inside
diameters have straight
legs with feet turned
outward. Calipers are
adjusted by pulling or Figure 4-4 — Simple calipers.
pushing the legs to
open or close them.

Transfer Calipers
Transfer calipers are used for measuring chamfered grooves or flanges. A screw attaches a small
auxiliary leaf to one of the legs.
The measurement is made as with ordinary calipers. The leaf is locked to the leg. The legs may be
opened or closed as needed to clear the obstruction. The legs are then brought back and locked to
the leaf, restoring them to the original setting.

Hermaphrodite Calipers
Another type of caliper is the hermaphrodite, sometimes called the odd-leg caliper. This caliper has
one straight leg ending in a sharp point, sometimes removable, and one bowleg. The hermaphrodite
caliper is used chiefly for locating the center of a shaft, or for locating a shoulder.

Spring-Joint Calipers
Spring-joint calipers have the legs joined by a strong spring hinge and linked together by a screw and
adjusting nut. For measuring chamfered cavities (grooves) or for use over flanges, transfer calipers
are available. They are equipped with a small auxiliary leaf attached to one of the legs by a screw.
The measurement is made as with ordinary calipers; then the leaf is locked to the leg. The legs may

4-3
then be opened or closed as needed to clear the
obstruction, and brought back and locked to the leaf
again, thus restoring them to the original setting.

Slide Calipers
Slide calipers (Figure 4-5) can be used for measuring
outside and inside dimensions. Graduations are in
inches, fractions, or millimeters. One side of the
caliper is used to measure outside and the other side
is used to measure inside dimensions. Stamped on
the frame are the words “IN” and “OUT.” You use them
when taking inside and outside measurements. The
other side of the caliper is used as a straight
measuring rule. Figure 4-5 — Slide caliper.
Trammels
The trammel
(Figure 4-6)
measures distances
beyond the range of
calipers. The
instrument consists
of a rule, rod, or
beam to which
trams are clamped.
The trams carry
chucks. The Figure 4-6 — Trammel.
trammel can also
be used as a divider
by changing the
points.

Vernier Calipers
Vernier calipers
(Figure 4-7) work
like slide calipers.
The vernier calipers
can make very
accurate outside or
inside Figure 4-7 — Vernier caliper.
measurements. A
vernier caliper is used by loosening the two locking screws, allowing the movable jaw to slide along
the rule until desired position is obtained. The locking screw is then retightened securing the movable
jaw. Any fine adjustments to the vernier scale are made using adjustment control. The locking screw
is then secured and vernier caliper is ready to read.

4-4
Reading a Vernier Caliper
To read a vernier caliper (Figure 4-8), you must be able to understand both the steel rule and vernier
scales. The steel rule is graduated in 0.025 of an inch. Every fourth division (representing a tenth of
an inch) is numbered.
The vernier scale is
divided into 25
parts and
numbered 0, 5, 10,
15, 20, and 25.
These 25 parts are
equal to 24 parts on
the steel rule. The
difference between
the width of one of
the 25 spaces on
the vernier scale
and one of the 24
spaces on the steel Figure 4-8 — Reading a vernier caliper.
rule is a thousandth
of an inch.
Read the measurement as shown in Figure 4-8.
Read the number of whole inches on the top scale to the left of the vernier zero index and record:
1.000 inch.
Read the number of tenths to the left of the vernier zero index and record: 0.400 inch.
Read the number of twenty-fifths between the tenths mark and the zero index and record: 3 x .025 =
.075 inch.
Read the highest line on the vernier scale (3) that lines up with the lines on the top scale and record
(Remember 1/25 = 0.001 inch): 11/25 or 0.011 inch.
TOTAL: 1.486 inches.
Most vernier calipers read outside on one side and inside on the other side. If a scale isn’t marked,
and you want to take an inside measurement, read the scale as you would for an outside diameter.
Then add the measuring point allowance by referring to manufacturer’s instructions. An example of
the additional measurement allowance is illustrated in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1 — Additional measurement allowance


Size of Caliper English Measure (add) Metric Measure (add)
6 inch or 150 mm 0.250 inch 6.35 millimeters (mm)
12 inch or 300 mm 0.300 inch 7.62 mm
24 inch or 600 mm 0.300 inch 7.62 mm
36 inch or 600 mm 0.500 inch 12.70 mm

Reading a Metric Caliper


The steel rule is divided into centimeters (cm) (Figure 4-9) and the longest lines represent 10
millimeters (mm) each. Each millimeter is divided into quarters. The vernier scale is divided into 25
parts and is numbered 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25.
4-5
Read the total number of millimeters to the left of the vernier zero index and record: 32.00 mm.
Read the number of quarters between the millimeter mark and the zero index and record: 0.25 mm (1
quarter).
Read the highest line on the vernier scale aligning
with the line on the scale and record: 0.18 mm.
TOTAL: 32.43 mm.

Care of Calipers
Observe the following guidelines when working with
calipers:
• Store calipers in separate containers provided.
• Keep graduations and markings on all calipers
clean and legible.
• Do not drop any caliper. Small nicks or
scratches can cause inaccurate
measurements. Figure 4-9 — Reading a metric caliper.
• Protect caliper points from damage.

MICROMETERS
Types and
Uses
Micrometers
(Figure 4-10) are
instruments used to
measure distances
to the nearest one-
thousandth of an
inch. These
measurements are
expressed or
written as a
decimal (0.0001,
0.001, 0.01), so to
use them you must
know how to read
and write decimals. Figure 4-10 — Common types of micrometers.
There are four
types of micrometer
calipers, commonly called micrometers or simply mikes, used throughout the Navy: the outside
micrometer, the inside micrometer, the depth micrometer, and the screw thread micrometer.

4-6
Outside Micrometers
The outside micrometer (Figure 4-11) is
used for measuring outside
dimensions, such as the outside
diameter of a piece of round stock or
the thickness of a piece of flat stock, to
an accuracy of 0.001 of an inch.

Inside Micrometers
Inside micrometers (Figure 4-12) are
used to measure an inside diameter to
an accuracy of 0.001 of an inch. Inside Figure 4-11 — Outside micrometer.
micrometers have a range of 0.500
inch, when used with 1/2-inch spacers.

Depth Micrometers
Depth micrometers (Figure 4-13) are used to measure
depths to an accuracy of 0.001 inches.

Figure 4-12 — Inside micrometer.


Figure 4-13 — Depth micrometer.

Screw Thread Micrometers


The screw thread micrometer is used to determine the pitch diameter of screws.

Selecting the Proper Micrometer


The types of micrometers commonly used are made so that the longest movement that the
micrometer spindle or rod can make is 1 inch. This movement is called the range; for example, a 2-
inch micrometer has a range of from 1 to 2 inches, and can only measure work with a thickness or
diameter within that range. A 6-inch micrometer has a range from 5 to 6 inches, and will measure only
work between 5 and 6 inches thick. The frames of micrometers, however, are available in a wide
variety of sizes, from 1 inch up to as large as 24 inches.
It is necessary, therefore, that the mechanic first find the approximate size of the work to the nearest
inch, and then select a micrometer that will fit it. For example, to find the exact diameter of a piece of
round stock, use a rule and find the approximate diameter of the stock. If it is found to be
approximately 3 1/4-inches, a micrometer with a 3- to 4-inch range would be required to measure the
exact diameter. Similarly, with inside and depth micrometers, rods of suitable lengths must be fitted
into the tool to get the approximate dimension within an inch, after which the exact measurement is

4-7
read by turning the thimble. The size of a micrometer indicates the size of the largest work it will
measure.

Reading a Standard Micrometer


The sleeve and thimble scales of a micrometer (Figure 4-14) have been enlarged and laid out for
demonstration. Reading a micrometer is only a matter of reading the micrometer scale or counting the
revolutions of the thimble and adding any fraction of a revolution. To understand these scales, you
need to know that the threaded section on the
spindle, which revolves, has 40 threads per
inch. Therefore, every time the thimble
completes a revolution, the spindle advances
or recedes 1/40 inch, or 0.025 inch.
Note the horizontal line on the sleeve is
divided into 40 equal parts per inch. Every
fourth graduation is numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and
so on, representing 0.100, 0.200, 0.300, and
0.400 inch, respectively. When you turn the
thimble so its edge is over the first sleeve line
past the 0 on the thimble scale, the spindle
has opened 0.025 inch. If you turn the spindle
to the second mark, it has moved 0.025 inch
plus 0.025 inch, or 0.050 inch. When the
beveled edge of the thimble stops between
graduated lines on the sleeve scale, you must
use the thimble scale to complete your
reading. The thimble scale is divided into 25
equal parts; each part or mark represents 1/25
of a turn; 1/25 of 0.025 inch equals 0.001 inch.
Note that in Figure 4-15 every fifth line on the
thimble scale is marked 5, 10, 15, and so on. Figure 4-14 — Sleeve and thimble scales of a
The thimble scale permits you to take very micrometer.
accurate readings to the thousandths of an
inch.

Figure 4-15 — Enlarged micrometer scale.

4-8
NOTE
Keep the sleeve and thimble free of grease and dirt.
Grease and dirt cause inaccurate readings on micrometers.

The enlarged scale in Figure 4-15 can help you understand how to take a complete micrometer
reading to the nearest thousandth of an inch.
The thimble is turned far enough to expose the 7 on the sleeve scale but not far enough to expose
the first mark after the 7. Therefore, the measurement must be between 0.700 inch and 0.725 inch.
Exactly how far between 0.700 inch and 0.725 inch must be determined from the thimble scale.
As you can see, the thimble has been turned through
12 spaces of its scale, and the 12th graduation is
lined up with the reference line on the sleeve. When
the value on the sleeve scale is added to the value on
the thimble scale that is lined up with the reference
line on the sleeve scale, the space between the anvil
and spindle must be 0.712 inch (seven hundred
twelve thousandths of an inch).

Reading a Vernier Micrometer


Many times you are required to work to exceptionally
precise dimensions. Under these conditions it is
better to use a micrometer that is accurate to ten-
thousandths of an inch. This degree of accuracy is
obtained by the addition of a vernier scale.
The vernier scale of a micrometer (Figure 4-16)
furnishes the fine readings between the lines on the
thimble rather than requiring you to estimate the
reading. The 10 spaces on the vernier are equivalent Figure 4-16 — Vernier scale of a
to 9 spaces on the thimble. Therefore, each unit on micrometer.
the vernier scale is equal to 0.0009 inch, and the
difference between the sizes of the units on each scale
is 0.0001 inch.
When a line on the thimble scale does not coincide with
the horizontal reference line on the sleeve, you can
determine the additional spaces beyond the readable
thimble mark by finding which vernier mark matches up
with a line on the thimble scale. Add this number, as
that many ten-thousandths of an inch, to the original
reading.
In Figure 4-17, see how the second line on the vernier
scale matches up with a line on the thimble scale. This
line means that the 0.011 mark on the thimble scale has
been advanced an additional 0.0002 beyond the
horizontal sleeve line. When you add this number to the
other readings, the reading is 0.200 + 0.075 + 0.011 +
0.0002, or 0.2862, as shown.

4-9 Figure 4-17 — Reading a vernier scale.


Reading a Metric Micrometer
The same principle is applied in reading the metric graduated micrometer (Figure 4-18), but the
following changes in graduations are used:
The pitch of the micrometer screw is 0.05 mm. One revolution of the spindle advances or withdraws
the screw a distance equal to 0.5 mm.
The barrel is graduated in millimeters from 0
to 25. It takes two revolutions of the spindle to
move the barrel 1 mm.
The thimble is graduated in 50 divisions with
every fifth line being numbered.
Rotating the thimble from one graduation to
the next moves the spindle 1/50 of 0.5 mm, or
1
/100 mm. Two graduations equal 2/100 mm,
and so forth. Figure 4-18 — Metric micrometer.
The thimble is turned far enough to expose the 20 on the sleeve scale. The number of lines visible
between the number 20 and the thimble edge is 2, which is equivalent to 2 mm. The line on the
thimble coincides with the long line in the barrel, 36 or 0.36 mm. When you add the measurements
together, the reading is 20 + 2 + 0.36, or 22.36 mm.

NOTE
Remember that 1 revolution is 0.5 mm. It takes 2
revolutions to move 1 mm.

Care of Micrometers
Observe the following guidelines when working with micrometers:
• Coat metal parts of all micrometers with a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
• Store micrometers in separate containers provided by manufacturer.
• Keep graduations and markings on all micrometers clean and legible.
• Do not drop any micrometer. Small nicks or scratches can cause inaccurate measurements.

RULES AND STEEL TAPES


Types and Uses
The rule or tape is used for measuring where accuracy is not an extremely critical factor. They can be
rigid or flexible, come in various lengths, and can be made of wood, metal, cloth, or fiberglass.

Rules
The flat steel rule (Figure 4-19) is the simplest measuring tool. It is usually 6 or 12 inches in length but
can be longer. Steel rules can be rigid or flexible, thin or wide. It is easier and more accurate to use a
thin rule, since it is closer to the work being measured.

4-10
Figure 4-19 — Steel rule.
Flat steel rules can have up to four sets of marks, two on each side of the blade. Rules with four sets
of marks are set up with divisions of 1/8 inch and 1/16 inch on one side, and divisions of 1/32 inch and
1
/64 inch on the other side. The marks are longer for a division of 1/2 inch, scaling down in length from
1
/4 inch through 1/64 inch.
There are many variations of the common rule. Sometimes the graduations are on one side only,
sometimes a set of graduations is added across one end for measuring in narrow spaces, and
sometimes only the first inch is divided into sixty-fourths, with the remaining inches divided into thirty-
seconds and sixteenths. A metal or wood folding rule may be used.

Folding Rules
A folding rule (Figure 4-20) is made up of
hardwood, steel, or aluminum sections, each
measuring 6 to 8 inch. The sections are
connected by spring joints that unfold for
measuring distances.
These folding rules are usually from 2 to 6 feet
long. The folding rules cannot be relied on for
extremely accurate measurements because a
certain amount of play develops at the joints
after continued use. Figure 4-20 — Folding rule.
Measuring Tapes
A measuring tape (Figure 4-21) can come in any length
from 6 to 50 feet. The most common are 10, 16, and 25
feet. Shorter tapes usually have a curved cross section so
they roll easily but stay rigid when extended. Longer tapes
are usually flat and should be laid along a surface to avoid
sagging in the middle.
A locking mechanism, such as a sliding button, keeps the
tape locked in place while a measurement is being taken.
Other locking mechanisms, such as levers and toggles,
allow the tape to be retracted after measuring by simply
squeezing them. In any case, a spring mechanism in the Figure 4-21 — Measuring tape.
case automatically retracts the tape.

How to Use a Measuring Tape


Follow these steps to use a measuring tape properly:
1. Pull the tape out to the desired length.
2. Place the hook over the edge of the material you are measuring.
3. Lock the tape in place.
4. Record or mark the measurement.

4-11
5. Unhook the tape from the edge of the material.
6. Release the lock and rewind the tape.

Digital Measuring Devices


Digital measuring devices (Figure 4-22) are similar to
conventional measuring devices, but their digital readouts make
measurement readings more precise. They give you the ability to
convert fractions to decimal or metric equivalents. A useful
function of these devices is their ability to compensate for the
size of the tape case when making measurements inside a
window frame or door jamb. Some devices have a memory
function that holds a measurement; others have a voice recorder
to keep track of multiple measurements.
Figure 4-22 — Digital
Measuring Wheel measuring device.
A measuring wheel (Figure 4-23) is made up of a wheel, handle,
odometer, and a reset button to return the counter to zero. It is designed to take lengthy exterior
measurements, as long as 10,000 feet. Measuring wheels can have
collapsing or telescoping handles, different tread materials, and optional
storage cases. Wheel diameters range from 4 to 25 inches, with the larger
wheels suitable for rough terrain.

Care of Rules and Tapes


Observe the following guidelines when working with rules and tapes:
For all measuring tools
• Always wear eye protection when using measuring tools.
• Keep rules and tapes clean and dry.
• Store rules and tapes where they will not become bent or damaged.
For measuring tapes:
• Keep the case intact. The spring motor is under tension and opening
the case can cause injury.
• Protect your hands by retracting the tape slowly. Allowing the tape to
retract at full speed can cause injury.
• Keep steel tape measures away from electrified parts during use and
storage.
• Keep steel tape free of kinks and twists, which can cause it to break. Figure 4-23 —
• Keep steel tape dry by wiping it to prevent rust. Measuring wheel.
For digital measuring devices:
• Keep digital measuring devices from getting wet.
For wooden folding rules:
• Maintain a wooden folding rule by occasionally applying a few drops of light oil on the spring
joints.

4-12
LEVELS
Types and Uses
Levels (Figure 4-24) are tools designed to
prove whether a plane or surface is in the true
vertical or true horizontal. All levels consist of
a liquid-filled glass tube or tubes supported in
a frame.

Master Precision Level Figure 4-24 — Parts of a level.


The master precision level (Figure 4-25) has a ground
and graduated main vial. The top and bottom of the
level are milled and ground to make sure both surfaces
are absolutely parallel. This level is used to determine
the true horizontal with the main vial. The true vertical
is determined by using the two smaller vials.

Figure 4-25 — Master precision level.

Figure 4-26 — Machinist’s level.

Machinist’s Level
The machinist’s level (Figure 4-26) has an extra-large
vial, increasing the accuracy and sensitivity. Some of
these levels have grooved bottoms which fit over pipes
and shafts. They are used in machine shops for leveling
work and equipment. Figure 4-27 — Iron bench level.
Iron Bench Level
The iron bench level (Figure 4-27) is made of a special design casting which ensures its lightness,
strength, and rigidity. It is used mostly in the construction industry. It may also be used in a machine
shop.

Striding Level
The striding level (Figure 4-28) is a machinist’s level which
is mounted on a raised base. This level is used to span
existing cabling, piping, or similar obstructions. It is
extremely useful in a machine shop for checking the true
horizontal of the flatway on a lathe.
Figure 4-28 — Striding level. 4-13
Carpenter’s Level
The carpenter’s level (Figure 4-29) has three
vials which are mounted horizontally, vertically,
and at a 45-degree angle. The carpenter’s level
is used in construction for checking for true
vertical, true horizontal, and 45-degree angles.

Figure 4-29 — Carpenter’s level.

Line Level
The line level (Figure 4-30) is a single vial in a
metal case with a hook on each end for hanging
on a cord. It is used to check whether two points
are level, such as two points on a floor or in an
elevation. It must be used with a tightly stretched
Figure 4-30 — Line level.
cord.

Torpedo Level
The torpedo level (Figure 4-31) is a small level,
generally 6 to 9 inches in length. Its name is
derived from its boat-like shape, tapered at both
ends. It is useful in small spaces where a larger
Figure 4-31 — Torpedo level. level would not fit.

Digital Level
The digital level (Figure 4-32) has two vials; one to
check for level, the other to check for plumb. It
also includes a digital readout for:
• Degrees of slope.
• Inches per foot of rise and run for stairs and Figure 4-32 — Digital level.
roofs.
• Percentage of slope for drainage on decks and masonry.

Laser Level
A laser level (Figure 4-33) is used to level and provide
reference lines for tasks such as setting foundation
levels, establishing drainage slopes, aligning plumbing
and electrical lines, and setting tile. It can be mounted
on a tripod, fixed to pipes or framing studs, or
suspended from ceiling framing.

4-14 Figure 4-33 — Laser level.


Using a Level
A level may be checked for accuracy by placing it on a known level surface and noting the position of
the bubble. Reverse the level end for end. Observe the position of the bubble. If the relative position
of the bubble was the same for both readings, the level is accurate.
The carpenter and torpedo levels are easy to use. All you need is a careful eye to read it correctly.
1. Place the level on the object you need to check. Lay it on a horizontal surface or hold it against
a vertical surface.
2. Check the air bubble in the vial. When the bubble is centered between the two lines on the vial,
the object you are checking is level if you are checking a horizontal surface, plumb if you are
checking a vertical surface, or at a 45-degree angle if you are checking
the angle.

Care of Levels
You are not likely to have any personal injuries from using a level. However, you
can damage this sensitive instrument if you don’t handle it carefully. Observe the
following guidelines when working with levels:
• Replace the level if any of the vials are cracked or broken.
• Keep the level clean and dry. Keep the level in its case when not in use.
• Use the level properly. Avoid bending or applying excessive pressure on
the level and dropping or bumping the level.

PLUMB BOBS
Types and Uses
A plumb bob (Figure 4-34) is a precision instrument used to establish a true
vertical transfer and line-up reference point, and to take readings or soundings in
tanks and voids. Plumb bobs are used by carpenters, surveyors, and
maintenance technicians.

Surveyor's Polished Brass


The surveyor’s brass plumb bob may be either a spool type or an adjustable cap
type. Both types have replaceable steel points for increased accuracy. The
adjustable cap allows the operator to make minor corrections to height and
rotation to make sure the bob hangs straight. The surveyor’s brass plumb bob
comes with a minimum of 7 feet of nylon, silk or linen cord. It comes in 6-, 8-, 10-, Figure 4-34 —
and 16-ounce sizes. The heavier plumb bobs are better for use in windy areas. Plumb bob.

Solid Steel
The solid steel plumb bob (Figure 4-35) may have a machined
integral head, body, and point. It may have just a removable
head, or a removable head and a replaceable point. It may be
round or hexagonal in shape and it comes in 3-, 8-, and 12-
ounce sizes. Cord for the solid steel bobs must be obtained
from a separate source. This type plumb bob is used when
extreme accuracy is not required.
4-15
Figure 4-35 — Steel plumb bob.
Using a Plumb Bob

NOTE
The practice procedure which follows (for establishing the
true vertical of a post) uses a plumb bob with a removable
head.

NOTE
The following task is not the only use of a plumb bob.

NOTE
Post hole must be dug and an assistant is required before
starting the task.

Follow these steps to use a plumb bob properly:


1. The first step is to attach the cord as follows:
2. Insert a string or cord into the cap (Figure 4-36) of the plumb bob. Make sure the cord will
support the plumb bob. Pull the cord through the cap.
3. Place cap in the palm of your hand and tie an overhand knot (Figure 4-37) in the cord. Pull the
cord, drawing the knot against cap base. Make sure the knot is not too large or tied at an
angle, which would affect the hanging of the plumb bob.

Figure 4-36 — Insert a string. Figure 4-37 — Overhand knot.

4-16
4. Install cap into plumb bob body (Figure 4-38).
5. Tighten cap securely in the body and suspend
the plumb bob by the cord only. Make sure the
knot will support the plumb bob.
6. Place a ruler on the top of the post so that it
extends 2 inches beyond an edge.
7. Position the string and plumb bob so they
extend over end of ruler (Figure 4-39) and the
plumb bob is just above the ground surface.
8. Have the assistant measure distance from post
to string just above the plumb bob (Figure 4-
40). It should read 2 inches. If it doesn’t, move
the base or the top of the post right or left until Figure 4-38 — Install the cap.
you achieve a 2-inch reading on both rules.

Figure 4-39 — Position Figure 4-40 — Measure the Figure 4-41 — Measuring at
the plumb bob. distance. the point.

9. Have the assistant measure distance from post to string just above the plumb bob (Figure 4-
40). It should read 2 inches. If it doesn’t, move the base or the top of the post right or left until
you achieve a 2-inch reading on both rules.
10. When extreme accuracy is desired, measurement would be taken to the point of the plumb bob
(Figure 4-41).
11. Repeat steps 5, 6, and 7 on the other edge of the post.
4-17
Care of Plumb Bobs
Observe the following guidelines when working with plumb bobs:
• Handle plumb bobs with care. Do not use a plumb bob as a hammer or lever. Lightly coat
plumb bobs with lubricating oil for short periods of storage. For long-term storage, apply a
heavy coat of oil and wrap the plumb bob in oil-soaked paper.
• Store plumb bobs in a protective box in a dry place.
• Make certain threads of removable caps and points are lightly coated with lubricant and placed
in a protective box.

SCRIBERS
Types and Uses
Machinist’s Scribers
Use the machinist’s scribers (Figure 4-42) to mark or score on steel, glass, aluminum, copper, or
other similar surfaces. There are two basic types of machinist’s scribers, single point pocket and bent
point-straight point.
The single point scriber is used to mark the
lines on the material.
The bent point is used to scribe through
holes or other hard to reach places.
The tips have extremely hard points, Figure 4-42 — Machinist’s scribers.
usually made of tungsten carbide, and are
used on hardened steel or glass.

Using a Machinist’s Scriber


Follow these steps to use a machinist’s scriber properly:
1. Place material to be marked on a firm surface.
Place a steel rule or straight edge on the work
beside the line to be scribed (Figure 4-43).
2. Use fingertips of one hand to hold the straight edge
securely. Hold the scriber in your hand as you
would a pencil.
3. Scribe the line by drawing the scriber along the
straight edge at a 45-degree angle and tipped in the
direction it is being moved.

Care of Scribers
Observe the following guidelines when working with
scribers:
• Stow on a rack or in a box.
• Do not use scribers for other than intended Figure 4-43 — Scribing a line.
purposes.

4-18
• Protect points by reversing them in the handle or
placing a cork or a piece of soft wood over point.
• Keep the scribers clean and lightly oiled.

SQUARES
Types and Uses
Carpenter’s Square
The carpenter square (Figure 4-44), has a large arm, called
the blade, and a small arm, called the tongue. The arms Figure 4-44 — Carpenter’s square.
meet in a 90-degree angle. The square is used to mark,
check, and measure components of construction
projects. It has several scales etched onto the surface
for quick reference: a diagonal scale, a board foot
scale, and an octagonal scale. It has ruler increments
etched on the inside and outside edges.
The face side contains the manufacturer’s name and
the inches are divided into eighths and sixteenths
(Figure 4-45). There are two tables down the center.
The rafter table is used for determining the length and
cut of rafters.
The octagon or eight square scale is used for cutting
an octagon from a square piece of material.
The back side contains the hundredths scale and is
divided into tenths, twelfths, and sixteenths as shown.
There are two tables down the center.
The Essex board measure is used to compute the
number of board feet in a given piece of lumber.
The brace measure is used to find the exact lengths
of common braces.
Figure 4-45 — Parts of a carpenter’s square.
Common scales or inch divisions found on the
carpenter’s square are listed in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2 — Scales and measurements of a carpenter’s square
Part of the Square Edge of the Square Scale and Inch Divisions
Face of body outside edge inches and sixteenths
Face of body inside edge inches and eighths
Face of tongue outside edge inches and sixteenths
Face of tongue inside edge inches and eighths
Back of body outside edge inches and twelfths
Back of body inside edge inches and sixteenths
Back of tongue outside edge inches and twelfths
Back of tongue inside edge inches and tenths
4-19
Try Square
The try square (Figure 4-46) is an L-shaped tool used as a guide
to lay out 90 degree cuts with pencil markings. It is also used to
check that the edges and ends of boards are square, and
whether a board is the same depth along its entire length. A try
square has broad blades 6 to 12 inches long set at right angles.

Combination Square
The combination square (Figure 4-47) is used for many
purposes in woodworking and metalworking but mainly for
measuring the accuracy of a right angle. It is made up of the
following components:
1. A slotted 12-inch stainless steel rule which is graduated in
eighths, sixteenths, thirty-seconds, and sixty-fourths of an Figure 4-46 — Try square.
inch. It can be used as a measuring scale by itself or with
any one of the following components.
2. The center head, when attached to the
rule, bisects a 90-degree angle. It’s
used for determining the center of
cylindrical work.
3. The protractor has a level and a
revolving turret which is graduated in
degrees from 0 to 180 or 0 to 90 in
either direction. It is used to lay out and
measure angles to within 1 degree.
4. The square head has a level, a scribe,
and 45- and 90-degree sides. It is used
to lay out 45- and 90-degree angles and
to check level. It may also be used as a
height or depth gage.

Figure 4-47 — Combination square.

Sliding T-Bevel
The sliding T-bevel (Figure 4-48) is made up of a slotted
blade and a solid stock. The blade is adjustable so it can be
set to measure any angle. The T-bevel is used for testing
bevels and laying out angles.

Figure 4-48 — Sliding T-bevel. 4-20


Bevel Protractor
The bevel protractor (Figure 4-49) is made up
of an adjustable blade and a graduated dial
which contains a vernier scale. The bevel
protractor is used to establish an angle and
determine its relationship to other surfaces. The
acute angle attachment is used for measuring
acute angles accurately.

Rafter Angle (Speed) Square


The rafter angle square or speed square
(Figure 4-50) is a three-sided, triangle shaped
measuring tool. It is used to draw perpendicular
lines on boards to be cut, or to lay out angles
for rafters, stairs, and other construction Figure 4-49 — Bevel protractor.
projects. It has degree gradations etched onto
the surface for quick layout and cutting of
lumber so you don’t have to perform angle
calculations.

T-Square
The T-square (Figure 4-51) is used to measure and
cut drywall. Some table saws come with a T-square
fence attached.

Figure 4-50 — Rafter angle square.

Figure 4-51 — T-square.

Using a Carpenter’s Square to Mark a Square


Line
To mark a line for cutting, use the following steps:
1. Find and mark where the line will be drawn.
2. Line the square up with the bottom of the object to
be marked as shown in Figure 4-52.
3. Mark the line to be cut; mark an x on the material to
be cut away. Figure 4-52 — Using a carpenter’s
4. Cut off the excess material. square.

4-21
Check that joints meet at a 90-degree angle by placing the
blades of the framing square along the two sides of the
angle, as shown in Figure 4-53. If both blades fit tightly,
the material is square. If there is any space between
either of the arms and the side closest to it, the material is
not square.

Using a Carpenter’s Square to Lay out Steps


1. An example to properly position a square when
marking cut lines for a series of steps 9 inches by
12 inches is illustrated in Figure 4-54.
2. Continue the process until desired number of steps
has been laid out.

Figure 4-53 — Checking for square.

Figure 4-54 — Square position for steps.

Using a Try Square


Using a try square is similar to using the carpenter’s
square.
1. To check a square joint, place the stock against a
horizontal section and the blade against a vertical
section. Light must not be seen around blade
edge. If light is seen, the work is not square. Figure 4-55 — Set the sliding T-bevel.
2. To check the end of a board, place stock on
vertical edge and extend blade over the end. Light
must not be seen around blade edge. If light is
seen, the work is not square.

Using a Sliding T-Bevel Square


Follow these steps to use a sliding T-bevel properly:
1. Loosen the locking nut and adjust blade to
measure a desired angle using a protractor (Figure
4-55). Tighten the locking nut.
2. The angle may now be laid out by extending the
blade across the board with the stock (Figure 4-56)
held firmly against the edge. Figure 4-56 — Transfer the angle to
the material.

4-22
3. Mark with a pencil or marking crayon. Make sure
the square does not move while marking (Figure 4-
57).

Using a Combination Square


Follow these steps to use a combination square properly:

Using as a Center Head to Find the Diameter of a


Cylinder
1. Slide center head on rule and fasten by tightening
setscrew (Figure 4-58).
2. Put the center head flush against the cylinder
(Figure 4-59). Figure 4-57 — Mark the angle.

Figure 4-58 — Set the combination square. Figure 4-59 — Press against the cylinder.

3. Mark the diameter on the cylinder (Figure 4-


60) using a pencil or marking crayon by
drawing a straight line along the inside edge.
Make sure the square does not slip while
marking.

Using as a Protractor Head to Determine an


Angle
1. Slide protractor head on rule (Figure 4-61)
and fasten by tightening setscrew.

Figure 4-60 — Mark the diameter.

Figure 4-61 — Set up the combination square.

4-23
2. Loosen the protractor adjustment screws so the
protractor may be pivoted about the rule. Angle
being measured is already marked.
3. Place the rule on the angle being measured
(Figure 4-62) and pivot the protractor head
against the edge. Tighten adjustment screws.
4. Remove and read the measured angle on the
protractor scale (Figure 4-63).

Using a Combination Square to Mark 90-Degree


and 45-Degree Angles
Mark a 90-degree angle (Figure 4-64) using the
following steps. Figure 4-62 — Measure the angle.
1. Set the blade at 90 degrees (a right angle).
2. Place the square so the head fits snugly
against the edge of the material to be marked.
3. Use the blade as a straightedge to guide the
mark, starting at the edge of the material.
Mark a 45-degree angle (Figure 4-65) using the
following steps.
1. Set the blade at a 45-degree angle.
2. Place the square so the head fits snugly
against the edge of the material to be marked. Figure 4-63 — Verify the angle.
3. Use the blade as a straightedge to guide the
mark, starting at the edge of the material.

Figure 4-64 — Mark a 90-degree cut with Figure 4-65 — Mark a 45-degree cut with a
a combination square. combination square.
4-24
Care of Squares
Observe the following guidelines when working with squares:
• Wear gloves. The edges can be very sharp.
• When you use a square as a saw guide, use a clamp to
hold the square so you can keep both hands on the saw.
• Make sure squares are kept clean.
• Keep the square dry to prevent rust.
• Use a light coat of oil on the blade. Occasionally clean the
blade’s grooves and the setscrew (if there is one).
• A square with a loose stock is no good. Replace the
square.
• Use squares for the appropriate purpose and in the correct
way. Avoid the following to preserve the integrity of the
square, as they are expensive to replace:
o Dropping it.
o Prying or hammering with it. Figure 4-66 — Surface gage.
o Striking it hard enough to change the angle between the
blade and the head.
o Bending it.
o Using it during horseplay.

SURFACE, DEPTH, AND HEIGHT GAGES


Types and Uses
Surface Gage
A surface gage (Figure 4-66) is a measuring tool used to transfer
measurements to work by scribing a line, and to indicate the
accuracy or parallelism of surfaces. The surface gage consists of a
base with an adjustable spindle to which may be clamped a scriber
or an indicator.
Surface gages are made in several sizes and are classified by the
length of the spindle. The smallest spindle is 4 inches long, the
average 9 to 12 inches, and the largest 18 inches. The scriber is
fastened to the spindle with a clamp. The bottom and the front end
of the base of the surface gage have deep V-grooves. The grooves
allow the gage to measure from a cylindrical surface.
The base has two gage pins. They are used against the edge of a
surface plate or slot to prevent movement or slippage.

Rule Depth Gage


Figure 4-67 — Rule depth
A rule depth gage (Figure 4-67) measures the depth of holes, slots, gage.
counterbores, and recesses. Some rule depth gages can also be
4-25
used to measure angles. This measurement is done by using the angle marks located on the sliding
head. The rule depth gage is a graduated rule with a sliding head designed to bridge a hole or slot.
The gage holds the rule at a right angle to the surface when taking measurements. This type has a
measuring range of 0 to 5 inches. The sliding head has a clamping screw so that it may be clamped
in any position. The sliding head is flat and perpendicular to the axis of the rule. It ranges in size from
2 to 2 5/8 inches wide and from 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick.

Micrometer Depth Gage


The micrometer depth gage (Figure 4-68) consists of a flat base
that is attached to the barrel of a micrometer head. These gages
have a range from 0 to 9 inches, depending on the length of
extension rod used. The hollow micrometer screw has a 1/2- or 1-
inch range. Some are provided with a ratchet stop. The flat base
ranges in size from 2 to 6 inches. Several extension rods are
supplied with this type gage.

Vernier Depth Gage


The vernier depth gage (Figure 4-
69) consists of a graduated scale
either 6 or 12 inches long. It also
has a sliding head similar to the one
on the vernier caliper.
The sliding head is designed to
bridge holes and slots. The vernier
depth gage has the range of the
rule depth gage. It does not have
quite the accuracy of a micrometer
Figure 4-68 — Micrometer
depth gage. It cannot enter holes
depth gage.
less than 1/4 inch in diameter.
However, it will enter a 1/32-inch slot.
The vernier scale is adjustable and
may be adjusted to compensate for
wear.

Dial Depth Gage


Dial depth gages (Figure 4-70) are
for rapidly checking depths of holes,
recesses, slots, scratches, and
paint thicknesses. It should be
noted that measurements made
with depth gages should be on a
longitudinal axis. The depth gage
will give direct readings on the dial
in half-thousands of an inch
(0.0005 inch); press the push
button down until the measuring
rod contacts the work and read the
depth on the dial. Figure 4-69 — Vernier Figure 4-70 — Dial depth
depth gage. gage.
4-26
Height Gage
A height gage (Figure 4-71) is used in the layout of jigs and fixtures. On a
bench, it is used to check the location of holes and surfaces. It accurately
measures and marks off vertical distances from a plane surface.
The vernier height gage is a caliper with a special base to adapt it for use on
a surface plate. Height gages are available in several sizes. Most common
are the 10-, 18-, and 24-inch gages in English measure. The most common
metric gages are the 25- and 46-centimeter sizes. Height gages are classified
by the dimension they will measure above the surface plate. Like the vernier
caliper, height gages are graduated in divisions of 0.025 inch. Its vernier scale
is divided into 25 units for reading thousandths of an inch.

Surface Plate
A surface plate (Figure 4-72)
provides a true, smooth, plane
surface. It is often used as a level
base for surface and height gages
from which to make accurate
measurements. Surface plates are
usually made of close grained cast Figure 4-72 — Granite surface plate.
iron, are rectangular in shape, and Figure 4-71 —
come in a variety of sizes. Height gage.

Using the Surface, Depth, and Height Gages


Follow these steps to use surface, depth, and height gages properly:

Surface Gage
Setting the surface gage to transfer a 4-inch vertical measurement is illustrated in Figure 4-73.

Rule Depth Gage


A method of using a rule depth gage to measure the distance from a surface to a recessed point is
illustrated in Figure 4-74.

Figure 4-74 — Using a depth


Figure 4-73 — Using a surface gage.
4-27 rule gage.
Micrometer Depth Gage
An example of measuring projection depth with
micrometer depth gage is shown in Figure 4-75.

Vernier Depth Gage


In Figure 4-76, using a vernier depth gage to measure
the depth of a hole from a given surface is illustrated.

Figure 4-75 — Using a micrometer depth


gage.

Figure 4-76 — Using a vernier depth


gage.

Dial Depth Gage


In Figure 4-77, measuring depths of holes, recesses, slots,
scratches, and paint thicknesses with a dial depth gage is
illustrated.

Figure 4-77 — Using a dial


depth gage.
Height Gage
Using a height gage to measure a vertical distance from a
plane surface is shown in Figure 4-78.

Figure 4-78 — Using a height gage.

4-28
Care of Surface, Height, and Depth Gages
Observe the following guidelines when working with surface, height, and depth gages:
• Coat all metal parts of gages with a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
• Carefully store gages when not in use. Use separate containers if provided by manufacturer.
• Keep graduations and markings clean and legible.
• Do not drop any gage. Small nicks and scratches can cause inaccurate measurements.
• Protect all pointed gage parts from damage.

RING AND SNAP GAGES AND


GAGE BLOCKS
Types and Uses
Ring and snap gages (Figure 4-79) and
precision gage blocks are used as standards to
determine whether or not one or more
dimensions of a manufactured post are within
specified limits. Their measurements are
included in the construction of each gage, and
they are called fixed gages. However, some
snap gages are adjustable. Gages are used for
a wide range of work, from rough machining to
the finest tool and die making. The accuracy
required of the same type of gage will be Figure 4-79 — Typical snap gage.
different, depending on the use.
The following classes of gages and their limits of accuracy are standard for all makes:
• Class X - Precision lapped to close tolerances for many types of masters and the highest
quality working and inspection gages.
• Class Y - Good lapped finish to slightly increased tolerances for inspection and working gages.
• Class Z - Commercial finish (ground and polished, but not fully lapped) for a large percentage
of working gages in which tolerances are fairly wide, and where production quantities are not
so large.
• Class ZZ - (Ring gages only). Ground only to meet the demand for an inexpensive gage,
where quantities are small and tolerances liberal.
A listing of tolerances for ring gages in each class is illustrated in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3 — Ring gages in each class
ABOVE TO AND X (PRECISION Y Z (GROUND OR RING GAGES ZZ
INCLUDE LAPPED) (LAPPED) POLISHED) (GROUND ONLY)
0.029 0.825 0.00004 0.00007 0.00010 0.00020
0.825 1.510 0.00006 0.00009 0.00012 0.00024
1.510 2.510 0.00008 0.00012 0.00016 0.00032

4-29
Table 4-3 — Ring gages in each class (continued)
ABOVE TO AND X (PRECISION Y Z (GROUND OR RING GAGES ZZ
INCLUDE LAPPED) (LAPPED) POLISHED) (GROUND ONLY)
2.510 4.510 0.00010 0.00015 0.00020 0.00040
4.510 6.510 0.00013 0.00019 0.00025 0.00050
6.510 9.010 0.00016 0.00024 0.00032 0.00064
9.010 12.010 0.00020 0.00030 0.00040 0.00080

Ring Gages
The plain ring gage (Figure 4-80) is an external gage of circular form. For sizes between 0.059 and
0.510 inch, ring gages are made with a hardened bushing pressed into a soft body. The thickness of
the gage will range from 3/16 to 1 5/16 inches. On ring gages, the GO gage is larger than the NO GO
gage.
The GO and NO GO ring gages are separate units. They can be
distinguished from each other by an annular groove cut in the
knurled outer surface of the NO GO gage. Ring gages made for
diameters of 0.510 to 1.510 inches are the same as those
shown above, except there is no bushing; they are made all in
one piece. Ring gages sized from 1.510 to 5.510 inches are
made with a flange. This design reduces the weight, making the
larger sizes easier to handle.
Ring gages are used more often in the inspection of finished
parts than parts in process. The reason for measuring the final
part is that the parts are usually readily accessible, whereas
parts in a machine that are supported at both ends would have
to be removed to be checked. Figure 4-80 — Ring gage.
Snap Gages
The plain snap gage (Figure 4-79) is made in two general types, the nonadjustable and adjustable.
The nonadjustable type is a solid construction, having two gaging members, GO and NO GO. The
part to be inspected is first tried on the GO side and then the gage is reversed and the part tried on
the NO GO side. Some solid snap gages have combined gaging members in the same set of jaws as
shown above, known as a progressive snap gage. The outer member gages the GO dimension and
the inner member the NO GO dimension.
Three standard designs of the adjustable type are available, consisting of a light, rigid frame with
adjustable gaging pins, buttons, or anvils. These pins or buttons may be securely locked in place after
adjustment, and locking screws are tightened to hold the gaging dimensions. One type of adjustable
snap gage is made in sizes that range from 1/2 to 12 inches. It is equipped with four gaging pins and is
suitable for checking the dimension between surfaces. Another type is made in sizes that range from
1
/2 to 11 ¼ inches. It is equipped with four gaging buttons and is suitable for checking flat or cylindrical
work. The third type is made in sizes from 1/2 to 11 5/8 inches. It is equipped with two gaging buttons
and a single block anvil, and is especially suitable for checking the diameters of shafts, pins, studs,
and hubs.

4-30
Gage Blocks
Gage blocks (Figure 4-81) are available in sets of
from 5 to as many as 85 blocks of different
dimensions. Precision gage blocks are made from
a special alloy steel. They are hardened, ground,
and then stabilized over a period of time to reduce
subsequent waxing. They are rectangular in shape
with measuring surfaces on opposite sides. The
measuring surfaces are lapped and polished to an
optically flat surface and the distance between
them is the measuring dimension. This dimension
may range from 0.010 inch up to 20 inches.
Figure 4-81 — Gage block set.
Using a Ring Gage
To check the shank diameter of a pivot stud, use the following steps (Figures 4-82 and 4-83):
1. Line the stud up with the hole and press in gently. If the stud will not go in, the shank is too
large. If it will go in, the stud is not oversize.
2. With the stud in the hole, check the piece for taper and out-of-roundness by sensing any
wobble.
3. After checking the part in the GO gage, check it in the NO GO gage. The stud must not enter
this gage to establish it as being between the desired limits.

NOTE
The GO ring gage controls the maximum dimension of a
part and NO GO plug gage controls the minimum
dimension of a hole. Therefore, GO gages control the
tightness of fit of mating parts and NO GO gages control
the looseness of fit of mating parts.

Figure 4-82 — Align the ring gage to the stud.

Figure 4-83 — Check the NO GO gage.

4-31
Using an Adjustable Snap Gage
Before an adjustable snap gage can be used to check parts, the
GO and NO GO buttons, pins, or anvils must be set to the proper
dimensions.
1. The snap gage must first be clamped in a holder (Figure 4-
84).
2. Loosen the locking screw and turn the adjusting screws
until the dimension is set (Figure 4-85).
3. Turn the other adjusting screw until the NO GO dimension
is set.
4. After adjusting for proper dimensions with the master
precision piece in place, tighten the locking screws (Figure
4-86). Figure 4-84 — Snap gage.

Figure 4-85 — Setting the snap gage.

Figure 4-86 — Proper


adjustment of the snap gage.

NOTE
Adjust the GO dimension first as shown in the illustration, or
if desired, reverse the procedure and adjust the NO GO
dimension first.

4-32
NOTE
The desired dimension may be taken from a master disk, a
precision gage block, or a master plug.

5. Recheck to make sure the dimensions have not changed before using the gage.

Gaging Flat Parts


1. Position the gage (Figure 4-87) so the pins or buttons are square with the flat surfaces on the
part.
2. Using a slight hand pressure, push the gage over the part (Figure 4-88).

Figure 4-87 — Position the snap gage. Figure 4-88 — Gage the part.

3. If the part is within limits (Figure 4-89), the NO GO pins will stop the part.
4. If the part is undersized (Figure 4-90), it will be possible to push it past the NO GO pins.

Figure 4-89 — Part within limits. Figure 4-90 — Part is undersized.

4-33
Gaging Cylindrical Parts
1. Locate the gage on the part with the solid anvil on top. Rock the gage as indicated by the
shaded segment in Figure 4-91, where the GO dimension is checked.
2. If the shaft is not oversized, the first button will pass over it easily (Figure 4-92).

Figure 4-91 — Position the snap gage. Figure 4-92 — Gage the part.

3. Move the gage to the position shown in Figure 4-93. If the NO GO button stops the gage, the
shaft is within limits.
4. If the gage can be rocked further to the position shown in Figure 4-94, the part diameter is too
small, since it has passed the NO GO button.

Figure 4-93 — Part within limits. Figure 4-94 — Part is undersized.

Using Precision Gage Blocks


Before using gage blocks, remove the coat of rust preventive compound with a chamois or a piece of
cleansing tissue or by cleaning with an approved solvent. Gage blocks and any measuring tool used
with them must be free of grease, oil, dirt, and other foreign matter to avoid a lapping action whenever
4-34
the block is moved, and to ensure accurate measurement. Take particular care when using gage
blocks to measure hardened work to avoid scratching the measuring surfaces.

NOTE
When building gage blocks (wringing them together) to
obtain a desired dimension, care should be exercised to
avoid damaging them.

1. Bring the blocks together flat and move them


slightly back and forth (Figure 4-95). The sliding
motion minimizes scratching, as it will detect
any foreign particles between the surfaces.
2. Shift the blocks. If the blocks are clean, they will
begin to take hold.
3. Slide the two blocks together, using a slight
pressure and a rotary motion.
4. Shift gage blocks so that their sides are in line.
Any combination of gage blocks may be
stacked together in this manner. The
combination will be as solid as a single block.

Figure 4-95 — Building gage blocks.

NOTE
The adhesive force that binds two gage blocks together is a
combination of molecular attraction and the suction cup
action due to the film of oil or moisture on the surfaces
wrung together. Separate gage blocks by sliding them
apart, using the same movement as wringing them
together.

CAUTION
Do not leave blocks wrung together for long periods of time
since surfaces in contact will tend to corrode.

Factors to Consider When Using Gage Blocks


Ordinary changes in temperature have a sizable effect on measurements made with precision gage
blocks. The standard measuring temperature is 68 degrees Fahrenheit (°F), which is just a little lower
than the average temperature in most shops. Since the room temperature affects the work as well as
the block, the expansion in the work will be matched in most cases by a similar expansion in the
block. The coefficient of linear expansion of several metals and blocks is listed in Table 4-4.

4-35
Table 4-4 — Linear expansion of metals
Material Millionths of an inch per degree Fahrenheit
Steel 5.5 to 7.2
Iron 5.5 to 6.7
Phosphor bronze 9.3
Aluminum 12.8
Copper 9.4
Gage blocks 6.36 to 7.0
Handle blocks only when they must be moved and hold them between the tips of your fingers so that
the area of contact is small. Hold them for short periods of time only.

NOTE
Avoid conducting body heat into the block by careless
handling. Body heat may raise the temperature of the block,
causing a serious error in a measurement, particularly if a
long stack of blocks is being handled.

Consider the source of error resulting from temperature when using gage blocks. Metals other than
iron and steel (such as aluminum) have a much different coefficient of linear expansion, which will
result in a difference between the room temperature measurement and the standard measuring
temperature measurement. Careless handling of gage blocks may produce an error of several
millionths of an inch and this error increases proportionally with the dimension of the block.
The temperature of the work may be either lower or higher than the room temperature as a result of a
machining operation and this difference may be sufficient to cause a sizable error.
Theoretically, the measuring pressure should increase proportionally with the area of contact. For
practical purposes, it is better to use a standard measuring pressure. The most commonly used
pressure is 1/2 to 2 pounds.
Gage blocks are used in the layout and in checking the accuracy of tools, dies, and fixtures. They are
also used in machine setups and in checking parts in process of manufacture and finished parts.
Gage blocks are commonly used in setting adjustable instruments and indicating gages and verifying
inspection gages. Gage blocks are used to verify the accuracy and wear of ring and snap gages and
many other special-purpose gages. The classification of blocks depends largely on the accuracy
required. Typical classification is shown in Table 4-5.
Table 4-5 — Typical classifications
Class Work Error range, millionths of an inch
I Verifying gages, setting instruments, 5 to 20
and tool inspection
II Layout of jigs, fixtures, and dies, setting 20 to 40
instruments, and tool inspection
III Setup of grinding, milling, and drill 40 to 100
machines, and parts inspection

4-36
Care of Ring and Snap Gages
Observe the following guidelines when working with ring and snap gages:
• Always make certain that the surfaces of the parts gaged and the gage itself are kept free from
abrasives, dirt, grit, chips, and all foreign matter.
• Always consider the abrasive action of the part on the gage. Cast iron, steel, and cast
aluminum are more abrasive than brass, bronze, and nonmetals such as plastics. Use
particular care when gaging cast iron, steel, and cast aluminum.
• When gages are stored, arrange them neatly in a drawer or case so that they do not contact
other tools or each other.
• Always hold the gages in your hands when checking. Never clamp them in a vise.
• At frequent intervals, check all gages for accuracy and wear with gage blocks or master gages.

Care of Gage Blocks


Observe the following guidelines when working with gage blocks:
• Observe particular care when using gage blocks to measure hardened work. The danger of
scratching is increased when the work is as hard as the block, or harder.
• Never touch the measuring surfaces of blocks any more than necessary. The moisture from
your hands contains an acid that, if not removed, will eventually stain the blocks.
• Before using blocks, ensure there is no grease, oil, dirt, or any foreign substances on block.
• Every time a set of blocks is used, all the blocks that have been cleaned for use must be
covered with a film of acid-free oil, such as boiled petrolatum, before they are put away. Wipe
them with an oiled chamois as you return the blocks to their places in the case.

MISCELLANEOUS MEASURING GAGES AND LAYOUT TOOLS


Types and Uses
Thickness (Feeler) Gages
Thickness (feeler) gages (Figure 4-96) are made in many
shapes and sizes; usually 2 to 26 blades are grouped into
one tool and graduated in thousandths of an inch.
Most thickness blades are straight, while others are bent
at the end at 45-degree and 90-degree angles. Some
thickness gages are grouped so that there are several
short and several long blades together. Thickness gages
are also available in single blades and in strip form for
specific measurements. For convenience, many groups
of thickness gages are equipped with a locking screw in Figure 4-96 — Feeler gage.
the case that locks the blade to be used in the extended
position.
These gages are fixed in leaf form, which permits the checking and measuring of small openings
such as contact points, narrow slots, and so forth. They are widely used to check the flatness of parts
in straightening and grinding operations and in squaring objects with a try square.

4-37
Center Gage
The center gage (Figure 4-97) is graduated in
fourteenths, twentieths, twenty-fourths, and thirty-
seconds of an inch. The back of the center gage has a
table giving the double depth of thread in thousandths
of an inch for each pitch. This information is useful in
determining the size of tap drills. Sixty-degree angles in
the shape of the gage are used for checking Unified
and American threads as well as for older American
National or U.S. Standard threads and for checking
thread cutting tools.
Figure 4-97 — Center gage.

Screw Pitch Gages


Screw pitch gages (Figure 4-98) are made for
checking the pitch of U.S. Standard, Metric, National
Form, V-form, and Whitworth cut threads. These
gages are grouped in a case or handle, as are the
thickness gages. The number of threads per inch is
stamped on each blade. Some types are equipped
with blade locks. The triangular shaped gage has 51
blades covering a wide range of pitches, including 11
1
/2 and 27 threads per inch for V-form threads. Screw
pitch gages are used to determine the pitch of an
unknown thread. The pitch of a screw thread is the
distance between the center of one tooth to the center
of the next tooth.
Figure 4-98 — Screw pitch gage.

Small Hole Gage Set


Small hole gages (Figure 4-99) are adjustable, having a
rounded measuring member. A knurled screw in the end of the
handle is turned to expand the ball-shaped end in small holes
and recesses. A micrometer caliper is used to measure the ball
end. Maximum measuring capacity is 1/2 inch. This set of four or
more gages is used to check dimensions of small holes, slots,
grooves, and so forth from approximately 1/8 to 1/2 inch in
diameter.

Telescoping Gages
Telescoping gages (Figure 4-100) are used to gage larger holes
and to measure inside distances. These gages are equipped
with a plunger that can be locked in the measuring position by a
knurled screw in the end of the handle. Maximum measuring
capacity is 6 inches. Measurements must be calipered on the
gage by a micrometer, as in the case of the small hole gages.
They are also used when measurements cannot be taken with a Figure 4-99 — Small hole gages.
standard micrometer. Telescoping gages are particularly
4-38
adaptable for roughly bored work and odd sizes
and shapes of holes. Compress the plungers and
lock them by turning the handle screw.

Thread Cutting Tool Gages


Thread cutting tool gages (Figure 4-101) are
hardened steel plates with cutouts around the
perimeter. Each cutout is marked with a number
that represents the number of threads per inch.

Figure 4-100 — Telescoping gages.


Figure 4-101 — Thread cutting tool gages.

These gages provide a standard for thread cutting


tools. They have an enclosed angle of 29 degrees
and include a 29-degree setting tool. One gage
furnishes the correct form for square threads and
the other for Acme standard threads.

Figure 4-102 — Fillet and radius gages.


Fillet and Radius Gages
The blades of fillet and radius gages (Figure 4-102) are made of hard rolled
steel. The double-ended blades of the gage have a lock which holds the
blades in position. The inside and outside radii are on one blade on the gage.
Each blade of each gage is marked in sixty-fourths. Each gage has 16
blades.

Drill Point Gage


The drill point gage (Figure 4-103) consists of a 6-inch hook rule with a 59
degree sliding head that slides up and down the rule. The sliding head can be
locked at any position on the rule and is graduated in thirty-seconds of an
inch. This gage is used to check the accuracy of drill cutting edges after
grinding. It is also equipped with a 6-inch hook rule. This tool can be used as
a drill point gage, hook rule, plain rule, and a slide caliper for taking outside
Figure 4-103 — measurements.
Drill point gage.

4-39
Wire Gages
A wire gage (Figure 4-104) is circular in shape with cutouts in the
outside edge. Each cutout gages a different size wire, from 0 to 36
of the English Standard Wire Gage. A separate gage is used for
American standard wire and another for U.S. Standard sheet and
plate iron and steel.
Similar gages are also used to check the size of hot and cold
rolled steel, sheet and plate iron, and music wire.

Drill Gages
The twist drill and drill rod gage (Figure 4-105) has a series of
holes with size and decimal equivalents stamped adjacent to each
hole. One gage measures drill sizes numbers 1 to 60; the other Figure 4-104 — Wire gage.
gage measures drill sizes 1/16 to 1/2 inch in 1/64-inch intervals. Drill
gages determine the size of a drill and indicate the correct size of drill to use
for given tap size. Drill number and decimal size are also shown in this type
gage. Letter size drill gages are also available. Each drill hole is identified by
a letter instead of a number, decimal, or fraction.

Marking Gages
Marking gages are made of wood or steel (Figure 4-106). They consist of a
graduated beam about 8 inches long on which a head slides. The head can
be fastened at any point on the beam with a thumbscrew. The thumbscrew
presses a brass shoe tightly against the beam and locks it firmly in position.
A steel pin or spur marks the wood and projects from the beam about 1/16
inch. A marking gage is used to mark off guidelines parallel to an edge, end,
or surface of a piece of wood. It has a sharp spur or pin that does the
marking. A marking gage must be adjusted by setting the head the desired
distance from the spur.

Figure 4-106 — Marking gage.


Figure 4-105 — Drill
gage.
Adjustable Parallel
Adjustable parallels (Figure 4-107) consist of two
tapered parts fitted together. The distance between
the two outside parallel surfaces varies by moving
mating parts together or apart. This distance is then
measured with a micrometer. Adjustable parallels are
used as gages for leveling and setup work. Various
sizes are available depending on the nature of work.
Figure 4-107 — Adjustable parallel.

4-40
Angle Plates
Angle plates (Figure 4-108) are devices consisting of
two flat outside working surfaces jointed at right
angles. The outside work surfaces are precision
ground. The standard angle plate is permanently
jointed at a right angle. However, an adjustable type
with varying angle adjustments is also available.
Angle plates are used for layout, inspection, or
machine setup. They are also used for clamping or
holding work vertically. Various sizes and designs
are available depending on the task.
Figure 4-108 — Angle plates.

Magnetic Base Indicator Holder


The magnetic base indicator holder (Figure 4-109) is a one-piece metal
assembly that attaches to the work surface magnetically. A gage or
indicator attaches to the assembly. Base indicator holders are used for
attaching gages to lathes, milling machines, shapers, or any machine
where graduations are difficult to read. Magnetic base indicator holders are
available in many sizes and designs depending on application.

Figure 4-109 —
Magnetic base
indicator holder.

Using Gages
Follow these steps to use gages properly:

Thickness Gage
Thickness (feeler) gages are used in one of two
ways: as a means for determining a measure or
a means for adjusting to a definite limit (Figure 4- Figure 4-110 — Using thickness (feeler)
110). A thickness gage is used to check piston gages.
ring gap clearance in a cylinder bore.
A long blade thickness gage is used to determine the fit between large mating surfaces. By combining
blades it is possible to obtain a wide variation of thickness.

4-41
Center Gage
The center gage (Figure 4-111) is used to set thread
cutting tools. Four scales on the gage are used for
determining the number of threads per inch. The gage is
also used to check cut threads and the scales are used to
measure threads per inch.

Figure 4-111 — Using a center gage.

Screw Pitch Gage


If the pitch of a thread is not known, it can be
determined by comparing it with the standards on the
various screw pitch gages (Figure 4-112).
1. Place a blade of a gage over the threads and
check to see whether it meshes; if not,
successively check each blade of the gage
against the thread until it meshes.
Figure 4-112 — Using a screw pitch
2. The pitch can be read off the correct blade. The
gage.
blades are made pointed so that they can be
inserted in small nuts to check inside threads as
well as outside threads.

Small Hole Gage


The small hole gages perform the
same function as telescoping gages
(Figures 4-113 and 4-114), except
that they are used in smaller work.
1. Fit the ball-shaped point into
the hole or slot (Figure 4-113).
2. Expand the ball-shaped end
by turning the screw at the
end of the handle.
3. Use micrometer to gage the
measurement.

Telescoping Gage
1. Loosen the knurled nut at the Figure 4-114 — Using a
Figure 4-113 — Using a
end of the handle (Figure 4- telescoping gage.
small hole gage.
114).
2. Slightly tilt telescoping gage 5 to 10 degrees and lower into object to be measured.
3. Tighten knurled nut.
4. Remove gage by pulling across center line as indicated by arrow.
4-42
NOTE
Take measurement only once. Repeated attempts will
produce an inaccurate reading.

5. Measure gage setting with an outside micrometer.

Thread Cutting Tool Gage


1. Place the proper gage over the tool (Figure 4-
115). The tool must mesh properly with no
light showing between the tool and the gage.
2. Use a 29-degree angle as a guide when
grinding cutting tool.
3. After tool fits the angle, the point should be
ground off to fit the proper place on the gage
for the particular number of threads per inch to Figure 4-115 — Using a thread cutting tool
be cut. gage.

Fillet and Radius Gage


1. A double-ended
radius gage blade
is used to check
the inside corner
or fillet of a
machined part
(Figure 4-116).
Each blade can be
locked in position Figure 4-116 — Using a fillet and radius gage.
by tightening the
clamp.
2. These gages can be used in any position and at any angle for
both inside and outside radii.

Drill Point Gage


The method for sharpening the cutting edges of a drill is to do one lip
at a time. Each lip must have the same length and have the same
angle in relation to the axis of the drill. Set the sliding head securely
on the rule at the mark equal to the length of the drill. Place the drill
vertically against the rule so that the drill lip contacts the 59-degree
angle of the sliding head (Figure 4-117). Hold up to light; correct
angle is obtained when no light is seen between gage and drill.

Figure 4-117 — Using a


drill point gage.
4-43
Wire Gage
Determine the size of both sheet stock and wire by using a
correct sheet and plate or wire gage (Figure 4-118).

Drill Gage
The drill gage is used to determine the size of a drill (Figure 4-
119). Insert the drill into the appropriate sized hole. A chart on
the gage indicates the correct size of drill to use for a given tap
size.

Marking Gages
Press the head firmly against the edge of the work to be marked
(Figure 4-120). With a wrist motion, tip the gage forward until the
spur touches the work. Push the gage along the edge to mark Figure 4-118 — Using a wire gage.
the work, keeping the head firmly against the work.

Figure 4-119 — Using a drill gage. Figure 4-120 — Using a marking gage.

Care of Gages and Layout Tools


Observe the following guidelines when working with gages and layout tools:
• Exercise care when using thickness gages to measure clearance of knives and cutters on
machines. Do not lower knife on thickness blade and then try to remove the gage. The blade
may be shaved off if it is too tight. Never use gages for cleaning slots or holes. When blades
are damaged or worn they should be replaced. Blades in a case are removed by loosening the
clamp and sliding out the damaged blade. Insert new blade and tighten clamp.
• Always coat metal parts of all gages with a light film of oil when not in use to prevent rust.
Store gages in separate containers. Do not pile gages on each other.
• Always return blades of leaf-type gages to case after use.
• Keep graduations and markings on all gages clean and legible.
• Do not drop any gage. Small scratches or nicks will result in inaccurate measurements.

4-44
AWLS
Types and Uses
Saddler’s Awl
The saddler’s sewing and stitching awl (Figure 4-
121) has a round wooden handle and
interchangeable blades. The awl is used to punch
holes in leather and as an aid during sewing.
Cover the points when not in use. Figure 4-121 — Saddler’s awl.

Scratch Awl
The scratch awl (Figure 4-122) has a fixed
tapered blade and a wooden handle. It is a steel
spike with its tip sharpened to a fine point. The tip
of the spike is drawn across the timber, leaving a
shallow groove. It can be used to mark a point by
pressing the tip into the timber. The scratch awl
can also scribe a line on metal. Cover the point Figure 4-122 — Scratch awl.
when not in use.

Using a Scratch Awl

WARNING
Awls are very sharp and must be used with extreme
caution.

Follow these steps to use an awl properly:


1. Place material to be scribed on a flat surface. Place a ruler or straight edge on guide marks.
You will already have measured and marked where you want to scribe.
2. Remove the protective cover.
3. Hold straight edge firmly. Hold the awl like a pencil
and scribe a line along the straight edge (Figure 4-
123).
4. Replace protective cover.

Care of Awls
Observe the following guidelines when working with awls:
• Keep points covered when not in use and stow awls
in racks or in tool boxes.
• Lightly oil metal parts before storing.

Figure 4-123 — Scribing a line.


4-45
End of Chapter 4
Measuring and Layout Tools
Review Questions
4-1. What instrument is used for measuring distances between two points, transferring, or
comparing measurements?

A. Divider
B. Level
C. Plumb bob
D. Square

4-2. Wing-type dividers are available in what lengths, in inches?

A. 3, 4, and 10
B. 5, 9, and 11
C. 6, 8, and 12
D. 7, 9, and 13

4-3. What tool is used in conjunction with a scale or rule to determining the thickness of a surface?

A. Caliper
B. Depth micrometer
C. Divider
D. Square

4-4. Slide calipers can be used for which of the following purposes?

A. Finding shaft centers


B. Measuring chamfered cavities
C. Measuring distances beyond the range of calipers
D. Measuring inside dimensions

4-5. What type of caliper measures distances beyond the range of calipers?

A. Hermaphrodite
B. Slide caliper
C. Spring-joint
D. Trammel

4-6. On a vernier caliper, the vernier scale is divided in to how many parts?

A. 15
B. 25
C. 32
D. 64

4-46
4-7. What result, if anything, occurs when calipers are dropped?

A. Causes inaccurate measurements


B. Loosens the spring for smooth operation
C. Removes excess paint for easier handling
D. Nothing; calipers can be dropped without damaging them

4-8. What tool measures distances to the nearest one-thousandth of an inch?

A. Caliper
B. Metric rule
C. Micrometer
D. Square

4-9. The Navy uses outside, inside, and what other type of micrometers?

A. Depth
B. Helical
C. Specific
D. Radius

4-10. What distance is the longest movement a micrometer spindle can make, in inches?
1
A. /4
1
B. /2
3
C. /4
D. 1

4-11. A 6-inch micrometer will measure work between which of the following thicknesses?

A. 2 to 6 inches
B. 3 to 6 inches
C. 4 to 6 inches
D. 5 to 6 inches

4-12. On a standard micrometer, one complete revolution of the micrometer screw will move the
spindle what distance, in inches?

A. 0.015
B. 0.025
C. 0.125
D. 0.225

4-13. On a vernier micrometer, the ten spaces on the vernier are equivalent to what number of
spaces on the thimble?

A. Five
B. Seven
C. Nine
D. Twelve

4-47
4-14. In reference to the care of micrometers, which of the following statements is true?

A. All micrometers should be kept in a single container to save storage space


B. Micrometers should be stored in areas where the humidity is very high to prevent rust
C. Micrometers should be coated with a light coat of oil to prevent rust
D. The graduations on micrometers should be painted so they can be easily read

4-15. What is the simplest, most common measuring tool?

A. Digital measuring device


B. Flat steel rule
C. Measuring tape
D. Wooden folding rule

4-16. What minimum distance will the folding rule section measure, in inches?

A. 4
B. 6
C. 8
D. 10

4-17. What measuring tape length, in feet, is the most common?

A. 25
B. 50
C. 75
D. 100

4-18. What measuring device is designed to take lengthy exterior measurements?

A. A 100-foot measuring tape


B. Digital measuring device
C. Laser ruler
D. Measuring wheel

4-19. What personal protective equipment must you always wear when using measuring tools?

A. Hard hat
B. Leather gloves
C. Steel toe boots
D. Eye protection

4-20. Which of the following is a rule for caring of measuring tapes?

A. Keep the case intact


B. Always oil the steel tape after each use
C. Retract the tape quickly to prevent kinks
D. Apply oil to the spring joints

4-48
4-21. What type of level has an extra-large vial to ensure accuracy?

A. Iron bench
B. Striding
C. Master precision
D. Machinist’s

4-22. On the carpenter's level, one vial is mounted vertically and another is mounted horizontally;
what angle does the third vial measure, in degrees?

A. 35
B. 45
C. 55
D. 90

4-23. Which of the following levels is used to hang on a cord?

A. Digital
B. Line
C. Striding
D. Torpedo

4-24. Plumb bobs establish true vertical transfer, line-up references, and what other measurement?

A. A reading or sounding in tanks


B. The depth of a crack in a cement wall
C. The depth of a pylon hole
D. The distance between two vertical points

4-25. For short term storage of plumb bobs, what process should be completed?

A. Apply a heavy coat of oil


B. Apply a light coat of oil
C. Soak the plumb bob in mineral oil
D. Wrap the plumb bob with waxed paper

4-26. Which of the following materials can machinist’s scribers mark or score?

A. Wax, cardboard, aluminum


B. Wax, glass, cardboard
C. Steel, glass, copper
D. Steel, glass, wax

4-27. To protect the points of scribers, what item can be placed over them?

A. A cork
B. A piece of foam
C. A large piece of plastic
D. A small piece of hard wood

4-49
4-28. What is the main use for a carpenter’s square?

A. Check sections of work


B. Placing nails along a beam
C. Measuring 360-degree angles
D. Reaching areas where hammers won’t fit

4-29. What is a combination square used for?

A. Lay out angles for rafters


B. Measure and cut drywall
C. Measure the accuracy of a right angle
D. Measure extended exterior lengths

4-30. What personal protective equipment must you always wear when using a square?

A. Eye protection
B. Gloves
C. Hard hat
D. Steel toe boots

4-31. When using a square as a saw guide, what item should you use to hold the square?

A. A clamp
B. A wood screw
C. An assistant
D. One hand

4-32. By what characteristic are surface gages classified?

A. Length of the rule


B. Length of the spindle
C. The height of the gage
D. Type of surface it can measure

4-33. Which of the following tools can be used to measure the thickness of paint?

A. Dial depth gage


B. Machinist's level
C. Master precision level
D. Rule depth gage

4-34. On what axis should measurements be made with depth gages?

A. Diagonal
B. Latitudinal
C. Longitudinal
D. Rotary

4-50
4-35. What tool provides a true and smooth surface to make accurate measurements?

A. Surface gage
B. Surface plate
C. Vernier depth gage
D. Work bench

4-36. To prevent rust, you should apply a light coat of what product to all metal parts of gages?

A. Fuel
B. Grease
C. Oil
D. Silicon

4-37. Which of the following tools is used as a standard to determine whether or not one or more
dimensions are within specified limits?

A. Calibrated vernier depth gage


B. Dial gages
C. Micrometers
D. Ring and snap gages

4-38. What class of gages has a commercial finish?

A. X
B. Y
C. Z
D. ZZ

4-39. Before an adjustable snap gage can be used, which of the following procedures must be
accomplished?

A. The gage must be cooled to below freezing


B. The gage must be heated to a predetermined temperature
C. The GO and NO GO buttons, pins, or anvils must be set to the proper dimensions
D. The locking screw and the adjusting screws must be removed

4-40. Before using gage blocks, you should take which of the following actions?

A. Boil the gage blocks in water


B. Freeze the gage blocks
C. Remove the adjusting screws from the gage blocks
D. Remove the coat of rust preventive compound from the gage blocks

4-41. When checking gages, at what location should they be placed?

A. In a vice
B. In your hands
C. On the work bench
D. Between clamps

4-51
4-42. The moisture from your hands contains an acid that can cause what gage block problem?

A. Attract an electrical charge


B. Become brittle
C. Stain
D. Warp

4-43. After cleaning gage blocks, you should always take which of the following actions?

A. Boil the gage blocks in gasoline


B. Coat the gage blocks with heavy grease
C. Cover the gage blocks with a film of acid-free oil
D. Paint the gage blocks with lead-free paint

4-44. What total number of thickness gages are usually grouped together in one tool?

A. 13
B. 26
C. 39
D. 52

4-45. Screw pitch gages are made to check metric, V-form, and what other types of threads?

A. Automotive
B. British Standard
C. Square-D
D. Whitworth

4-46. Telescoping gages are used for which of the following purposes?

A. To gage larger holes


B. To measure outside distances
C. To measure the depth of large holes
D. To measure the lenses on telescopes

4-47. On a thread cutting tool gage, what do the numbers represent?

A. The length of a screw or bolt


B. The number of threads on a screw or bolt
C. The number of threads per foot
D. The number of threads per inch

4-48. Which of the following tools is used to check the accuracy of drill cutting edges after grinding?

A. Drill point gage


B. Marking gage
C. Rule depth gage
D. Thickness gage

4-52
4-49. A wire gage is normally what shape?

A. Circular
B. Rectangular
C. Square
D. Triangular

4-50. What gage is used to determine the size of a drill?

A. Center
B. Drill
C. Drill point
D. Thread cutting

4-51. Marking gages are normally made from which of the following materials?

A. Copper or tin
B. Paper or plastic
C. Plastic or glass
D. Wood or steel

4-52. Which of the following tools can be used to check the piston ring gap clearance in a cylinder
bore?

A. A marking gage
B. A thickness gage
C. A wire gage
D. An awl

4-53. What type of gage measures the inside corner of a machined part?

A. Drill point
B. Fillet and radius
C. Telescoping
D. Thickness

4-54. What tool is used as a gage for leveling and setup work?

A. Adjustable parallel
B. Angle plate
C. Magnetic base indicator holder
D. Marking gage

4-55. What tool is used on any machine where graduations are difficult to read?

A. Adjustable parallel
B. Angle plate
C. Magnetic base indicator holder
D. Marking gage

4-53
4-56. What action can occur when a thickness blade is removed with the knife or a cutter of a
machine is lowered onto it?

A. Shaves off the blade


B. Removes rust from the blade
C. Sharpens the knife of the machine
D. Verifies the thickness of the gap

4-57. Which of the following is a sharpened steel spike used to mark wood?

A. An auger
B. A push drill
C. A hand drill
D. An awl

4-58. At what location should awls be stowed when not in use?

A. Carpenter’s pouch
B. Machinist’s apron
C. Rack
D. Shop cork board

4-54
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

4-55
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 5
FASTENING AND PRYING TOOLS
Fastening and prying tools are made to either put things together or take things apart. These tools
include pliers, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches, and bars.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of fastening and prying tools and their uses. You
will also learn how to select the right tool for the job, use and read various types of tools, and provide
the proper care of fastening and prying tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of fastening tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of fastening tools.
3. Determine the proper care of fastening tools.
4. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to fastening tools.
5. Identify the different types of prying tools.
6. Determine the proper uses of prying tools.

PLIERS
Pliers (Figure 5-1) are a special type of adjustable wrench that are scissor-shaped tools with jaws.
The jaws usually have teeth to help grip objects and are adjustable because the two handles move on
a pivot. Pliers are made of hardened steel and come with different head styles that determine their
use. Pliers are used to hold, cut, and bend wire and soft metals.

Types and Uses


Slip-Joint Pliers
The slip-joint combination pliers (Figure 5-1) have
serrated (grooved) jaws, a rod-gripping section, a cutting
edge, and a pivot. The serrated jaws and rod-gripping
section are used to hold objects. The cutting edge permits
the cutting of soft wire and nails. However, cutting hard Figure 5-1 — Parts of a pliers.
materials or large-gauge wire will spring the jaws, making
the pliers useless. The pivot is used to adjust the jaw
opening to handle large or small objects.

Diagonal Cutting Pliers


The diagonal cutting pliers (Figure 5-2) have a fixed pivot.
The jaws are offset by about 15 degrees and are shaped
to give enough knuckle clearance while making flush cuts.
The diagonal cutting pliers are used for cutting small, light
materials, such as wire, cotter pins, and similar materials. Figure 5-2 — Diagonal cutting pliers.
These pliers are not to be used to hold or grip objects.

5-1
Lineman’s Pliers
The lineman’s pliers (Figure 5-3) have serrated jaws, a
rod-gripping section, side cutters, a wire cropper, a fixed
pivot, and parallel handles. The flat, serrated jaws are
used to bend sheet metal and twist electrical wire. The rod-
gripping section is used to hold rods and bend small rods.
The side cutters are located just above the pivot point,
where maximum pressure may be applied.
They are ground at an angle, permitting sharp flush cuts Figure 5-3 — Lineman’s pliers.
on electrical wire. A pair of croppers is located above the
pivot. They are used to shear larger wire. Lineman’s pliers used around electrical circuits have
insulated sleeves over the handles to reduce the possibility of electrical shock.

Parallel Jaw Pliers


The parallel jaw pliers (Figure 5-4) are constructed so that
the jaws remain parallel to each other throughout the entire
distance of travel. They have two jaws two jaws, a pivot pin,
curved handles, and tension springs. The tension springs
are contained within the curved handles and will open the
jaws when the handles are released. These pliers are used
to grip objects that have flat surfaces.
Figure 5-4 — Parallel jaw pliers.

Long Nose Pliers (Needle Nose Pliers)


Long nose pliers, also known as needle nose pliers, are
shown in Figure 5-5. The pointed nose makes them useful
for work in tight places where other pliers cannot reach. The
jaws and cutting blades meet evenly.

Flat Nose Pliers


Figure 5-5 — Long nose (needle
The flat nose pliers (Figure 5-6) have flat serrated jaws, a nose) pliers.
fixed pivot, and curved handles that may have insulated
sleeves. These pliers are used to bend light sheet metal
and wire.

Figure 5-6 — Flat nose pliers.

Round Nose Pliers


The round nose pliers (Figure 5-7) are used to make loops
in soft wire. It has jaws that are smooth and round, a fixed
pivot, and curved handles, which may have insulated
Figure 5-7 — Round nose pliers. sleeves.

5-2
Straight-Lip Flat-Jaw Tongs
The straight-lip flat-jaw tongs (Figure 5-8) have two straight
jaws, a fixed pivot point, and long, straight handles. These
tongs are used to hold bearings and bearing inserts while
they are set in place.

Figure 5-8 — Straight-lip flat-jaw


tongs.

End Cutting Pliers


The end cutting pliers (Figure 5-9) are used to cut wire flush
Figure 5-9 — End cutting pliers. to the working surface. They are designed to keep hands
and fingers safely away from the wire ends.

Wire Strippers (Multipurpose)


Wire strippers (Figure 5-10) are used to strip insulation from
electrical cord. When closed around wire, only the insulation
is cut. The wire core remains undamaged.

Figure 5-10 — Wire strippers


(multipurpose).
Vise Grip (Locking) Pliers
A vise grip (Figure 5-11) is a type of locking pliers. One
side of the handle has an adjusting screw used to set the
size of the jaws. Some models also include a lever on the
Figure 5-11 — Vise grip (locking) opposite side of the bolt to unlock the pliers by pushing the
pliers. handles apart.

Tongue and Groove (Channel Lock) Pliers


Tongue and groove pliers, also known as channel lock
pliers, are shown in Figure 5-12. They have multiple size
adjustments that make them good for gripping and
applying limited torque to round, square, flat, and
hexagonal objects. Their jaws may be straight, smooth, or
curved. They are used mostly in plumbing and electrical.
Figure 5-12 — Tongue and groove
(channel lock) pliers.

Wire-Twister Pliers or Safety Wire Pliers


Wire-twister pliers or safety wire pliers (Figure 5-13) are
three-way pliers: they hold, twist, and cut. Safety wiring is
the most positive and satisfactory method of safety tying. It
Figure 5-13 — Wire-twister or is a method of wiring two or more units. The tendency of one
safety wire pliers. unit to loosen is counteracted by the tightening of the wire.

5-3
To operate, grasp the wire between the two diagonal jaws, and the thumb will bring the locking sleeve
into place. A pull on the knob twirls the twister, making uniform twists in the wire. The spiral rod may
be pushed back into the twister without unlocking it, and another pull on the knob will give a tighter
twist to the wire. A squeeze on the handle unlocks the twister, and the wire can be cut to the desired
length with the side cutter. The spiral of the twister should be lubricated occasionally. Examples of
safety wiring nuts, bolts, and screws are illustrated in Figure 5-14. The Examples 1, 2, and 5 illustrate
the proper method of safety wiring bolts, screws, square head plugs, and similar parts that are wired
in pairs. In Examples 6 and 7, a single-threaded component wired to a housing or lug is shown. In
Example 3, several components are wired in series. The proper method of wiring castellated nuts and
studs is shown in Example 4. Note that there is no loop around the nut.

Figure 5-14 — Safety wire methods.

Using Slip-Joint Pliers

NOTE
The following procedure for bending the ends of a cotter pin
after installation is not the only use of slip-joint pliers.

Use slip-joint pliers as follows:


1. With the cotter pin installed, push the rounded head of the cotter pin with the thumb of one
hand. Grasp the long section of the cotter pin with the pliers (Figure 5-15), and bend it back flat
against the metal surface or nut.
2. Grasp the other section of the cotter pin and bend it back flat against the metal surface or nut
(Figure 5-16).
3. Adjust the pliers to obtain a wide jaw opening (Figure 5-17).

CAUTION
Too much pressure can break the cotter pin or spring the
plier jaws.

4. Place the plier jaws around both bent ends of the cotter pin (Figure 5-18) and apply pressure
on the handles, bending the cotter pin ends flush.

5-4
Figure 5-15 — Grasp the long section of the Figure 5-16 — Grasp the other section of the
cotter pin. cotter pin.

Figure 5-17 — Adjust the pliers. Figure 5-18 — Bend both ends of the cotter
pins flush.

5-5
Using Diagonal Cutting Pliers

WARNING
Wear eye protection. Keep fingers away from the jaws and
cutting edges.

CAUTION
Diagonal cutting pliers are to be used only for cutting.

NOTE
The following procedure for the removal of a cotter pin is
not the only use of diagonal cutting pliers.

Use the diagonal cutting pliers as follows:


1. Position the cutters so the rounded end of the
cotter pin is between the cutting jaws (Figure 5-
19).
2. Close the cutting jaws by applying pressure to
the handles. Closing the jaws will shear off the
end of the cotter pin.

Figure 5-19 — Using a diagonal


cutting pliers.
Using Lineman’s Side Cutting Pliers

NOTE
The following procedure for twisting wires is not the only
use of lineman’s side cutting pliers.

Use the lineman side cutting pliers as follows:


1. Using one hand, hold the wires to be twisted just above the point where the twist is to begin
(Figure 5-20).
2. Grasp the ends of the wires firmly on the serrated jaws and twist the pliers (Figure 5-21).
3. Continue twisting the pliers until the wire has been twisted to the desired length.
4. Open the plier jaws and place the ends of the twisted wires between the cutting edges. Trim
the ends of the wire (Figure 5-22).
5-6
Figure 5-20 — Hold the wires to be twisted. Figure 5-21 — Twist the pliers.

Using Vise Grip Pliers


Use vise grip pliers as follows:
1. Place the jaws on the object to be held.
2. Turn the adjusting screw until the pliers grip
the object.
3. Lock the pliers by squeezing the handles
together.
4. To remove the pliers, squeeze the release
lever.

Care of Pliers and Tongs


Misuse of pliers can cause injury. Here are some
guidelines to remember when working with pliers:
• Always wear eye protection.
• Remove dirt and grease with a clean rag and Figure 5-22 — Trim the ends of the wire.
apply a light coat of oil after each use.
• Store pliers that are not in use in a tool box or hang on racks.
• Do not remove insulation on handles or oil handles that are insulated.
• Do not use pliers for prying or for removing nuts or bolts.
• Replace all pliers that have broken jaws, handles, or cutting edges.
• Hold pliers close to the end of the handles. This position will help avoid pinching your fingers in
the hinge.
• Cut at right angles with cutting pliers.
5-7
• Use the right length of pliers or cutters for the job. Trying to extend the handles of short pliers
can cause injury.
• Maintain pliers occasionally with a drop of oil on the hinge to lengthen the pliers’ life and
ensure easy operation.
• Keep pliers away from excessive heat; it can ruin them.
• Discard any pliers that are cracked, broken, sprung, or have nicked cutting edges.
• Remember that slip-joint pliers can slip while in use.
• Use pliers for the appropriate tasks and in the appropriate manner. Avoid the following actions:
o Using pliers on live electric circuits unless they have handles specified as insulated against
electric shock.
o Cutting hardened wire unless specifically manufactured for that purpose.
o Rocking pliers from side to side when cutting wire.
o Bending wire back and forth when cutting wire.
o Bending stiff wire with light pliers, which can damage the tips. Use a sturdier tool.
o Using pliers on nuts or bolts, which can damage the fastener. Use a wrench instead.

HAMMERS
A hammer is a tool used to deliver an impact to an
object. Hammers are mostly used to drive nails, fit parts,
or break up objects. There are many types of hammers
designed for specific uses, which vary in shape and
structure. Most hammers include a handle and a head,
with most of the weight in the head. The strongest,
safest hammers have heads made of tough alloy (two or
more metals) or drop-forged steel. The two main types
of hammers are claw and ball peen.

Types and Uses


Claw Hammer
The parts of a claw hammer are shown in Figure 5-23.
Use the flat head to drive nails, wedges, and dowels. Figure 5-23 — Parts of a claw
Use the two-pronged claw to remove nails from wood. hammer.

Bell-faced Hammer
The bell-faced hammer (Figure 5-24) has a slightly
rounded (convex) face. It takes some practice to become
skilled with this hammer, but it can help you drive a nail
head flush to the wood without marring the surface of the
wood.

Figure 5-24 — Bell-faced hammer.

5-8
Finish Hammer
The finish hammer (Figure 5-25) is a claw hammer used for
cabinet making, finishing, and general carpentry. It has a
lightweight head with a smooth face that keeps it from
marring the surface of the wood. It has a curved claw for
removing nails from wood.

Framing Hammer
The framing hammer (Figure 5-26) is a claw hammer with an
oversized head used in framing carpentry. The larger, heavier
head improves the user’s accuracy and decreases the
number of blows required to fully drive the nail into the wood.
This hammer may leave slight indentations in the surface of
the wood, but that is not important in rough carpentry. The
claw on a framing hammer is straighter than on a regular claw
Figure 5-25 — Finish hammer.
hammer; it is used to pry apart nailed boards.

Figure 5-26 — Framing hammer.


Figure 5-27 —Milled or waffle face.

Framing hammers often have a milled or waffle face, as


shown in Figure 5-27, which helps prevent the hammer
from slipping off the nail head if the nail is not struck
precisely.

Ball Peen Hammer


The parts of a ball peen hammer are shown in Figure
5-28. A ball peen hammer is used on metal for tasks,
such as riveting, center punching, and bending or
shaping soft metal. The head of this hammer is soft and Figure 5-28 — Parts of a ball peen
will dent if used to pound nails. hammer.

Roofing Hammer
The roofing hammer (Figure 5-29) is used to drive
roofing nails. It has several special features, including a
cutting blade for trimming shingles. A roofing gauge on
the hammer is used to ensure proper shingle spacing.

Figure 5-29 — Roofing hammer.


5-9
Sledgehammer
The sledgehammer (Figure 5-30) is used for
projects that need great force, such as breaking
up concrete or driving heavy spikes or stakes. A
sledgehammer head is made of a high-carbon
steel, weighs between 2 and 20 pounds, and has
a handle 14 to 36 inches long. The shape of a
sledgehammer head depends on the job for Figure 5-30 — Sledgehammer.
which it will be used.

Jeweler’s Hammer
The jeweler’s hammer (Figure 5-31) has a
lightweight head weighing between 1 ¾ and 2
ounces. It is used to drive pins and shafts from
precision instruments.

Figure 5-31 — Jeweler’s hammer.

Tack Hammer
The tack hammer (Figure 5-32) is used to drive
small nails and tacks, as in furniture upholstery.
The tack hammer has a magnetic face that can
hold small tacks, as well as a regular face for Figure 5-32 — Tack hammer.
driving tacks.

Drywall Hammer
The drywall hammer (Figure 5-33) is used to set
nails in drywall. It has a blade that can be used
for both scoring drywall and cutting small holes.
There is a notch in the blade for removing
exposed nails.

Figure 5-33 — Drywall hammer.

Masonry Hammer
The masonry hammer (Figure 5-34) is used for
setting or splitting bricks and for chipping excess
mortar from bricks. The striking surface is small,
square, and blunt for breaking or setting bricks.
Figure 5-34 — Masonry hammer.
The sharp surface is curved and chisel-like for
scoring brick.

5-10
Napping Hammer
The napping hammer (Figure 5-35) has a high-
carbon steel head with two tapered faces and
weighs about 3 pounds. It is used for chipping
stone surfaces or for forming stones during road
construction or similar stone work.

Figure 5-35 — Napping hammer.

Riveting Hammer
The riveting hammer (Figure 5-36) has a round
face on one end of the head. It is used for
peening rivet heads. The other end has a tapered
chisel that is used for upsetting rivets.

Figure 5-36 — Riveting hammer.

Sawmaker’s Hammer
The sawmaker’s hammer (Figure 5-37) has a
tapered blunt face on one end of the head and a
tapered chisel face on the other end. It is used for
setting the teeth on saws when a setting tool is
unavailable.

Figure 5-37 — Sawmaker’s hammer.

Tile Hammer
The tile hammer (Figure 5-38) is very similar to a
masonry hammer, although it may be smaller. It has a
sharp surface for scoring tile and a striking surface for
breaking tile.

Figure 5-38 — Tile hammer.

Setting Hammer
The setting hammer (Figure 5-39) has a
square, flat face on one end of the head and a
sloping, beveled edge on the other end. It is
used in sheet metal work for leveling and
bending edges and for setting double seams.

Figure 5-39 — Setting hammer.

5-11
Soft-Faced Hammer
Soft-faced hammers (Figure 5-40) are capable of
delivering heavy blows to machined, highly
polished, or soft surfaces without damaging the
surface.

Figure 5-40 — Soft-faced hammer.

Lead or Copper Hammer


Lead or copper hammers (Figure 5-41) are
usually used for aligning steel surfaces. Copper
hammers range in head weight from 8 ounces up
to 3 pounds. Working surfaces of lead and copper
Figure 5-41 — Lead hammer. hammers may be filed to restore even faces.
Molds are available for repouring lead hammers.

Inserted Soft-Faced Hammer


Inserted soft-faced hammers (Figure 5-42)
provide the user with a dual-purpose hammer.
Any two faces (Figure 5-43) may be assembled
on a single handle holder. The following tables
(Tables 5-1 and 5-2) will assist you in selecting
the proper face hardness for the task you are
attempting. Figure 5-42 — Inserted soft-faced hammer.

Table 5-1 — Hardness Color Codes


Hardness Symbol Color
Soft S Brown
Medium M Red
Tough T Green
Medium Hard N Cream
Hard H Black Figure 5-43 — Soft-faced inserts.
Extra Hard XH Yellow

Faces and handle holders are available in 1-, 1 1/2-, 2-, 2 1/2- and 3-inch diameters.

5-12
Table 5-2 — Conversion Chart for Face Selection
Type Soft Medium Tough Medium Hard Hard Extra hard
Soft Rubber S
Wood S M N
Rubber M
Hard Wood T
Lead T N
Plastic T H
Rawhide M T N H XH
Micarta H XH
Fiber H XH
Copper XH

Trimmer’s Hammer
The trimmer’s hammer (Figure 5-44) has a round,
flat face on one end of the head and a tapered
chisel face on the other end. A claw is attached
on the end of the handle and is used for pulling
tacks. It is used for installing tacks and brads.

Welder’s Hammer
The welder’s hammer (Figure 5-45) has one or
two tapered chisel faces. The welder’s hammers,
having only one tapered face, will have a
replaceable brush attached. The hammer face is
Figure 5-44 — Trimmer’s hammer.
used for chipping welds, while the brush is used for
cleaning welds and brushing away the slag chipped
from the weld.

Dead Blow Hammers


The dead blow hammer (Figure 5-46) is a shot-
filled, rubber-encased, single-piece hammer. It
features a wrap-around grip and a flanged butt.
Four basic types of dead blow hammers are
currently in use: the standard head, slim-line
head, sledge, and ball peen. Some advantages of
the dead blow hammers are greater striking
power and the elimination of broken heads and
splintered handles. Figure 5-45 — Welder’s hammer.

5-13
Carpenter’s Mallet
The carpenter’s mallet (Figure 5-
47) has a cylindrical wooden
head often bound with thin metal
bands for support. It is used for
driving dowels, small stakes, and
wooden-handled chisels and for
forming and shaping sheet metal.

Figure 5-46 — Dead blow hammers.

Figure 5-47 — Carpenter’s mallet.

Tinner’s Mallet
The tinner’s mallet (Figure 5-48) has a cylindrical
wooden head that is from 1 1/4 to 3 1/2 inches in
diameter and from 3 to 6 inches in length. It is
Figure 5-48 — Tinner’s mallet.
used to form and shape sheet metal.

Rubber Mallet
The rubber mallet (Figure 5-49) is used to drive
chisels or to hammer joints together. There are
various shapes and sizes for accomplishing
specific tasks.

Figure 5-49 — Rubber mallet.

Rawhide Mallet
The rawhide mallet (Figure 5-50) is used for
projects that need significant pressure and whose
final appearance would be marred by impact
marks. Figure 5-50 — Rawhide mallet.

5-14
Railroad Track Maul
The railroad track maul (Figure 5-51) has a flat-faced,
tapered head that weighs about 10 pounds. It is used for
driving railroad track spikes.

Figure 5-51 — Railroad track maul.

Wooden Maul
The wooden maul (Figure 5-52) has a cylindrical
Figure 5-52 — Wooden maul. head that is about 8 inches in diameter and about
10 inches long. It is used to drive wooden pickets,
posts, and stakes.

Using a Claw Hammer


Follow these steps to use a
claw hammer properly when

Interaction Available
you drive a nail (Figure 5-53):
1. Hold the nail straight, at a
90-degree angle to the
surface you are nailing.
2. Grip the handle of the
hammer, holding the end
of the handle even with
the lower edge of your
palm.
3. Start with the face of the
hammer resting on the Figure 5-53 — Using a claw hammer to strike a nail.
nail.
4. Pull the hammer back and tap the nail lightly a few times to start it.
5. Move your fingers away from the nail, and then hit the nail firmly with the center of the hammer
face. Hold the hammer level with the head of the nail and strike the face squarely. Deliver the
blow through your wrist, your elbow, and your shoulder.
Follow these steps to pull a nail with a hammer claw:
1. Slip the claw of the hammer under the nail head. Pull until the handle is nearly straight up and
the nail is partly drawn out of the wood.
2. Pull the nail straight up out of the wood.

Using a Ball Peen Hammer


Using a ball peen hammer is similar to using a claw hammer. Follow these steps:
1. Grip the handle. Keep the end of the handle flush with the lower edge of your palm and the
face of the hammer parallel to the work.
5-15
2. Use the face for hammering. Use the ball peen for rounding off (peening) rivets and similar
jobs.

Care of Hammers
Use the following guidelines when working with hammers:
• Always use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), especially safety gloves and eye
protection, when working with a hammer.
• Focus on the work. If you look away from the work while using a hammer, you may
accidentally strike yourself or damage the work.
• Always use a hammer the right size and weight for the job.
• Make sure the hammer is in good condition before you use it.
o Make sure there are no splinters in the handle of the hammer.
o Make sure the handle is set securely in the head of the hammer.
o Replace loose, cracked, or broken handles.
o Discard and replace hammers with cracked claws or eye sections.
o Discard and replace any hammer with a chipped, cracked, or mushroomed face.
o Make sure the face of the hammer is clean.
• Hold the hammer properly. Grasp the handle firmly near the end and hit the nail squarely.
Avoid glancing blows.
• Use hammers for the appropriate purpose and in the correct way. Avoid the following actions:
o Hitting a hardened steel surface, concrete, or stone with a steel claw hammer. Metal chips
from such use can cause injury.
o Hitting with the hammer handle or using the hammer as a pry bar. This type of use can split
the handle and cause injury.
o Hitting a hammer with or against another hammer. This type of use can damage both
hammers and cause injury.
o Hitting with the cheek or side of the hammer head.

Replacing the Handle

Removing the Old Hammer Handle


1. If the handle is split or broken, remove it from the head
(Figure 5-54).
2. If the handle is too tight to pull loose from the head,
proceed as follows:
o Place the hammer in a vise.
o Saw off the handle close to the head.
o Drive the remaining handle out through the large
end of the head using a drift pin. Save the wedges.
Figure 5-54 — Remove the
handle from the head.
5-16
Installing the New Handle
1. Obtain a new handle and wedges.
2. Insert the handle in the head.

WARNING
Wear eye protection and watch the fingers.

3. Seat the handle in the head with a rubber mallet (Figure 5-55).
4. Drive the wooden wedge in the handle face with the hammer (Figure 5-56).

Figure 5-55 — Seat the handle. Figure 5-56 — Drive the wooden
wedge in the handle.
5. Place the hammer in a vise. Using a
handsaw, remove the projecting end of the
wedge.
6. Remove the excess portion of the wedge using
a wood rasp (Figure 5-57).
7. Select the metal wedge and drive it into the
wooden wedge with the hammer (Figure 5-58).
8. Remove the excess portion of the wedge using
a bench grinder (Figure 5-59). Check the
handle. If it is tight, the task is complete. If the
handle is loose, repeat the procedure.

Figure 5-57 — Remove excess portion


of the wedge.
5-17
Figure 5-58 — Drive metal wedge into Figure 5-59 — Remove excess portion
wooden handle. of metal wedge.

SCREWDRIVERS
A screwdriver (Figure 5-60) is a device used to
insert and tighten screws or to loosen and remove
screws. A screwdriver has a head or tip that
connects with a screw, a mechanism to apply
torque by rotating that tip, and a way to position
and support the screwdriver. A typical manual
screwdriver is made up of a roughly cylindrical
handle, with a shaft fixed to the handle, including
a tip shaped to fit a particular type of screw. The
handle and shaft support and position the
screwdriver, and apply torque when rotated. The
blade is made of tempered steel so it will resist Figure 5-60 — Parts of a screwdriver.
wear, bending, and breaking.
There are many different types of screwdrivers, identified by the type of screws they fit. Some of the
more common types of screwdrivers are flat head, Phillips® head, clutch drive, TORX, Robertson, and
Allen (hex).

Types and Uses


Flat (Slot) Head Screwdriver
The flat head screwdriver (Figure 5-61) is used to
drive and remove standard slotted screws. It can
have a round or square shank and ranges in size
from 1/6 to 1/4 inch. The tip of this screwdriver is
flared at the shoulder of the blade so that it is wider
than the driver bar. Figure 5-61 — Flat (slot) head screwdriver.

5-18
Phillips® Head Screwdriver
The Phillips® head screwdriver (Figure 5-62) is used to
tighten and loosen Phillips® head screws. It is the most
common type of crosshead screwdriver and ranges in size
from 0 to 4, 0 being the smallest.

Figure 5-62 — Phillips® head


screwdriver.

Clutch Drive Screwdriver


The clutch drive screwdriver (Figure 5-63) is used to
tighten and loosen clutch head screws, which are
shaped like an hourglass. The clutch drive screw has
Figure 5-63 — Clutch drive screwdriver. extra holding power, especially for use in cars and
appliances.

Offset Screwdrivers
Offset screwdrivers (Figure 5-64) are used to drive or
remove screws that cannot be lined up straight with
common screwdrivers, or that are located in tight
corners. Some offset screwdrivers are made with two
blades, one of a different size at each end. Others are
ratchet-type offset, which are reversible for working in
tight spots and allow the screw to be driven without
having to remove the tip from the screw head. A
double-tip offset screwdriver has four blades. Figure 5-64 — Offset screwdriver.

TORX Screwdriver
The TORX screwdriver (Figure 5-65) is used to
tighten and loosen six-point star head screws.
TORX head screws are used in cars, appliances,
and lawn and garden equipment.

Figure 5-65 — TORX screwdriver.

Ratchet Screwdrivers
Ratchet screwdrivers (Figure 5-66) are used to
drive or remove small screws rapidly. The spiral
ratchet screwdriver automatically drives or
removes screws. It can be adjusted to turn left or
right, or can be locked to act as a common Figure 5-66 — Ratchet screwdriver.
screwdriver. Some spiral ratchets have a spring

5-19
in the handle that automatically returns the handle for
the next stroke. Another style of ratchet screwdriver
has a knurled collar for rotating the blade with your
fingers. The spiral type (Figure 5-67) has separate
blades that are inserted in the chuck. The common
ratchet screwdriver has one integral blade.

Figure 5-67 — Spiral ratchet screwdriver.

Screwdriver Bits
A screwdriver bit (Figure 5-68) is a screwdriver
blade with a square, hex, or notched shank so
that it can be used with other tools.
Figure 5-68 — Screwdriver bit set.

Jeweler’s Screwdrivers
Jeweler’s screwdrivers (Figure 5-69) are made for
driving and removing small screws. They usually have
knurled handles and a swivel-end finger rest plate.
The tips range from 0.025 to 0.1406 inch wide. Some
jeweler’s screwdrivers have removable blades.

Flexible Screwdrivers
A flexible screwdriver (Figure 5-70) has a spring steel
blade that bends, allowing the user to get around
flanges, shoulders, and other parts to drive and
remove screws.

Figure 5-69 — Jeweler’s screwdrivers.

Radio and Pocket Screwdrivers


A radio screwdriver (Figure 5-71) has a round
blade that is 1 1/2 inches long. Its use is restricted
Figure 5-70 — Flexible screwdriver. to very small screws generally used in the
construction of radio chassis. The pocket
screwdriver is also small, with a square blade that
is 1 3/4 inches long. Both screwdrivers have
pocket clips.

Figure 5-71 — Radio screwdriver.


5-20
Screw Starter or Gimlet
A screw starter or gimlet (Figure 5-72) has a
threaded tip. It is used to make a pilot hole in
wood for wood screws.

Figure 5-72 — Screw starter.

Robertson Screwdriver
The Robertson screwdriver (Figure 5-73) has a
square drive that yields high torque power. It is
useful to reach screws sunk below the surface of
the material.

Figure 5-73 — Robertson screwdriver.

Allen (Hex) Screwdriver


The Allen (hex) screwdriver set (Figure 5-74) contains
several sizes that are attached to and fold into a metal
carrying case. It is also known as a hex key or hex wrench
and is used on screws with hexagonal slots. It is useful for
recessed socket head screws.

Using a Screwdriver
Use a screwdriver correctly so you do not damage the
screwdriver or strip the screw head. Follow these steps:
1. Choose the right type of blade for the screw head.
Different types of screw heads are shown in Figure 5- Figure 5-74 — Allen (hex)
75. screwdriver.

2. Make sure the screwdriver fits the screw correctly, as shown in Figure 5-76. Examples of what
size screwdriver to use with various sizes of screws is listed in Table 5-3.

Figure 5-75 — Types of screw heads. Figure 5-76 — Using the correct size of
screwdriver.

5-21
Table 5-3 Size of Screwdrivers to Use for Different Screw Sizes
Screw # (Size) Flat Slot Blade Width Cross Slot Blade
in inches
3
0 /32 No. 0
1
1 /8 No. 0
1
2 /8 No. 1
1
3 /8 No. 1
5
4 /32 No. 2
3
5 /16 No. 2
3
6 /16 No. 2
7
7 /32 No. 2
8 1/ No. 2
4

9 1/ No. 3
4
5
10 /16 No. 3
3
12 /8 No. 3
3
14 /8 No. 3
3
16 /8 No. 3
18 1/ No. 4
2

20 1/ No. 4
2

24 1/ No. 4
2

7/16 1/ No. 4
2

1/2 1/ No. 4
2

9/16 1/ No. 4
2

3. Position the shank perpendicular (at a right angle) to your work.


4. Apply firm, steady pressure to the screw head and turn: clockwise to tighten (right is tight);
counterclockwise to loosen (left is loose).

Care of Screwdrivers
When using a screwdriver, you must follow many guidelines for your own safety and that of others, as
well as for maintaining your tool. Use the following guidelines when working with screwdrivers:
• Always use eye protection.
• Visually inspect your screwdriver before using it. When a screwdriver becomes nicked, when
its edges become rounded, or when other damage occurs so that it does not fit a screw slot, it
can be reground or filed. The sides must be parallel to keep the tool from lifting from the screw
slot, and the tip must be square, at right angles to the sides and to the blade.
• The plastic handles on screwdrivers should be fire and heat resistant.

5-22
• Do not expose a screwdriver to excessive heat because it may reduce the hardness of the
blade.
• Replace a screwdriver that has a worn or damaged handle or rounded tip.
• Keep the screwdriver free of dirt, grease, and grit so the blade will not slip out of the screw
head slot. After use, wipe the screwdriver clean and place it in a rack or tool box. For long-term
storage, apply rust-preventive compound to all metal surfaces and store it in a dry place.
• Screwdrivers used in the shop are best stored in a rack. By storing screwdrivers in a rack, the
proper selection of the right screwdriver can be quickly made and fewer injuries will result.
• Use the right size of screwdriver for the screw you are driving to avoid having the screwdriver
slip. Using the wrong size can also damage the screwdriver or the screw head.
• File the blade tip to restore a worn straightedge.
• Place the material with which you are working on a work surface and secure it with a clamp or
vise.
• When you are starting the screw, it is easy to hurt your fingers if the blade slips. Work with
caution.
• Use screwdrivers for the appropriate purpose and in the correct way. Avoid the following
actions:
o Using the screwdriver as a punch, chisel, or pry bar.
o Using a screwdriver to score or scrape.
o Using the screwdriver near live wires or as an electrical tester.
o Pointing the screwdriver blade toward yourself or anyone else.
o Carrying a screwdriver in your pocket.
o Using pliers for added turning leverage on the shank of a screwdriver (A wrench may be
used on square-shank screwdrivers).

WRENCHES
A wrench is a tool used to provide a mechanical advantage when torque is applied to hold and turn
bolts, nuts, screws, and pipes. Wrenches are forged from steel alloy to prevent breakage. Wrenches
are divided into two categories: nonadjustable and adjustable. Nonadjustable wrenches are made to
work on a particular size of bolt, nut, screw, or pipe. Adjustable wrenches are made to tighten or
loosen a particular size of bolt, nut, screw, or pipe.

Types and Uses


Open-End Wrench
All open-end wrenches have open jaws on one or both
ends of the wrench. Most jaw openings are offset from the
shank portion of the wrench by 15 degrees. The wrench Figure 5-77 — Open-end wrench.
length is determined by the size of the jaw opening.
The open-end wrench (Figure 5-77) grips on two sides of the nut or bolt head, with an opening that
can access fasteners that a closed, or box, wrench might not reach. It has openings of different sizes
on each end. The opening should fit the nut or bolt exactly to prevent mutilating the edges of the
fastener. They can come in sets.
5-23
The engineer’s single open-end wrench (Figure 5-
78) has a long, smooth shank providing the user
with a better gripping surface. It is used to reach
behind or below blind surfaces.
The engineer’s double open-end wrench has
openings of different sizes on each end. This type
of an arrangement permits a smaller number of
Figure 5-78 — Engineer’s wrench.
wrenches to complete a set. The engineer’s double
open-end wrench is also used to reach behind or
below blind surfaces.
The construction wrench (Figure 5-79) combines
the open-end jaw with a long, tapered shank
providing a wrench/alignment punch combination.
The construction wrench is used in the building
trades and on heavy objects that require
alignment before fastening.
Figure 5-79 — Construction wrench.
The S-Shape wrench (Figure 5-80) has a 22 1/2-degree
offset. It is used to reach around obstructing objects.
Ignition wrenches (Figure 5-81) have the same-size jaw
opening on both ends. However, one end of the wrench
is offset by 15 degrees, and the other end is offset by 60
degrees. Ignition wrenches are smaller in size because
they are used to remove components of automotive Figure 5-80 — S-shape wrench.
ignition systems.

Box End Wrench


A box end wrench (Figure 5-82) surrounds the nut,
bolt head, or stud on all sides. It is available with
both 6- and 12-point openings. The 12-point Figure 5-81 — Ignition wrench.
opening is more common because it may be used
on both square and hexagonal bolt heads. Some
models have ratcheting capability. Box wrench
openings are offset from the shank by 15 degrees
to give more room for your knuckles or to give
clearance over obstructions. A box wrench should
be used whenever possible because it provides Figure 5-82 — Box end wrench.
the best protection to both the user and the
equipment. The major disadvantage of the box
wrench is that enough clearance must be above
and around the bolt head to place the wrench
over the bolt head. The length of the box wrench
depends upon the size of the opening.
The half-moon wrench (Figure 5-83) has
different-size openings at each end and has a
curved shank. The half-moon wrench is used Figure 5-83 — Half-moon wrench.
when it is necessary to reach around objects in
tight spaces.
5-24
The split-box wrench (Figure 5-84) is a 12-point
wrench with 2 points cut away. The split-box wrench
is used on pipe unions or couplings where you want
the protection of a box wrench, but need to slide the
wrench around a pipe.
Figure 5-84 — Split-box end wrench.

The structural-tapered handle wrench (Figure 5-


85) combines a box wrench opening with a tapered
shank to produce a box wrench/alignment pin
Figure 5-85 — Structural-tapered handle combination. It is usually used on heavy structural
wrench. construction (bridge girders, building beams, etc.).
Ratchet-box end wrenches (Figure 5-86) are
either reversible or nonreversible. The ratchet-box
end wrench does not have to be lifted up and
repositioned each time the shank has reached its
maximum travel between two obstructions. The
Figure 5-86 — Ratchet-box end wrench.
ratchet-box wrench provides an easy means of
removing and/or installing nuts or bolts that are not
under strain. These wrenches should not be used to
torque down or to free nuts or bolts.

Combination Wrench
The combination wrench (Figure 5-87) has a box Figure 5-87 — Combination wrench.
wrench and an open-end wrench on opposite sides
of the same tool. The two ends are usually the same
size.

Allen Wrench
The Allen wrench (Figure 5-88) is also known as a
hex key wrench. It is a short, L-shaped tool
designed to turn bolts or screws with hexagonal
heads. Allen wrenches usually come in sets of
different-size wrenches.

Pipe Wrenches Figure 5-88 — Allen wrench.

There are four basic types of pipe wrenches: the


stillson wrench, the spud wrench, the strap wrench,
and the chain wrench. They are all used to connect
or break pipe joints or to turn cylindrical parts.
The pipe wrench (Figure 5-89) is also known as a
stillson wrench. It has jaws that bite into the surface
of pipe to hold it for turning, and should not be used Figure 5-89 — Pipe wrench.
on plated pipes because it can mar the surface. It is
used to screw pipes into elbows or other threaded items.

5-25
The spud wrench (Figure 5-90) is meant to work
on a piece of piping found on older toilets and
sinks, which is called a “spud”. This wrench is
used to tighten and loosen the collar, bolts, and
other hardware holding the spud to the toilet or
sink. The narrow jaws of the spud wrench are
useful in tight spaces. Figure 5-90 — Spud wrench.

Strap pipe wrenches (Figure 5-91) have a leather


or canvas strap that is attached to the handle. The
strap is looped around the pipe and back through
the handle to grip the pipe. The strap pipe wrench
will not scratch the surface of the pipe.

Figure 5-91 — Strap pipe wrench.

Chain pipe wrenches (Figure 5-92) have a


section of bicycle-type chain permanently
attached to the handle. The upper section of the
head has teeth that mate with the links of the
chain. The chain is wrapped around the pipe and Figure 5-92 — Chain pipe wrench.
pulled over the head section of the wrench to grip
the pipe. Chain pipe wrenches will scratch the
surface of the pipe.

Adjustable Wrench
The adjustable wrench (Figure 5-93) has an
adjustable end opening that comes in locking and
nonlocking styles. The locking style can secure the
jaws in the desired position, so when properly
adjusted, it will not slip. The nonlocking style
requires frequent readjustment and is prone to
slipping. The adjustable wrench is used to tighten or Figure 5-93 — Adjustable wrench.
loosen nuts and bolts, but never on a fastener that
has been rounded off. Make sure the movable jaw is
located on the side where the rotation will be done.

Socket Wrenches
The socket wrench (Figure 5-94) consists of a round metal
sleeve with a square opening in one end for insertion of a
handle, and a 6- or 12-point wrench opening in the other. They
are available in both common (short) and deep (long) lengths.
The length of the socket does not determine its size. Socket
wrenches usually come in sets. The square or drive end may
vary in size from 1/4 to 1 inch. In socket sets, the drive end
determines the size; for example, a 1/4-inch drive set may
contain nine sockets ranging in size from 3/16 through 1/2 inch. In
3/ -inch drive, the smallest socket would be 3/ inch. This overlap
8 8
in size allows better control by the user and prevents breakage
of either Figure 5-94 — Sockets.
5-26
the socket or the equipment from using the wrong-size handle. A universal joint socket and spark plug
socket are examples of specially designed sockets. The universal joint socket is used when it is
necessary to reach around an object. The spark plug socket has a rubber insert. This insert protects
the ceramic insulator during removal and/or installation of the spark plug. All sockets must be used
with some type of handle. Sockets are used to remove and/or install common-size nuts or bolts.

Socket Wrench Handles, Extensions, and Adapters


Ratchet handles (Figure 5-95) may have either a straight head or a flex head. Both types have a
selection lever on the top of the head to determine the direction of drive. The flex head is used to go
around objects. Both types are used with socket wrenches for rapid removal of nuts or bolts.
The speed handle (Figure 5-95) has a brace-type shaft with a revolving grip on the top. It is used for
rapid removal and/or installation of nuts or bolts, which are out in the open and have little or no
torque.
A hinged handle (Figure 5-95) has a hinged adapter on one end that may be rotated in 90-degree
steps. The hinged handle is used when additional leverage or torque is needed to loosen nuts or
bolts.
The socket wrench adapter (Figure 5-95) is used to change the drive size between the socket and
the handle. It usually increases or decreases the fractional size by one (1/4 to 3/8 inch). The socket
wrench adapter is used to increase or decrease the drive end of a particular handle, allowing it to be
used with two different socket sets.
Extensions (Figure 5-95) are either rigid or flexible. They range from 2 to 17 inches in length.
Extensions may be used with any socket handle combination to gain clearance above nut or bolt.

Figure 5-95 — Typical socket set.

The spin-type screwdriver (Figure 5-96) grip


handle has a plastic or wood handle. It is used to
remove and/or install small nuts and bolts.

Figure 5-96 — Spin-type screwdriver.

5-27
The sliding T-bar handle (Figure 5-97) has a single
head that may be adjusted along a bar handle. It
has two spring-loaded balls, one for keeping the bar
in the head and the other for keeping the socket on
the head. The sliding T-bar is used for increased Figure 5-97 — Sliding T-bar handle.
leverage or for working around other objects.
The ratcheting adapter (Figure 5-98) converts a nonratcheting handle into a
ratchet drive. It is used for quick removal of nuts or bolts.

Special-Purpose Socket Wrenches


The four-way socket wrench (Figure 5-99) has four nonremovable sockets
attached to four arms. Each of the sockets is a different size. The four-way
socket wrench is usually used to remove and/ or install the wheel stud nuts of a
vehicle. The handle construction provides extra leverage for loosening and
tightening the stud nuts.

Figure 5-98 —
Ratcheting adapter.

The 90-degree offset handle socket wrench (Figure 5-100)


has a fixed socket at the end of a bent handle. It is used
for removing and/or installing a nut or bolt that may not be
reached with a box or combination wrench.

Figure 5-99 — Four-way socket


wrench.
Figure 5-100 — 90-degree offset handle
socket wrench.

The T-handle socket wrench (Figure 5-101) has a fixed T-


handle above a fixed socket wrench. The T-handle socket
wrench has many uses. One of the more common uses is
for shutting off or turning on water or gas lines. The T-
handle permits the operator to apply the turning force
required to operate the valve.

Figure 5-101 — T-handle socket


wrench. 5-28
The screwdriver-type socket wrench (Figure 5-
102) has a socket fixed on the bottom of a
screwdriver handle. They are used to remove
and/or install small nuts and bolts.
Figure 5-102 — Screwdriver-type socket
Stud removers may be either the cam-operated wrench.
type or the wedge type. They are used to remove
studs from their seats for replacement. A single stud
remover can be adjusted to remove different-size studs.
The cam-operated type (Figure 5-103) uses a concentric cam to
get a grip on the stud. The cam is tightened on the stud through
mechanical linkage between the drive shank and the cam.
Wedge-type stud removers (Figure 5-104) are made of a socket
housing and two metal wedges. The socket is placed over the
stud to be removed and the wedges are driven into the socket to
hold the stud. The socket housing is now turned with a handle to
remove the stud.

Figure 5-103 — Cam-operated-


type stud remover.
Crowfoot Wrench
The crowfoot wrench (Figure 5-105) is an open-end wrench
head that is turned with a socket handle. It is used to remove
and/or install nuts or bolts. It is also used where an
obstruction can prevent the use of a regular socket.

Figure 5-104 — Wedge-type stud


remover.

Plug Wrenches
There are three basic types of plug wrenches: the bar-type, the
multiple plug wrench, and the socket-type. Plug wrenches are used to
remove and/or install drain plugs.
Figure 5-105 — Crowfoot
wrench.

Bar-type plug wrenches (Figure 5-106) may be either square or


hexagonal and are about 2 inches long. A combination wrench or
socket must be used to turn the plug.

Figure 5-106 — Bar-type plug


wrench.
5-29
The multiple plug wrench (Figure 5-107) combines
several plug ends on a common handle.
Socket-type plug wrenches (Figure 5-108) are
usually combined in sets with an assortment of
handles. The set will contain several sizes.

Figure 5-107 — Multiple plug wrench.

Figure 5-108 Socket-type plug


wrench.

Torque Wrenches
Torque wrenches (Figure 5-109) are designed to measure the specific degree of tightness of nuts or
bolts. Torque wrenches are considered precision instruments and therefore must be calibrated at
regular intervals. Three types of torque wrenches are available: deflecting beam, dial-indicating, and
micrometer-setting.
Torque wrenches are
used for a final
tightening of nuts or
bolts. Torque
wrenches are normally
calibrated in a right-
hand direction only. If a
unit is required to
perform torquing
operations in a left-
hand direction, they
must request that the
supporting calibration
facility calibrate the
torque wrench in both
directions.
A deflecting beam
torque wrench has a
rod that runs parallel to
the handle and the
drive element. The rod
moves across the
scale to the right or left
Figure 5-109 — Typical torque wrenches.
as torque is applied.

5-30
A dial-indicating torque wrench has a head that
contains the drive element and a dial for reading
the exact amount of torque.
The micrometer-setting torque wrench indicates
the torque value by sound.

Torque Multipliers
Torque multipliers are geared devices attached to
the torque wrench (Figure 5-110) to increase the
force of torque. The preferred ratio of the torque
multiplier is 4 to 1. To use a torque multiplier,
select one with an output capacity above the
required torque. The torque multiplier is used for
tightening nuts and bolts requiring 200 or more
foot pounds of torque. Be sure to follow the
manufacturer’s operating manual to avoid
personnel injury and damage to the equipment.

Figure 5-110 — Torque multipliers.

NOTE
A special feature of these types of torque wrenches is that it
is possible to loosen as well as tighten nuts and bolts.

Spanner Wrenches
Two basic types of spanner wrenches are the hook-type and the pin-type. Hook-type spanner
wrenches are either fixed (Figure 5-111) or adjustable (Figure 5-112) and are normally used to tighten
fire hoses or similar couplings that have a protruding lip. Pin-type spanner wrenches (Figure 5-113)
have pins protruding from the handle that fit into holes in the coupling or plate to be tightened or
loosened. Spanner wrenches are special-purpose wrenches and are to be used only for their
intended purpose.

Figure 5-111 — Fixed hook spanner wrench.

Figure 5-112 — Adjustable hook spanner


wrench.

Figure 5-113 — Pin-type spanner wrench.


5-31
Three kinds of hook-type wrenches include the
hose coupling pin, for tightening and loosening
hose couplings, the fixed hook for tightening or
loosening couplings with protruding rims or
edges, and the adjustable hook-type.
The adjustable hook-type is similar to the fixed
hook-type. However, it may be adjusted around
objects and fastened before use.
There are two basic pin-type wrenches. The Figure 5-114 — Fixed-pin face spanner wrench.
fixed-pin face (Figure 5-114) has been designed
to fit a particular pattern and is nonadjustable.
The fixed-pin face is used to remove protective
cover plates. The adjustable-pin face (Figure 5-
115) has two arms joined at a common point. The
other end of the arms contains pins that may be
engaged in the holes of a cover plate for removal.
Figure 5-115 — Adjustable-pin face spanner
Using a Box Wrench wrench.
Follow these steps to use a nonadjustable wrench:
1. Select the size of wrench that fits the nut or bolt.
2. Place the wrench on the nut or bolt (Figure 5-116).
Swing the wrench clockwise to tighten and
counterclockwise to loosen for a right-hand-threaded
nut or bolt. Reverse the above for a left-hand-
threaded nut or bolt.
3. If there is insufficient room to swing the wrench in a
full circle, lift it completely off the nut when it comes
to the limit of the swing, and place it in a new
position, permitting another swing. A swing through
of a 15-degree arc is usually sufficient to
continuously loosen or tighten a nut or bolt.
4. After the nut is tight, give it a final tightening.

Using a Socket Wrench Figure 5-116 — Place the correct


Follow these steps to use a socket wrench: size of wrench on the nut or bolt.
1. Select the size of socket that fits the nut or bolt to be turned and push it onto the handle that is
best suited to the job (Figure 5-117).
2. If there is room to swing, use the ratchet handle (The handle may be made to ratchet in one
direction for tightening work and in the other direction for loosening work).
3. Swing the handle back and forth to turn the nut in the desired direction (The socket need not
be raised from the nut at the end of each swing).
4. To loosen a tight nut, or to set up a nut, swing the hinged handle at right angles to the socket
to provide the most leverage (Figure 5-118). At the point where the nut turns easily, swing the
handle to a vertical position and twist rapidly between your fingers in the same manner as a
screwdriver.

5-32
Figure 5-117 — Using the correct Figure 5-118 — Using the correct
size of socket with a ratchet. size of socket with a hinged handle.

Using an Adjustable Open-End Wrench


Follow these steps to use an adjustable wrench:
1. Set the jaw to the correct size for the nut or bolt.
2. Make sure the wrench jaws are fully tightened on the
nut or bolt (Figure 5-119).
3. Pull the wrench toward you as much as you can. If
you must push the wrench, keep your hand open to
avoid pinching it.
4. Pull so that the force is on the fixed side of the jaw.
5. Make sure there is enough room for your fingers as
you turn the wrench.

Using an Adjustable Strap Pipe Wrench


Figure 5-119 — Using an
Follow these steps to use an adjustable strap pipe wrench: adjustable open-end wrench.
1. Loop the strap around the pipe in the opposite
direction to that in which the pipe is to be
rotated (Figure 5-120).
2. Slip the end of the strap through the shackle
and draw it up tightly.

Figure 5-120 — Using a strap wrench.


5-33
3. Pull the handle to turn the pipe in the desired direction until the desired tightness is obtained.

NOTE
The jaw at the end of the shackle will seat against the strap
and, as the handle is pulled, the strap will tighten and turn
the pipe.

Using the Torque Wrench


Follow these steps to use a torque wrench:
1. Select the proper size of socket wrench and
attach it to torque wrench square drive.
2. Place the socket wrench on the work (Figure 5-
121) and pull the torque wrench handle in the
desired direction to tighten the work.

Figure 5-121 — Using a torque wrench.

NOTE
The tightening torque will be indicated on the dial or scale,
depending on the type of the torque wrench used.

3. Remove the wrench when the torque on the dial or scale is reached.

Using the Torque Multiplier

NOTE
The following procedure is not the only application for the
torque multiplier.

Follow these steps to use a torque multiplier (Figure 5-122) to tighten a nut:
1. Install the applicable socket onto the nut to be tightened.
2. Install the torque multiplier body on top of the socket.

5-34
Figure 5-122 — Using a torque multiplier.

CAUTION
Different reaction adapters are required for various
operations. Be careful to use the correct reaction torque
adapter. Failure to do so will render the torque wrench
useless and can damage the equipment.

3. Install a reaction arm to the torque multiplier.


4. Install the torque wrench onto the square drive bar and reaction torque adapter.

CAUTION
Do not use impact wrench of any kind to operate this
wrench.

5. Apply firm, steady pressure to the nut and turn: clockwise to tighten (right is tight);
counterclockwise to loosen (left is loose).
6. Continue to turn the torque wrench until desired torque is reached.

NOTE
Normally, torque will build up in the wrench until break-
away torque is reached.

7. After obtaining the desired torque, remove the wrench, adapter, and socket.
8. To loosen a nut, repeat steps 1 through 6.
9. Remove the wrench, adapter, drive bar, and socket.

5-35
Using a Spanner Wrench
Follow these steps to use a spanner wrench
(Figure 5-123):
1. Insert the pins or lugs into the pin holes of
the part.
2. Keep the pin face of the wrench flush
against the surface and turn the wrench.
3. Exert enough force against the wrench so
that the pins do not pop out of the holes.
4. Make certain that the pins fit the holes and
the force is applied with the handle
perpendicular to the work.
5. Remove the wrench when desired tightness Figure 5-123 — Using a spanner wrench.
is obtained.

Care of Wrenches
When using a wrench, you must follow many guidelines for your own safety and that of others, as well
as for maintaining your tool. Use the following guidelines when working with wrenches:
• Wrenches should fit the nuts or bolts they are to loosen or tighten.
• Never turn adjustable wrenches so that the pulling force is applied to the adjustable jaw.
• Do not attempt to extend the handle in any way to increase the leverage on a wrench.
Increased leverage may damage the wrench or the work.
• Brace your stance in case the wrench releases or the fastener slips suddenly.
• Apply penetrating oil to rusted nuts and/or bolts that resist turning. Allow time for oil to
penetrate before attempting to turn.
• When you have to break loose a frozen fastener, use a box wrench with a striking face or a
heavy-duty socket wrench with an appropriate-size sledgehammer.
• Do not strike wrenches with hammers to tighten or loosen nuts or bolts.
• Do not exert a hard pull on a pipe wrench until it has gripped the work firmly.
• Remember to pull on the wrench, when possible, in order to protect your knuckles in case the
wrench slips.
• Return all wrenches to their proper places upon completion of each job, thus eliminating the
possibility of leaving them where they can injure someone.
• Always keep the wrench in good condition, clean, and free from oil or grease. Otherwise, it
may slip, resulting in possible serious injury to you or damage to the work.
• Store torque wrenches as follows:
o When storing the micrometer-type torque wrenches or beam-type torque wrenches, check
to make sure they are returned to zero before storing.
o For the rest of the torque wrenches (unless your local standard operating procedures states
differently), zero them before you store them. Zeroing the torque wrench takes the pressure
off the spring, and the wrenches will last longer and give better service.
5-36
• Apply a thin film of oil to the metal parts of all wrenches before storing them. Remove oil before
use to prevent injury or damage.
• For long-term storage, the wrenches should be covered with a rust-preventive compound and
carefully stored in a dry place.
• Use the correct wrench for the appropriate purpose. Avoid the following actions:
o Applying excessive torque on a wrench, which can strip or damage threads on the fastener.
o Using extension handles, also known as cheaters, to increase leverage.
o Using sockets intended for hand tools on a power tool or impact wrench.
o Using a torque wrench as a conventional wrench.
o Using the wrench as a hammer.

BARS
Bars are steel tools used to lift and move heavy objects and to pry where leverage is needed. They
can also be used to remove nails and spikes, and to loosen hard soil for digging. The most commonly
used types of bars are the wrecking bar, chisel (Wonder) bar, flat bar, and cat’s paw. These bars
range from 12 to 72 inches in length, depending upon their design and the purpose for which they are
used. The bars should be used in a position where the weight of the user’s body is exerted downward
on the long section of the lever. When possible, use a block or other object as a fulcrum behind the
bar, near the spot where the bar’s point is wedged under the object to be moved.

Types and Uses


Wrecking Bar
The wrecking bar (Figure 5-124) is used for
demolition, pulling nails, ripping wood, and other
similar tasks. The length of the wrecking bar gives Figure 5-124 — Wrecking bar.
it better leverage for pulling larger and longer
nails.

Chisel (Wonder) Bar


The chisel bar (Figure 5-125) gets you into tight
spots for prying, although it is not designed for
heavy-duty prying. It is useful for removing nails
with exposed heads and for prying paneling or
molding without marring the surface. You can
drive it into wood to split and rip apart the pieces.
Figure 5-125 — Chisel (Wonder) bar.

Flat Bar
The flat bar (Figure 5-126) is a small pry bar. It is
usually 2 inches wide and 15 inches long, with a
nail slot at the end to pull nails out from tightly
enclosed areas. Figure 5-126 — Flat bar.

5-37
Cat’s Paw
The cat’s paw (Figure 5-127) is used to pull nails
when the nail heads are buried beneath the wood’s
surface. Hammer the forked chisel head into the
wood surrounding the nail head until the nail head
is positioned between the notches, and then pull it
from below the wood surface. Figure 5-127 — Cat’s paw.

Using a Pry Bars


Follow these steps when you use a pry bar:
1. Use the angled prying end (Figure 5-128) to force apart pieces of wood.
2. Use the heavy claw end (Figure 5-129) to pull large nails and spikes.

Figure 5-128 — Using the angled prying end. Figure 5-129 — Using the heavy
claw end.
Care of Bars
When using a bar, you must follow many guidelines for your own safety and that of others, as well as
for maintaining your tool. Use the following guidelines when working with bars:
• Wrecking bars are exceptionally heavy; take extreme care to keep them from falling and
striking someone.
• When using bars for prying, make sure the bar does not slip and cause personal injury.
• Do not use bars for extra-heavy work because they will bend and may cause injury.

5-38
End of Chapter 5
Fastening and Prying Tools
Review Questions
5-1. Pliers are made of what type of material?

A. Brass
B. Hardened steel
C. Soft metal
D. Titanium

5-2. What type of pliers has jaws offset by about 15 degrees to give knuckle clearance?

A. Diagonal
B. Flat nose
C. Lineman’s
D. Parallel jaw

5-3. What type of pliers is useful for working in tight places?

A. Lineman’s
B. Long nose
C. Tongue and groove
D. Vise grip

5-4. When a vise grip pliers is used, what action locks the handles together?

A. Squeezing the handles


B. Pulling the handle towards you as much as you can
C. Turning the adjusting screw until the pliers grip the object
D. Twisting the handles in a clockwise motion

5-5. If pliers become cracked, broken, or sprung or have nicked cutting edges, what action should
you take?

A. File the nicked cutting edges for a smooth cut


B. Reassemble the pliers
C. Discard the pliers
D. Weld the broken pieces together

5-6. What tool delivers an impact to an object?

A. Bar
B. Hammer
C. Pliers
D. Screwdriver

5-39
5-7. What type of hammer is used for projects that need great force?

A. Ball peen
B. Jeweler’s
C. Rubber mallet
D. Sledgehammer

5-8. What type of hammer has a lightweight head?

A. Ball peen
B. Jeweler’s
C. Rubber mallet
D. Sledgehammer

5-9. What type of hammer is used for setting or splitting bricks or for chipping excess mortar?

A. Drywall
B. Napping
C. Masonry
D. Tile

5-10. What type of hammer has a sharp surface for scoring tile?

A. Drywall
B. Masonry
C. Napping
D. Tile

5-11. When working with a hammer, you should wear what personal protective equipment?

A. Eye protection
B. Fire-retardant coveralls
C. Hardhat
D. Steel-toe boots

5-12. When selecting a hammer for a job, what characteristics should you consider?

A. Color and weight of the job


B. Grip and length of the handle
C. Length and size of the handle
D. Size and weight for the job

5-13. The flat head screwdriver shank can range in size between what two measurements, in
inches?

A. 1/ to 1/4
6
B. 1/ to 1/2
4
C. 1/ to 3/4
2
D. 3/ to 1
4

5-40
5-14. The most common Phillips® screwdriver has what maximum numbered size?

A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 8

5-15. What type of screwdriver will tighten and loosen six-point star head screws?

A. Allen
B. Jeweler’s
C. Ratchet
D. Torx

5-16. What type of screwdriver will tighten and loosen hexagonal slot head screws?

A. Allen
B. Jeweler’s
C. Ratchet
D. Torx

5-17. If a screwdriver is exposed to excessive heat, the blade will undergo what change?

A. Increase in rust
B. Melting
C. Reduction of hardness
D. Tempering of the tip

5-18. On a screwdriver, what action, if any, can be done to restore a worn straightedge?

A. File the blade tip


B. Heat the tip and reshape it
C. Remove the handle and use the other end
D. Nothing; the screwdriver has to be replaced

5-19. Most open-end wrench jaw openings are offset from the shank portion by how many degrees?

A. 10
B. 15
C. 20
D. 25

5-20. On box end wrenches, what type of opening is the most common?

A. 6-degree offset
B. 6-point
C. 12-degree offset
D. 12-point

5-41
5-21. The basic types of pipe wrenches include the stillson wrench, spud wrench, and what other
type of wrench?

A. Half-moon
B. Metric
C. Monkey
D. Strap

5-22. The straps on strap pipe wrenches are usually made from which of the following materials?

A. Braided steel and canvas


B. Canvas and leather
C. Leather and rubber
D. Rubber and braided steel

5-23. What type of wrench has an adjustable open-end opening that comes in locking and non-
locking styles?

A. Allen
B. Combination
C. Adjustable
D. Engineer’s

5-24. What tool is used when it is necessary to reach around an object?

A. Universal joint socket


B. Plumb bob
C. Micrometer
D. Bevel protractor

5-25. Which of the following tools is used to change the drive size between a socket and a handle?

A. Ratcheting adapter
B. Socket wrench adapter
C. Sliding T-bar
D. Hinged handle

5-26. Socket wrench extensions usually range from 2 inches to what maximum length, in inches?

A. 10
B. 13
C. 17
D. 36

5-27. Which of the following tools is used for increased leverage or for working around other
objects?

A. Ratcheting adapter
B. Sliding T-bar handle
C. Crowfoot wrench
D. Wedge-type stud remover
5-42
5-28. What type of wrench is used to measure the specific degree of tightness of nuts or bolts?

A. Crowfoot
B. Plug
C. T-handle
D. Torque

5-29. Before using a wrench, what step must you complete first?

A. Apply a light coat of oil to prevent rust


B. Measure the swing-through arc with a protractor
C. Select the proper size that fits the nut or bolt
D. Wear eye protection

5-30. Which of the following guidelines best describes the care of wrenches to be taken after the
completion of the job?

A. Apply a thick coat of oil before storing the wrenches


B. File all kicks on the wrenches
C. Paint the wrenches according to the color of the tool box
D. Return all wrenches to the proper place

5-31. For long-term storage of wrenches, what step must you perform?

A. Paint the wrenches according to the color of the tool box


B. Coat the wrench with grease
C. Apply a rust-preventative compound
D. Tag the wrench for storage

5-32. Most common bars are available in what minimum length, in inches?

A. 12
B. 24
C. 48
D. 72

5-33. Which of the following types of bars is used for demolition?

A. Combination
B. Crowbar
C. Pinch
D. Wrecking

5-34. Which result, if any, may occur if a bar is used for extra-heavy work?

A. The object will be damaged


B. The bar will bend and may cause injury
C. The bar will slip
D. Nothing, the bar is designed to move extra-heavy objects

5-43
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

5-44
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 6
SAWING AND CUTTING TOOLS
Sawing and cutting tools are made to cut materials down to size. These tools include saws, chisels,
knives, and punches.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of sawing and cutting tools and their uses. You will
also learn how to select the right tool for the job, use and read various types of tools, and provide the
proper care of sawing and cutting tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of sawing tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of sawing tools.
3. Determine the proper care of sawing tools.
4. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to sawing tools.
5. Identify the different types of punches.
6. Determine the proper uses of punches.
7. Identify the different types of cutting tools.
8. Determine the proper uses of cutting tools.
9. Identify the different types of metal-cutting tools.
10. Determine the proper uses of metal-cutting tools.
11. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to cutting tools.

SAWS
Types and Uses
Saws are tools with thin flat steel blades that have a row of spaced notches or “teeth” along the edge.
The blade is fastened to a handle. Saws are available in various sizes and designs depending on
their use and the material to be cut. The most common types of saws are handsaw (crosscut and
ripsaw), one-man crosscut saw, two-man crosscut saw, backsaw, nest-of-saws, compass (keyhole)
saw, coping saw, dovetail saw, and hacksaw.

Handsaw
The handsaw consists of a thin flat blade with teeth and
a wooden or plastic handle (Figure 6-1), called the heel,
fastened to the end of the blade by screws. The
handsaw is used in carpentry, rough-out work, and for
“finish” hand sawing. Sizes of handsaws vary depending
on design and nature of the task. There are two
categories of handsaws: the ripsaw and the crosscut.
Figure 6-1 — Parts of a saw.
The ripsaw, has large chisel-shaped teeth, usually 5 1/2
teeth per inch. It is designed to cut with the wood grain,
6-1
with teeth that are cross-filed to ensure the chisel point is set square to the direction of cutting. The
ripping action of this saw produces a coarse ragged cut not desirable for finish work.
The crosscut saw has teeth shaped like knife points to crumble out wood between cuts. It is designed
to cut across wood grain and produces a smoother cut than ripsaws. They can also be used to cut
plywood.

One-Man Crosscut Saw


The one-man crosscut saw (Figure 6-2) is about 36
inches long and has a handle at one end. This type of
saw is characterized by a high-grade steel blade with
two types of teeth known as cutters and rakers. The
cutters do the cutting, and the rakers chisel out and
remove chips from the cut. It is used for heavy work
such as cutting down trees and sawing heavy
timbers. Figure 6-2 — One-man crosscut saw.

Two-Man Crosscut Saw


The two-man crosscut saw (Figure 6-3) is 5 to 6 1/2
feet long with a handle at each end. As with the
one-man crosscut saw, it also has a high-grade
steel blade with the cutter and raker teeth
arrangement. It is used when two men are required Figure 6-3 — Two-man crosscut saw.
for extra heavy cutting jobs.

Backsaw
The backsaw (Figure 6-4) has a straight blade and
parallel top and bottom, with a heavy strip of steel or
brass wrapped along the back to provide rigidity. The
handle is of similar shape to other handsaws except
it is usually mounted higher. Backsaws are used for
general bench work such as cutting joints and Figure 6-4 — Backsaw.
smaller sections of lumber to length. Sizes vary
depending on design and nature of work.

Nest-of-Saws
Nest-of-saws (Figure 6-5) consist of a wooden
handle to which several different blades can be
attached, making up different types of saws such as
the keyhole or compass saw. A slotted end at the
heel of each blade slips into the pistol-grip type
handle where a wingnut fastens it in place. Nest-of-
saws are used to cut along curved lines, to start
cuts for larger saws, or to make starting saw cuts
from drilled holes or small openings. The size of Figure 6-5 — Nest-of-saws.
these saws will vary depending on design and
nature of use.

6-2
Compass (Keyhole) Saw
The compass saw (Figure 6-6) has a narrow blade
that tapers nearly to a point. This point helps it to fit
in tight spaces where larger saws would not fit.
There are three or four blade styles that can be
changed according to the cutting job. It cuts curves Figure 6-6 — Compass (keyhole) saw.
quickly in wood and wallboard.
A keyhole saw is a small compass saw with finer teeth,
used to cut metal. Keyhole saw blades can come in a
turret head model that can be rotated and locked in
several positions to ease cutting in tight spots.

Coping Saw
The coping saw (Figure 6-7) has a narrow flexible blade
attached to a U-shaped frame. Blade holders at each end
of the frame can be rotated so it can cut at any angle.
This saw is used for cutting irregular shapes, curves, and Figure 6-7 — Coping saw.
intricate decorative patterns.

Dovetail Saw
The dovetail saw (Figure 6-8) is similar to a backsaw
with its stiff reinforced back, but it is smaller with finer
teeth. It is used for fine finish cuts, such as dovetail
joints. It is commonly used for trimming molding and
repairing furniture. It can also be used to cut plastics Figure 6-8 — Dovetail saw.
and laminates.

Hacksaw
The hacksaw (Figure 6-9) is designed to cut almost
any size or shape of metal object. The hacksaw uses
two types of blades, hard and flexible. The type of
blade used depends on the nature of the task. The
blade is held to the saw frame by pins that fit into
small holes at each end of the blade. Blade tension is
adjusted by a screw and wingnut assembly at either
the nose or the handle end of the frame. The
hacksaw comes in various designs, depending on the
Figure 6-9 — Hacksaw.
purpose.

Using the Crosscut Saw

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying wood chips.

The following steps describe how to use a crosscut saw properly:


1. In using the crosscut saw, place the work on a level just below the knees. Place one sawhorse,
bench, or other support fairly close to the line of cut.
6-3
2. Begin the cut by placing your hand with the thumb in an upright position pressed against the
blade away from the teeth (Figure 6-10).
3. Start sawing slowly to prevent the blade from jumping off the cut line.
4. After the blade is engaged, use partial cutting strokes and be sure to set the saw at the proper
angle (Figure 6-11).
5. During the cut, apply pressure only during the down stroke.
6. When nearing the end of a cut, hold the waste side of the wood to prevent board breaking off
unevenly.

Figure 6-10 — Thumb position. Figure 6-11 — Proper saw angle.

Using the Keyhole Saw

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying wood chips.

The following steps describe how to use a keyhole saw properly:


1. To make an inside-out cut, first drill a hole large enough to admit the point of the saw (Figure
6-12).
2. Insert the saw blade and start to cut slowly (Figure 6-13), with a minimum of pressure.
3. Be careful not to twist the blade too sharply, as the narrow blade will easily bend.

Figure 6-12 — Drill a hole. Figure 6-13 — Insert the saw blade.
6-4
Using the Hacksaw

WARNING
Wear protective eyewear to avoid flying metal chips.

The following steps describe how to use a hacksaw properly:


1. Insert the correct blade in the hacksaw frame and adjust the wingnut for proper tension.
2. Secure the material to be cut in a vise or other holding device to avoid vibration which may
snap the blade.
3. To make an accurate cut, use a file to make a notch for guiding the first strokes of the saw
(Figure 6-14).
4. Steady the saw by holding the handle with the right hand and the frame with the left.
5. Hold the blade parallel to the work surface and cut on the push stroke (Figure 6-15), being
careful not to bear down too hard. Draw the blade back using no pressure each time.
6. Saw at a rate not to exceed 40 to 50 strokes per minute.

Figure 6-14 — Make a notch. Figure 6-15 — Hold the blade parallel.

Care of Saws
Observe the following guidelines when working with saws:
• Always wear eye protection; either safety glasses or a face shield.
• Make sure the teeth and blades are properly sharpened and set by a qualified professional;
dull teeth can be a safety hazard.
• Make sure the saw blade is clean and protected from rust. Use emery cloth to clean the blade
and a coat of light machine oil to prevent rust.
• Lay the saw down gently.
• Keep the handsaw teeth away from contact with stone, concrete, or metal.
6-5
• Protect the teeth of any saw when the tool is not in use.
• Before using, inspect the tool. Do not use any damaged or broken saw.
• Store all tools in their proper places when not being used.
• Do not throw or drop any tools. If a saw is dropped, inspect immediately before reusing.
• Replace damaged saw handles with new ones immediately when needed.
• Always loosen the blade tension on a hacksaw when not in use.
• Always remove the nest-of-saw blade from the handle for storage.
• Choose a saw that is the right size and design for the type of material being cut.
• Brace yourself when you are sawing so the final cut doesn’t throw you off balance.
• Make sure the saw handle keeps your wrist in a natural position-horizontal to the piece being
cut.
• Make sure the piece being cut is free of objects, such as screws or nails, which could make the
saw buckle.
• When cutting longer stock, be sure the stock is properly supported.
• Use clamps or vises to steady or secure any loose material to be cut.
• Do not allow pointed or edged tools to lie around where they may injure someone.
• Be careful not to allow the fingers or other parts of the body to get in the line of cut.
• Do not use a tool for any purpose other than that for which it was designed.
• Avoid placing heavy tools or objects on saw blades as these objects can distort the blade.
• Do not force the saw if it binds. Use a wedge to spread the cut.

CHISELS
Types and Uses
Woodworker's Chisels
There are two types of woodworker’s chisels, the
socket- and tang-type. The socket-type (Figure 6-16)
has a blade and socket handle forged of high carbon
steel in a single casting. The wooden handle is
inserted into the socket. This type of chisel is used to
cut and pare off wood. Generally, socket-type chisels Figure 6-16 — Socket-type chisel.
are used for heavier cutting when a hammer or mallet
may be required for additional driving force.
The tang-type chisel (Figure 6-17) is forged in a single
casting. The handle is drilled and inserted over the tang
and reinforced with a metal band. The tang-type chisels
are also used to cut and pare wood. However, the driving
force required is hand pressure only. Figure 6-17 — Tang-type chisel.

6-6
Machinists’ Chisels
Machinists’ chisels are classified according to the
shape of their points, and the width of the cutting
edge denotes their size. The most common
shapes of chisels (Figure 6-18) are cold chisel,
cape, round nose, and diamond point. Chisels are
designed to cut and shape cold metal and are
usually struck with a hammer. The flat or cold
chisel is composed of hardened steel and has a
tapered cutting edge on one end and a flat base
on the other end.
The diamond point chisel (Figure 6-18) has a solid
point on one end and a flat base on the other end.
It is used for drawing and cutting holes in flat
stocks and to cut V-grooves.
The cape chisel (Figure 6-18) has a small solid
point on one end and a flat base on the other end.
It is used for cutting keyways or slots in metal and
square corners.
The round nose chisel (Figure 6-18) has a ground
edge on one end, a flat base on the other end, and Figure 6-18 — Common shapes of chisels.
an octagon-shaped stock. It is used to align drilled
holes, cut channels, cut oil grooves, and similar work.

Track Chisel
The track chisel (Figure 6-19) has a beveled point on one end
and a flat face on the other end. The cutting edge is 1 3/8 inches
wide; the overall length is 10 1/2 inches and it weighs 5 1/2
pounds. The track chisel is used with a 22-inch sledge hammer
to remove track bolts, boiler rivet heads, and cut rail when a
saw or cutting torch is not available.

Rivet Buster Chisel Figure 6-19 — Track chisel.

The rivet buster chisel (Figure 6-20) has a single


ground flat cutting edge on one end and a flat face
on the other end. The cutting edge is about 3/4 of an
inch wide and the overall length is about 9 inches. It
is used for cutting off chassis rivets and in other Figure 6-20 — Rivet buster chisel.
difficult places which cannot be reached by other
chisels.
Masonry Chisel
The masonry chisel (Figure 6-21) is used to cut masonry,
such as concrete block and brick. There are also
masonry chisels with teeth used for cutting soft stone.

Figure 6-21 — Masonry chisel.

6-7
Flooring Chisel
The flooring chisel (Figure 6-22) is used to remove
flooring material. It has a larger head to increase the
striking area.

Using a Woodworker’s Chisel Figure 6-22 — Flooring chisel.

WARNING
Wear eye protection. Keep both hands back from the
cutting edge at all times.

Use the wood chisel to make openings or notches in wooden material. Use the chisel to make a
recess for butt-type hinges, such as door hinges. Follow these steps to use a wood chisel properly:
1. Use a pencil to outline the opening or recess to
be chiseled.
2. Set the chisel at one end of the outline. The edge
of the chisel should be on the cross-grain line.
The bevel should be facing the recess to be
made.
3. Strike the head of the chisel lightly with a mallet.
4. Repeat the process at the other end of the
outline, with the bevel of the chisel blade toward
the recess.
5. Make a series of cuts about 1/4 of an inch apart
from one end of the recess to the other.
6. Trim away the notched wood. Hold the chisel
bevel-side down to slice inward from the end of
the recess (Figure 6-23).
Figure 6-23 — Using a woodworker’s
Using a Machinist’s Cold Chisel chisel.

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying metal chips.

NOTE
The following procedure is designed for using a machinist’s
cold chisel. However, cutting round stock is not the only use
for this type of chisel.

A cold chisel is used to cut metal, as long as that metal is softer than the steel that the chisel is made
of. You can use it to cut rivets, nuts, and bolts made of brass, bronze, copper, or iron.
The following steps describe how to use a machinist’s cold chisel properly:
1. Secure the material you need to cut in a vise.
6-8
2. Use a holding tool to place the blade of the chisel where you want to cut the material.
3. Hit the chisel handle with a ball peen hammer to force the chisel into and through the material
(repeat if necessary).

Using a Rivet Buster Chisel

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying metal chips.

The following steps describe how to use a rivet buster chisel properly:
1. Place the cutting edge of the chisel firmly against
the rivet shaft between the head and the metal
(Figure 6-24).
2. Grip the chisel firmly and strike chisel head with a
machinist’s or sledge hammer.
3. Continue striking chisel head until rivet head has
been cut off.

Care of Chisels
Use these guidelines when working with chisels:
• Always use eye protection.
• Plastic guards near the head of the chisel protect
hands against mishits.
• Tip guards protect the sharpened tip of the chisel.
Figure 6-24 — Using a rivet buster
• Keep all chisels sharpened and in good working
chisel.
order. Sharpen the cutting edge of a chisel on an
oilstone to produce a keen edge.
o Make sure the wood chisel blade is beveled at a precise 25-degree angle so it will cut
well.
o Make sure the cold chisel blade is beveled at a 60-degree angle so it will cut well.
• Strike cold chisels only with a hand drilling, ball peen, or similar heavy hammer.
• The face diameter of the hammer should be about three-eighths of an inch larger than the
chisel head.
• Discard any chisel with a cracked or chipped face.
• Discard any chisel with a head that is mushroomed or flattened.
• Use chisels for the appropriate purpose and in the correct way. Avoid the following:
o Using a cold chisel to cut or split stone or concrete.
o Using a wood chisel to cut metal, concrete, or stone.
o Using a chisel for prying or driving screws.
o Placing a chisel of any type in your pocket.
6-9
• Store in racks or where they may not be chipped or broken.
• Lubricate with a light coat of oil before storing.
• Regrind broken or chipped edges before using.

PUNCHES
Types and Uses
There are two basic types of punches; solid-which are the most common, and hollow-which are
usually designed for punching holes in leather, paper, and other similar materials. Solid punches are
used to mark metal, drive pins, align holes and do other similar jobs.

Center Punches
There are two types of center punches, both used for starting drill holes.
The handheld-type (Figure 6-25) has a narrow, cone-shaped point terminating in a sharp conical tip.
Handheld-types range from 1/8 to 5/8 of an inch in diameter and from 3 to 6 inches long. The handheld
punch must be struck with a hammer.
The automatic type (Figure 6-26) has an adjustable regulator for determining the impact of the punch
and also has interchangeable points. The automatic punch contains a tension spring for marking
without the use of a hammer.

Figure 6-25 — Handheld center punch. Figure 6-26 — Automatic center punch.

Drift Punch
The drift punch (Figure 6-27) has a narrow tapered flat
point. The points range in size from 1/8 to 1/2 of an inch
in diameter with an overall length from 7 to 9 inches.
Drift punches may be used to remove shafts, pins, and Figure 6-27 — Drift punch.
rivets (after heads have been removed), and align
small parts.

Alignment Punch
Figure 6-28 — Alignment.
The alignment punch (Figure 6-28) has a narrow
tapered flat point. The points range in size from 1/8 to
1/ of an inch in diameter with an overall length of 12 to 15 inches. Alignment punches are used to
2
line up mating parts for assembly. The punch should be large enough for the job. A punch that is too
small may bend or break.

Drive Pin Punch


The drive pin punch (Figure 6-29) has a flat tip Figure 6-29 — Drive pin punch.
which may be tapered. Points may range in size
from 0.03 to 1/2 of an inch and are from 3 to 6 inches
long. Standard drive pin punches usually come in sets of nine. Drive pin punches are used to remove
straight or tapered pins. The right size punch should be used for the pin being removed.
6-10
Prick Punch
The prick punch (Figure 6-30) has a long conical-
shaped point and ranges from 4 to 5 inches in Figure 6-30 — Prick punch.
overall length. It is used to mark soft metal.

Starting Punch
The starting punch (Figure 6-31) has a strong
Figure 6-31 — Starting punch. tapered point capable of resisting applied force. It is
used to start the removal of a pin from an assembly.

Grommet-Inserting Punch
The grommet-inserting punch (Figure 6-32) consists of two parts. The
solid punch part has a tapered point and a flat shoulder. The round die
part has flat ends with a bored hole in one end to receive the point of
the punch. Grommet-inserting punches are used to form the flange on
grommets, which are installed along the edges of flags, sails, mail
bags, and similar items.

Figure 6-32 — Grommet-


inserting punch.
Catapunch
The catapunch (Figure 6-33) consists of a pointed head mounted on
a coiled spring shaft. It is used to mark centers on metal or wood
without the use of a hammer.
Figure 6-33 — Catapunch.

Metal Cutting Punch


The metal cutting punch (Figure 6-34) has an open sharpened edge on
one end and a solid shaft on the other end. The center portion of the
punch is bowed for catching the metal scrap. The metal cutting punch
ranges in size from 1/4 of an inch to 1 inch. Metal cutting punches are
used to punch holes in thin sheet metal and require the use of a mallet or
machinist’s hammer.
Figure 6-34 — Metal
cutting punch.

Tinmen’s Hollow Punch


The tinmen’s hollow punch (Figure 6-35) has a solid metal shank
terminating in a sharpened hollowed end. It is used to punch holes
through thin sheet metal.

Figure 6-35 — Tinmen’s 6-11


hollow punch.
Sheet Metal Punch
The sheet metal punch (Figure 6-36) is a heavy-
duty steel punch approximately seven inches in
Figure 6-36 — Sheet metal punch.
length. It tapers to a fine point and must be struck
to produce the hole. It is used to punch holes
through sheet metal to take fastenings.

Lever Punch
The lever punch (Figure 6-37) incorporates an interchangeable
punch and a matching die or anvil. The die backs up the material,
prevents distortion, and leaves a clean hole. This type of punch is
used to punch small round holes near the edges of metal or
leather material.

Figure 6-37 — Lever punch.


Using a Center Punch

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying metal chips.

NOTE
The procedure which follows is only one of many uses of a
handheld center punch.

The following steps describe how to use a center


punch properly:
1. Mark the material to be punched with an "X."
2. Hold the punch over the mark. Tilt it so that you
can align the tip with the center of the “X.”
3. Position the punch upright and strike the blunt
end of the punch with a hammer (Figure 6-38).
4. Remove the punch and check your mark. If it is
not in the center of the "X" or not deep enough,
you will have to repeat the procedure.

Figure 6-38 — Using a center punch.

6-12
Using a Drift Punch

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying metal chips.

NOTE
The removal of a pin from a shaft is only one of many uses
for a drift punch.

The following steps describe how to use a drift punch


properly:
1. Select a punch which is slightly smaller than
the pin which is to be removed. Care must be
taken when selecting a punch for removing a
split pin. If the punch is too small, it may
become lodged in the pin.
2. Hold the punch over the center of the pin and
tap the punch lightly with a hammer (Figure 6-
39), which should move the pin. It may be
necessary to apply penetrating oil to the pin
before it will move.
3. Catch the pin before it falls out of the shaft.
When the pin is about half way out of the shaft,
you can let go of the punch.

Figure 6-39 — Using a drift punch.


Using an Alignment Punch

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying metal chips. Do not
strike this punch with a hammer.

NOTE
This tool, unlike others, has only one basic use.

The following steps describe how to use an alignment punch properly:


1. Select a punch having a smaller diameter than the smallest hole to be aligned.
2. Insert tip of punch through the hole using only hand pressure (Figure 6-40).
3. Hold the assembled parts while you remove the punch. Proper use of an alignment punch
prevents damaging threaded parts.
4. Place screw in aligned holes and tighten.

6-13
Care of Punches
Use these guidelines when working with chisels:
• Clean punches with a clean rag after each use.
• Apply a light coat of oil before storing.
• Store punches in racks, tool rolls, or in a tool box so
that the edges will not be damaged.
• Replace punches that have mushroomed ends.

GASKET CUTTERS
Types and Uses
Circle Gasket Cutter
Figure 6-40 — Using an alignment
The compass-style circle gasket cutter (Figure 6-41) cuts punch.
gaskets with 4-inch diameters through 20-inch diameters. It
cuts leather, paper, plastic, rubber, sheet lead, or thin wood. It has an aluminum frame with a
graduated scale, steel pivot pin, and tempered tool steel knives. It requires a knurled thumb screw
adjustment to change diameters.

Bit Brace Circle Gasket Cutter


The bit brace circle gasket cutter (Figure 6-42) adjusts from 1 to 5 1/2 inches in diameter. It cuts metal,
plastic, wood, hardwood, and other materials. It has a tapered square shank to fit a bit brace. It
comes with a 3/16-inch tool steel bit, 1/4-inch pilot drill, and a hex wrench for easy adjustment.

Figure 6-41 — Circle gasket cutter. Figure 6-42 — Bit brace circle gasket
cutter.

6-14
Hollow Gasket Cutter
The hollow gasket cutter (Figure 6-43) is also known as a
hollow punch. It is extremely serviceable for cutting soft
materials. It comes in a set with a mandrel. The sizes are
1
/4, 5/16, 3/8, 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, and 5/8 of an inch. The set will
withstand unlimited use if a hardwood block is used under
the gasket material when cutting gaskets. It is not designed
for cutting metal or cutting against a hard surface. Other
individual hollow gasket cutters are also available.

Heavy Duty Bench Mount Gasket Cutter Figure 6-43 — Hollow gasket punch.
The bench mount gasket cutter (Figure 6-44) is used for
heavy duty jobs requiring gaskets cut from the heaviest of
materials.

Using the Gasket Cutter


Below are examples of how several of the gasket cutters in
this chapter can be used.

Using a Circle Gasket Cutter


Using a circle gasket cutter to cut a gasket is illustrated in
Figure 6-45.

Figure 6-44 — Heavy duty bench


mount gasket cutter.

Figure 6-45 — Using a circle


gasket cutter.

Using a Bit Brace Circle Gasket Cutter


Cutting a smaller circular gasket with a bit brace is depicted
in Figure 6-46.

Figure 6-46 — Using a bit brace


circle gasket cutter.
6-15
Using a Hollow Gasket Cutter
Cutting small holes in a gasket with a hollow punch is
illustrated in Figure 6-47.

Care of Gasket Cutters


Observe the following guidelines when working with
gasket cutters:
• After using a gasket cutter, wipe it clean and apply
a thin film of oil to prevent rusting.
• Carefully place the gasket cutter on a shelf, rack, or
other suitable place to avoid damaging its cutting
edges.
• For long-term storage, coat the gasket cutter with
rust-preventive compound. Protect the cutting Figure 6-47 — Using a hollow gasket
edges and store carefully in a dry place. cutter.

GLASS CUTTERS
Types and Uses Figure 6-48 — Wheel glass cutter.
Wheel-Type Glass Cutter
A glass cutter (Figure 6-48) is a hand tool used for controlled breaking of flat or sheet glass. The
wheel glass cutter consists of a steel cutting wheel, notching teeth, and a holder. The cutting section
is a wheel about 5 millimeters (mm) in diameter made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide, with the
edge ground to a V-section.

Circle Glass Cutter


The circle glass cutter (Figure 6-49) has an adjustable arm, a
cutting head, and a suction cup clamp assembly. The cutting
head scores a mark on the sheet of glass. The suction cup
assembly provides an anchor. The circle glass cutter is used
to cut circles in glass. The adjustable arm can be moved in
the suction cup assembly to allow circles from 2 to 24 inches
in diameter. Figure 6-49 — Circle glass cutter.

Using a Wheel-Type Glass Cutter

WARNING
Use care when handling glass. Wear gloves to protect your
hands. Wear eye protection to prevent eye injury.

NOTE
Draw the cutter over the line only one time. If it is necessary
to recut a groove, do not use a new cutter.

6-16
The following steps describe how to use a wheel-type glass cutter properly:
1. Place padding (newspapers, a piece of carpet, or blanket) on a flat, level surface.
2. Make sure the glass is clean. Apply alcohol along the line to be cut. Cleaning the glass
prevents the cutting wheel from becoming gummed up while in use.
3. Apply a drop of light machine oil to the cutting blade (Figure 6-50, view A).
4. Hold down on the straight edge with one hand while holding the cutter in an upright position in
the other hand (Figure 6-50, view B). Your forefinger should extend along the holder with your
fingertip near the wheel.
5. Place a straight edge along the line to be cut (Figure 6-50, view C). A wooden yardstick should
be used when available, since wood will not slip easily on glass. The cutter will cut 1/16 of an
inch from your mark, so adjust your guide before cutting.
6. Start your cut at the far end of the pane of glass drawing the cutter toward you. It is important
that you maintain proper pressure throughout the cut (Figure 6-50, view D). Correct pressure is
indicated by a scratching sound. Too much pressure or a dull wheel will produce a crunching
sound. Make a continuous mark from one edge to the other edge.
7. A proper cut is indicated by a
slight crack in the surface. It is
best seen from the side opposite
the mark (Figure 6-50, view E).
8. To cut a narrow strip from a large
piece of glass, score a line and
then tap gently underneath the
score line with the cutter to open
up an inch or so of the score line,
as shown in Figure 6-50, view F.
9. To part the glass, gently snap off
the waste piece as shown in
Figure 6-50, view G.
10. Remaining chips may be
removed by applying a downward
twisting motion using the notches
of the cutter or a pair of pliers
(Figure 6-50, view H).
11. You can smooth off the edges of
glass intended for shelving or
tabletops with an oilstone dipped
in water, as illustrated in Figure
6-50, view I.
Figure 6-50 — Using a wheel-type glass cutter.
Care of Cutters
Observe the following guidelines when working with glass cutters:
• Make sure cutting blades remain sharp. Sharpen dull blades with a file or oilstone.
• When not in use, apply a light film of oil on the cutting edges.

6-17
• Store cutters in such a way as to prevent the blades from accidentally making contact with
personnel or other metal.
• For long periods of storage, coat entire cutter with rust-preventive compound and store in a dry
place.

KNIVES
Types and Uses
Most knives have cutting edges and are used to cut, pare, notch, and trim wood, leather, rubber, and
other materials. However, putty knives are used to apply and spread putty when installing glass.

Rubber Cutting Knives


Rubber cutting knives come in a variety of styles
and shapes. Some taper to a blunt round point.
Some have a short wide blade (Figure 6-51). Others Figure 6-51 — Rubber cutting knife.
have a long wide hollow ground blade. The handle is
usually oval in shape.

Saddler’s Knife
A saddler’s knife (Figure 6-52) is used on leather
and comes in different shapes. One type has a
Figure 6-52 — Saddler’s knife.
broad point on a 1 1/8-inch by 5-inch blade. Another
has a 5/8-inch by 3 7/8-inch square-point blade.
Another has a 5-inch rounded-end blade. Shoe
knives are similar to saddler’s knives, but usually
they have a 3/4-inch by 3 1/4-inch blade.

Shop Knife
The shop knife, also called a utility knife, (Figure 6-
Figure 6-53 — Utility knife.
53) is a general-use tool used to cut material such
as drywall, laminates, wallboard, paper, cardboard,
linoleum, canvas, upholstery materials, and plastic. The handle of a utility knife is made of two pieces
of aluminum or plastic held together with a screw and has storage space for five interchangeable
blades. The shop knife blade can usually be locked in one of three positions when in use, depending
on the depth of cut needed, and retracts completely
for safe storage.

Pocket Knife
Pocket knives (Figure 6-54) are used for light cutting,
sharpening pencils, cutting string, and whittling. They
are not suitable for heavy work. There are many
styles and shapes. Some are multipurpose and have
an assortment of blades, which are used for forcing
holes, driving screws, and opening cans, as well as
cutting. The blades are hinged and contained within
the case when not in use and are spring-loaded to
keep them firmly in place when open or closed. Figure 6-54 — Pocket knife.

6-18
Draw Knife
A draw knife (Figure 6-55) is a flat-edged tool
used especially on round timber to rough-shape
wood. It is used to smooth wood after chopping
with a hatchet or axe. It consists of a single bevel
blade and two round wooden handles, one at
each end and at right angles to the blade. The Figure 6-55 — Draw knife.
handles may be adjustable or rigid.

Putty Knife
The putty knife (Figure 6-56) is used for scraping
surfaces or spreading material such as plaster or
applying putty to window sashes in setting panes of
glass. Widths vary from 1 1/4 inches to 6 inches or
more, depending on what the putty knife will be
used for. Stiff-blade knives, usually 0.040 of an
inch thick, are used for scraping. Flexible blade Figure 6-56 — Putty knife.
knives, usually 0.020 of an inch thick, are used for
spreading.

Using a Putty Knife


The following steps describe how to use a putty knife properly:
1. Before applying new putty, make sure that the frame is clean and all the old putty has been
removed.
2. Roll new putty into a rope (Figure 6-57) and press it into the frame with your fingers.

NOTE
Occasionally dip the putty knife in water to aid in shaping
the putty.

3. With the putty knife,


shape the putty into
an angle sloping
from the glass down
to the edge of the
frame (Figure 6-57).
4. Finish with full,
smooth, accurately
formed bevels with
clean cut miters.
Trim up the bed
putty on the reverse
side of the glass.

Figure 6-57 — Setting glass with a putty knife.

6-19
Care of Knives
Observe the following guidelines when working with knives:
• Carefully put knives away after use.
• Do not carry open knives in your pocket.
• Protect the sharp cutting edges from contact with other hard objects.
• Do not use knives which are larger than can be handled safely to cut work.
• Use knives only for the purpose for which they are intended.
• Do not leave knives in such a position that they will cause injury to others.
• Always cut away from the body, except when using the draw knife.
• Before storing, wipe all metal parts with an oily rag.
• For long-term storage, apply a thin film of rust-preventive compound on all metal parts and
store in a dry place.

BOLT AND CABLE CUTTERS


Types and Uses

WARNING
Bolt cutters are considered security items. Always secure
these tools when not in use.

Bolt and cable cutters come with a variety of cutting edges which are designed for specific
applications. They are shaped like giant shears with short blades and long handles. The handles are
hinged at one end. The cutters are at the end of extensions, which are jointed in such a way that the
inside joint is forced outward when the handles are
closed. This action forces the cutting edges together with
great force. Bolt cutters are made in lengths from 18 to
36 inches. The larger ones will cut mild steel bolts and
rods up to 1/2 inch in diameter.

Center Cut Cutter


The center cut cutter (Figure 6-58) is used for all general-
purpose cutting. The cutting jaws are firmly fixed in line
with the handles. The cutting edges are in the center of
the jaw between equal levels. The longer handles
increase the cutting capacity. The cutting capacities
range from 3/16 to 1/2 of an inch for medium steel, and
from 5/16 to 11/16 of an inch for soft steel. The handles
range from 14- to 42-inch lengths.

Figure 6-58 — Center cut cutter.

6-20
Clipper Cut Cutter
The cutting edges of the clipper cut cutter (Figure 6-59) are in line with the handles and beveled
almost entirely from one side. These cutters allow very close cutting of projecting ends. The cutting
capacities range from 1/4 to 9/16 of an inch for medium steel, and from 5/16 to 11/16 of an inch for soft
steel. The handles range from 14- to 42-inch lengths.

Shear Cut, Flat Bar, and Strip Cutter


Shear cut, flat bar, and strip cutters (Figure 6-60) are used to cut flat-soft, medium-hard bar, and strip
stock. The cutting edges of the jaws pass each other in the manner of scissors, making a complete
shear cut.

Figure 6-60 — Shear cut, flat bar,


Figure 6-59 — Clipper cut cutter. and strip cutter.

The cutting capacities range from 7/8 by 5/32 of an inch to 1 1/2 by 9/32 of an inch for soft and medium
steel, and from 3/4 by 1/8 of an inch to 1 7/16 by 1/4 of an inch for hard steel. The handles range from 14-
to 36-inch lengths.

Side Nut Splitter Cutter


The side nut splitter cutter (Figure 6-61) has the edge of
the cutting jaws in line with the handles. When adjusted
properly, the cutting edges will remain separated after the
nut is split. This tool is used to split nuts off bolts without
damaging the bolt. Cutting capacity is rated for a 3/8-inch
bolt nut and is adjustable to 5/16 of an inch and 1/4 of an
inch capacity. The handle is 24 inches long.

Angular Cut Cutter


Angular cut cutters (Figure 6-62) have the cutting edges
offset 30 degrees from the handles. This offset angle is so
the user can keep the work in sight. It is used for close
cutting of soft or medium-hard metals. Cutting capacities
range from 1/4 of an inch to 1/2 of an inch for medium steel. Figure 6-61 — Side nut splitter cutter.
The handles range from 14 to 36 inches long.

6-21
Shear Cut Cable Cutter
Shear cut cable cutters (Figure 6-63) have curved interposing cutters. They are used to cut lead and
rubber-covered cable, and communication cable. Cutting capacities for lead and rubber-covered
cable is 1 3/8 inches for the 25 1/2-inch long handle, and 2 1/4 inches for the 37-inch long handle. The
communication cable cutting capacity for the 25-1/2-inch long handle is 0.813 of an inch, and 0.998 of
an inch for the 37-inch long handle.

Figure 6-62 — Angular cut cutter. Figure 6-63 — Shear cut cable cutter.

Using Center Cut Cutters

WARNING
When using bolt cutters, make sure your fingers are clear of
the jaws and hinges. Wear eye protection to avoid flying
metal chips.

CAUTION
Use extreme care when using a cutter to avoid catching
any part of the body or clothes between handles as
pressure is applied to them.

CAUTION
Never attempt to cut spring wire or other tempered metal
with bolt cutters; the jaws can be sprung or nicked.

The following steps describe how to use a center cut cutter


properly:

1. Clamp or steady the work if unattached before


cutting to prevent the cutters from slipping.
2. Dry hands and handles of the cutter before using to
prevent slipping.
3. Position the work as far back as possible into the
jaws (Figure 6-64) to prevent damage to the jaws as
well as to reduce the pressure required for cutting.
4. Stand at a right angle to the work being cut and
apply steady pressure to the handles until the work
has been cut off. Do not pry or twist with the handles Figure 6-64 — Position the work in
while cutting. the cutter jaws.

6-22
Care of Bolt and Cable Cutters
Observe the following guidelines when working with bolt and cable cutters:
• Wear safety glasses when cutting.
• When using bolt cutters, make sure your fingers are clear of the jaws and hinges.
• Take care that the bolt head or piece of rod that is cut off does not fly and injure you or
someone else. When the cutters are brought together rapidly, sometimes a bolt-head or piece
of rod being cut off will fly some distance. The harder the material, the more it will fly.
• If it is necessary to cut electrical cable or wire which is already installed, be sure that the power
is disconnected before using the cable cutter on it.
• Bolt cutters are fairly heavy, so make sure that they are stored in a safe place where they will
not fall and injure someone.
• Replace worn cutters when necessary.
• Before storing, wipe dirt and grease from the cutter and coat the metal parts lightly with oil to
prevent rust.
• Keep the adjusting screws just tight enough to ensure that the cutting edges meet along their
entire length when the jaws are closed.
• Keep cutter jaws at right angles to the piece being cut, do not twist or pry with the tool while
cutting.
• Do not sharpen edges too sharp. Leave the cutting edge approximately 1/64-inch thick for
longer jaw life.
• Store the cutter in a special compartment of the tool box or on a shelf where it cannot fall.

PIPE CUTTING AND THREADING


TOOLS
Types and Uses
Pipe Cutters
There are two sizes of pipe cutters. One size can cut from Figure 6-65 — Pipe cutter.
1
/8 to 2 inches, while the other can cut from 2 to 4 inches.
The pipe cutter (Figure 6-65) has a cutting blade and two
pressure rollers which are adjusted and tightened by turning the
handle. Pipe cutters are used to cut steel, brass, copper, wrought
iron, and lead pipe.

Pipe Threading Set


The pipe threading set (Figure 6-66) contains an assortment of
cutting dies, handle, wrench, collar, and locking screws. The
cutting dies may range from 1/8 of an inch to 2 inches in diameter.
The threading set is used to cut American Standard Pipe threads
on steel, brass, copper, wrought iron, and lead pipe.

Figure 6-66 — Pipe threading


6-23 set.
Using a Pipe Cutter

WARNING
Pipe often comes with a protective cap to keep you from
getting cut on the sharp pipe ends. Leave this cap on.

NOTE
Be sure the cutter is at a right angle to the pipe to keep the
wheel on track.

NOTE
If the part of the pipe you cut off is going to be used, put in
vise and repeat step 5. If you are going to store the pipe,
put the protective cover back on.

The following steps describe how to use a pipe cutter properly:


1. The pipe should be marked where it is to be cut and fastened securely in a vise. Be sure the
mark is clear so that it can be cut.
2. The cutter should be installed so the cutter wheel is over the mark and the cutting wheel can
be seen from the top view of the pipe, as shown in Figure 6-67.
3. The adjustment wheel or handle should be turned 1/4 of a turn clockwise to force the
cutter wheel against the pipe.
4. The cutter should be revolved around the pipe and the adjustment wheel turned 1/4 turn
per rotation until the pipe is cut through and separates.
5. Remove the shoulder (the rough edge left by cutting) from the outside of the pipe with a file
(Figure 6-68). Remove the burr from the inside of the pipe with a pipe reamer.

Figure 6-67 — Cutting a pipe. Figure 6-68 — Remove the shoulder from
the pipe.

6-24
Using a Pipe Threading Set

WARNING
Pipe ends are extremely sharp. Use care when handling.

The following steps describe how to use a pipe threading tool properly:
1. Clamp pipe securely in pipe vise with end to be threaded extending beyond the edge of the
vise jaws as shown in Figure 6-69.
2. Measure inside pipe diameter to determine the proper die.
3. Inspect the die for nicks, and be sure that it is sharp. Assemble die on ratchet die stock as
described in steps 4, 5, and 6.
4. Insert collar.
5. Insert cutting die over top of collar.
6. Secure in place with locking screws.
7. Set ratchet to turn in a counterclockwise direction by pulling out ratchet control knob and
turning it 180 degrees. The ratchet permits cutting threads on pipes where it is not possible to
turn the handle 360 degrees. It is set for clockwise or counterclockwise rotation by pulling out
and turning the ratchet control knob from one detent to the other.
8. Apply cutting oil to the die and to the end of the pipe to prevent overheating of dies and
damaging of threaded surface.
9. Slide the cutting die over the end of the pipe to be threaded and apply light pressure with the
heel of your hand.
10. Start the die with short strokes of the ratchet handle (Figure 6-70). Be sure the die is going on
the pipe squarely.

Figure 6-69 — Secure the pipe. Figure 6-70 — Placing die stock on a pipe.
6-25
11. After a full turn of the die, apply another coat of cutting oil.
12. After two more turns of the die, back off one turn and apply a coat of cutting oil.
13. Keep repeating step 12 until desired thread length is obtained.
14. Reverse ratchet by pulling ratchet control knob from detent and turning it 180 degrees. Then
back up the cutting die.
15. Wipe excess oil and metal shavings from die and ratchet handle.

NOTE
If metal shavings become clogged in the die, remove the
die and clean it with a piece of cloth.

16. Disassemble the die from the ratchet handle by removing locking screws. Remove the die and
collar from ratchet head.
17. Wipe excess oil and shavings from the threaded end of pipe.
18. Place cap, if available, over threads and remove the pipe from the vise.

Care of Pipe Cutters and Threading Sets


Observe the following guidelines when working with pipe cutters and threading sets:

Pipe Cutters
• Clean and lightly oil the cutter wheel roller guide and adjusting screw.
• Store on a rack or in a box which protects the cutting wheel.

Threading Sets
• Wipe off excess cutting oil and clean metal shavings from the cutting die edges and collar.
• Store in a case or box which will protect the cutting dies.

TUBE CUTTING AND FLARING TOOLS


Types and Uses
Tube Cutters
Tube cutters (Figure 6-71) have a cutting blade, guide
rollers, and an adjusting screw. Some cutters have a
reaming blade attached to the frame of the cutter. Tube
cutters can cut from 1/8-inch through 2 5/8-inch tubing.
They can cut copper, aluminum, or brass tubing. Figure 6-71 — Tube cutter.

Flaring Tool
Flaring tools (Figure 6-72) are used to flare soft copper, brass, or aluminum. The single flaring tool
consists of a split die block, which has holes for 3/16-, 1/4, 5/16-, 3/8-, 7/16-, and 1/2-inch outside diameter
tubing; a clamp to lock the tube in the die block; and a yoke, which slips over the die block. It has a
compressor screw and a cone that forms a 45-degree flare or a bell shape on the end of the tube.
The screw has a T-handle. A double flaring tool has the additional feature of adapters, which turn in

6-26
the edge of the tube before a regular 45-degree double
flare is made. It consists of a die block with holes for 3/16-,
1/ -, 5/ -, 3/ -, and 1/ -inch tubing; a yoke with a screw and a
4 16 8 2
flaring cone; plus five adapters for different size tubing, all
carried in a case.

Using a Flaring Tool


The following steps describe how to use a flaring tool
properly:
1. Loosen the die block clamp screws, and open the
die block clamp (Figure 6-73, frame 1).
2. Insert the tubing to be flared into the die block clamp.
3. Hold the tubing so there is about 1/8 of an inch
extending above the die block clamp, and tighten the
die block clamp screws.
Figure 6-72 — Flaring tools.
4. Slide the yoke over the die block clamp, and align
the tip over the end of the tubing (Figure 6-73,
frame 2).
5. Tighten the feed screw to force the tip into the

Interaction Available
tubing and force the tubing into the chamber of the
die block clamp.
6. When the desired flare is reached, unscrew the
feed screw, and remove the yoke from the die
block clamp.
7. Unscrew the die block clamp screws and open the
die block clamp, releasing the tubing.
8. Inspect the tubing flange for cracks or breaks
(Figure 6-73, frame 3).
9. If a crack or break is detected, the tubing will have Figure 6-73 — Using a flaring tool.
to be cut and reflanged.

Care of Tube Cutters and Flaring Tools


Observe the following guidelines when working with tube cutters and flaring tools:

Tube Cutters
• Keep the cutting wheel clean and lightly oiled.
• If a reaming device is mounted on the body of the cutter, keep it retracted when not in use.
• Store the tube cutters on a rack or in a box.

Flaring Tool
• Keep all surfaces clean and lightly oiled.
• Close all single flaring tools and tighten the cone into the block for storing.
• Keep the double flaring tools in the case when not in use.
6-27
SHEARS AND NIPPERS
Types and Uses
Various types of hand snips and hand shears are used for cutting and notching sheet metal. All of the
snips, shears, and nibblers are either manual or power operated. Hand snips are necessary because
the shape, construction, location, and position of the work to be cut frequently prevent the use of
machine-cutting tools.
Hand snips are divided into two groups, straight and circular cuts. Those for straight cuts are straight
snips, combination snips, bulldog snips, and compound lever shears. Those for circular cuts are
circle, hawk’s bill, aviation, and Trojan snips. These snips are shown in Figure 6-74. The following is a
brief description of each type of snip.

Straight snips
The straight snips (Figure 6-74) have straight jaws for straight-line cutting. To ensure strength, they
are not pointed. These snips are made in various sizes and the jaws may vary from 2 to 4 1/2 inches.
The overall length will also vary from 7 to 15 ¾ inches. The different size snips are made to cut
different thicknesses of metal with 18 gauge steel as a minimum for the larger snips. These snips are
available for right- or left-hand use.

Combination snips
The combination snips
(Figure 6-74) have straight
jaws for straight cutting, but
the inner faces of the jaws
are sloped for cutting
curves as well as irregular
shapes. These snips are
available in the same sizes
and capacities as straight
snips.

Bulldog snips
The bulldog snips (Figure
6-74) are a combination
type. They have short
cutting blades with long
handles for leverage. The
blades are inlaid with
special alloy steel for
cutting stainless steel.
Bulldog snips can cut 16
gauge mild steel. The
blades are 2 1/2 inches long Figure 6-74 — Hand snips and shears.
and the overall length of
the snip varies from 14 to
17 inches.

6-28
Compound lever shears
Compound lever shears (Figure 6-74) have levers designed to give additional leverage to ease the
cutting of heavy material. The lower blade is bent to allow the shears to be inserted in a hole in the
bench or bench plate, which will hold the shear in an upright position and make the cutting easier.
The cutting blades are removable and can be replaced. The capacity is 12 gauge mild steel. It has
cutting blades that are 4 inches long, with an overall length of 34 ½ inches.

Circle snips
Circle snips (Figure 6-74) have curved blades and are used for making circular cuts, as the name
implies. They come in the same sizes and capacities as straight snips and either right- or left-hand
types are available.

Hawk’s bill snips


Hawk’s bill snips (Figure 6-74) are used to cut a small radius inside and an outside circle. The narrow
curved blades are beveled to allow sharp turns without buckling the sheet metal. These snips are
useful for cutting holes in pipe, in furnace hoods, and in close quarters work. These snips are
available with a 2 ½-inch long cutting edge, having an overall length of 11 ½ or 13 inches, and a 20
gauge mild steel capacity.

Aviation snips
Aviation snips (Figure 6-74) have compound levers, enabling them to cut with less effort. These snips
have hardened blades that enable them to cut hard material. They are also useful for cutting circles,
squares, compound curves, and intricate designs in sheet metal. Aviation snips come in three types:
right hand, left hand, and straight. On right-hand snips, the blade is on the left and they cut to the left.
Left-hand snips are the opposite. They are usually color-coded in keeping with industry standards–
green cuts right, red cuts left, yellow cuts straight. Both snips can be used with the right hand. The
snips are 10 inches long, have a 2-inch cut, and have a 16 gauge mild steel capacity.

Trojan snips
Trojan snips (Figure 6-74) are slim-bladed snips that are used for straight or curved cutting. The
blades are small enough to allow sharp turning cuts without buckling the metal. These snips can be
used to cut outside curves and can also be used in place of circle snips, hawk’s bill snips, or aviation
snips when cutting inside curves. The blades are forged high-grade steel. These snips come in two
sizes: one has a 2 ½-inch cutting length and an overall 12-inch length and the other has a 3-inch
cutting length and an overall 13-inch length. They both have a 20 gauge capacity.

Pipe & Duct snips (Double Cut)


Pipe & Duct snips (Figure 6-74) have a straight cut blade pattern. This type of aviation snip cuts a
narrow section equal to the width of the center blade as it cuts. The material on either side of the cut
tends to stay flat, as only the narrow section takes a curl as it is cut. This style can be used in
stovepipe and downspout work where distortion on either side of the cut is not desirable.

Nibbler
The nibbler (Figure 6-74) is for cutting sheet metal with minimal distortion. One type operates much
like a punch and die, with a blade that moves in a linear fashion against a fixed die, removing small
bits of metal and leaving a kerf approximately 6 mm wide. Another type operates similar to tin snips,
but shears the sheet along two parallel tracks 3 to 6 mm apart, rolling up the waste in a tight spiral as
it cuts. Nibblers may be manual (hand-operated) or powered.

6-29
Tinner’s Bench Shears
The tinner’s bench shear (Figure 6-75) is larger than a hand shear
and is used for cutting heavy sheet metal. The lower handle has a
hook which can be placed in a hole in the bench so the operator will
have a free hand to guide the work. The bench shear makes a 6-
inch cut and is approximately 36 inches long.

Metal Shearing Machine


The metal shearing machine (Figure 6-76) is foot-operated and is
used to cut original sheets into smaller, usable size stock. The
shear blade is 36 inches long and will cut all sheet metal up to and
including 1/16 of an inch of mild steel or 1/8 of an inch of iron.

Figure 6-75 — Tinner’s bench


shears.

Figure 6-76 — Metal shearing machine.

Cutting Nippers
The cutting nippers (Figure 6-77) are similar to the end
cutting pliers. Nippers are used to cut protruding metal
flush with a surface. They are also used to cut wire, bolts,
nails, and light metal bars to specified dimensions. Nippers
come in a variety of styles and sizes.
Figure 6-77 — Cutting nippers.
Using Cutting Nippers

WARNING
Wear eye protection to avoid flying metal chips and watch
the fingers.

The following steps describe how to use cutting nippers properly:

Wire Cutting
1. Place the wire on the table and measure the section to be cut off.
2. Mark it with pencil, chalk, soapstone, or other suitable marking piece.
6-30
3. Take the nippers in your hand and place the cutting
edge on the mark (Figure 6-78).
4. Squeeze the handles together slowly, exerting
enough pressure to cut the wire.
5. Repeat procedure for as many pieces of wire needed
to be cut.

Flush Cutting
1. Place the cutting edge of the nippers over the nail, Figure 6-78 — Using a cutting
wire, rivet, or bolt that is to be cut flush with the nippers for wire cutting.
surface (Figure 6-79).
2. Squeeze the handles together slowly, exerting enough
pressure to cut the materials.
3. File cut edge smooth to prevent injury.

Care of Shears and Nippers


Observe the following guidelines when working with shears and
nippers:
• Keep fingers, hands, and other parts of the body clear of
the cutting edges of bench shears, the shearing machine,
hand shears, and nippers.
• Do not carry shears or nippers in your pocket.
• Always steady the work that is to be cut.
• After use, be sure to hang the tools or store them in their
proper place.
• Keep tools clean at all times. Lubricate the pivot screw or
bolt with a drop of light oil.
Figure 6-79 — Using a cutting
• Remove rust with a fine aluminum-oxide abrasive cloth. nippers for flush cutting.
• Apply a thin film of oil on tools to prevent rust, and hang
tools on hooks or place them on a shelf when not in use.
• Do not throw cutting tools together in a box where the cutting edges may be damaged.
• Do not use the shearing machine table as a storage place for other tools and work.
• Do not attempt to cut material heavier than the tools or machines are designed to handle.
• Do not use shears or nippers as hammers or pry bars, as they are easily damaged.
• Dull shears can usually be sharpened on an oilstone or with a file.

CAUTION
Do not use grinders on shears if sharpening is all that is
necessary. Most shears become useless after two or three
times of sharpening.

6-31
• Sharpen the shears and nippers only if the cutting edges become nicked, damaged, or
distorted from improper sharpening or prolonged use.
• For long-term storage, coat tools with a rust-preventive compound and store in a dry place
where the cutting edges will not come in contact with other metal objects.

BRUSH-CUTTING TOOLS
Types and Uses
When it is not practical to use an ax or other conventional cutting tool, a
brush-cutting tool can be used. Brush-cutting tools are used for cutting
underbrush, shrubs, tree branches, vines, and tall grass. Two of the most
common brush-cutting tools are the brush hook and the machete. Brush-
cutting tools are available in various sizes and designs depending on the
nature of use.

Brush Hook
The brush hook (Figure 6-80) is a hook-shaped steel blade set onto a heavy-
duty metal or wooden handle. The inside edge of the hooked blade is
sharpened like the cutting edge of an ax blade. The brush hook is used for
cutting underbrush, shrubs, or branches. Tool size and design vary Figure 6-80 —
according to the task. Brush hook.

Machete
The machete (Figure 6-81) used in the military is
typically 18 inches long. The widest and heaviest
portion is at the point of the blade. The blade is
attached to a handle shaped to fit the hand. The
handle is designed with a slight projection to
Figure 6-81 — Machete.
prevent the machete from slipping from the hand
while being used. The machete is used to cut tall
grass, vines, and small brush.

Using the Brush Hook

WARNING
Wear proper eye protection when working where flying
particles may cause eye injury.

The following steps describe how to use a brush hook properly:


1. To use the brush hook on a tree branch (Figure 6-82), lift the curve of the hook above the
branch and make short, chopping strokes downward against the surface of the branch.
2. To cut small brush or bushes (Figure 6-83), swing the brush hook horizontally. The hooked
portion will keep the brush from bouncing away from the cutting edge.

6-32
Figure 6-82 — Using a brush hook on a Figure 6-83 — Using a brush hook
tree. on small brush.

Care of Brush-Cutting Tools


Observe the following guidelines when working with brush-cutting tools:
• Always make sure no one is close enough to be injured before swinging the tool.
• Take care not to allow branches or brush in line of swing to deflect the stroke and cause injury.
• Do not use a dull or defective tool.
• Store tools properly when not in use. Repair all nicks and dulled cutting edges immediately.
• For prolonged storage, coat metal parts with light oil.
• Replace defective handle immediately.

6-33
End of Chapter 6
Sawing and Cutting Tools
Review Questions
6-1. Saws have what type of blade?

A. Thick and flat


B. Thick and round
C. Thin and flat
D. Thin and round

6-2. What two categories of handsaws are available?

A. Crosscut and metal


B. Metal and wood
C. Ripsaw and crosscut
D. Ripsaw and metal

6-3. What type of saw is used for cutting down trees and sawing heavy timbers?

A. Backsaw
B. Dovetail
C. Nest-of-saws
D. One-man crosscut

6-4. What type of saw is used for cutting intricate decorative patterns?

A. Backsaw
B. Coping
C. Dovetail
D. Keyhole

6-5. What type of saw is similar to the backsaw?

A. Coping
B. Dovetail
C. Hacksaw
D. Keyhole

6-6. When using a crosscut saw, at what position should your thumb be at the start of the cut?

A. In the upright position pressed against the blade


B. Next to the line pressed against the teeth
C. On top of the opposite thumb
D. On top of the blade

6-34
6-7. When using a crosscut saw, at what time should you apply pressure?

A. At the beginning of the cut


B. At the end of the cut
C. During the down stroke
D. During the up stroke

6-8. When using a keyhole saw, what action, if anything, can occur to the blade if it is twisted too
sharply?

A. Bend
B. Break
C. Nothing
D. Spin

6-9. When using a hacksaw, you should not exceed what number of strokes per minute?

A. 20
B. 30
C. 40
D. 50

6-10. What personal protection device should you wear while using a handsaw?

A. Apron
B. Ear plugs
C. Hard hat
D. Safety glasses

6-11. What material can clean the blade of a handsaw?

A. Emery cloth
B. Sandpaper
C. Soap and water
D. Wire brush

6-12. At what time should a damaged saw handle be replaced with a new one?

A. After the preoperational inspection


B. At the end of the job
C. Immediately
D. Prior to next use

6-13. What action should be done to the hacksaw blade when not in use?

A. Apply nitrogen to keep from rusting


B. Loosen the blade tension
C. Remove the blade
D. Tighten the blade to keep it straight

6-35
6-14. When using a saw, your wrist should be in what position to the piece being cut?

A. Horizontal
B. Parallel
C. Perpendicular
D. Vertical

6-15. What device should be used to secure loose material to be cut?

A. Heavy wrench
B. Pliers
C. Strap
D. Vise

6-16. Which of the following are the two types of woodworkers’ chisels?

A. Ratchet and carbon


B. Ratchet and tang
C. Socket and ratchet
D. Socket and tang

6-17. Which of the following describes how machinists’ chisels are classified?

A. Construction material
B. Length of the handle
C. Shape of their points
D. Number of sides

6-18. Which of the following machinist’s chisel is used for cutting keyways or slots in metal and
square corners?

A. Cape
B. Cold
C. Diamond point
D. Round nose

6-19. Which of the following personal protection device should you wear while using a chisel?

A. Apron
B. Ear plugs
C. Eye protection
D. Hard hat

6-20. What angle should the blade of a cold chisel be beveled to, in degrees?

A. 15
B. 25
C. 40
D. 60

6-36
6-21. What type of punch is used for starting drill holes?

A. Alignment
B. Center
C. Drive pin
D. Starting

6-22. What type of punch is used for removing straight or tapered pins?

A. Alignment
B. Center
C. Drive pin
D. Starting

6-23. What type of punch consists of two parts?

A. Catapunch
B. Grommet-inserting
C. Metal cutting
D. Sheet metal

6-24. What type of punch consists of a pointed head mounted on a coiled spring shaft?

A. Catapunch
B. Grommet-inserting
C. Metal cutting
D. Sheet metal

6-25. When using a center punch, at what position should the punch be in before striking with a
hammer?

A. Laying down
B. Tilted away from you
C. Tilted toward you
D. Upright

6-26. When selecting a drift pin to use, what size should the punch be?

A. Half the size of the hole


B. Same size as the pin
C. Slightly larger than the pin
D. Slightly smaller than the pin

6-27. Which of the following gasket cutters, if any, will cut a gasket from 4 to 20 inches in diameter?

A. Bit brace
B. Circle
C. Hollow
D. None

6-37
6-28. The bit brace circle gasket cutter will cut a gasket to what maximum size, in inches?

A. 1
B. 4
C. 5 1/2
D. 7 1/2

6-29. To prevent rust on a gasket cutter, what material should be applied?

A. Dry cleaning solvent


B. Thick coat of grease
C. Thick film of oil
D. Thin film of oil

6-30. On a wheel type glass cutter, what diameter is the cutting wheel?

A. 5 millimeters
B. 5 centimeters
C. 0.5 inches
D. 5 inches

6-31. When cutting glass, what sound is an indication of correct pressure?

A. Breaking
B. Cracking
C. Crunching
D. Scratching

6-32. What term describes a utility knife?

A. Draw knife
B. Rubber cutting knife
C. Saddler’s knife
D. Shop knife

6-33. Which of the following knives is used to smooth wood after chopping with a hatchet or axe?

A. Draw
B. Pocket
C. Saddler’s
D. Shop

6-34. Except for a draw knife, in what direction should you cut?

A. Away from the body


B. Left to right
C. Right to left
D. Toward the body

6-38
6-35. Which of the following bolt cutters are used for all general purpose cutting?

A. Center cut
B. Clipper cut
C. Shear cut
D. Side nut

6-36. Which of the following bolt cutters are used to remove split nuts off of bolts without damaging
the bolt?

A. Center cut
B. Clipper cut
C. Shear cut
D. Side nut

6-37. Pipe cutters are available in what total number of sizes?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

6-38. Pipe threading sets contain an assortment of cutting dies, a handle or wrench, and what other
component?

A. Carrying case
B. Cleaning brush
C. Locking screws
D. Oil can

6-39. When using a pipe cutter, turn the adjustment wheel what distance of a turn per rotation?

A. Quarter
B. Third
C. Half
D. Full

6-40. When using a pipe threading set, after two turns of the die, you should back the die off one
turn and apply what substance?

A. Air
B. Ice
C. Nitrogen
D. Oil

6-39
6-41. When storing a pipe cutter, you should clean and apply what substance to the cutter wheel
roller guide and adjusting screw?

A. Air
B. Ice
C. Nitrogen
D. Oil

6-42. Tube cutters can cut copper, aluminum, and what other type of tubing?

A. Brass
B. Cadmium
C. Nickel-alloy
D. Steel

6-43. On a flaring tool, the cone forms what angle flare or bell shape on the end of the tube, in
degrees?

A. 15
B. 30
C. 45
D. 60

6-44. If a crack or break is detected while flaring tubing, what action must take place?

A. Cut and reflange the tubing


B. Fill the break with solder
C. Tighten the flaring tool to smooth the crack
D. Torque the flare nut during installation to prevent system leakage

6-45. Hand snips are divided into which two groups?

A. Circular cuts and cutting length


B. Cutting length and handle grips
C. Straight and circular cuts
D. Straight cuts and cutting length

6-46. What gauge of mild steel can the bulldog snips cut?

A. 8
B. 16
C. 24
D. 32

6-47. The hawk’s bill snips are used to cut what design?

A. Large inside square and an outside diamond


B. Large radius inside and an outside circle
C. Small inside square and an outside diamond
D. Small radius inside and an outside circle

6-40
6-48. The aviation snips come in which of the following types?

A. Duckbill, left hand, and straight


B. Right hand, left hand, and straight
C. Right hand, duckbill, and straight
D. Right hand, left hand, and duckbill

6-49. What instrument can be used to sharpen dull shears?

A. Emery cloth
B. Grinder
C. Oilstone
D. Sandpaper

6-50. Brush-cutting tools are used for cutting underbrush, shrubs, tree branches, and what other
type of material?

A. Fibrous gasket material


B. Logs
C. Tree trunks
D. Vines

6-51. Before swinging a brush-cutting tool, what step must be done?

A. Coat metal parts with light oil


B. Ensure no one is close enough to be injured
C. Replace the blade
D. Stack branches and brush in one pile to cut

6-41
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

6-42
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 7
BORING AND CLAMPING TOOLS
Boring and clamping tools are used to create holes in material and hold materials together. They
include drills, reamers, vises, and clamps.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of boring and clamping tools and their uses. You
will also learn how to select the right tool for the job, use and read various types of tools, and provide
the proper care of boring and clamping tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of boring tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of boring tools.
3. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to boring tools.
4. Identify the different types of clamping tools.
5. Determine the proper uses of clamping tools.
6. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to clamping tools.

MANUAL DRILLS
Types and Uses
There are a number of hand drills available to create
holes in wood. They include augers, push drills, and hand
drills.

Auger
The auger (Figure 7-1) is also known as a bit brace; it is
used to drill holes in wood and, with a screwdriver bit, Figure 7-1 — Parts of an auger.
remove and install screws. The drill is made up of the
following parts: head, crank, crank handle, ratchet mechanism,
and chuck. The chuck holds drill bits that have either square or
hex shanks. The direction ratchet keeps the tool turning in one
direction. You apply pressure to the head, which is mounted on
ball bearings so it can turn freely. You rotate the handle clockwise
to create the drilling action.

Push Drill
The push drill (Figure 7-2) is used to drill holes in wood. You push
down on the handle, causing the bit to rotate clockwise and cut the
hole in the wood. When you release the pressure, the handle
springs up and the bit rotates counterclockwise, clearing the bit as
it comes out of the wood. Figure 7-2 — Push drill.

7-1
Hand Drill
The hand drill (Figure 7-3) is used to drill holes in wood
when you want total control of the drill, particularly in
materials that tend to split. The hand drill is made up of
the following parts: handle, shaft, pinion gears, crank,
and a drill chuck. The handle provides a storage area for
drill bits. You hold the handle and turn the crank, which
turns the pinion gears on the shaft. This amplifies the
circular motion of the crank into circular motion of the drill
chuck and drives the bit into the wood.

Figure 7-3 — Parts of a hand drill.


Using a Brace Drill

NOTE
The following procedure is for a fixed bit size ranging from
1/ to 1 inch diameter maximum.
4

The following steps describe how to use a brace drill properly:


1. Mark the location to be drilled with a pencil.
2. Open the chuck and insert a drill bit between the jaws (Figure 7-4).
3. Tighten the chuck to secure the bit.
4. Center the bit over pencil mark (Figure 7-5).
5. Push down on the head and turn the crank until bit goes through the board.

Figure 7-4 — Insert the drill bit. Figure 7-5 — Center the drill bit over the mark.

7-2
NOTE
The ratchet mechanism may have to be set.

6. Reverse the ratchet mechanism, then turn crank and pull up on head to remove the drill bit
from the board.
7. Open the chuck and remove the drill bit.
8. Close the chuck.

Using an Expansive Bit

NOTE
Expansive bits are available in two sizes, one that expands
from 5/8 inch to 1 3/4 inches and the other from 7/8 to 3
inches.

The following steps describe how to use an expansive bit


properly:
1. Loosen retaining screw (Figure 7-6).
2. Slide adjustable blade to the desired width using
built-in scale or a 6 inch machinist rule.
3. Tighten retaining screw.
4. Mark the location to be drilled with a pencil.
5. Open the chuck and insert the expansive bit
between the jaws as shown in Figure 7-4.
6. Tighten the chuck to secure the bit.
7. Center the bit over pencil mark as shown in Figure
7-5.
8. Push down on the head and turn the crank until bit
goes through the board. Figure 7-6 — Using an expansive bit.
9. Reverse the ratchet mechanism, then turn crank
and pull up on head to remove the drill bit.

NOTE
The ratchet mechanism may have to be set.

10. Open the chuck and remove the expansive bit.


11. Close the chuck.

7-3
Care of Manual Drills
Use these guidelines when working with hand drills:
• Always wear eye protection.
• When you use hand drills or bit braces, make sure the work piece is clamped securely.
• Hold the hand drill or bit brace vertically.
• Take your time, especially when precision counts. You’ll get better results if you don’t hurry the
tool.
• Place a piece of scrap material under the work piece if you can.
• Periodically place a drop of light oil on the moving parts of these tools.
• With a rag, clean gear teeth of dirt, wood and metal shavings and apply a light coat of oil.
• Hang manual drills on a rack or store in a safe, dry place.

REAMERS
Types and Uses
Reamers are used to enlarge and true a hole. They are also used
to remove burrs from the inside diameters of pipes and drilled
holes. The reamer consists of three parts, the body, the shank,
and the blades. The shank has a square tang to allow the reamer
to be held with a wrench for turning.

Solid Straight-Hole Reamer


A solid straight-hole reamer (Figure 7-7) is made of one solid
piece of high-speed steel having a straight shank and straight or
spiral flutes. The cutting edges, or lands, between the flutes are Figure 7-7 — Solid straight-
usually evenly spaced. Some have irregularly spaced lands to hole reamer.
prevent the tool from chattering. Reamers come in sizes from 1/16
inch to 3 inch diameters. Reamers are also available in sets
containing 25 reamers in 1/64 inch increments from 1/8 inch to 1/2
inch. The sets may be mixed to include straight and taper pin
reamers. Each reamer size is stamped on the shank of the tool.
Solid straight-hole reamers are used for most work since they are
the most accurate and the most rugged of the straight-hole
reamers.

Solid Taper-Pin Reamer


Solid taper-pin reamers (Figure 7-8) are used to finish tapered
holes for the insertion of tapered pins or other tapered parts. They
are made with a standard taper of 1/4 inch per foot. Solid taper-pin
reamers come with straight or spiral flutes. Sizes range from 00000
to 14, with the diameter at the large end ranging from 0.0984 to
1.5412 inches. They also come in sets of 10, sizes 000 to 7, and a Figure 7-8 — Solid taper-pin
set of 11, sizes 0 to 10. They are also included in mixed sets of reamer.
straight and taper-pin reamers.

7-4
Expansion Reamer
Expansion reamers (Figure 7-9) are adjustable, and their sizes
may be changed by 1/8 inch for a 1 inch reamer and 5/16 inch for
a 2 inch reamer. The expansion reamer is made of carbon
steel and has longitudinal cuts in some of its flutes. It is
hollowed out and threaded to receive a tapered screw plug.
The diameter of the reamer is changed by screwing in or
backing out the screw plug. The standard sizes range from 1/4
inch to 1 inch, and produces a hole 1/32 inch larger than the
nominal size. A 1/4 inch expansion reamer will enlarge the hole
to a 9/32 inch hole, and so on. It is used for general purposes
and is considered the most practical reamer.

Figure 7-9 — Expansion


reamer.

Adjustable Blade Reamer


The blades of an adjustable reamer (Figure 7-10) are separate
from the body and are fitted into grooves in the threaded
shank of the tool. Adjusting nuts located below and above the
blades control the diameter of the reamer. The reamers come
with straight or spiral flutes, with or without a floating pilot on
solid mandrels, and in several sizes. Adjustable reamers are
also available in sets. They are used to enlarge drilled holes to
an exact true size using a series of small cuts rather than one
Figure 7-10 — Adjustable deep cut.
blade reamer.

Pipe Reamer
Pipe reamers (Figure 7-11) are made of carbon steel. They are
tapered with straight or spiral flutes. They come in three sizes,
1
/8 inch to 1 inch pipe capacity, 1/4 to 1 1/4 inch pipe capacity,
and 1/4 inch to 2 inch pipe capacity. Most pipe reamers are
designed to receive a T-handle. Others have a tapered square
shank for use with a brace, or a round shank for use with a
hand drill. They are used to remove burrs from the inside
diameters of pipe and drilled holes.

Figure 7-11 — Pipe reamer.

7-5
Using a Solid Straight-Hole Reamer

CAUTION
Do not turn the wrench counterclockwise at any time. To do
so will cause the reamer to become dull.

The following steps describe how to use a straight-hole reamer


properly:
1. Secure the work in a vise so that the hole to be reamed is
perpendicular to the top of the vise jaws (Figure 7-12).
2. Using a tap wrench, tighten the handle to the square end
of the reamer shank.
3. Position the reamer at the top of the hole. Turn the
wrench clockwise very slowly until the reamer is centered
in the hole. Straight-hole reamers have a slight taper at
the end so they will fit into the hole easily.
4. Turn the wrench clockwise with a steady, firm pressure
until the reamer has been turned in the hole. When
reaming steel, use cutting oil or machine oil to lubricate
the tool. When reaming soft iron, do not lubricate the tool. Figure 7-12 — Using a
Turning the wrench too quickly or too slowly will cause the straight-hole reamer.
reamer to chatter, producing an unevenly reamed hole.
5. Remove the reamer from the hole by turning the wrench clockwise and raising the reamer at
the same time.

Care of Reamers
• Keep reamers absolutely clean to do accurate work.
• Do not use the reamer to remove more than 0.002 to 0.003 inches of metal. If the hole is too
small, enlarge it with a drill before reaming it.
• If the proper pressure is applied in use and the reamer chatters, replace it to ensure accurate
work. If the reamer edges are only slightly dulled, honing the edges on an oilstone may restore
the sharpness.
• On an adjustable reamer, the blades may be replaced.
• To prevent chipping or dulling the reamer when you are reaming a hole, turn the reamer in the
cutting direction only.
• To prevent damage to the reamer for short-term storage, wrap it in an oily cloth and keep it in a
box.
• For long-term storage, clean reamer thoroughly and coat with rust-preventive compound. Wrap
each reamer separately in oiled cloth and store in a dry, safe place.

7-6
VISES
Types and Uses
Machinist Bench Vise
The bench vise (Figure 7-13) is mounted on a workbench or
table, and is used to hold work pieces securely in place
between two flat jaws. It is available in stationary or swivel
models; the swivel model has a sliding spindle lockdown to
hold the vise at different angles. The threaded spindle
adjusts the jaw openings when you turn the sliding cross pin
handle.

Figure 7-13 — Machinist bench vise.

Bench and Pipe Vise


The bench and pipe vise (Figure 7-14) is a dual
purpose vise. It has rough jaws and a swivel base
similar to the machinist bench vise. However, it also
has built-in pipe jaws. Bench and pipe vises are
usually bolted to a work bench or table. They are
used for holding or clamping heavy objects, holding
Figure 7-14 — Bench and pipe vise. pipe for cutting and threading, and for forming and
shaping metal.

Clamp Base Bench Vise


The clamp base bench vise (Figure 7-15) is a lightweight, portable
machinist vise. It is attached to a table or bench with the mounting
clamp. It has rough jaws for holding material and may have a swivel
base. Clamp base bench vises are used to hold light materials or in
areas where a heavier vise is not available.

Figure 7-15 — Clamp


bench vise.
Pipe Vise
The pipe vise (Figure 7-16) is a special purpose vise designed to hold
round stock. It has hinged jaws, which allow the user to position the
work and then lock it in place. Some pipe vises have a section of chain
instead of jaws for holding the pipe. Pipe vises are usually bench
mounted. They are used to hold pipe from 1/8 to 8 inches in diameter
while cutting or threading.

Figure 7-16 — Pipe vise. 7-7


Machine Table Vise
The machine table vise (Figure 7-17) is a special
purpose vise that may be bolted to a drill press,
lathe, or table. It is available in two sizes, one having
a 3 1/2 inch jaw width and a 3 inch jaw opening, and
the other having a 6 inch jaw width and a 6 inch jaw
opening. Machine table vises are used to hold small
pieces of wood or metal for machining or drilling
operations.

Figure 7-17 — Machine table vise.

Pin Vise
The pin vise (Figure 7-18) is a special purpose vise
that has a knurled metal handle and a chuck. It is
designed to hold material from 0 to 0.187 inches in
diameter. The pin vise is used to hold files, taps,
and small drills during machining operations.
Figure 7-18 — Pin vise.

Piston Holding Vise


The piston holding vise (Figure 7-19) is a special purpose
vise that can hold engine pistons up to and including 5 1/2
inches in diameter. This vise may be bolted to a bench or
table.

Handsaw Filing Vise


The handsaw filing vise (Figure 7-20) is a special purpose
vise used for holding handsaws while they are being
sharpened. It has jaws between 9 1/2 and 11 inches wide, Figure 7-19 — Piston holding vise.
and an attachment for holding a file at a constant angle.

Figure 7-20 — Handsaw filing vise.


7-8
Using a Machinist Bench Vise

WARNING
Make sure the vise is bolted securely to a bench or table
and the swivel base is locked.

CAUTION
Do not strike vise with a heavy object or try to hold large
work in a small vise.

CAUTION
Use brass or copper caps on vise jaws to protect soft
material when clamping.

The following steps describe how to use a machinist bench vise properly:
1. Open jaws of vise wide enough to allow you to insert the object you want to clamp.
2. Insert the object to be clamped between vise jaws and tighten handle (Figure 7-21).

NOTE
When holding hard material in vise jaws tightened by hand,
give the vise handle a sharp rap for final tightening.

3. Work should be held firmly in place, but the jaws should not be so tight that they mar the finish.
A piece of rawhide or leather may be used to protect highly polished surfaces.

Figure 7-21 — Using a machinist bench vise.


7-9
Using a Pipe Vise

WARNING
Pipe ends are extremely sharp. Handle with care.

CAUTION
Do not apply too much pressure to copper or aluminum
pipe.

The following steps describe how to use a pipe vise


properly:
1. Open the pipe-holding jaws by turning the
threaded T-handle.
2. Lift locking device and open pipe vise.
3. Insert section of pipe in vise and close pipe
vise, by pushing locking device against lip on
the side of the lower holding jaw (Figure 7-22).
4. Insert locking bolt through aligned holes of
upper and lower lip jaws.
5. Tighten the pipe holding jaws by turning the
threaded T-handle.

Care of Vises
• Clean with a rag after each use, and apply a
light coat of oil.
• Never strike a vise with a heavy object or try to
Figure 7-22 — Using a pipe vise.
hold large work in a small vise.
• Keep jaws in good condition.
• Never oil the swivel base or swivel joint, as this decreases its holding power.
• When not using a vise, bring the jaws lightly together and leave the handle in a vertical
position. This will protect the jaws.

CLAMPS
Types and Uses
Clamps are devices for holding work. They come in many sizes based on the maximum opening of
the jaw, from 1 to 24 inches. There are many varieties to use for different purposes.

7-10
C-Clamps
The C-clamp (Figure 7-23) is the most common type of
clamp, with a C-shaped frame made of forged steel or cast
iron. It is used mostly to clamp metalwork. An adjustable
screw changes the jaw opening, controlled by turning a wing
nut or a sliding cross-pin handle. The size of the C-clamp
identifies its jaw capacity, which is the largest object the
frame can accommodate when the screw is fully extended.
The depth of the throat is another important measure which
determines how far in from the edge of the material the
clamp can be placed.

Figure 7-23 — C-clamp.

Hand Screw (Cabinetmaker’s) Clamp


The hand screw clamp (Figure 7-24) is made up of two
hardwood clamping jaws that you adjust to the work by
tightening two opposing steel screw spindles. You can
adjust the jaws to a variety of angles and diameters up to
10 inches. The hand screw clamp is used to clamp wood,
metal, plastic, and fabric.

Figure 7-24 — Hand screw clamp.

Locking C-Clamp
The locking C-clamp (Figure 7-25) has wide-opening jaws
that give you the versatility to clamp a variety of shapes.
You turn the screw to adjust the pressure and fit the work,
and it stays adjusted for repetitive use. A guarded release
trigger quickly unlocks the clamp and protects your work
from accidental release.

Figure 7-25 — Locking C-clamp.

Spring Clamp
The spring clamp (Figure 7-26) is a versatile clamp
designed for use with thin materials. It has two metal jaws
with a steel spring giving it 1, 2, or 3 inch jaw openings. It
can hold round or odd-shaped objects. Use spring clamps
Figure 7-26 — Spring clamp. when you need only moderate pressure.

7-11
Bar Clamp
The bar clamp (Figure 7-27) has a clamping device built
on a flat steel bar. The size of the largest object that can
be held between the bar clamp jaws is determined by the
length of the bar. The final clamping load is applied by
screw pressure on some types or by squeezing the grips
on others. Use the bar clamp to clamp large objects.

Figure 7-27 — Bar clamp.

Pipe Clamp
A pipe clamp (Figure 7-28) can be mounted to standard
threaded or unthreaded pipe. You can clamp from one end or
both ends, since you can position the jaws at the ends of the
pipe or anywhere along its length. A hardened steel set Figure 7-28 — Pipe clamp.
screw holds the head firmly on the pipe, but you can easily
loosen it. Pipe clamps are used to hold boards together while
gluing. They can also be quickly converted to use as a spreader.

Web Clamp
The web clamp (Figure 7-29) applies even clamping pressure
around irregular shapes or large objects. It uses a spring-loaded
locking fixture to hold objects tightly. The web clamp is commonly
used on cylinder shapes and to hold chair legs when they’ve
been glued. Inspect a web clamp before using it and discard if
frayed or cut.

Figure 7-29 — Web clamp.

V-Block and Clamp Assembly


The V-block and clamp assembly (Figure 7-30) consists of a
V-shaped, hardened steel body to support round, square, or
rectangular shaped work. A clamp (or clamps) holds the
work firmly in the body groove. V-blocks and clamps are
especially used for grinding, milling, or drilling purposes.
Various styles and designs of V-blocks and clamps are
Figure 7-30 — V-block and clamp available depending on application.
assembly.

7-12
Using a Clamp
The following steps describe how to use a clamp properly:
1. Select a clamp which has an opening about 1 1/2 to 2
inches wider than the material to be clamped.
2. Open the clamp and place it loosely around the work
you are clamping (Figure 7-31).
3. Protect the surface of wood you are clamping by
placing pads or thin blocks of wood between the wood
surface and the clamp.

Figure 7-31 — Using a clamp.

CAUTION
Do not use wrenches or bars to tighten clamps.

4. Tighten the clamp’s pressure mechanism. Take care not to force the clamp past a snug fit.

Using a Hand Screw Clamp

CAUTION
Use the hand screw clamp only on wood. Make sure vise
jaws remain parallel to edges of work.

The following steps describe how to use a hand screw clamp


properly:
1. Examine material to be clamped and select a clamp that
will span across the work.
2. Keeping the jaws parallel, open the clamp and place the
work between the jaws (use rawhide or soft leather to
protect highly polished surfaces).
3. Tighten the operating screws ensuring the clamp jaws
remain parallel (Figure 7-32). Ensure the jaws fit firmly
on work (properly clamped work will form a square).

Figure 7-32 — Using a hand


screw clamp.
7-13
Care of Clamps
Use these guidelines when you work with clamps:
• Choose the correct size clamp for the work. Avoid overloading a clamp that is too small so you
don’t damage the work or break the clamp.
• Remove clamps as soon as the work is finished; they are meant for temporary holding only.
• Store clamps by clamping them to a rack or hanging on pins. Storing them in drawers can lead
to clamp damage.
• Discard any clamp that has a bent frame, screw, or spindle.
• Use clamps and other tools appropriately.
• Never use a C-clamp to hoist anything.
• Never use a wrench, pipe, hammer, or pliers to tighten most clamps. Use a wrench only on
clamps designed to be tightened with a wrench.
• Clean threads and swivel with a rag, and lubricate with a light coat of oil. Apply light coat of
linseed oil to wood surfaces.
For long storage periods, apply a rust-preventive compound.

7-14
End of Chapter 7
Boring and Clamping Tools
Review Questions
7-1. The auger drill is also known as what type of drill?

A. Bit brace
B. Hand
C. Ratchet handle
D. Speed handle

7-2. The auger can drill holes and perform which other functions?

A. Remove and install nails


B. Remove and install screws
C. Rip and crosscut wood
D. Torque and loosen nuts

7-3. You should use which type of drill when you want total control of the drill?

A. Auger
B. Cordless
C. Hand
D. Push

7-4. When using a hand drill, which of the following statements is true concerning the work piece?

A. Apply a light coat of oil to the surface of the work piece


B. Make sure the work piece is clamped securely
C. Remove the wood shavings with an air hose
D. Ensure the work piece is half the thickness of the drill diameter

7-5. Before using a manual drill, which of the following items should be placed under the work
piece?

A. Dye pack
B. Rag
C. Water hose
D. Piece of scrap material

7-6. Which of the following tools is used to true a hole?

A. Reamer
B. Auger
C. Hand drill
D. Inside micrometer

7-15
7-7. Solid straight-hole reamers have what type of flutes?

A. Mortise and diamond


B. Mortise and spiral
C. Straight and mortise
D. Straight and spiral

7-8. By what action is the expansion reamer diameter adjusted?

A. Adjusting the position of the handle


B. Adjusting the screw plug
C. Changing the blade thickness
D. Changing the stiffness of the retaining springs

7-9. Which of the following purposes are adjustable blade reamers used for?

A. Boring holes in wood, plastics, and other soft materials


B. Enlarging drilled holes to an exact true size using a series of small cuts
C. Removing burrs from the inside diameters of pipe and drill holes
D. Removing burrs from the outside diameter of pipes and drill holes

7-10. Which of the following purposes are pipe reamers used for?

A. Boring holes in wood, plastics, and other soft materials


B. Enlarging drilled holes to an exact true size using a series of small cuts
C. Removing burrs from the inside diameters of pipe and drill holes
D. Removing burrs from the outside diameter of pipes and drill holes

7-11. What maximum amount of material can be removed with a reamer, in inches?

A. 0.001
B. 0.002
C. 0.003
D. 0.004

7-12. For long term storage of reamers, which of the following substances should be applied to the
reamer?

A. Ammonium
B. Antifreeze
C. Thin coat of grease
D. Rust-preventative compound

7-13. What tool is used to hold pieces securely in place between two jaws?

A. Die block
B. Lineman’s pliers
C. Machinist bench vise
D. Web clamp

7-16
7-14. What vise has dual purposes?

A. Bench and pipe vise


B. Machinist bench vise
C. Pin vise
D. Pipe vise

7-15. What vise holds files, taps, and small drills during machining operations?

A. Bench and pipe vise


B. Machinist bench vise
C. Pin vise
D. Pipe vise

7-16. What action should be performed on a vise after each use?

A. Clean with a rag


B. Clean with a wire brush
C. Fully open the jaws
D. Touch up the paint

7-17. If the swivel base is oiled, which of the following occurs?

A. Decreases rust
B. Decreases the holding power
C. Increased the holding power
D. Increases the maneuverability

7-18. What type of clamp is the most common?

A. C-clamp
B. Hand screw
C. Spring
D. V-block and clamp

7-19. Which of the following consists of two hardwood clamping jaws?

A. C-clamp
B. Hand screw clamp
C. Spring clamp
D. V-block and clamp

7-20. What type of clamp has a versatile design used with thin materials?

A. C-clamp
B. Hand screw clamp
C. Spring clamp
D. V-block and clamp

7-17
7-21. Which of the following clamps is also known as a strap or band clamp?

A. Bar
B. Pipe
C. Spring
D. Web

7-22. When using a clamp, which of the following materials, if anything, should you use to protect the
wood surface?

A. Light coat of linseed oil


B. Metal covers on the jaws
C. Pad or thin block
D. Nothing

7-23. When clamps are stored in drawers, which of the following may result?

A. Damages the clamp


B. Keeps the frame straight
C. Protects the jaws
D. Removes rust

7-24. What chemical should be applied to wood surfaces of clamps?

A. Grease
B. Linseed oil
C. Nitrogen
D. Rust-preventative compound

7-18
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

7-19
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 8
SMOOTHING TOOLS (WOOD AND METAL SURFACES)
Smoothing tools are used to smooth wood surfaces so they can be finished with paint or stain. They
include planes, scrapers, files, and rasps.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of smoothing tools and their uses. You will also
learn how to select the right tool for the job, use and read various types of tools, and provide the
proper care of the smoothing tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of planes.
2. Determine the proper uses of planes.
3. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to planes.
4. Identify the different types of scrapers.
5. Determine the proper uses of scrapers.
6. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to scrapers.
7. Identify the different types of files.
8. Determine the proper uses of files.
9. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to files.

PLANES
Planes are smoothing tools used to true edges or
surfaces of wood. Planes are also used where a finished
surface or close-fitting joint is required. Planes vary in
size and shape, but each is designed for a specific
purpose. There are several types, including jointer and
fore planes, jack planes, smooth planes, block planes,
and rabbet planes. The parts of a plane are shown in
Figure 8-1.

Types and Uses


Jack Plane
The jack plane is illustrated in Figure 8-1. This plane is
used for general smoothing of edges and sizing of wood.
The name comes from the saying, “Jack of all trades,”
since this plane performs the work of both smooth planes
and jointer planes. It is usually about 15 inches long with Figure 8-1 — Parts of a plane.
a blade that has a moderately curved edge. When stock
is prepared, the jack plane is used after the scrub plane
and before the smooth plane.

8-1
Jointer Plane
The jointer plane (Figure 8-2) is used to
straighten the edges of boards in an operation
known as jointing. It is also used to flatten the
face of a board. The jointer plane is usually 20
to 24 inches long. A similar, but shorter, plane
about 18 inches long is known as a fore plane.
Figure 8-2 — Jointer plane.
Scrub Plane
The scrub plane (Figure 8-3) is used to remove large
amounts of wood from the surface of lumber in the first
stages of preparing rough stock, or when the thickness
of the board needs to be reduced significantly. Unlike
most planes, it is used in diagonal strokes across the
face of a board.

Smooth Plane
The smooth plane (Figure 8-4) is the last plane used on
a wood surface. With proper use, the finish from a
smooth plane is much better than the finish achieved
with sandpaper or scrapers. This smooth finish comes
from planing the wood off in strips. The smooth plane is Figure 8-3 — Scrub plane.
9 to 10 inches long and is meant to be used with two
hands.

Block Plane
The block plane (Figure 8-5) is the smallest hand plane.
The block plane’s plane iron is set at a much lower angle
than that of other planes. It is used to plane across the
grain at the ends of boards, otherwise known as blocking
in. It is also used to shave thin pieces of wood from small
surfaces in awkward areas. This plane is small enough
to use with one hand, sometimes at an angle of as much
as 45 degrees. A toe knob is provided when additional
pressure is needed. Figure 8-4 — Smooth plane.
The block plane is a tool with many uses, including
cleaning up components to make them fit within fine
tolerances. Rounding square edges, otherwise known
as chamfering, and removing glue lines are some
other uses for this plane.

Figure 8-5 — Block plane.

8-2
Rabbet Plane
The rabbet plane (Figure 8-6) is used to make rabbet
joints on the ends of boards. The blade on this plane
protrudes by a very small amount from the sides of the
plane so that the plane doesn’t bind on the side of the
cut. This helps make the side of the rabbet joint
perpendicular to the bottom. This plane is used for long
grain cutting and is meant to remove large amounts of
material quickly.

Using the Block Plane Figure 8-6 — Rabbet plane.

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

The following steps describe how to use a block plane properly:


1. Secure the work with a vise or with clamps to prevent slippage.
2. Ensure that the cutting blade is extremely sharp and set to produce a fine cut.
3. Place the plane on the edge of the board with the plane pointing across the grain (Figure 8-7).
4. Push along the length of the board with a steady, even stroke.

NOTE
To prevent the grain from splitting, plane from either end or
plane a chamfer on the far end first.

5. If necessary, create a chamfer to prevent the grain from splitting (Figure 8-8).
6. Raise the plane from the work after each stroke and return to the starting point.
7. Repeat the process until the task is complete.

Figure 8-7 — Place the plane Figure 8-8 — Create a chamfer.


across the grain. 8-3
Using the Bench Plane

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

The following steps describe how to use a bench plane properly:


1. Secure the work with a vise or with clamps to prevent slippage.
2. Make sure the plane is sharp and properly adjusted before using.
3. Place the plane on the board with the right hand on the handle and the left hand on the knob.

NOTE
Reverse the position of the hands if left-handed.

4. Ensure the plane is placed on the work so that the wood grain points in the direction the plane
will go.
5. Push with a steady, even stroke along the length of the board (Figure 8-9).
6. Raise the plane and return to the starting
point after each stroke.
7. Repeat the process until the task is complete.

Care of Planes
Use these guidelines when working with planes:
• Be careful to plane work smoothly to avoid
splinters that may be left to cause injury.
• Use each plane only for the job it is intended.
• Keep all cutting tools in good condition.
• Do not allow tools to lie around work areas in
such a position that they may cause injury to Figure 8-9 — Using a bench plane.
others.
• Before using, inspect the tool for damage or other defects. Repair or replace immediately if
necessary.
• Place the plane on its side to protect the cutting edge when not in use.
• Keep the cutting edge sharp and free of nicks.
• Cover all metal parts with light oil to prevent rusting.
• For storage, withdraw the cutting edge into the mouth of the plane.

8-4
SCRAPERS
Scrapers are made in different shapes for various types of work. Some scrapers are used for truing
metal, wood, and plastic surfaces which have been machined or filed. Other scrapers are made to
remove paint, stencil markings, and other coatings from various surfaces.

Types and Uses


Carbon Scraper
A carbon scraper (Figure 8-10) is used to clean
carbon from cylinder heads, pistons, and other
metal surfaces. It is flexible and has an overall
length of approximately 9 inches. The carbon
scraper consists of ten round spring steel blades, Figure 8-10 — Carbon scraper.
and their flexibility is controlled by a sliding ferrule.

Box Scraper
Box scrapers (Figure 8-11) are usually used to
scrape stencil markings from wood surfaces. They
are also used as wood floor scrapers. The box
scraper has a 2-inch blade and a 9-inch handle
hinged at the blade. The bottom of the scraper and
the edge of the cutter are convex so that corners do
not scratch up the work. The blade can be adjusted
by loosening the thumbscrew and extending or Figure 8-11 — Box scraper.
withdrawing the blade in its holder.

Flat Blade Scraper


Figure 8-12 — Flat blade scraper. Flat blade scrapers (Figure 8-12) are used for
removing high spots from flat surfaces only.

Bearing Scraper
Bearing scrapers (Figure 8-13) are used to scrape
Babbitt metal bearings. Bearing scrapers come with
11/2-, 2-, and 4-inch cutting edges.

Triangular Blade Scraper


Triangular blade scrapers (Figure 8-14) are used for
removing high spots from flat or curved surfaces. They
are available with either a 4- or 6-inch blade.
Figure 8-13 — Bearing scraper.

Figure 8-14 — Triangular blade scraper.

8-5
Using a Bearing Scraper
The following steps describe how to use a bearing scraper properly (Figure 8-15):
1. Place the bearing to be scraped on a bench
or other suitable working surface.
2. Use both hands on the bearing scraper. One
hand should be at the end of the handle
while the other hand steadies the tool.
3. Use the hand at the end of the handle to
twist the tool. Use very light pressure and
remove a small amount of metal with the
twisting stroke. If too much pressure is
applied, the scraper will chatter and leave a
rough uneven surface.
4. Start at one top side of bearing cap. Work
down, and then up to the top of the other
side. Do not scrape lengthwise.
5. Repeat procedure until the required amount
of material has been removed to fit the Figure 8-15 — Using a bearing scraper.
bearing onto the shaft.

Care of Scrapers
Use these guidelines when working with scrapers:
• Keep work, scraper, and hands free from grease and oil when using a scraper.
• Keep scrapers sharp at all times (except the carbon scrapers) since a dull scraper is more apt
to slip and cause injury.

NOTE
Carbon scraper blades are fairly dull to prevent scoring of a
piston and/or cylinder wall.

• Use the scrapers only for their intended purposes.


• When a scraper is not in use, coat the blade with a film of light oil.
• Hang or store scrapers separately to protect the cutting edge. Do not throw scrapers in with
other tools. This will damage the cutting edges.
• For long-term storage, coat all metal parts with rust-preventive compound and store in a dry
place.

FILES
Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or
removing small amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or
other material. Files are made in various lengths,
shapes, and cuts. Every file has five parts (Figure
8-16): the point, edge, face or cutting teeth, heel or
shoulder, and tang. The tang is used to attach the Figure 8-16 — Parts of a file.
8-6
handle on American pattern files. The tang is shaped into a handle and is usually knurled on Swiss
pattern files.

Types and Uses


American Pattern File
Files are graded according to the degree of
fineness and whether they have single- or double-
cut teeth. The differences among file types are
apparent as shown in Figure 8-17. Single-cut files
have rows of teeth cut parallel to each other.
These teeth are set at an angle of about 65
degrees with the centerline. Single-cut files are
used for sharpening tools, finish filing, and draw
filing. They are also the best tools for smoothing
the edges of sheet metal. Files with crisscrossed
rows of teeth are double-cut files. The double cut
forms teeth that are diamond-shaped and fast
cutting. Double-cut files are used for quick
removal of metal and for rough work.
Files are also graded according to the spacing
and size of their teeth, or their coarseness and
fineness. Some of these grades are pictured in
Figure 8-17. In addition to the three grades
shown, dead smooth files (with very fine teeth)
and some rough files (with very coarse teeth) may
be used. The fineness or coarseness of file teeth
is also influenced by the length of the file. The
length of a file is the distance from the tip to the
heel, and does not include the tang (Figure 8-17).
By comparing the actual size of the teeth of a 6-
inch, single-cut smooth file with a 12-inch, single-
cut smooth file; the 6-inch file has more teeth per Figure 8-17 — American file pattern.
inch than the 12-inch file.

Mill File
Mill files (Figure 8-18) are tapered in both width
and thickness. One edge has no teeth and is
known as a safe edge. Mill files are used for
smoothing lathe work, draw filing, and other fine, Figure 8-18 — Mill file.
precision work. Mill files are always single-cut.

Pillar File
Pillar files (Figure 8-19) are similar to hand files in
general shape, but are much narrower. They are
double-cut with one uncut edge. Pillar files are
used to file in slots and keyways. Figure 8-19 — Pillar file.

8-7
Round File
Round files (Figure 8-20) will taper slightly
toward the point. Bastard-cut files 6 inches and
longer are double-cut. The second-cut files, 12
inches and longer, are double-cut. All others Figure 8-20 — Round file.
are single-cut. Round files are used for filing
circular openings or concave surfaces.

Square File
Square files (Figure 8-21) taper slightly toward
the point on all four sides and are double-cut.
They are used for filing rectangular slots and Figure 8-21 — Square file.
keyways.

Taper File
Taper files (Figure 8-22), or triangular files, are
tapered toward the point on all three sides.
They are used for filing saws having 60-degree
angled teeth. Taper files come in regular, slim, Figure 8-22 — Taper file.
extra slim, and double extra slim and usually
are single-cut.

Three-Square File
Three-square files (Figure 8-23) are tapered
toward the point on all three sides and are
Figure 8-23 — Three-square file.
double-cut. They are used for filing internal
angles, and for cleaning out square corners.

Warding File
Warding files (Figure 8-24) are tapered to a
point for narrow space filing. They have double-
cut faces and single-cut edges. Warding files are
used for lock repair or for filing ward notches in Figure 8-24 — Warding file.
keys.

Curved-Tooth File
Curved-tooth files (Figure 8-25), also known as
mill-toothed files, are general used on flat or
curved surfaces of aluminum and sheet steel.
They are also used for smooth, rapid work on
bronze, lead, Babbitt, zinc, and plastic. Flat, Figure 8-25 — Curved-tooth file.
flexible, curved-tooth files do not have tangs and
are made for easy mounting on a file holder. The file holder is adjustable for concave or convex
surfaces. Flat, flexible, curved-tooth files come in fine-cut and standard-cut teeth.
Flat, rigid, curved-tooth files are self-cleaning and used for filing flat surfaces on cast iron, lead,
Babbitt, aluminum, zinc, and plastic. They come in smooth-cut and standard-cut teeth.
Half-round, rigid, curved-tooth files are flat on one side and convex on the other. They are used for
filing concave surfaces and bearings. They come with standard-cut teeth.
8-8
Swiss Pattern File
Swiss pattern files (Figure 8-26) are made to more exact measurements than
American pattern files. They are primarily finishing tools used on all sorts of
delicate and intricate parts. Swiss pattern files come in a variety of styles,
shapes, sizes, and double- and single- cuts to ensure precision smoothness.
These files are usually supplied in sets. The most common set consists of
twelve assorted files in a set, which are marking (half-round), square, slitting,
knife, joint (round edge), crossing (oval), barrette, flat, equaling, three-square
(triangular), and round.
Swiss pattern files are made in seven cuts–numbers 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6.
They are most often used for fitting parts of delicate mechanisms and for tool
and die work.

Using a File
Selecting the Proper File
Use these guidelines when selecting the proper file:
• For heavy rough cutting, use a large, coarse, double-cut file.
• For finishing cuts, use a second- or smooth-cut, single-cut file.
• When working on cast iron, start with a bastard-cut file and finish with
a second-cut file.
• When filing soft metal, start with a second-cut file and finish with a
smooth-cut file. Figure 8-26 —
Swiss pattern file.
• When filing hard steel, start with a smooth-cut file and finish with a
dead-smooth file.
• When filing brass or bronze, start with a bastard-cut file and finish with a second- or smooth-
cut file.
• When filing aluminum, lead, or Babbitt metal, use a standard-cut curved-tooth file.
• For small work, use a short file. For medium-sized work, use an 8-inch file. For large work, use
a file that is most convenient.

Method of Filing
The following steps describe how to use a file properly:

Cross Filing
In Figure 8-27, view A, a piece of mild steel being cross-filed is illustrated. This means that the file is
being moved across the surface of the work in approximately a crosswise direction; alternating as
shown in Figure 8-27, view B. For best results, the file should be used with slow, full-length, steady
strokes with the operator’s feet spread apart to remain steady. The file cuts as it is pushed, so the
return stroke should be eased up to avoid dulling the teeth. Files should also be kept clean.

Draw Filing
Draw filing produces a finer surface finish and usually a flatter surface than cross filing. Small parts,
as shown in Figure 8-27, view C, are best held in a vise. The file should be held as shown in Figure 8-
8-9
27, view C, with the arrow indicating the cutting stroke is away from the operator when the handle of
the file is held in the right hand. If the handle is held in the left hand, the cutting stroke will be toward
the operator.

Filing Round-Metal Stock


Figure 8-27, view D, shows that as a file is passed over the surface of round work, its angle with the
work is changed. The result is a rocking motion of the file as it passes over the work. This rocking
motion permits all the teeth on the file to make contact and cut as they pass over the work's surface,
thus keeping the file much cleaner and thereby doing better work.

Figure 8-27 — Filing operations.

Care of Files
Use these guidelines when working with files:
• If a file is designed to be used with a handle, do not attempt to use it without the handle.
Holding the sharp tang in your hand while filing can cause serious injury.
• Do not use a file for prying. The tang end is soft and it bends easily. The body of the file is hard
and very brittle. A light bending force will cause it to snap.
• A new file should be broken in by using it first on brass, bronze, or smooth iron.
• Never use a new file to remove the fins or scales on cast iron.
• Do not use a new file on a narrow surface such as sheet metal, because the narrow edge of
the metal is likely to break off the sharp points on the file teeth.
8-10
• Avoid using a new file clogged with metal filings (known as pinning), as it will scratch the work.
Rubbing chalk between the teeth before filing will prevent pinning.
• Clean files often using a file scorer by using a pulling motion while holding the file scorer blade
parallel to the rows of teeth. Finish with a file cleaner brush by brushing the file parallel to the
rows of teeth.
• Do not throw files into a drawer or toolbox where they can rub against each other or against
other tools. Store them in separate holders such as clips, straps, or in holes cut in a block of
wood.
• Never use a file without a securely-attached handle, unless it is of the Swiss pattern type.
• Do not use files for any other use except filing.
• Never strike the file against a vise or other object to remove filings. Use the file cleaner brush.
• Do not hammer on a file. This is very dangerous because the file may shatter.
• Do not oil files or treat with rust-preventive compounds as it will cause the file to slide across
the work and prevent fast cutting. To prevent rust, wrap each file in a waterproof barrier
wrapping paper and place the files in racks or boxes so the faces or edges of the files will not
touch each other.

Replacing the Handle


1. To remove a handle, hold the file with one hand. Pull the file from the handle while striking the
ferrule end of the handle against the edge of a bench (Figure 8-28).

CAUTION
Never hammer a file into its handle.

2. To install a new handle, insert tang end of the file into the handle
socket exerting pressure with your hands.
3. Tap the handle on a bench top until the file is seated (Figure 8-29).

Figure 8-29 — Tap the


Figure 8-28 — Remove the
handle on a bench.
old handle. 8-11
End of Chapter 8
Smoothing Tools (Wood and Metal Surfaces)
Review Questions
8-1. Planes are used to perform what action to wood?

A. Make decorative designs


B. Remove knots
C. Rip cut
D. True edges

8-2. What type of plane is used to straighten the edges of boards?

A. Block
B. Jointer
C. Scrub
D. Smooth

8-3. What type of plane is used to remove large amounts of wood from the surface of lumber?

A. Block
B. Jointer
C. Scrub
D. Smooth

8-4. The jack plane is used for what purpose?

A. Final finishing
B. General smoothing
C. Making a rabbet
D. Truing the edges

8-5. At what time frame is the smooth plane used?

A. After the rabbet is made


B. Before the jack plane is used
C. First plane used
D. Last plane used

8-6. What type of plane has the plane iron set at a lower angle than other planes?

A. Block
B. Jointer
C. Scrub
D. Smooth

8-12
8-7. Which of the following describes a use of the block plane?

A. Creating a smoother finish than using sandpaper or a scraper


B. Cleaning up components to make them fit within fine tolerances
C. Making a rabbet joint on the ends of boards
D. Removing large amounts of wood

8-8. What is left behind if surfaces are not properly smoothed?

A. Metal shavings
B. Sawdust
C. Smooth finish
D. Splinters

8-9. If a plane is damaged, what action, if anything, should be accomplished?

A. Polish the plane


B. Replace the plane immediately
C. Tighten the handles
D. Nothing, planes are designed to function even if damaged

8-10. Prior to storing a plane, what action should be accomplished?

A. Apply a light coat of oil to the wood handles


B. Apply a thick coat of grease to all surfaces
C. Remove the handles
D. Withdraw the cutting edge into the mouth of the plane

8-11. What type of scraper is flexible and has an overall length of approximately 9 inches?

A. Bearing
B. Box
C. Carbon
D. Flat blade

8-12. What type of scraper is used to scrape stencil markings from wood surfaces?

A. Bearing
B. Box
C. Carbon
D. Flat blade

8-13. What size is the blade on a box scraper?

A. 2 centimeters
B. 9 centimeters
C. 2 inches
D. 9 inches

8-13
8-14. What type of scraper is used to remove high spots from flat surfaces?

A. Bearing
B. Box
C. Carbon
D. Flat blade

8-15. Bearing scrapers are available in which of the following sizes?

A. 4 centimeters
B. 9 centimeters
C. 4 inches
D. 9 inches

8-16. When using a bearing scraper, what result will occur if too much pressure is applied?

A. Breaks a bearing
B. Creates a rabbet
C. Leaves a rough surface
D. Leaves a smooth finish

8-17. When using a scraper, the work, scraper, and hands should be free of what substance?

A. Dust
B. Grease
C. Rubber
D. Rust

8-18. When the scraper is not in use, what should be placed on the blade?

A. Oil
B. Rag
C. Rust
D. Tar

8-19. For long-term storage, what location should scrapers be stored?

A. On the corner of the work bench


B. In a dry place
C. On a hanger
D. On a shop rack

8-20. Files are graded according to which of the following qualities?

A. Degree of fineness and single- or double-cut


B. Depth of cut and number of teeth
C. Length and depth of cut
D. Number of teeth and length

8-14
8-21. What type of file is tapered in width and thickness?

A. Curved-tooth
B. Mill
C. Round
D. Warding

8-22. The mill file is used for smoothing lathe work and what other type of work?

A. Draw filing
B. Filing circle openings
C. Filing internal angles
D. Filing slots and keyways

8-23. The pillar file is used for what type of work?

A. Draw filing
B. Filing circle openings
C. Filing internal angles
D. Filing slots and keyways

8-24. What type of file tapers slightly toward the point on all four sides and is double-cut?

A. Curved-tooth
B. Square
C. Taper
D. Warding

8-25. What type of file is used to file saws having 60-degree angled teeth?

A. Curved-tooth
B. Square
C. Taper
D. Warding

8-26. What type of file has a tapered point for narrow space filing?

A. Curved-tooth
B. Square
C. Taper
D. Warding

8-27. When filing brass or bronze, what is the first file that should be used?

A. Bastard-cut
B. Course double-cut
C. Second-cut
D. Smooth-cut

8-15
8-28. Concerning the care of files, which of the following statements is true?

A. A file is a suitable substitute for a pry bar


B. A new file should be broken in by using on steel, brass, or wood
C. If a file is designed to be used with a handle, it should not be used without a handle
D. Files should be oiled to prevent rust from forming

8-29. What result will occur if a file is used on narrow surfaces such as sheet metal?

A. Splinters will remain


B. The file will clog with fins or scales
C. The sharp points of the file teeth will break off
D. The work will be scratched

8-30. Applying what substance will prevent fast-cutting of files?

A. Chalk
B. Oil
C. Talcum powder
D. Vinegar

8-16
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

8-17
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 9
BRUSHES
Several types of brushes are used in the Navy, including paintbrushes and wire brushes.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of brushes and their uses. You will also learn how
to select the right brush for the job, use various types of brushes, and provide the proper care of the
brushes to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of brushes.
2. Determine the proper uses of brushes.
3. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to brushes.

BRUSHES
Smooth and even painting depends as much on good brushwork as it does on good paint. There is a
brush for almost every purpose, so be sure you use the right brush and keep it in the best condition.

Types and Uses


The types and general use of the most frequently used brushes in the Navy are listed in Table 9-1.
Table 9-1 — Types of Brushes
Type of Brush For Use On
Flat paintbrush Large surfaces
Oval sash and trim brush Small surfaces
Fitch brush Small surfaces
Oval varnish brush Rough work
Flat varnish brush Medium work
French bristle varnish brush High-grade work
Lettering brush Small surfaces
Painter’s duster Cleaning work
The most useful paintbrushes are the flat brush, the oval sash, and the trim brush. A skillful painter
using a flat brush can paint almost anything. Flat brushes are wide and thick, carry a large quantity of
paint, and provide a maximum of brushing action. Sash brushes are handy for painting small items
and those hard-to-get places and for cutting in at corners. These brushes and some others commonly
used aboard ship are shown in Figure 9-1.

9-1
Figure 9-1 — Common paintbrushes.

Paintbrush
The paintbrush (Figure 9-2) is made up of a handle that
holds bristles, which are made of natural or synthetic fibers,
and comes in various sizes and shapes. A paintbrush is
used to apply paint to a surface. Paintbrushes in
construction are generally used to paint the interior and
exterior of houses.
Figure 9-2 — Paintbrush.

Wire Brush
The wire brush (Figure 9-3) is a tool consisting of a handle
and a brush made up of a large number of steel or brass
wire bristles. It is an abrasive tool, used to clean rust and
remove paint from surfaces. It can also be used to clean
wire rope and chain. Wire brushes will leave marks on soft
surfaces and can transfer oil and dirt if they are not kept
clean between uses. Figure 9-3 — Wire brush.

9-2
Wire brushes can be attachments to power tools, such as drills and grinders. The attachments are
available in wheel-type (Figure 9-4) and cup-type (Figure 9-5) styles.

Figure 9-4 — Wheel-type wire brush. Figure 9-5 — Cup-type wire brush.

Acid Brushes
The acid brush (Figure 9-6) is a tool approximately 6 inches
long with a tubular handle and horsehair bristles. This brush
is used for gluing, pasting, soldering or acid application, and
hard-to-reach areas. Cut the bristles shorter for a stiffer
brush. This type of brush is popular where one-time usage Figure 9-6 — Acid brush.
is necessary, or it can be cleaned for multiple uses.

File Card Brushes


As you file, the teeth of the file may clog up with some of the
metal filings and scratch your work. This condition is known
as pinning. You can prevent pinning by keeping the file teeth
clean. Rubbing chalk between the teeth will help prevent
pinning also, but the best method is to clean the file Figure 9-7 — File card brush.
frequently with a file card or brush. A file card (Figure 9-7)
has fine wire bristles. Brush with a pulling motion, holding the
card parallel to the rows of teeth.

Flap Brush
Paint can be mechanically removed with a flap brush. The
brush consists of many nonwoven, nonmetallic, nylon flaps
bonded to a fiber core. The brush assembly (Figure 9-8) is
made up of a flap brush, flanges, and a mandrel. It should be
operated by a no-load, 3,200 revolutions per minute,
pneumatic drill motor. The direction of rotation is indicated by
an arrow imprinted on the side of the core. When a flap
brush has been worn down to within 2 inches from the center
of the hub, it should be replaced. Continued use beyond this
limit may cause gouging due to loss of flexibility of the fiber.
When using a flap brush, apply minimum pressure to remove Figure 9-8 — Flap brush.

9-3
the maximum amount of paint and the minimum amount of metal. Excessive pressure will cause
some paints to melt, gum up, and streak.

Using a Paintbrush
The following steps describe how to use a paintbrush
properly:
1. Hold the brush firmly but lightly in the position shown
in Figure 9-9. Do not put your fingers on the bristles
below the ferrule. Hold the brush in a way that will
permit easy wrist and arm motion.
2. When you are using a flat brush, do not try to paint
with the narrow edge. Using the narrow edge will
wear the corners down and spoil the shape and
efficiency of the brush.
• When you are using an oval brush, do not let it
turn in your hand. An oval brush that has been Figure 9-9 — Proper way to hold a
revolved too much will wear to a pointed shape paintbrush.
and become useless.
• Do not poke oversized brushes into corners and around moldings. Such use will ruin a
good brush by bending the bristles. Use a smaller brush that will fit into such odd spots.
3. Work the paint well into the brush before you start to apply paint to the surface.
• Working the paint into the brush is done by holding the mixing paddle tightly over the rim of
the bucket, dipping the brush into the paint, and then wiping the brush clean across the
edge of the paddle.
• Repeat this process several times to ensure the brush is filled with paint.
4. When applying paint, dip slightly less than half of the bristles into the can. Draw the brush
lightly against the inside of the can, and then apply it to the surface to be painted. Be careful
not to overfill your brush; if it is too full, paint will drop all around the work area.
5. Hold the brush at right angles to the surface being painted, with the ends of the brush just
touching the surface. Lift the brush clear of the surface when you are starting the return stroke.
If the brush is held obliquely and is not lifted, the painted surface will be uneven, showing laps
and spots and a “daubed” appearance. Also, a brush that is held at too great an angle will
wear away the ends.
For complete coverage, follow the Navy’s painting
style by first laying on, and then laying off (Figure
9-10). Laying on is applying the paint first in long,
horizontal strokes. Laying off means crossing your
first strokes by working up and down. By using the
laying on and laying off methods, you distribute the
paint evenly over the surface, completely covering
the surface and using a minimum amount of paint.
A good rule is to lay on the paint the shortest
distance across the area and lay off the longest
distance. When you paint a vertical surface, lay on
in horizontal strokes and lay off in vertical strokes.
Figure 9-10 — The Navy’s painting style.
9-4
Always paint overhead first and work from the far corner. By working the overhead first, you can keep
the vertical surfaces free of drippings by wiping up as you go along.
To avoid brush marks when you finish a square, use strokes directed toward the last square finished,
gradually lifting the brush near the end of the stroke while the brush is still in motion. Every time the
brush touches the painted surface at the start of a stroke, it leaves a mark. For this reason, never
finish a square by brushing toward the unpainted area, but always end up by brushing back toward
the area already painted.

Care of Brushes
It is important to keep all brushes clean and dry when they are in storage. Brushes are only as good
as the care given them. The best brush can be ruined very quickly if not properly treated. Use the
following guidelines when working with brushes:
• To prevent eye injury, always wear eye protection while using brushes.
• To prevent inhalation of paint fumes, wear a respirator while working in an enclosed area.
• After using your brush, clean it in warm, soapy water (for water-based paints) or solvent (for
oil-based paints) until the water or solvent runs clear.
• The bristles could bend if the brush is left soaking in the cleaner.
• Spin the brush to remove excess cleaner; comb the bristles with a brush comb.
• Store brushes in their packaging to help them retain their shape when not in use. If the original
packaging is not available, wrap each brush with waxed paper to retain its shape.
• If you can, hang your brushes; otherwise, lay them flat.
Methods of cleaning paintbrushes depend on the type of paint for which they are used. The proper
cleaners for brushes used with different finishes are listed in Table 9-2:
Table 9-2 Proper Cleaners for Finishes
Finish Cleaner
Natural and synthetic oil-based paints and varnishes; Paint thinner or mineral springs
chlorinated alkyd resin paint
Latex emulsion paints Water
Chlorinated rubber paints Synthetic enamel thinner or xylene
Shellac Alcohol
Lacquer Lacquer thinner

9-5
End of Chapter 9
Brushes
Review Questions
9-1. In addition to the flat brush oval sash, which of the following brushes is the most useful?

A. Acid
B. Dusting
C. Trim
D. Varnish

9-2. What type of brush is wide and thick and can carry a large quantity of paint?

A. Acid
B. Flat
C. Lettering
D. Sash

9-3. What type of brush is made up of a large number of steel or brass bristles?

A. Acid
B. Flap card
C. Pastry
D. Wire

9-4. What type of brush is approximately 6 inches long with a tubular handle and horsehair bristles?

A. Acid
B. File Card
C. Flap
D. Wire

9-5. What brush is used to clean the teeth of a file?

A. File card
B. Flap
C. Flat
D. Lettering

9-6. The flap brush should be operated with a pneumatic drill motor with what number of
revolutions per minute?

A. 2,030
B. 2,300
C. 3,020
D. 3,200

9-6
9-7. A good rule for using a paintbrush is to lay on the paint in which of the following directions?

A. A circular pattern
B. Diagonally across the area
C. Longest distance across the area
D. Shortest distance across the area

9-8. When painting, which of the following areas should you painted first?

A. Floor
B. Overhead
C. Trim work
D. Vertical surfaces

9-9. Which of the following personal protective devices should you wear while using a brush?

A. Eye protection
B. Hearing protection
C. Hard hat
D. Steel toe sandals

9-10. Which of the following personal protective devices should you wear when painting in an
enclosed space?

A. Eye protection
B. Hearing protection
C. Respirator
D. Steel toe sandals

9-11. After using a paintbrush with an oil-based paint, what substance should you use to clean the
brush?

A. Diesel fuel
B. Nitrogen
C. Soapy water
D. Solvent

9-12. If a brush is left soaking in a cleaner, what action will occur to the bristles?

A. Bending
B. Breaking
C. Shrinking
D. Swelling

9-7
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

9-8
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 10
SHOP TOOLS
This chapter will provide basic information on shop tools. Many types of tools are present in the shops
you may work in. You will need to know some of the common power tools and equipment found there.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of shop tools and their uses. You will also learn
how to select the right shop tool for the job, use and read various types of shop tools, and provide the
proper care of the shop tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of shop tools.
2. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to shop tools.
3. Determine the proper uses of table saws.
4. Identify the different types of grinders.
5. Determine the proper use of grinders.
6. Identify the different types of sharpening stones.
7. Determine the proper uses of sharpening stones.

SHOP TOOLS
Types and Uses
Shop Radial Arm Saw
The radial arm saw (Figure 10-1) has a
circular saw blade that cuts by rotating the
blade toward the operator. It can make a
variety of cuts, including crosscuts, rips, and
miters. With accessories, this saw can also
make dadoes, sand, shape, saber saw,
surface, and route. The length of the top
arm limits the length or width of the cut.
The procedures used to operate, maintain,
and lubricate any shop radial arm saw are
found in the manufacturer’s operator and
maintenance manuals, along with the safety
precautions to be observed. The primary
difference between this saw and other saws
of this type (field saws) is the location of the
controls.

Figure 10-1 — Radial arm saw.


10-1
Tilt-Arbor Table Saw
The tilt-arbor table saw (Figure 10-2) is named for its
ability to tilt the saw blade for cutting bevels by tilting
the arbor. The arbor, located beneath the table, is
controlled by the tilt handwheel.

Figure 10-2 — Tilt-arbor table saw.

Compound Miter Saw


The compound miter saw (Figure 10-3) is used to provide smooth
crosscuts and beveled cuts of wood molding, trim, and other
materials. This saw uses a circular blade that is pivoted to the
Figure 10-3 — Compound correct angle and then dropped onto the material. It has a large
miter saw. compass scale marked in degrees to show the angle of the cut.

Tile Saw
The tile saw (Figure 10-4) is used to cut tile and stone. This
saw is also known as a wet saw and uses a diamond-
tipped circular blade cooled by a continuous stream of
water contained in a reservoir. It can operate either like a
radial arm saw or a table saw.

Figure 10-4 — Tile saw.

Band Saw
Although the band saw (Figure 10-5) is designed
primarily for making curved cuts, it can also be used
for straight cutting. Unlike the circular saw, the band
saw is frequently used for freehand cutting. Sanding
attachments and sanding loops are available for
sanding on irregular or curved surfaces.

Figure 10-5 — Band saw. 10-2


The band saw has a band or looplike blade that comes in various widths and strengths for various
cutting purposes. It has two large wheels on which the band turns, just as a belt is turned on pulleys.
The lower wheel, located below the working table, is connected to the motor directly or by means of
pulleys or gears, and serves as the driver pulley. The upper wheel is the driven pulley.
The saw blade is guided and kept in line by two sets of blade guides, one fixed set below the table
and one set above with a vertical sliding adjustment. The alignment of the blade is adjusted by a
mechanism on the backside of the upper wheel. Tightening and loosening of the blade is provided by
another adjustment just behind the upper wheel.
Cutoff gauges and ripping fences are sometimes provided for use with band saws, but you will do
most of your work freehand with the table clear. With this type of saw, it is difficult to make accurate
cuts when you use gauges or fences.
The size of a band saw is designated by the diameter of the wheels. Common sizes are 14-, 16-, 18-,
20-, 30-, 36-, 42, and 48-inch diameter wheel machines. The 14-inch size is the smallest practical
band saw. With the exception of capacity, all band saws are much the same with regard to
maintenance, operation, and adjustment.
A rule of thumb used by many operators is that the width of the blade should be one-eighth the
minimum radius to be cut. If the piece on hand has a 4-inch radius, the operator should select a 1/2-
inch blade. This ratio does not mean that the minimum radius that can be cut is eight times the width
of the blade; the ratio indicates the practical limit for high-speed band saw work.
Blades for band saws are designated by points (tooth points per inch), thickness (gauge), and width.
The required length of a blade is calculated by adding the circumference of one wheel to twice the
distance between the wheel centers. Length can vary within a limit of twice the tension adjustment
range.
Band saw teeth are shaped like the teeth in a hand ripsaw blade, which means that their fronts are
filed at 90 degrees to the line of the saw. Reconditioning procedures are the same for a hand ripsaw,
except that very narrow band saws with very small teeth must usually be set and sharpened by
special machines.

Drill Press
The drill press (Figure 10-6) is an electrically
operated power machine originally designed as a
metal working tool. Accessories, such as jigs, and
special techniques make it a versatile woodworking
tool as well.
The motor is mounted to a bracket at the rear of the
head assembly and designed to permit V-belt
changing for desired spindle speed without removing
the motor from its mounting bracket. Four spindle
speeds are obtained by locating the V-belt on any
one of four steps of the spindle-driven and motor-
driven pulleys. The belt tensioning rod keeps proper
tension on the belt so it does not slip.
The controls of all drill presses are similar. The terms
right and left are relative to the operator’s position
standing in front of and facing the drill press. Forward
applies to movement toward the operator. Rearward Figure 10-6 — Drill press.
applies to movement away from the operator.
10-3
Specific instructions on how to safely use the drill press are in the manufacturers’ documentation. The
on/off switch is located in the front of the drill press for easy access.
The spindle and quill feed handles radiate from the spindle and quill pinion feed hub, which is located
on the lower right-front side of the head assembly. Pulling forward and down on any one of the three
spindles and quill feed handles, which point upward at the time, moves the spindle and quill assembly
downward. Release the feed handle and the spindle and quill assembly return to the retracted or
upper position by spring action.
The quill lock handle is located at the lower left-front side of the head assembly. Turn the quill lock
handle clockwise to lock the quill at a desired operating position. Release the quill by turning the quill
lock handle counterclockwise. However, in most cases, the quill lock handle will be in the released
position.
The head lock handle is located at the left-rear side of the head assembly. Turn the head lock handle
clockwise to lock the head assembly at a desired vertical height on the bench column. Turn the head
lock handle counterclockwise to release the head assembly. When operating the drill press, you must
ensure that the head lock handle is tight at all times.
The head support collar handle is located at the right side of the head support collar and below the
head assembly. The handle locks the head support collar, which secures the head vertically on the
bench column, and prevents the head from dropping when the head lock handle is released. Turn the
head support collar lock handle clockwise to lock the support to the bench column and
counterclockwise to release the support. When operating the drill press, ensure that the head support
collar lock handle is tight at all times.
As you face the drill press, the tilting table lock handle is located at the right-rear side of the tilting
table bracket. The lockpin secures the table at a horizontal or 45-degree angle. This position allows
you to move the table to the side, out of the way for long pieces of wood. The table support collar
allows you to raise or lower the table. Turn the tilting table lock handle counterclockwise to release
the tilting table bracket so it can be moved up and down or around the bench column. Lock the tilting
table assembly at the desired height by turning the lock handle clockwise. When operating the drill
press, ensure that the tilting table lock handle is tight at all times.
The adjustable locknut is located on the depth gauge rod. The purpose of the adjustable locknut is to
regulate depth drilling. Turn the adjustable locknut clockwise to decrease the downward travel of the
spindle. The locknut must be secured against the depth pointer during drill press operation. The depth
of the hole is shown on the depth scale.

Woodworking Lathe
The woodworking lathe is, without question, the oldest of all woodworking machines. In its early form,
it consisted of two holding centers with the suspended stock rotated by an endless rope belt. It was
operated by having one person pull on the rope hand over hand while the cutting was done by a
second person holding crude hand tools on an improvised beam rest.
The actual operations of woodturning performed on a modern lathe are still done to a great degree
with woodturner’s hand tools. Machine lathe work is coming more and more into use with the
introduction of newly designed lathes for that purpose. The size of a lathe is determined by the
maximum diameter of the work it can swing over its bed. The lathe is used in turning or shaping round
drums, disks, or any object that requires a true diameter. There are various sizes and types of wood
lathes, ranging from very small sizes for delicate work to large surface or bull lathes that can swing
jobs 15 feet in diameter.

10-4
A type of woodworking lathe that you may find in
your shop is illustrated in Figure 10-7. It is made in
three sizes to swing 16-, 20-, and 24-inch diameter
stock. The lathe has four major parts: the bed,
headstock, tailstock, and tool rest.
The lathe shown in Figure 10-7 has an iron bed and
comes in assorted lengths. The bed is a broad, flat
surface that supports the other parts of the machine.
The headstock is mounted on the left end of the
lathe bed. All power for the lathe is transmitted
through the headstock. It has a fully enclosed motor
that gives variable spindle speed. The spindle is
threaded at the front end to receive the faceplate. A
faceplate attachment to the motor spindle is
furnished to hold or mount small jobs having large
diameters. There is also a flange on the rear end of
the spindle to receive large faceplates, which are
held securely by four stud bolts. Figure 10-7 — Woodworking lathe.
The tailstock is located on the right end of the lathe and is movable along the length of the bed. It
supports one end of the work while the other end is being turned by the headstock spur. The tail
center can be removed from the stock by simply backing the screw. The shank is tapered to center
the point automatically.
Most large lathes are provided with a power-feeding carriage. A cone-pulley belt arrangement
provides power from the motor, and trackways are cast to the inside of the bed for sliding the carriage
back and forth. All machines have a metal bar that can be attached to the bed of the lathe between
the operator and the work. This bar serves as a hand tool rest and provides support for the operator
in guiding tools along the work. It may be of any size and is adjustable to any desired position.
In lathe work, wood is rotated against the special cutting tools, illustrated in Figure 10-8. These tools
include turning gouges; skew chisels; parting tools; and round nose, square nose, and spear-point
chisels. Other cutting tools are toothing irons and auxiliary aids, such as calipers, dividers, and
templates.
Turning gouges are used chiefly to rough out nearly all shapes in spindle turning. The gouge sizes
vary from 1/8 to 2 inches or more, with 1/4-, 3/4-, and 1-inch sizes being the most common.
Skew chisels are used for smoothing cuts to finish a surface, turning beads, trimming ends or
shoulders, and making V-cuts. They are made in sizes from 1/8 to 2 1/2 inches in width and in right-
and left-handed pairs.
Parting tools are used to cut recesses or grooves with straight sides and a flat bottom, and also to cut
off finished work from the faceplate. These tools are available in sizes ranging from 1/8 to 3/4 inch.
The toothing iron, shown in Figure 10-9, is basically a square nose turning chisel with a series of
parallel grooves cut into the top surface of the iron. These turning tools are used for rough turning of
segment work mounted on the faceplate. The points of the toothing iron created by the parallel
grooves serve as a series of spear-point chisels. The toothing iron is made with coarse, medium, and
fine parallel grooves and varies from 1/2 to 2 inches in width.

10-5
Figure 10-8 — Lathe cutting tools.

Figure 10-9 — Toothing iron.

10-6
Jointer
The jointer (Figure 10-10) is a machine for power
planing stock on faces, edges, and ends. The size of
a jointer is designated by the width in inches of the
cutter head. Sizes range from 4 to 36 inches.

Figure 10-10 — 6-inch jointer.

The planing is done by a revolving cutter head


equipped with two or more knives, as shown in Figure
10-11. Tightening the set screws forces the throat
piece against the knife for removal.
Figure 10-11 — Four-blade cutting
head for a jointer.
The principle on which the jointer functions is
illustrated in Figure 10-12. The table consists
of two parts on either side of the cutter head.
The stock is started on the infeed table and fed
past the cutter head onto the outfeed table.

Figure 10-12 — Operating principle of a jointer.

The surface of the outfeed table must be exactly level with


the highest point reached by the knife edges. The surface of
the infeed table is depressed below the surface of the
outfeed table an amount equal to the desired depth of cut.
The usual depth of cut is about 1/16 to 1/8 inch.

Surfacer
A single surfacer, also called a single planer, is shown in
Figure 10-13. This machine surfaces stock on one face, the
upper face, only. Double surfacers, which surface both faces
Figure 10-13 — Single surfacer. at the same time, are used only in large planing mills.
10-7
The single surfacer cuts with a cutter head similar to the one on the jointer, but the single surfacer’s
cutter head is located above, instead of just below, the drive rollers. The part adjacent to the cutter
head is pressed down against the feed bed by the chip breakers just ahead of the cutter head and the
pressure bar just behind the cutter heads. The pressure bar temporarily straightens out any warp a
piece may have; a piece that goes into the surfacer warped will come out warped. This result is not a
defect in the machine; the surfacer is designed for surfacing only, not for truing warped stock.
If you desire true plane surfaces, the face of the stock that goes down in the surfacer must be trued
on the jointer before feeding the piece through the surfacer. If the face that goes down in the surfacer
is true, the surfacer will plane the other face true.

Shaper

CAUTION
The spindle shaper is one of the most dangerous machines
used in the shop. Use extreme caution at all times.

The shaper is designed primarily for edging curved stock and cutting ornamental edges, as on
moldings. It can also be used for rabbeting, grooving, fluting, and beading.
For shaping the side edges on a rectangular piece, a light-duty
shaper has an adjustable fence, such as the one shown on the
shaper in Figure 10-14. For shaping the end edges on a
rectangular piece, a machine of this type has a sliding fence
similar to the cutoff gauge on a circular saw. The sliding fence
slides in the groove shown in the table top.
On larger machines, the fence consists of a board straightedge,
clamped to the table with a hand screw (Figure 10-15). A
semicircular opening is sawed in the edge of the straightedge
to accommodate the spindle and the cutters. Whenever
possible, a guard of the type shown in the figure should be
placed over the spindle.

Figure 10-14 — Light-duty


shaper with adjustable fence.

The table usually has a couple of holes, one on either side of the
spindle, into which vertical starter pins can be inserted for shaping
curved edges. When a curved edge is being shaped, the piece is
guided by and steadied against the starter pin and the ball bearing
collar on the spindle.
A flat cutter for a shaper is shown in Figure 10-16. When in use,
the cutter is mounted on a vertical spindle and held in place by a
hexagonal spindle nut. A grooved collar is placed below and
above the cutter to receive the edges of the knives. Ball bearing
Figure 10-15 — Heavy-duty collars are available for use as guides on irregular work where the
shaper with fence and guard.
10-8
fence is not used. The part of the edge that is to remain
uncut runs against a ball bearing collar underneath the
cutter. Cutters come with cutting edges in a great variety
of shapes.

Bench Grinder
Bench grinders (Figure 10-17) are used for reshaping
and sharpening chisels, drills, hatchets, and other similar
small hand tools.

Figure 10-16 — Three-wing cutter for a


shaper.

The bench grinder consists of a tool rest, an


abrasive wheel, and an encased motor
assembly. The clamp is used for fastening the
grinder to a working surface. The rest supports
tools that are being ground. It is adjustable and
may be moved from side to side. The abrasive
wheel may be changed, depending upon the
Figure 10-17 — Bench grinder. type of metal being ground.

Valve Grinder
The valve grinder (Figure 10-18) is a hand-
operated special grinder. It is used for grinding
the valve seating surfaces on combustion
engines. It grinds with cutting blades on a
rotating shaft instead of an abrasive wheel. It
consists of a handle, interchangeable shafts,
and cutting blades. A suction cup valve grinder
(Figure 10-19) is used to grind nonslotted
valves to fit seating surfaces.

Figure 10-18 — Valve grinder. Figure 10-19 — Suction cup valve grinder.

10-9
Sharpening Stones
Sharpening stones usually have one coarse face and
one fine face. This design could combine coarse
artificial stone with fine natural stone. The coarse edge
is used to remove nicks and reshape the tool being
sharpened. The fine edge is used to complete the
sharpening process and put a keen edge on the tool.
Sharpening stones are available in various shapes and
sizes, as shown in Figure 10-20.

Using a Tilt-Arbor Table Saw


To rip stock, remove the cutoff gauges and set the rip
fence away from the saw by a distance equal to the
desired width of the piece to be ripped off. Place the Figure 10-20 — Sharpening stones.
piece with one edge against the fence and feed
through with the fence as a guide.
To cut stock square, set the cutoff gauge at 90 degrees to the line of the saw, and set the ripping
fence to the outside edge of the table, away from the stock to be cut. Place the piece with one edge
against the cutoff gauge, hold it firmly, and feed it through by pushing the gauge along its slot. To cut
stock at an angle other than 90 degrees, also known as miter cutting, the process is similar, except
that the cutoff gauge is set to bring the piece to the desired angle with the line of the saw.
For ordinary ripping or cutting, the saw blade should extend above the table top 1/8 to 1/4 inch plus the
thickness of the piece to be sawed. The vertical position of the saw is controlled by the depth of the
cut handwheel, shown in Figure 10-2. The angle of the saw blade is controlled by the tilt handwheel.
Except when its removal is absolutely unavoidable, the guard must be kept in place.
The slot in the table through which the saw blade extends is called the throat. The throat is contained
in a small, removable section of the table called the throat plate. The throat plate is removed when it
is necessary to insert a wrench to remove the saw blade. The blade is held on the arbor by the arbor
nut. A saw is usually equipped with several throat plates, containing throats of various widths. A wider
throat is required when a dado head is used on the saw. A dado head consists of two outside
grooving saws, which are much like combination saws, and as many intermediate chisel-type cutters
(chippers) as required to make up the designated width of the groove or dado. Grooving saws are
usually 1/8-inch thick, so one grooving saw will cut a 1/8-inch groove, and two used together will cut a
1
/4-inch groove. Intermediate cutters come in various thicknesses.

Using a Bench Grinder

WARNING
Wear eye protection and watch your fingers. Firmly hold
tools being shaped firmly so they will not catch in abrasive
wheel and cause injury.

10-10
CAUTION
Never use a cracked wheel. Before using a wheel, tap it
lightly with a mallet. A ringing sound indicates that the
wheel is satisfactory; a dull sound indicates that the wheel
may be cracked.

The following steps describe how to use a bench grinder properly:


1. Before using, inspect the grinder and abrasive wheel, checking for cracks or breaks on
exposed surfaces.
2. Loosen the wing nut on the rest, adjust the rest (Figure 10-21), and tighten the wing nut.
3. Support the tool to be ground on the rest.
4. Move the tool back and forth across the abrasive wheel face to be sure of an evenly ground
surface (Figure 10-22).
5. Stop grinding occasionally to check for the desired edge.
When the desired edge is obtained, you are finished. Store grinder in its designated storage area.

Figure 10-21 — Adjust the tool rest. Figure 10-22 — Sharpen the tool.

Using a Sharpening Stone

WARNING
Keep your fingers clear of the hinge area of a pocket knife.

10-11
NOTE
Unless stone is already oil-impregnated, apply a light coat
of oil before and during use.

The following steps describe how to use a sharpening


stone properly:
1. Hold the handle of the blade to be sharpened in one
hand and extend the blade across the stone.
2. Press down on the blade with the fingers of the other
hand (Figure 10-23).
3. With a circular or arch motion, stroke the blade
against the sharpening stone.
4. After several strokes, reverse the blade and stroke
the other side in a similar manner. Use light, even
pressure.
5. Repeat stroking action until the desired edge is
obtained.

Care of Shop Tools


Figure 10-23 — Using a sharpening
Observe the following guidelines when working with all stone.
shop tools:
• Always use ear and eye protection when operating a power tool.
• Keep your fingers away from the moving blade.
• Avoid loose clothing, jewelry, and anything that can get caught in the power tool.
• When you replace a blade, make sure it is set to rotate in the proper direction.
• Use the correct blade for the material you are cutting. Keep blades sharp and watch for
overheated or vibrating blades.
• Unplug the tool before changing blades or making adjustments.
• Never leave a tool unattended with the power on.

Care of Tilt-Arbor Table Saws


Observe the following guidelines when working with a tilt-arbor table saw:
• Make sure the saw blade is sharp, unbroken, and free from cracks before using. Change the
blade if it becomes dull, cracked, chipped, or warped.
• Be sure the saw blade is set at the proper height above the table to cut through the wood.
• Stand to one side of the saw to avoid being hit by materials caused by kickbacks.
• Use a push stick to push short, narrow pieces between the saw blade and the gauge.
• Keep stock and scraps from accumulating on the saw table and in the immediate working area.

10-12
• Use the tilt-arbor table saw appropriately. Avoid the following actions:
o Feeding wood into the saw blade faster than it will cut freely and cleanly.
o Reaching over the saw to obtain material from the other side.
o Using a ripsaw blade for crosscutting or using a crosscut blade for ripping. If you rip and
crosscut frequently, you should install a combination blade to eliminate constantly
changing the blade.

Care of Band Saws


Observe the following guidelines when working with a band saw:
• Keep the table clear of stock and scraps so your work will not catch as you push it along.
• Keep the upper guide just above the work, not excessively high.
• Ensure that the blade is not cracked. If a blade develops a click as it passes through the work,
shut off the power. The click is a danger signal that the blade is cracked and may be ready to
break. Shut off the power immediately and wait until the saw blade has stopped moving before
you replace the cracked blade with one in proper condition.
• If the saw blade breaks, shut off the power immediately and wait until the machine is
completely stopped before you attempt to remove any part of the saw blade.
• Make sure that the blade is working freely through the cut. If the work binds or pinches on the
blade, wait until the machine is completely stopped before you attempt to back the work away
from the blade; otherwise, you may break the blade.
• Take particular care when sharpening or brazing a band saw blade. Make sure the blade is not
overheated and the brazed joints are thoroughly united and finished to the same thickness as
the rest of the blade. All band saw blades should be butt welded where possible.
• Use the band saw appropriately. Avoid the following actions:
o Using a band saw when the temperature is below 45 degrees Fahrenheit. The blade
may break from the cold.
o Using a small saw blade for large work or forcing a wide saw on a small radius. The saw
blade should always be as wide as the nature of the work will permit.
o Stopping a band saw by thrusting a piece of wood against the cutting edge or side of
the band saw blade immediately after the power has been shut off may cause the blade
to break. Band saws with 36-inch wheel diameters and larger should have a hand or
foot brake.

Care of Drill Presses


Observe the following guidelines when working with a drill press:
• Make sure that the drill is properly secured in the chuck and that the chuck key is removed
before starting the drill press.
• Make sure your material is properly secured.
• Operate the feed handle with a slow, steady pressure to make sure you do not break the drill
bit or cause the V-belt to slip.
• Make sure all locking handles are tight and that the V-belt is not slipping.

10-13
• Make sure the electric cord is securely connected and in good shape.
• Listen for any sounds that may be signs of trouble.
• After you have finished operating the drill press, make sure the area is clean.

Care of Woodworking Lathes


Lathe turning can be extremely dangerous. You must use particular care in this work.
Observe the following guidelines when working with a woodworking lathe:
• When starting the lathe motor, stand to one side to avoid the hazard of flying debris in the
event of defective material.
• You must use the tool rest when milling stock.
• Adjust and set the compound or tool rest for the start of the cut before turning the switch on.
• Take very light cuts, especially when using hand tools.
• Never attempt to use calipers on interrupted surfaces while the work is in motion.

Care of Jointers
The jointer is one of the most dangerous machines in the woodworking shop. Only experienced and
responsible personnel should be allowed to operate it.
Observe the following guidelines when working with a jointer:
• Always plane with the grain. A piece of wood planed against the grain on a jointer may be
kicked back.
• Never place your hands directly over the inner cutter head. Should the piece of wood kick
back, your hands will drop on the blades. Start with your hands on the infeed bed. When the
piece of wood is halfway through the jointer, reach around with your left hand and steady the
piece of wood on the out feed bed. Finish with both your hands on the outfeed bed.
• Never feed a piece of wood with your thumb or finger against the end of the piece of wood
being fed into the jointer. Keep your hands on top of the wood at all times.
• Avoid jointing short pieces of wood whenever possible. Joint a longer piece of wood and then
cut it to the desired size. If you must joint a piece of wood shorter than 18 inches, use a push
stick to feed it through the jointer.
• Never use a jointer with dull cutter blades. Dull blades have a tendency to kick the piece, and a
kickback is always dangerous.
• Keep the jointer table and the floor around the jointer clear of scraps, chips, and shavings.
Always stop the jointer before brushing off and cleaning up the scraps, chips, and shavings.
• Never joint a piece of wood that contains loose knots.
• Keep your eyes and undivided attention on the jointer as you are working. Do not talk to
anyone while operating the jointer.
The level of the outfeed table must be checked frequently to ensure the surface is exactly even with
the highest point reached by the knife edges. If the outfeed table is too high, the cut will become
progressively shallower as the piece is fed through. If the outfeed table is too low, the piece will drop
downward as it leaves the infeed table, and the cut for the last inch or so will be too deep.

10-14
To set the outfeed table to the correct height:
1. Feed a piece of waste stock past the cutter head until a few inches of it lie on the outfeed
table.
2. Stop the machine and look under the outfeed end of the piece. If the outfeed table is too low, a
space will be between the surface of the table and the lower face of the piece. Raise the
outfeed table until this space is eliminated. If no space appears, lower the outfeed table until a
space does appear.
3. Run the stock back through the machine. If there is still space, raise the table just enough to
eliminate it.
Note that the cutter head cuts toward the infeed table. To cut with the grain, you must place the piece
with the grain running toward the infeed table. A piece is edged by feeding it through on edge with
one of the faces held against the fence. A piece is surfaced by feeding it through flat with one of the
edges against the fence. This operation should be limited to straightening the face of the stock. The
fence can be set at 90 degrees to produce squared faces and edges or at any desired angle to
produce beveled edges or ends.
Only use sharp and evenly balanced knives in a jointer cutting head. The knives must not be set to
take too heavy a cut because a kickback is almost certain to result, especially if there is a knot or
change of grain in the stock. You must securely refasten the knives after the machine has been
standing in a cold building over the weekend.
Each hand-fed jointer should be equipped with a cylindrical cutting head, the throat of which should
not exceed 7/16 inch in depth or 5/8 inch in width. It is strongly recommended that no cylinder be used
in which the throat exceeds 3/8 inch in depth or 1/2 inch in width.
Each hand-fed jointer should have an automatic guard that covers all the sections of the head on the
working side of the fence or gauge. The guard should automatically adjust horizontally for edge
jointing and vertically for surface work, and it should remain in contact with the material at all times.

Care of Surfacers
Observe the following guidelines when working with a surfacer:
• Metal guards should cover the cutting head.
• A hood or a semi-cylindrical guard should guard the feed rolls.
• Never force wood through the machine.
• If a piece of wood gets stuck, turn off the surfacer and lower the feed bed.

Care of Shapers
Observe the following guidelines when working with a shaper:
• Like the jointer and surfacer, the shaper cuts toward the infeed side of the spindle; this motion
is against the rotation of the spindle.
• Make sure the cutters are sharp and well secured.
• If shaping curved or irregularly shaped edges, place the stock in position and make sure the
collar will rub against part of the edge, which you should not remove.
• Whenever the straight fence cannot be used, always use a starting pin in the table top.
• Never make extremely deep cuts.

10-15
• Make sure the shaper cutters rotate toward the pressure bar, hold-down, or holding jig.
• If possible, place the cutter on the shaper spindle so that the cutting will be done on the lower
side of the stock.
• Do not attempt to shape small pieces of wood.
• Check all adjustments before turning on the power.

Care of Bench Grinders


Observe the following guidelines when working with a bench grinder:
• Wipe oil and grease from all outside surfaces before and after each use.
• Tighten all housing screws before and after each use.
• Before using, check to be sure that the abrasive wheel is not cracked or broken.

Care of Sharpening Stones


Observe the following guidelines when working with sharpening stones:
• Prevent glazing of stone by applying light oil while using.
• Wipe excess oil and grit from stone with a clean rag after each use.
• Clean stone with dry cleaning solvent when it becomes glazed or gummed up.
• Store in a clean, dry place and/or wrap in clean cloth.

10-16
End of Chapter 10
Shop Tools
Review Questions
10-1. What saw has an arm that limits the length or width of a cut?

A. Band
B. Compound miter
C. Radial arm
D. Table

10-2. Which of the following saws is pivoted to the correct angle and dropped onto the material?

A. Band
B. Compound miter
C. Radial arm
D. Table

10-3. Which of the following saws is designed for making curved cuts?

A. Band
B. Compound miter
C. Radial arm
D. Table

10-4. What shop tool is considered the oldest of all woodworking machines?

A. Drill press
B. Jointer
C. Planer
D. Woodworking lathe

10-5. What shop tool is also called a single planer?

A. Bench grinder
B. Shaper
C. Surfacer
D. Tile saw

10-6. What shop tool is designed primarily for edging curved stock and for cutting ornamental
edges?

A. Bench grinder
B. Shaper
C. Surfacer
D. Tile saw

10-17
10-7. What grinder is used to sharpen chisels, drills, and other similar small hand tools?

A. Bench
B. Cylinder
C. Tilt arbor
D. Valve

10-8. What grinder is used to grind the seating surfaces on combustion engines?

A. Bench
B. Cylinder
C. Tilt arbor
D. Valve

10-9. What type of sharpening stone removes nicks from the tool being sharpened?

A. Bench grinder
B. Coarse edge
C. Fine edge
D. Leather strop

10-10. What type of sharpening stone completes the sharpening process?

A. Bench grinder
B. Coarse edge
C. Fine edge
D. Leather strop

10-11. What tilt-arbor table saw attachment must be in place to rip stock?

A. Material clamp
B. Miter fence
C. Rip fence
D. Rip gauge

10-12. What tilt-arbor table saw attachment must be in place to cut stock square?

A. Cutoff gauge
B. Miter gauge
C. Rip fence
D. Rip gauge

10-13. The blade of a tilt-arbor table saw should extend what minimum distance above the thickness
of the piece to be sawed?
1
A. /4 millimeter
1
B. /2 centimeter
1
C. /8 inch
1
D. /4 inch

10-18
10-14. When using a tilt-arbor table saw to cut a groove, which of the following types of heads should
you use?

A. Dado
B. Mortise-and-tenon
C. Rabbet
D. Tooth-and-sprocket

10-15. Before using a grinder, what first step should you take?

A. Adjust the tool rest


B. Plug the grinder in
C. Inspect the abrasive wheel for cracks or breaks
D. Practice moving the tool back forth across the wheel

10-16. To ensure an evenly ground surface, you should move the item across the bench grinder in what
direction?

A. Back and forth


B. Box shaped
C. Circular
D. Up and down

10-17. When using a sharpening stone, you should move the blade across the stone in what kind of
pattern?

A. Box shaped
B. Circular
C. Diamond
D. Straight line

10-18. When using a sharpening stone, what type of pressure should you use?

A. Heavy and even


B. Heavy and intermittent
C. Light and even
D. Light and intermittent

10-19. Which of the following safety precautions applies to all shop tools?

A. Make sure the material is properly secured


B. Always wear ear and eye protection when operating a power tool
C. Ensure the saw blade is set at the proper height above the table
D. Wipe oil and grease from all outside surfaces before and after each use

10-20. Before making any adjustments to shop tools, what action should you first perform?

A. Clean the tool


B. Remove excess jewelry
C. Select the proper blade
D. Unplug the tool
10-19
10-21. On a tilt-arbor table saw, what item, if any, should be used to push narrow pieces of wood
between the blade and gauge?

A. Broom stick
B. Push stick
C. Rip fence gauge
D. None

10-22. When using a band saw during cold weather, at what temperature will the blade break from the
cold?

A. 45 degrees Fahrenheit
B. 54 degrees Fahrenheit
C. 45 degrees Celsius
D. 54 degrees Celsius

10-23. When using a drill press, what type of pressure should you use on the feed handle?

A. Fast and sporadic


B. Fast and steady
C. Slow and sporadic
D. Slow and steady

10-24. When using a jointer, in which direction should you plane?

A. Against the grain


B. Diagonally across the grain
C. Perpendicular to the grain
D. With the grain

10-20
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

10-21
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 11
PORTABLE HAND TOOLS
Portable hand tools are designed for a wide variety of uses, including construction, tree cutting,
bridging, or tree clearing. Portable electric hand tools increase production and reduce time and
manpower. This chapter will provide the basic information on portable hand tools. You will be required
to operate different types of portable hand tools in the field. You need to understand the safety
precautions associated with them.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of portable hand tools and their uses. You will also
learn how to select the right tool for the job, use various types of portable hand tools, and provide the
proper care of the portable hand tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of portable power drills.
2. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to power drills.
3. Identify the different types of portable electrical saws.
4. Determine the proper use of portable electrical saws.
5. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to portable electrical saws.
6. Determine the proper use of a router.
7. Determine the proper use of a portable power plane.
8. Identify the different types of portable sanders.
9. Identify the different types of grinders.
10. Determine the proper use of a grinder.
11. Identify the different types of powder-actuated tools.
12. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to powder-actuated tools.

POWER DRILLS
Types and Uses
Power Drill
Power drills (Figure 11-1) have generally replaced hand
tools for drilling holes because they are faster and more
accurate. With variable speed controls and special clutch
drive chucks, they can also be used as electric
screwdrivers. More specialized power-driven screwdrivers
are also available, which have greatly increased the
efficiency of many fastening operations in construction
work.
Figure 11-1 — Power drill.

11-1
The two basic designs for portable electric drills are the
spade design (Figure 11-1) for heavy-duty construction and
the pistol-grip design (Figure 11-2) for lighter work. Sizes of
power drills are based on the diameter of the largest drill
shank that will fit into the chuck of the drill.
A right angle drill (Figure 11-3) is a specialty drill used in
plumbing and electrical work. This drill allows you to drill
holes at a right angle to the drill body.

Figure 11-2 — Light-duty power drill.

Figure 11-3 — Right angle drill.

Electric Hammer Drill


The electric hammer drill (Figure 11-4) consists of
the housing and a spade or pistol-grip handle. A
strong spring inside the housing moves a steel piston
back and forth in a pounding motion. The housing
muzzle is designed to hold a variety of bits, which
give the electric hammer great versatility. Examples
of possible uses for this tool are beveling, pounding,
digging, and breaking operations.

Figure 11-4 — Electric hammer drill.

Electric Impact Wrench


The electric impact wrench (Figure 11-5) consists of a
pistol-grip handle on a housing, which contains a
motor that energizes the driving anvil inside the
muzzle of the housing. Attachments are fastened to
the driving anvil by snapping them onto the socket
retainer. The portable electric wrench with its
accompanying equipment is primarily intended for
applying and removing nuts, bolts, and screws. It may
also be used to drill and tap wood, metal, plastics, and
so forth, and to drive and remove socket head or self-
tapping screws.
Figure 11-5 — Electric impact wrench. 11-2
Using Power Drills
Using a Power Drill

WARNING
Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly
grounded.

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

NOTE
A firm grip is required to turn chuck key in either direction.

The following steps describe how to use a power


drill properly:
1. Select the proper bit required for the task.
2. Fit the chuck key into the side adjusting
hole between the jaws and the chuck
(Figure 11-6) and turn the key
counterclockwise until the chuck opens
enough to admit the bit shank.
3. Insert the bit in to the chuck jaws and
tighten securely by turning the chuck key
clockwise. Remove the chuck key and store
where the key will not get lost.
4. Before drilling, ensure the work is stationary
or firmly secured.
5. Use a center punch or awl to make a small
Figure 11-6 — Drill chuck and key.
prick point in the spot where the hole will be
made. (The prick point will prevent the drill
bit from bouncing or slipping away from the spot
where the hole is to be drilled.)
6. Connect the electric drill to the power source.
7. Place the drill bit on the marked spot (Figure 11-7)
and depress the trigger switch. Begin drilling,
exerting firm but even pressure to keep the bit
cutting. Withdraw the bit frequently from the work to
clean chips from the bit flutes and to allow the bit to
cool.
8. Ease up on the drill pressure as the bit approaches
the other side of the work surface. Figure 11-7 — Place the drill bit on
11-3 the marked spot.
9. After completing the hole, carefully withdraw the rotating drill bit to prevent binding or breaking
and release trigger switch.

Using an Electric Hammer Drill

WARNING
Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly
grounded.

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

WARNING
The electric hammer produces hazardous noise levels
when in operation. Always wear proper hearing protection
to avoid possible hearing loss.

CAUTION
To prevent unnecessary wear of the precision parts and
components, place the bit against work surface before
operating the switch.

The following steps describe how to use an electric hammer drill


properly:
1. Select the correct attachment required for the task.
2. Insert the attachment into the bit retainer and secure in
place with the locking collar.
3. Connect the hammer to the power source and depress the
handle trigger (Figure 11-8).
4. Apply only enough pressure to keep the bit in contact with
the working surface.
5. Occasionally stop the hammer and clear dust or other
residue from the working surface.

Figure 11-8 — Use an


11-4 electric hammer drill.
Using an Electric Impact Wrench

WARNING
Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly
grounded.

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

WARNING
Do not use standard sockets with any impact tool. Standard
sockets can shatter, causing serious injury and/or damage
to personnel and the equipment.

The following steps describe how to test the function of and use an electric impact wrench properly.
Before using, ensure the electric impact wrench and its reversible features are functioning properly.
Test and use the impact wrench in the following manner:
1. Connect the cord to the power source.
2. Depress the trigger in the forward direction and note the rotating direction of the driving anvil.
3. Stop the wrench and depress the trigger in the reverse direction.
4. Start the wrench again, making sure the driving anvil is now rotating in the opposite direction.
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 several times to verify the wrench is reversing consistently.
6. Disconnect the impact wrench from the
power source.
7. Replace the wrench if it does not perform
in the above manner.
8. After a successful functional test, select
the proper attachment and secure it in
place on the driving anvil (Figure 11-9).
9. Set the ratchet switch in the desired
position for the anvil rotation required.
Reconnect the impact wrench to the
power source.
10. Using both hands, place the impact
wrench on the work surface (Figure 11-
10) and depress the trigger.
11. Continue operation until work is
completed. Release the trigger to stop the Figure 11-9 — Select the proper attachment.
wrench.

11-5
Care of Power Drills
Use the following guidelines when working with portable
power drills:
• Examine the power cord for exposed loose wires
and damaged insulation.
• Make sure that the drill or bit is securely mounted in
the chuck.
• Hold the drill firmly as prescribed by the
manufacturer of the drill.
• When feeding the drill into the material, vary the
pressure you apply to accommodate the different Figure 11-10 — Place the tool on
kinds of stock. Be careful not to bind the drill or bit. the work surface.
• When drilling a deep hole, withdraw the drill several
times to clean the drill bit.

ELECTRIC SAWS
Types and Uses
Circular Saw
The portable electric circular saw is used chiefly as a
great labor-saving device in sawing wood framing
members on the job. The size of a circular saw is
determined by the diameter of the largest blade it can
use. The most commonly used circular saws are the 7
1
/4- and 8 1/4-inch saws. There are two different types
of circular saws: the side drive, shown in Figure 11-
11, and the worm drive, shown in Figure 11-12.

Figure 11-11 — Side drive circular saw.

Figure 11-12 — Worm drive circular saw.

11-6
Circular saws can use many different types of cutting blades,
some of which are shown in Figure 11-13.
Combination crosscut and rip blades—combination blades are all-
purpose blades for cutting thick and thin hardwoods and
softwoods, both with or across the grain. They can also be used to
cut plywood and hardboard.
Crosscut Blades—crosscut blades have fine teeth that cut
smoothly across the grain of both hardwood and softwood. These
blades can be used for plywood, veneers, and hardboard.
Rip Blades—rip blades have bigger teeth than combination blades
and should be used only to cut with the grain. A rip fence or guide
will help you make an accurate cut with this type of blade.
Hollow-Ground Blades—hollow-ground blades have no set. They
make the smoothest cuts on thick or thin stock. Wood cut with
these blades requires little or no sanding.
Abrasive Blades—abrasive blades are used for cutting metal,
masonry, and plastics. These blades are particularly useful for
scoring bricks so they can be easily split.
Make sure that the abrasive blade you choose has a revolution
per minute rating at or above the revolution per minute rating of
the saw. If the blade revolution per minute rating is lower than the
revolution per minute rating of the saw, the blade can shatter or
break, possibly causing injury or damage.

Saber Saw
The saber saw (Figure 11-14), is a power-driven jigsaw that cuts
smooth and decorative curves in wood and light metal. Most saber
saws are light-duty machines and are not designed for extremely
fast cutting.

Figure 11-13 — Circular saw


blades.
Figure 11-14 — Saber saw.

11-7
There are several different, easily
interchangeable blades (Figure 11-15)
designed to operate in the saber saw. Some
blades are designed for cutting wood and some
for cutting metal.
The best way to learn how to handle this type of
tool is to use it. Before trying to do a finished
job with the saber saw, clamp down a piece of
scrap plywood and draw some curved as well
as straight lines to follow. You will develop your
own way of gripping the tool, which will be
affected somewhat by the particular tool you
are using. On some tools, for example, you will
find guiding easier if you apply some downward
pressure on the tool as you move it forward. If
you do not use a firm grip, the tool will tend to
vibrate excessively and roughen the cut. Do not
force the cutting faster than the design of the
blade allows, or you will break the blade.
You can make a pocket cut with a saber saw
just like you can with a circular saw, although Figure 11-15 — Saber saw blades.
you need to drill a starter hole to begin work. A
saber saw can also make bevel-angle and curve
cuts.

Reciprocating Saw
The reciprocating saw (Figure 11-16) is a heavy-
duty power tool used for a variety of woodworking
maintenance work, remodeling, and roughing-in
jobs. You can use it to cut rectangular or curved
openings (along straight or curved lines) and to cut
flush.
Blades for reciprocating saws are made in a great
variety of sizes and shapes. They vary in length Figure 11-16 — Reciprocating saw.
from 2 1/2 to 12 inches and are made of high-speed
steel or carbon steel. They have cutting edges similar
to those shown in Figure 11-15.

Electric Chain Saw


The electrically driven chain saw (Figure 11-17) is a
portable power saw with the teeth arranged on a
flexible steel chainlike belt. It has a pistollike grip
and bar frame above the motor housing for holding
and guiding. Unlike the gasoline-powered chain
saw, the electric chain saw is designed for lighter
work, such as tree trimming and cutting small logs
and timber.
Figure 11-17 — Electric chain saw.

11-8
Using Portable Electric Saws
Using a Circular Saw
The versatility of the circular saw is shown in Figure 11-18. To make an accurate ripping cut (Figure
11-18, view A), set the ripping guide a distance away from the saw equal to the width of the strip to be
ripped off. Then place it against the edge of the piece as a guide for the saw. To make a bevel angle
cut up to 45 degrees (Figure 11-18, view B), just set the bevel adjustment knob to the angle you want
and cut down the line. To make a pocket cut (a square cut in the middle of a piece of material) (Figure
11-18, views C and D), retract the lower guard back and tilt the saw so that it rests on the front of the
base. Lower the rear of the saw into the material until it goes all the way through the wood. Then,
follow your layout line.

Figure 11-18 — Different ways to use a circular saw.

Using a Reciprocating Saw


Before operating this saw, be sure you are using a blade that is right for the job. The manufacturer’s
instruction manual shows the proper saw blade to use for a particular material. The blade must be
pushed securely into the opening provided. Rock it slightly to ensure a correct fit, and then tighten the
setscrew.
To start a cut, place the saw blade near the material to be cut. Then, start the motor and move the
blade into the material. Keep the cutting pressure constant, but do not overload the saw motor. Never
reach underneath the material being cut.

11-9
Using an Electric Chain Saw

WARNING
Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly
grounded.

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

WARNING
The electric chain saw produces hazardous noise levels
when in operation. Always wear proper hearing protection
to avoid hearing loss.

The following steps describe how to use an electric chain saw properly:
1. Verify the power source is disconnected.
2. Before using, ensure that the chain teeth are sharp, undamaged, and in the proper position
(Figure 11-19) (the saw should cut in the direction of arrow).
3. Ensure that the work is stationary and well secured to prevent slippage or movement.
4. Connect the chain saw to the power source.
5. Stand to the left of the saw with your left hand on the front handle and your right hand on the
rear handle, as shown in Figure 11-20.

Figure 11-19 — Ensure the teeth are in Figure 11-20 — Proper hand position.
the proper position.

11-10
NOTE
Reverse the position of the stance and hands if left-handed.

6. With your weight evenly distributed, depress trigger to start the saw.

WARNING
Keep the nose of the guide bar from contacting logs,
branches, the ground, or other obstructions. This contact
can cause kickback, which is a quick and dangerous
upward movement of the guide bar and saw chain.

CAUTION
The saw chain should be at maximum speed before
contacting working surface.

7. Cut with the spike bar set firmly against the wood and apply light pressure.
8. Continue to guide the chain saw through the work until the cut is completed.

Care of Portable Electric Saws


Care of Circular Saws
Observe the following safety precautions when operating a circular saw:
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.
• Wear goggles or face shields while using the saw and while cleaning up debris afterward.
• Before using the saw, carefully examine the material to be cut and free it of nails or other metal
objects. Avoid cutting into or through knots, if possible.
• Inspect the electric cords that you use daily for any cuts or breaks. Before cutting boards,
make sure the cord is not in the way of the blade.
• Make sure all circular saws are equipped with guards that automatically adjust themselves to
the work when in use so that none of the teeth protrude above the work. Adjust the guard over
the blade so that it slides out of its recess and covers the blade to the depth of the teeth when
you lift the saw off the work.
• Disconnect the saw from its power source before making any adjustments or repairs to the
saw, including inspecting and changing the blade.
• Inspect the blade at frequent intervals and always after it has locked, pinched, or burned the
work.
• Grasp the saw with both hands and hold it firmly against the work. Take care to prevent the
saw from breaking away from the work and thereby causing injury.
• Avoid forcing the saw through heavy cutting stock. You can overload the motor and damage it.

11-11
Care of Saber Saws
Observe the following safety precautions when operating the saber saw:
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.
• Before working with the saber saw, be sure to remove your rings, watches, bracelets, and
other jewelry. If you are wearing long sleeves, roll them up.
• Be sure the saber saw is properly grounded.
• Use the proper saw blade for the work to be done, and ensure the blade is securely locked in
place.
• Be sure the material to be cut is free of any obstructions.
• Keep your full attention on the work being performed.
• Grip the handle of the saw firmly. Control the forward and turning movements with your free
hand on the front guide.
• To start a cut, place the forward edge of the saw base on the edge of the material being
worked, start the motor, and move the blade into the material.

Care of Reciprocating Saws


Observe the following safety precautions when operating a reciprocating saw:
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.
• Disconnect the saw when changing blades or making adjustments.
• Place the foot of the saw firmly on the stock before starting to cut.
• Use the reciprocating saw appropriately. Avoid the following actions:
o Cutting curves sharper than the blade can handle.
o Cutting electrical wires when you cut through a wall.

Care of Electric Chain Saws


Observe the following safety precautions when operating an electric chain saw:
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.
• Wear goggles or face shields while using the saw and while cleaning up debris afterward.
• Avoid hitting the ground or other obstructions. Dirt and obstructions may damage the saw
chain and motor.
• Avoid forcing the saw through logs and timber. You can overload and damage the motor.

ROUTERS
The router (Figure 11-21) is a versatile portable power tool that can be used free hand or with jigs and
attachments. It consists of a motor containing a chuck into which the router bits are attached. The
motor slides into the base in a vertical position. By means of the depth adjustment ring, easy
regulation of the depth of a cut is possible. Routers vary in size from 1/4 to 2 1/2 horsepower, and the
motor speed varies from 18,000 to 27,000 revolutions per minute.

11-12
One of the most practical accessories for the router
is the edge guide. It is used to guide the router in a
straight line along the edge of the board. The edge
guide is particularly useful for cutting grooves on
long pieces of lumber. The two rods on the edge
guide slip into the two holes provided on the router
base. The edge guide can be adjusted to move in
or out along the two rods to obtain the desired
lateral depth cut.
There are two classifications of router bits: built-in
(or shank-type) and screw-type. Built-in bits fit into
the chuck of the router. Screw-type bits have a
threaded hole through the center of the cutting
head, which allows the cutting head to be screwed Figure 11-21 — Portable router with edge
to the shank. A few of the most common router bits guide.
are shown in Figure 11-22.

Figure 11-22 — Common router bits.


11-13
Care of Routers
Observe the following safety precautions when operating a router:
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.
• Before operating a router, be sure the work piece is well secured and free of obstruction.
• Make sure the router is disconnected from the power source before making any adjustment or
changing bits.
• Use both hands to hold the router when cutting the material.
• Avoid overloading the router when cutting the material.

POWER PLANE
The portable electric power plane (Figure 11-23) is
widely used for trimming panels, doors, frames, and
so forth. It is a precision tool capable of exact
cutting depth up to 3/16 inch on some of the heavier
models. The maximum safe depth of cut on any
model is 3/32 inch in any one pass. The power plane
is a high-speed motor that drives a cutter bar,
containing either straight or spiral blades, at high
speed.

Using a Power Plane


Operating the power plane is a matter of setting the
depth of cut and passing the plane over the work.
The following steps describe how to use a power Figure 11-23 — Portable power plane.
plane properly:
1. Make careful measurements of the piece and where it is to fit, and determine how much
material has to be removed.
2. The stock being planed should be held in a vise, clamped to the edge of a bench, or otherwise
firmly held.
3. Check the smoothness and straightness of all the edges.
4. If a smoothing cut is desired, make that cut first and then recheck the dimensions. Make as
many passes as necessary with the plane to reach the desired dimensions. Check frequently
so you do not remove too much material. The greater the depth of the cut, the more slowly you
must feed the tool into the work. Feed pressure should be enough to keep the tool cutting, but
not so much as to slow it down excessively.
5. Keep wood chips off the work because they can mar the surface of the stock as the tool
passes over them.
6. Keep your hands away from the cutter head or blades when a cut is finished.
The L-shaped base, or fence, of the plane should be pressed snugly against the work when planing,
assuring that the edge will be cut square. For bevel cuts, loosen the setscrew on the base, set the
base at the desired bevel, and then retighten the setscrew.

11-14
Care of Power Planes
Observe the following safety precautions when operating a portable power plane:
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.
• Make sure that the plane is turned off before plugging it in.
• Make sure you disconnect the plug before making any adjustments.
• Always clamp your work securely in the best position to perform the planing.
• Use both hands to operate the power plane.
• Make sure you disconnect the power cord when you are finished planing.

SANDERS
Types and Uses
There are three types of portable sanders: belt, disk, and finish.

Belt Sander
When using a belt sander (Figure 11-24), be careful not to gouge the wood. The size of a belt sander
is usually identified by the width of its sanding belt. Belt widths on heavier duty models are usually 3
or 4 inches. Depending on the make and model, belt lengths vary from 21 to 27 inches. Different
grades of abrasives are available.

Disk Sander
The disk sander (Figure 11-25) is a useful tool for removing old finish, paint, and varnish from siding,
wood flooring, and concrete. For best results with a disk sander, tip the machine lightly with just
enough pressure to bend the disk. Use a long, sweeping motion, back and forth, advancing along the
surface. When using a disk sander, always operate it with both hands.

Figure 11-24 — Belt sander. Figure 11-25 — Disk sander.

11-15
Finish Sander
Finish sanders are used for light and fine sanding. Two kinds of finish sanders are available. The
orbital sander (Figure 11-26) operates with an orbital or circular motion. The oscillating sander (Figure
11- 27) has a back-and-forth movement. Finish sanders use regular abrasive paper (sandpaper) cut
to size from full sheets.

Figure 11-26 — Orbital sander. Figure 11-27 — Oscillating sander.

Using a Portable Sander

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

WARNING
Electrical shock may occur if the tool is improperly
grounded.

WARNING
The electric sander produces hazardous noise levels when
in operation. Always wear proper hearing protection to
avoid hearing loss.

The following steps describe how to use an electric sander properly:


1. Select the proper attachment and secure it to the spindle (Figure 11-28) by depressing locking
button and tightening spindle as shown.
2. Make sure the work surface is secured to prevent movement.
3. Connect the sander to the power source. Depress the switch on the sander so that the
attachment is turning before placing it on the work surface.
11-16
CAUTION
Using excessive pressure will slow up the sanding action,
clog the disk, and cause motor to overheat.

4. With one hand on each handle, begin sweeping the sander back and forth across the work
surface, as illustrated in Figure 11-29.
5. During operation, tilt the sander slightly so the entire disk does not contact the work surface.
6. Brush or clean the sanding dirt from the work surface frequently.
7. When finished, lift the sander from the work surface before turning off the switch.

Figure 11-28 — Secure the proper Figure 11-29 — Use a sweeping motion.
attachment to the spindle.

Care of Portable Sanders


Observe the following safety tips when operating portable sanders:
• Wear respiratory protection while using a portable sander.
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation.
• Make sure the sander is off before plugging it in.
• Make sure the sander is disconnected when changing the sandpaper.
• Make sure that you use two hands when using the belt sander.
• Use light pressure on the sander. The weight of the sander is enough to sand the material.
• Keep the electrical cord away from the area being sanded.

11-17
GRINDERS
Types and Uses
Portable Grinder
The most useful power tool for surface
preparations is the portable grinder, as shown in
Figure 11-30. This tool usually comes equipped
with a grinding wheel that, for wire brushing
purposes, is replaced by either the rotary wheel
wire brush or the rotary cup wire brush. The light-
duty brushes are made of crimped wire, and the
Figure 11-30 — Portable grinder.
heavy-duty brushes are made of tufts of wire
formed by twisting together several strands of
wire.

Rotary Scaling Tool


A rotary scaling and chipping tool (Figure 11-31),
sometimes called a deck crawler, is powered
electrically and has a bundle of cutters (or chippers)
mounted on either side. In use, it is pushed along the
surface to be scaled, with the rotating cutters doing
the work. Replacement bundles of cutters are
available.
Rotary scalers are used to remove rust, scale, and
old paint from metallic and masonry surfaces. You
must be especially careful when using these tools
because they will "chew" up anything in their path.
Avoid getting the power line or any part of your body
Figure 11-31 — Rotary scaling and
in their way.
chipping tool.
Using a Portable Grinder
Before operating a portable grinder, be sure you are using the proper disk. The manufacturer’s
instruction manual shows the proper disk to use for grinding or cutting. The blade must be secured on
the spindle. Make sure the work surface is secured to prevent movement.
To start grinding, hold the grinder firmly with both hands and place the disk near the working area.
Start the motor and allow the grinder to reach the operating speed. Move the grinder across the work
area, applying light pressure to prevent overheating the work and the disk. When you have finished
grinding, lift the grinder off the surface of the work slowly.

Care of Portable Grinders


Observe the following safety tips when operating portable grinders:
• Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and damaged insulation. Keep the electrical
cord away from the business end of the grinder.
• Always wear eye protection when using portable grinders.
• Wear hearing protection, especially for extended operation.

11-18
• Wear respiratory protection while using a portable grinder.
• If you drop a portable grinder or a wheel, inspect it very carefully for damage.
• Make sure the grinder is off before plugging it in.
• Make sure the grinder is disconnected when replacing the cutters.
• Make sure that you use two hands when using a grinder.
• The weight of the grinder is enough pressure for proper operation.
• Do not wear loose clothing when grinding.
• Do not use grinders in the vicinity of flammable materials.

POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS
Powder-actuated tools, also known as direct fastening tools (Figure 11-32), are used in construction
to join materials to hard substrates, such as concrete and steel. Each of these tools holds a charge of
gunpowder, which is ignited and blows the fastener into place.

Figure 11-32 — Powder-actuated tools.

Powder-actuated tools come in either low- or high-velocity types. Low-velocity tools introduce a piston
into the chamber. The propellant acts on the piston, which then drives the fastener into the substrate.
A powder-actuated tool is considered to be low velocity if the average test velocity of the fastener
does not exceed 492 feet per second.
In high-velocity tools, which are now illegal to manufacture and/or sell in the United States, the
propellant acts directly on the fastener, very similar to how a firearm works. Although high-velocity
tools are now illegal to manufacture and sell, some that were made decades ago are still in use in the
shipbuilding and steel industries.
Powder-actuated fasteners are usually nails made of high-quality, hardened steel, although there are
many specialized fasteners designed for specific applications in the construction and manufacturing
industries. Powder-actuated fastening is a unique and very cost-efficient method used in a variety of
construction situations, from home building to large urban structures.
Powder-actuated technology was developed for commercial use during the Second World War, when
high-velocity fastening systems were used to temporarily repair damage to ships. In the case of hull
breach, these tools are used to fasten a plate of steel over the damaged area.

Care of Powder-Actuated Tools


Powder-actuated tools are very dangerous, and it is critically important that they are used properly
and safely. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires safety training be
11-19
completed by all users before they work with powder-actuated tools. A summary of OSHA
requirements follows:
• Test powder-actuated fastening tools each day before loading to ensure that the safety
devices are in proper working condition. Immediately remove from service any tool found not to
be in proper working order until repairs are made.
• Do not use powder-actuated fastening tools shall in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.
• Use all tools with the type of shield or muzzle guard appropriate for a particular use.
• Do not drive fasteners into very hard or brittle materials, such as cast iron, glazed tile, surface
hardened steel, glass block, live rock, face brick, or hollow title.
• Do not drive fasteners into soft materials unless such materials are backed by a substance that
will prevent the pin or fastener from passing completely through and creating a flying missile
hazard on the opposite side.
• Unless a special guard, fixture, or jig is used, do not drive fasteners directly into materials such
as brick or concrete within 3 inches of the unsupported edge or corner, or into steel surfaces
within 1/2 inch of the unsupported edge or corner. When fastening other material, such as 2- by
4-inch lumber to a concrete surface, do not drive fasteners of greater than 7/32-inch shank
diameter shall not be used and fasteners within 2 inches of the unsupported edge or corner of
the work surface.
• Do not drive fasteners through existing holes unless a positive guide is used to secure
accurate alignment.
• Do not attempt to drive a fastener into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening.
• Wear personal protective equipment when using powder-actuated fastening tools.
• Before using powder-actuated tools, be thoroughly instructed by a competent person in the
safe use of such tools as follows:
o Before using a tool, inspect it to determine that it is clean, that all moving parts operate
freely, and that the barrel is free from obstructions.
o When a tool develops a defect during use, immediately cease to use it and shall notify
his or her supervisor.
o Do not load tools until just prior to the intended firing time, and do not leave the tool
unattended while it is loaded.
o Do not point the tool, whether loaded or empty, at any person, and keep hands clear of
the open barrel end.
o In case of a misfire, hold the tool in the operating position for at least 15 seconds and
continue to hold the muzzle against the work surface during disassembly or opening of
the tool and removal of the powder load.
o Do not leave tools or powder charges unattended in places where they would be
available to unauthorized persons.
The Powder Actuated Tool Manufacturers' Institute, Inc. (PATMI) is an association that provides a
common industry voice for manufacturers of powder-actuated fastening systems. With operator safety
as the primary goal of the organization, PATMI stresses training, certification, and safety awareness.

11-20
End of Chapter 11
Portable Hand Tools
Review Questions
11-1. Portable power drills have replaced hand drills because of an increase in which of the following
characteristics?

A. Speed and leverage


B. Speed and accuracy
C. Leverage and versatility
D. Accuracy and leverage

11-2. A heavy-duty construction drill has what handle design?

A. Hook-and-knob
B. Knob-and-tooth
C. Pistol-grip
D. Spade

11-3. What type of drill is used in plumbing and electrical work?

A. Brace
B. Hammer
C. Impact wrench
D. Right angle

11-4. What type of drill is used in beveling, pounding, digging, and breaking operations?

A. Brace
B. Hammer
C. Impact wrench
D. Right angle

11-5. Before using a power drill, you should inspect the power cord for what condition?

A. Exposed loose wires


B. Prong adapter
C. Proper length
D. Proper thickness

11-6. When using a power drill, what type of pressure should you apply to accommodate different
kinds of stock?

A. Excessive
B. Moderate
C. Steady
D. Varied

11-21
11-7. When drilling a deep hole, what action, if any, should you take to clean the drill bit?

A. Apply extra pressure to the back of the drill


B. Withdraw the drill and wipe with a rag
C. Withdraw the drill several times
D. Nothing; drill bits are self-cleaning

11-8. What tool is used as a labor-saving device in sawing wood framing members on the job?

A. Circular saw
B. Electric chain saw
C. Router
D. Shaper

11-9. What type of saw cuts smooth and decorative curves in wood and light metal?

A. Circular
B. Electric chain
C. Reciprocating
D. Saber

11-10. What type of saw cuts rectangular or curved openings and to cut flush?

A. Circular
B. Electric chain
C. Reciprocating
D. Saber

11-11. What type of saw has teeth on a flexible steel chainlike belt?

A. Circular
B. Electric chain
C. Reciprocating
D. Saber

11-12. The electric chain saw is designed to cut which of the following materials?

A. Cement
B. Grass
C. Metal pipe
D. Small logs

11-13. The circular saw can be used to make which of the following cuts?

A. Decorative
B. Flush
C. Ripping
D. Tree trimming

11-22
11-14. The circular saw can cut a beveled angle up to a maximum of how many degrees?

A. 15
B. 30
C. 45
D. 60

11-15. When using a reciprocating saw, you should place the saw blade at what position to the
material before starting the motor?

A. Near it
B. Away from it
C. Beside the motor
D. On top of the motor

11-16. While using an electric chain saw, at what position to the saw should you stand if you are right-
handed?

A. To the left
B. To the right
C. Directly above
D. Directly behind

11-17. What personal protective equipment should you wear while operating a circular saw?

A. Apron
B. Back brace
C. Dust mask
D. Goggles

11-18. Before making any adjustments to a circular saw, what action should you take first?

A. Clean the saw


B. Clean the shop
C. Disconnect the power source
D. Inspect the blade

11-19. Before working with a saber saw, you should remove rings, watches, and what other item?

A. Bracelets
B. Boots
C. Goggles
D. Hats

11-20. When using a reciprocating saw, you should avoid cutting which of the following items?

A. Copper piping
B. Electrical wires
C. Metal sheeting
D. Wood studs

11-23
11-21. The router is a versatile tool that can be used in which manner?

A. As a saber saw
B. As a scraper
C. Free hand
D. Hands free with a pattern

11-22. The router speed varies from 18,000 to what number of revolutions per minute?

A. 2,700
B. 7,200
C. 27,000
D. 72,000

11-23. What router accessory is one of the most practical?

A. Depth adjusting ring


B. Edge guide
C. Interchangeable chucks
D. Screw type bits

11-24. The power plane is widely used for trimming panels, doors, and what other item?

A. Frames
B. Sheet metal
C. Tree limbs
D. Windows

11-25. The portable power plane has what maximum safe cutting depth, in inches?
1
A. /32
1
B. /16
3
C. /32
3
D. /16

11-26. If wood chips are left on the work surface while a power plane is being used, what result will
occur to the surface of the stock?

A. Marring
B. Polishing
C. Sanding
D. Waxing

11-27. Portable sanders are available in which of the following types?

A. Belt, disk, and cloth


B. Belt, disk, and finish
C. Cloth, flap, and finish
D. Cloth, flap, and high-speed

11-24
11-28. On a heavy-duty belt sander, the belt is usually what minimum width, in inches?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

11-29. What type of sander is used for removing old finish, paint, and varnish from siding, wood
flooring, and concrete?

A. Belt
B. Disk
C. Orbital finish
D. Oscillating finish

11-30. Finish sanders operate in which of the following types of motion?

A. Orbital and oscillating


B. Orbital and pounding
C. Oscillating and pounding
D. Pounding and rotary

11-31. What type of sander uses a back-and-forth movement?

A. Belt
B. Disk
C. Orbital finish
D. Oscillating finish

11-32. What tool is the most useful for surface preparations?

A. Drill
B. Grinder
C. Router
D. Sander

11-33. The portable grinder comes equipped with which of the following items?

A. Grinding wheel and wire brush


B. Grinding wheel and paint brush
C. Paint brush and flap brush
D. Wire brush and sanding pad

11-34. What is the rotary scaling and chipping tool sometimes called?

A. Deck chipper
B. Deck crawler
C. Needle gun
D. Rotary buffer

11-25
11-35. The rotary scalers are used to remove rust, scale, and what other item from metallic and
masonry surfaces?

A. Fresh oil
B. Grease
C. Iron deposits
D. Old paint

11-36. Which of the following types of tools is direct fastening?

A. Electric impact wrench


B. Powder-actuated tools
C. Power plane
D. Rotary hammer drill

11-37. Powder-actuated tools are available in what types?

A. Low-velocity and high-velocity


B. Low-velocity and medium-velocity
C. Small-caliber and high-velocity
D. Small-caliber and large-caliber

11-38. A powder-actuated tool is considered low-velocity if the average test velocity does NOT
exceed what maximum, in feet per second?

A. 294
B. 429
C. 492
D. 924

11-39. At what interval should powder-actuated tools be tested to ensure that the safety devices are
working properly?

A. Daily
B. Weekly
C. Monthly
D. Annually

11-40. Unless a jig is used, powder-actuated fasteners should NOT be driven into materials within
what minimum distance of an unsupported edge or corner?

A. 3 centimeters
B. 3 inches
C. 30 centimeters
D. 13 inches

11-26
11-41. Before using a powder-actuated tool, the operator should inspect it to determine that it is clean,
that all moving parts move freely, and that what other condition exists?

A. Alignment sights are not bent


B. Barrel is free from obstructions
C. Powder charges are loaded
D. Trigger lock is securely attached

11-42. In case of a powder-actuated tool misfire, the operator should hold the tool in the operating
position for what minimum amount of time, in seconds?

A. 1.5
B. 5.1
C. 15
D. 51

11-27
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

11-28
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 12
PNEUMATIC TOOLS
Pneumatic and electrical tools are similar except for the method of actuation. Pneumatic tools are
driven by gas, usually compressed air supplied by a gas canister or compressor. The amount of
pneumatic, or air, pressure required to operate the tool depends on the size of the tool and the type of
operation you are performing. Check the manufacturer’s manual for the proper air pressure to operate
the tool.
Pneumatic tools can also run on compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) stored in small canisters, which
allows for greater portability. Pneumatic tools are generally cheaper and safer to run and maintain
than the equivalent electric power tool. Pneumatic tools have a higher power-to-weight ratio, allowing
a smaller, lighter tool to accomplish the same task.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of pneumatic tools and their uses. You will also
learn how to select the right pneumatic tool for the job, use various types of pneumatic tools, and
provide the proper care of the pneumatic tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of pneumatic tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of pneumatic tools.
3. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to pneumatic tools.

POWER NAILERS AND STAPLERS


Types and Uses
There is a wide variety of power nailers and staplers available. A heavy-duty nailer, shown in Figure
12-1, is used for framing or sheathing work. Coil-fed nailers (Figure 12-2) are used in roofing. Finish
nailers (Figure 12-3) are used for paneling or trimming.

Figure 12-1 — Framing nailer. Figure 12-2 — Coil-fed nailer.


12-1
There is also a wide variety of staplers (Figures 12-3 and 12-4) that you can use for jobs such as
fastening sheeting, decking, roofing, or trimming.

Figure 12-3 — Narrow stapler. Figure 12-4 — Wide stapler.

Using Power Nailers and Staplers

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

WARNING
Keep the tool pointed away from yourself and others.
Never load fasteners with the contact trip or trigger
activated. Serious personal injury may result.

WARNING
Always disconnect the tool from the air supply before
making any adjustments or attempting any repairs to the
tool.

The following steps describe how to use a power nailer and stapler properly:
1. Check for smooth and proper operation of the contact trip and pusher assemblies. Do not use
the tool if either assembly is not functioning properly. NEVER use a tool that has the contact
trip restrained in the UP position.
2. Check the air supply. Ensure that the air pressure does not exceed the recommended
operating limits.
3. Connect the air hose.
12-2
4. Check for audible leaks around valves and gaskets. Never use a tool that leaks or has
damaged parts.
5. Push the magazine release and slide the magazine to the open chamber.
6. Position the nailer on a stable surface so the contact trip is pointing away from you.
7. Insert the fasteners into the chamber as shown in (Figure 12-5).
8. Slide the magazine until it clicks, securing the magazine.
9. Depress the contact trip firmly against the work surface as shown in (Figure 12-6).
10. Pull the trigger.

Figure 12-5 — Insert the fasteners.

Figure 12-6 — Press the nailer


against the work surface.
Care of Power Nailers and Staplers
Observe the following safety tips when operating nailers and staplers:
• Operate only those pneumatic tools which you are trained and qualified to use.
• Always wear eye protection when using power nailers and staplers.
• Wear hearing protection, especially for extended operation.
• Inspect the tool before use. Do not operate a tool if any portion of the tool, trigger, or contact
trip is inoperable, disconnected, altered, or not working properly.
• Do not point the tool at anyone.
• Use only clean, dry, and regulated air to prevent damage to the internal workings of the tool.
• Use air pressure compatible with the manufacturer’s specifications.
• Use an air hose rated for the maximum working pressure of the tool.
• Disconnect the tool from the air supply when it is not in use.
• Always disconnect the tool from the air supply and remove all fasteners from the magazine
before leaving the area or passing the tool to another operator.

12-3
• If the air supply is connected, do not carry the tool to another work area via scaffoldings, stairs,
ladders, and so on.
• Do not make any adjustments, remove the magazine, perform maintenance, or clear jammed
fasteners while the tool is connected to the air supply.
• Connect the tool to the air supply before loading the fasteners to prevent an unintentional
fastener discharge during the connection.

NEEDLE GUN SCALERS


The needle gun scaler (Figure 12-7) is used to remove rust,
scale, and old paint from steel surfaces aboard ship. You must
be careful when using the needle gun because it will “chew
up” anything in its path. The needle gun scaler does the job
with an assembly of needles impacting the surface hundreds
of times a minute. The main advantage of this scaler is that it
can clean out irregular surfaces. The needles self-adjust to
the contour of various surfaces, as illustrated in Figure 12-8.
Do not use the needle gun scaler on light-metal surfaces Figure 12-7 — Needle gun scaler.
because it will pit the surface with its impacting needles.

Figure 12-8 — Needle gun operations.

Care of Needle Gun Scalers


Observe the following safety tips when operating needle gun scalers:
• Operate only those pneumatic tools which you are trained and qualified to use.
• Always wear eye protection when using power nailers and staplers.
• Always wear hearing protection, especially for extended operation.
• Wear hand protection when using needle gun scalers.
• Use only clean, dry, and regulated air to prevent damage to the internal workings of the tool.
• Never allow an air tool to operate at full throttle without a work load on the tool.
• Never start a percussion-type air tool (chippers, breakers, busters, and so on) without securing
the tooling in the retainer and placing the tip against the work surface.
• Never operate an air tool without the guards in place.
• Work in a well-ventilated area, and work with approved safety equipment, such as dust masks
that are specifically designed to filter out microscopic particles.
12-4
DRILLS
Types and Uses
Pneumatic Drills
Pneumatic drills (Figure 12-9) have generally replaced hand
tools for drilling holes because they are faster and more
accurate. With variable speed controls and special clutch
drive chucks, they can also be used as electric screwdrivers.
More specialized power-driven screwdrivers are also
available, which have greatly increased the efficiency of
many fastening operations in construction work.

Figure 12-9 — Pneumatic drill.

Pneumatic Impact Wrench


The pneumatic impact wrench (Figure 12-10) consists of a
pistol-grip handle on a housing, which contains a motor that
energizes the driving anvil inside the muzzle of the housing.
Attachments are fastened to the driving anvil by snapping them
onto the socket retainer. The pneumatic impact wrench with its
accompanying equipment is primarily intended for applying and
removing nuts, bolts, and screws. It may also be used to drive
and remove socket head or self-tapping screws.
Figure 12-10 — Pneumatic
impact wrench.

Using Pneumatic Drills

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

NOTE
A firm grip is required to turn the chuck key in either
direction.

The following steps describe how to use a power drill properly:


1. Select the proper bit required for the task.

12-5
2. Fit the chuck key (Figure 12-11) into the side
adjusting hole between the jaws and the chuck
and turn the key counterclockwise until the
chuck opens enough to admit the bit shank.
3. Insert the bit in to the chuck jaws and tighten
securely by turning the chuck key clockwise.
Remove the chuck key and store where the key
will not get lost.
4. Before drilling, ensure the work is stationary or
firmly secured.
5. Use a center punch or awl to make a small
prick point in the spot where the hole will be
made (The prick point will prevent the drill bit
from bouncing or slipping away from the spot
where the hole is to be drilled).
6. Connect the air hose.
Figure 12-11 — Drill chuck and key.
7. Place the drill bit on the marked spot and
depress the trigger switch. Begin drilling (Figure 12-
12), exerting firm but even pressure to keep the bit
cutting. Withdraw the bit frequently from the work to
clean the chips from the bit flutes and to allow the bit
to cool.
8. Ease up on the drill pressure as the bit approaches
the other side of the work surface.
After completing the hole, carefully withdraw the rotating drill
bit to prevent binding or breaking and release the trigger
switch.

Care of Drills
Observe the following safety tips when operating drills:
• Operate only those pneumatic tools which you are
trained and qualified to use.
Figure 12-12 — Position the drill.
• Always wear eye protection when using pneumatic
drills.
• Always wear hearing protection, especially for extended operation.
• Always check for damaged or loose hose fittings. Whipping hoses can cause severe injury.
• Wear hand protection when using pneumatic drills.
• Always shut off the air supply, drain the hose of air pressure, and disconnect the tool from the
air supply when it is not in use.
• Do not make adjustments or perform maintenance of the tool while it is connected to the air
supply.
• Keep hands away from rotating or reciprocating accessories, spindles, or other moving parts.
• Maintain a balanced body position and secure footing when using drills.
12-6
SANDERS
Types and Uses
Orbital Sander
The orbital sander (Figure 12-13) is designed for medium-duty
applications, such as sanding, polishing, and finishing on a
variety of surfaces, including woods, metals, and fiberglass.
The orbital sander has a built-in regulator for speed control
during operation.

Figure 12-13 — Orbital sander.

Dual-action Sander
The dual-action sander (Figure 12-14) is designed for use in
industrial, woodworking, and automotive applications. The
dual-action sander provides a swirl-free sanded surface and is
ideal for edging, metal preparation, and finish work on body
filler.

Figure 12-14 — Dual-action sander.

Inline Sander
The inline sander (Figure 12-15) is designed for
smoothing down body filler or shaping and
levelling large flat surfaces.
Figure 12-15 — Inline sander.
Using Pneumatic Sanders
The following steps describe how to use a pneumatic sander properly:
1. Select the proper attachment and secure it to the spindle, as shown in Figure 12-16.
2. Attach the sanding paper to the sanding pad.
3. Make sure the work surface is secured to prevent movement.
4. Pour three to five drops of air tool oil into the air inlet. Then connect the air hose.
5. Depress the switch on the sander so that the attachment is turning before placing it on the
work surface.
6. Begin moving the sander back and forth in wide, overlapping areas, as illustrated in Figure 12-
17.

12-7
7. Brush or clean the sanding dirt from the work surface frequently.
8. When finished, lift the sander from the work surface before turning off the switch.

Figure 12-16 — Select the proper Figure 12-17 — Use a sweeping


attachment. motion.
Start the work with an abrasive grit, just coarse enough to remove the high spots and roughness. Use
finer grits of sandpaper until the desired finish is obtained. Never go from a coarse grit to a fine grit in
one step; swirl marks made by coarse abrasives may be difficult to remove.

Care of Pneumatic Sanders


Observe the following safety tips when operating pneumatic sanders:
• Operate only those pneumatic tools which you are trained and qualified to use.
• Always wear approved eye protection.
• Always wear hearing protection, especially for extended operation.
• Wear hand protection when using pneumatic drills.
• Wear respiratory protection while using a sander.
• Always check for damaged or loose hose fittings. Whipping hoses can cause severe injury.
• Keep the work area clean and well lighted.
• Do not wear loose clothing when sanding.
• Do not use sanders in the vicinity of flammable materials.
• Use light pressure on the sander. The weight of the sander is enough to sand the material.
• Always shut off the air supply, drain the hose of air pressure, and disconnect the tool from the
air supply when it is not in use.
• Do not make adjustments or perform maintenance of the tool while it is connected to the air
supply.
• Keep hands away from rotating or reciprocating accessories, spindles, or other moving parts.

12-8
GRINDERS
Types and Uses
Straight Grinders
A grinder is a rotary drive tool with an output spindle designed to carry an abrasive device. Two
common designs are available: straight and angle. The straight grinder (Figure 12-18) has a handle in
line with the motor and spindle. The angle grinder (Figure 12-19) has a handle or handles set at right
angles to the motor and spindle axis, which are in line. The angle grinder’s output shaft is usually
driven by bevel gears, so the output spindle is at an angle to the motor axis.

Figure 12-18 — Straight grinder.

Figure 12-19 — Angle grinder.


Die Grinders
A die grinder (Figure 12-20) is a rotary drive tool that
uses collets for mounting an abrasive device. An angle
die grinder’s output shaft is driven by bevel gears, so
the output spindle is at an angle to the motor axis.

Care of Grinders
Observe the following safety tips when operating
grinders:
• Operate only those pneumatic tools which you Figure 12-20 — Die grinder.
are trained and qualified to use.
• Always wear approved eye protection.
• Always wear hearing protection, especially for extended operation.
• Wear respiratory protection while using a grinder.
• Wear hand protection when using pneumatic grinders.
• Always check for damaged or loose hose fittings. Whipping hoses can cause severe injury.
• Keep the work area clean and well lighted.
• Do not wear loose clothing when grinding.
• Do not use grinders in the vicinity of flammable materials.
• Always shut off the air supply, drain the hose of air pressure, and disconnect the tool from the
air supply when not in use.
• Do not make adjustments or perform maintenance of the tool while connected to the air supply.

12-9
• Keep hands away from rotating spindles or other moving parts.
• Maintain a balanced body position and secure footing when using grinders.
• All portable pneumatic grinders must be equipped with a safety lock-off device. A safety lock-
off device is any operating control that requires positive action by the operator before the tools
can be turned on. The lock-off device must automatically and positively lock the throttle in the
OFF position when the throttle is released. Two consecutive operations by the same hand are
required, first to disengage the lock-off device and then to turn on the throttle. The lock-off
device should be integral with the tool. It should not adversely affect the safety or operating
characteristics of the tools, and it should not be easily removable. Devices that do not
automatically and positively lock the throttle in the OFF position when the throttle is released,
such as a "dead-man control," are not safety lock-off devices.
For detailed information on safety precautions, refer to the Navy Safety and Occupational Health
(SOH) Program Manual for Forces Afloat, Office of the Chief of Naval Personnel Instruction
(OPNAVINST) 5100.19(series).

12-10
End of Chapter 12
Pneumatic Tools
Review Questions
12-1. What pneumatic tool is used for framing or sheathing work?

A. Heavy-duty nailer
B. Impact wrench
C. Needle gun scaler
D. Portable drill

12-2. A pneumatic stapler can be used to fasten sheeting, to fasten decking, and what other type of
job?

A. To fasten edging
B. To fasten roofing
C. To smooth body filler
D. To smooth swirl marks

12-3. Before making adjustments on a power nailer, what action should you take?

A. Connect the air supply


B. Dust the work area
C. Load the magazine
D. Disconnect the air supply

12-4. What pneumatic tool will remove rust, scale, and old paint from steel surfaces aboard ship?

A. Heavy-duty nailer
B. Impact wrench
C. Needle gun scaler
D. Portable drill

12-5. Which of the following characteristics is a main advantage of a needle gun scaler?

A. Used on light-metal surfaces


B. Uses clean and dry or dirty and wet air
C. Cleans out irregular surfaces
D. Creates minimal dust

12-6. You should NEVER allow an air tool to operate at what throttle position without a work load on
the tool?

A. One-quarter
B. One-half
C. Three-quarters
D. Full

12-11
12-7. What type of pneumatic tool has replaced hand tools for making holes?

A. Needle gun scaler


B. Pneumatic drills
C. Pneumatic impact wrench
D. Portable grinder

12-8. Before drilling, what tool is required to tighten the chuck jaws?

A. Alignment punch
B. Chuck key
C. Flexible screwdriver
D. Spanner wrench

12-9. When using pneumatic drills, what personal protective equipment should you wear?

A. Gloves
B. Safety harness
C. Steel toe sandals
D. Welding goggles

12-10. What type of sander will smooth down body filler or shape and level large, flat surfaces?

A. Dual-action
B. Inline
C. Miniature
D. Orbital

12-11. Before using a pneumatic sander, what minimum number of drops of oil should you pour in the
air inlet of the tool?

A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

12-12. How much pressure is required for using a pneumatic sander?

A. Heavy
B. Intermediate
C. Intermittent
D. Light

12-13. What pneumatic tool uses collets for mounting an abrasive disc?

A. Die grinder
B. Straight grinder
C. Impact wrench
D. Inline sander

12-12
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

12-13
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 13
TAPS, DIES, AND EXTRACTORS
Taps and dies are used to cut threads in metal, plastics, or hard rubber. The taps are used for cutting
internal threads, and the dies are used to cut external threads.
Extractors are used to remove broken taps or screws that have been broken off inside of the hole or
fastener.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of taps, dies, and extractors and their uses. You
will also learn how to select the right tap, die, or extractor for the job, use various types of taps, dies,
and extractors, and provide the proper care of the taps, dies, and extractors to keep them in good
working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of taps and dies.
2. Determine the proper uses of taps and dies.
3. Identify the different types of extractors.
4. Determine the proper uses of extractors.

TAPS
Types and Uses
Taps (Figure 13-1) are made of hardened
steel and have the following parts: a
square end, a round shank, a body
(threaded) section, and a chamfer. The
square end is used to turn the tap with
either a straight or T-handled tap wrench.
The shank is a smooth, rounded section
that is immediately behind the threaded
section. The body (threaded) section Figure 13-1 — Parts of a tap.
contains four flutes which have threads cut
into their upper edges. They have a hollow section near the center to permit metal shavings to fall
away from the cutting edges. The chamfer is the non-threaded end of the tap that allows the tap to be
positioned squarely in the metal to be threaded without engaging the threads of the tap.

Taper (Starting) Hand Tap


The taper (starting) hand tap (Figure 13-2) has a
chamfer (nonthreaded) length equal to 7 to 10
threads. The taper lead distributes the cutting
force over a large area. The taper hand tap is
used to start tapping operations.
Figure 13-2 — Taper (starting) hand tap.

13-1
Plug/Pipe Hand Tap
Plug/pipe taps (Figure 13-3) are used for pipefitting
and places where extremely tight fits are necessary.
The tap diameter, from end to end of the threaded
portion, increases at the rate of 3/4 inch per foot. All
the threads on this tap do the cutting, as compared
to the taper taps, on which only the non-chamfered
portion does the cutting.
Figure 13-3 — Plug/pipe hand tap.
Bottoming Hand Tap
Bottoming hand taps (Figure 13-4) are used for
threading the bottom of a blind hole. They have a
very short chamfer length of only 1 to 1 1/2 threads
for this purpose. Use of both the taper and plug taps
should precede the use of the bottoming hand tap.
This tap is also used when tapping hard materials.
Figure 13-4 — Bottoming hand tap.
Staybolt Tap
Staybolt taps (Figure 13-5) are used in boiler,
locomotive, and railroad shops for tapping holes in
the outer and inner plates or shells of boilers. The
staybolt tap has two separate threaded areas. The
first is for cutting threads and the second is for
guiding the tap into another piece of metal for
threading by the cutting threads. The spindle-type
staybolt has an adjustable spindle, which changes Figure 13-5 — Staybolt tap.
the distance between the cutting threads and the
guide threads.

Mud Hand Tap (Washout Tap)


The mud or washout tap (Figure 13-6) has six flutes,
tapers 1 1/4 inches per foot, and has 12 threads per
inch. It is used for cutting Unified or National form
threads in mud plug drain holes.

DIES
Figure 13-6 — Mud hand tap.
Types and Uses
Rethreading Die
A rethreading die (Figure 13-7) is used principally for dressing
overbruised or rusty threads on screws or bolts. It is available in a
variety of sizes for rethreading National Coarse (NC) and National Fine
(NF) threads. Square pipe and rethreading dies are usually hexagonal
in shape and can be turned with a socket, box, open-end, or any
wrench that will fit. Rethreading dies are available in sets of 6, 10, 14,
and 28 assorted sizes in a case.

Figure 13-7 —
13-2 Rethreading die.
Two-Piece Collet Die
Two-piece collet dies (Figure 13-8) are used with a
collet cap and collet guide (Figure 13-9). The die
halves are placed in the cap slot and are held in
place by the guide, which screws into the underside
of the cap. The die is adjusted by setscrews at both
ends of the interval slot. This type of adjustable die
is issued in various sizes to cover the cutting ranges
of NC, NF, and special-form threads. Diestocks to
Figure 13-8 — Two-piece collet die.
hold the dies come in three different sizes.

Round Split Adjustable Die


Round split adjustable dies (Figure 13-10), also called
button dies, can be used in either hand diestocks or
machine holders. The adjustment in the screw adjusting
type is made by a fine-pitch screw, which forces the sides
of the die apart or allows them to spring together. The
adjustment in the open adjusting type is made by three
screws in the holder, one for expanding and two for
compressing the dies. A die holder or handle is needed for
proper operation of round split adjustable dies.

Thread Cutter Set


Thread cutter sets (Figure 13-11) are available in many
different combinations of taps and dies, together with
diestocks, tap wrenches, guides, and necessary
screwdrivers and wrenches to loosen and tighten adjusting
screws and bolts. Figure 13-9 — Cap and collet guide.

Figure 13-10 — Round split


adjustable die.

13-3 Figure 13-11 — Thread cutter set.


Using a Hand Tap
The following steps describe how to use a hand tap properly:

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

1. Clamp a steel plate securely in a vise. Drill and ream a hole of the desired size.
2. Select a tap and secure it in a tap wrench.
3. Apply cutting oil to the tap and the hole.
4. Place the point of the tap in the hole (Figure 13-12); rotate a right-handed tap clockwise for
right-hand threads or a left-handed tap counterclockwise for left-hand threads.
5. Remove the tap wrench and use a square to check the tap for squareness (Figure 13-13).
Check at least two different positions on the tap.

Figure 13-12 — Position the tap. Figure 13-13 — Check the tap for
squareness.
6. Replace the tap wrench and continue the tapping
operation. It is not necessary to apply pressure, as the threads will be pulled through at all
times.
7. Remove the tap by turning in the opposite direction.
8. Wipe the excess oil and metal shavings from the metal plate.
9. Check the newly-cut threads with a screw pitch gage before inserting a screw or stud.

Using a Die and Diestock


The following steps describe how to use a die and diestock properly:

NOTE
The work to be threaded must be clean and free of burrs.

13-4
1. Secure the work firmly in a vise.
2. Assemble the die and diestock (Figure 13-14).
3. Tighten the setscrew.
4. Loosen the two thumbscrews to adjust diestock.

CAUTION
After assembling the die to the diestock, ensure the
setscrew is tight. The die can fall out of diestock and
become damaged.

5. Apply cutting oil to the die and to the work.


6. Position the diestock over the work.
7. Rotate the diestock clockwise for right-hand threads (Figure 13-15) or rotate a left-handed tap
counterclockwise for left-hand threads, slowly but firmly, until the die takes hold.

Figure 13-14 — Assemble the die and


diestock.

Figure 13-15 — Rotate the diestock.

8. After several threads have been cut, use a square to check squareness.
9. Turn the diestock one turn forward and one-quarter turn backward. Repeat this procedure until
the desired thread length has been cut.
10. Carefully back the diestock off the threads by turning in the opposite direction.
11. Clean the threads with a clean rag.
12. Check the threads with a screw pitch gage before using.
13. Disassemble the die and diestock by loosening the setscrew.
14. Wipe clean with a rag.

13-5
Care of Taps
Use the following guidelines when working with taps:
• Do NOT attempt to sharpen taps.
• Keep the cutting edges lightly oiled.
• Wipe excess oil and metal shavings from the tap and tap wrench.
• Do NOT throw taps into a drawer or toolbox where they can rub against each other or against
other tools. Store them in separate holders, such as in a case, or wrap them individually in
cloths to protect the cutting surfaces.

Care of Dies
Use the following guidelines when working with dies:
• Do NOT attempt to sharpen dies.
• Keep the cutting surfaces clean and lightly lubricated.
• Clean the dies with a clean rag after each use.
• Do NOT throw dies into a drawer or toolbox where they can rub against each other or against
other tools. Store them in separate holders, such as in a case, or wrap them individually in
cloths to protect the cutting surfaces.

EXTRACTORS
Types and Uses
Screw Extractor
Screw extractors (Figure 13-16) are used to
remove broken screws without damaging the
surrounding material or the threaded hole.
Screw extractors are straight, with spiraling flutes Figure 13-16 — Screw extractor.
at one end. These extractors are available in sizes
to remove broken screws having 1/4- to 1/2-inch outside
diameter (OD). Spiral tapered extractors are sized to remove
screws and bolts from 3/16- to 2 1/8-inch OD.
The spiral-tapered type requires a twist drill for drilling a pilot
hole.

Tap Extractor
Tap extractors (Figure 13-17) are used to remove broken
taps. Tap extractors are sized to remove taps from 3/16- to 2
1
/8-inch OD. The tap extractor is usually of the flute type and
requires the use of a wrench to turn the tap. It is used for
removing taps with no external area. The tap extractor has
fingers that enter the flutes of the tap.
Most extractor sets include twist drills and a drill guide.
Figure 13-17 — Tap extractor.
13-6
Using a Spiral Tapered Screw Extractor
The following steps describe how to use a spiral tapered screw extractor properly:

WARNING
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles
may cause eye injury.

1. Drill a hole in the broken screw (Figure 13-18). Use a drill size guide if available. If one is not
available, drill the hole slightly smaller than the diameter of the extractor (when drilling larger
screws it may be necessary to drill a small pilot hole first, then a larger hole).
2. Insert the extractor in the drilled hole.
3. Remove the broken screw by turning the extractor counterclockwise (Figure 13-19). The
extractor may be turned using a tap wrench or open end wrench.

Figure 13-19 — Turn the extractor


counterclockwise.

Figure 13-18 — Drill a hole in the broken


screw.

Care of Extractors
Use the following guidelines when working with extractors:
• Keep the extractor clean and lightly oiled.
• Clean the extractor with a clean rag after each use.
• Use the right size of extractor for the broken screw or bolt you are removing to avoid damaging
the extractor or threads of the hole.
• Do not throw extractors into a drawer or toolbox where they can rub against each other or
against other tools. Store them in separate holders, such as in a case, or wrap them
individually in cloths to protect the cutting surfaces.
13-7
End of Chapter 13
Taps, Dies, and Extractors
Review Questions
13-1. The body of a tap contains how many flutes?

A. 4
B. 6
C. 8
D. 10

13-2. What section of a tap allows the tap to be positioned squarely in the metal to be threaded?

A. Body
B. Chamfer
C. Round shank
D. Square end

13-3. To start tapping operations, what tap should be used?

A. Bottom
B. Plug
C. Staybolt
D. Taper

13-4. When extremely tight fits are necessary, what tap should be used?

A. Bottom
B. Staybolt
C. Plug
D. Taper

13-5. For tapping holes in the outer and inner plates or shells of boilers, what tap should be used?

A. Bottom
B. Plug
C. Staybolt
D. Taper

13-6. A rethreading die is usually hexagonal in shape and can be turned by what type of tool?

A. Hammer
B. Pliers
C. Screwdriver
D. Socket

13-8
13-7. What type of die is used with a collet cap and collet guide?

A. Rethreading
B. Round adjustable
C. Staybolt
D. Two-piece

13-8. When using a die and diestock, what distance should the diestock move in the forward
direction?

A. One-quarter turn
B. One turn
C. Two turns
D. Three turns

13-9. What type of tool is used to remove a broken screw without damaging the surrounding material
or threaded hole?

A. Screw die
B. Screw extractor
C. Tap and die
D. Tap extractor

13-10. Screw extractors are straight with what type of flutes at one end?

A. Crisscross
B. Perpendicular
C. Spiraling
D. Straight

13-11. Screw extractors are available to remove broken screws having what size outside diameter?

A. 1 centimeter
1
B. /2 inch
3
C. /4 inch
D. 2 centimeters

13-12. Tap extractors can remove taps from what minimum size outside diameter, in inches?
3
A. /16
5
B. /16
3
C. /8
3
D. /4

13-9
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

13-10
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 14
BENDERS
Benders allow the maintenance technician to make precise angled bends .The objective in tube
bending is to obtain a smooth bend without flattening the tube. Tube bending is usually done with
either a hand tube bender or a mechanically operated bender. These tools include spring tube, hand
tube, mechanically operated tube, and electrical conduit hand benders.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of benders and their uses. You will also learn how
to select the right bender for the job, use various types of benders, and provide the proper care of the
benders to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of benders.
2. Determine the proper use of tubing benders.
3. Determine the proper use of electrical conduit hand benders.

BENDERS
Types and Uses
Spring Tube Benders
Two types of spring tube benders are available: external and
internal. The spring tube bender (Figure 14-1) permits the
bending of small-diameter soft copper and aluminum tubing by
hand without collapsing the tubing. Spring tube benders are
available in 1/4-, 5/16-, 3/8-, 7/16-, 1/2-, 5/8-, 3/4-, and 7/8-inch
Figure 14-1 — Spring tube bender.
diameter sizes.
External benders are used to bend straight sections
of tubing that have at least one end that has not been
flared. The external benders should slip over the
tubing and be positioned in the middle of the
proposed bend.
Internal benders are used for bending straight
sections of tubing that have both ends flared. The
internal benders should fit inside the tubing and be
positioned in the middle of the proposed bend. Attach
a string to the internal spring bender for easy removal
after making the bend.

Hand Tube Bender


The hand tube bender (Figure 14-2) consists of a
handle, a radius block, a clip, and a slide bar. The
handle and slide bar are used as levers to provide the

14-1 Figure 14-2 — Hand tube bender.


mechanical advantage necessary to bend tubing. The radius block is marked on degrees of bend
ranging from 0 to 180 degrees. The slide bar has a mark that is lined up with the zero mark on the
radius block. The hand tube bender is available in 3/16-, 1/4-, 5/16-, 3/8-, and 1/2-inch diameter sizes. The
hand tube bender is used to bend copper, brass, or aluminum tubing to specific angles.

Mechanical Tube Bender


The mechanical tube bender (Figure 14-3) is issued as
a kit. The kit contains the equipment necessary for
bending tubing from 1/4 to 3/4 inch in diameter. This
tube bender is designed for bending high-strength,
stainless-steel tubing, as well as all other metal tubing.
It is designed to be fastened to a bench or tripod, and
the base is formed to provide a secure grip in a vise.
The simple hand bender, shown in Figure 14-2, uses
two handles as levers to provide the mechanical
advantage necessary to bend the tubing, while the
mechanically operated tube bender employs a hand
crank and gears. The forming die is keyed to the drive
gear and secured by a screw (Figure 14-3). The
forming die on the mechanical tube bender is
calibrated in degrees similar to the radius block of the
hand-type bender. A length of replacement tubing may Figure 14-3 — Mechanical tube bender.
be bent to a specified number of degrees, or it may be
bent to duplicate the bend in the damaged tube or
pattern. To duplicate the bend of a damaged tube or
pattern, lay the pattern on top of the tube being bent
and slowly bend the new tube to the required bend.

Electrical Conduit Hand Bender


The electrical conduit hand bender has precise
grooves to ensure a smooth bend. It has a concave
base, a foot rest, and a retaining hook to keep conduit
from slipping as it is being bent. The bender has a
threaded opening for attaching a threaded piece of
pipe to be used as a handle. The electrical conduit
hand bender is available in 1/2-, 3/4-, 1-, 1 1/4-, 1 1/2-,
and 2-inch diameter sizes.
Two types of manual benders are used to bend rigid
conduit and electrical metallic tubing (EMT). They are
the rigid bender, called the one-shot bender (Figure
14-4), and a hickey (Figure 14-5). The one-shot Figure 14-4 — One-shot bender.
bender is normally made for EMT, but some are made
for both EMT and rigid tubing. The one-shot bender
was given its name because it can make a full 90-
degree bend with a single motion. With manual
benders, you can bend conduit sizes up to 1-inch
rigid tubing or 1 1/4-inch EMT without much trouble.
To bend larger sizes, use mechanical or hydraulic Figure 14-5 — Hickey bender.
benders.
14-2
The hickey bender does not usually have degree markings on it. This feature makes the bending
procedures slightly different. For instance, to make a 90-degree bend in 1/2-inch rigid metal conduit,
you should make small bites on the bend to reduce the possibility of crimping or kinking the conduit.

Using a Tubing Bender


The following steps describe how to use a tubing bender properly (Figure 14-6):
1. Raise the slide bar upward.
2. Insert the tubing to be bent in the block.
3. Raise the locking clip to lock the tubing in place.
4. Lower the slide bar. The zero mark on the slide bar should coincide with the zero mark on the
block.
5. Apply downward pressure on the slide bar.
6. Stop bending the tubing when the zero mark on the slide bar matches the desired angle on the
block.
7. When the bending operation is complete, raise the slide bar, lift the locking clip, and remove
the bent tubing.

Figure 14-6 — Using a tubing bender.


14-3
Using an Electrical Conduit Hand Bender
The following steps describe how to use an electrical conduit hand bender properly:
1. Install a handle on the bender (a section of threaded pipe may be used as a handle).
2. Tip the bender forward and slide the section of conduit to be bent through the retaining hook.
3. Align the bender arrow with the mark where the bend should start (Figure 14-7).

Figure 14-7 — Align the bender arrow and mark for bend.

CAUTION
DO NOT jerk the handle. Jerking will create internal cracks
and ridges in the conduit, which will cut the wires.

4. Place one foot on the foot rest and push down


with your foot while pulling back on the handle.
Apply steady pressure throughout the entire
bending process.
5. When the desired bend has been obtained
(Figure 14-8), release the pressure on the
conduit by returning the handle to an upright
position and slide the conduit out of the bender.

Care of Benders
Use the following guidelines when working with
benders:
1. Clean all grease and oil from gripping surfaces
with a clean rag.
2. Apply a light coat of oil to the nongripping
surfaces.
3. Store in a safe, dry place.
14-4 Figure 14-8 — Right-angle bend obtained.
End of Chapter 14
Benders
Review Questions
14-1. How many types of spring tube benders are available?

A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

14-2. Which of the following tools is used to bend a straight section of tubing that has both ends
flared?

A. External spring tube bender


B. Internal spring tube bender
C. Tooth-and-sprocket clamp
D. V-block and clamp

14-3. The handles on a hand tube bender provide what type of advantage necessary to bend
tubing?

A. Electrical
B. Hydraulic
C. Mechanical
D. Pneumatic

14-4. What bender is issued as a kit?

A. Hand tube
B. Spring tube
C. Electrical conduit
D. Mechanical tube

14-5. To duplicate the bend of a damaged tube, you should place the pattern in what location?

A. Below the tube being bent


B. On the shop wall for reference
C. On the workbench for reference
D. On top of the tube being bent

14-6. For what reason was the one-shot bender given its name?

A. It can make a full 90-degree bend in a single motion


B. It can make a full 180-degree bend in a single motion
C. It leaves crimping marks during the bending operation
D. It will bend the large-sized electrical metallic tubing

14-5
14-7. The manual electrical conduit hand bender can bend rigid conduit of what maximum size, in
inches?
1
A. /4
1
B. /2
C. 1
D. 1 1/2

14-8. You should stop bending the tubing when the zero mark on the slide bar matches what mark
on the block?

A. 5 degrees before the desired angle


B. 5 degrees past the desired angle
C. Corresponding zero
D. The desired angle

14-9. When using an electrical conduit hand bender, where should you position your feet?

A. Both on the floor


B. Both on the foot rest
C. One on the floor and one on the foot rest
D. One on the foot rest and one on the handle

14-6
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

14-7
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 15
PULLERS
Maintenance technicians use pullers to remove a component such as a gear, a pulley, or a bearing
from a shaft or hole. Pullers are available in various styles and can be used in different situations.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of pullers and their uses. You will also learn how to
select the right puller for the job, use various types of pullers, and provide the proper care of the
pullers to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of pullers.
2. Determine the proper uses of pullers.
3. Determine the proper care of pullers.

PULLERS
Types and Uses
Universal Gear Puller
The universal gear puller (Figure 15-1) is usually of yoke and screw construction with two jaws. The
jaws have a capacity from 0 to 14 inches in diameter. The universal gear puller is used for pulling
gears, pulleys, and wheels.

Gear and Bearing Puller


The gear and bearing puller (Figure 15-2) is used to pull gears, bearings, pinions, sheaves, pulleys,
and wheels. It is a screw-type puller with two or three jaws. The grip tightens as the pull increases.
The gear and bearing puller has a maximum spread of 5 1/2 inches.

Figure 15-1 — Universal gear puller. Figure 15-2 — Gear and bearing
15-1 puller.
Universal Bearing and Bushing Puller
The universal bearing and bushing puller (Figure 15-3) has interchangeable jaws. The puller provides
a pulling capacity up to 1 1/4 inches. The larger jaws are used for removing bronze or Oilite® bushings
without crumbling them. The smaller jaws are used to pull clutch pilot bearings.

Electrical Unit Bearing Puller


The electrical unit bearing puller (Figure 15-4) is used to pull bearings from shafts of electrical units. It
is supplied with plates to fit a variety of unit constructions and to fit behind the particular shaft
bearings to be pulled.

Figure 15-3 — Universal bearing Figure 15-4 — Electrical unit


and bushing puller. bearing puller set.

Battery Terminal and Small Gear Puller


The battery terminal and small gear puller (Figure 15-5) is
a screw-type puller for use in close quarters. In addition to
pulling battery terminals, it is used to pull small gears and
bearings.

Steering Gear Arm Puller


The steering gear arm puller (Figure 15-6) is used for
pulling steering gear arms. It can also be used for a wide
variety of other pulling jobs. The clamp locks the puller on
the arm, leaving both hands free for pulling.

Figure 15-5 — Battery terminal and


small gear puller.

15-2
Steering Wheel Puller Set
The steering wheel puller (Figure 15-7) consists of all the
units necessary to remove the steering wheel from early
models of cars and trucks up to the present models.

Figure 15-6 — Steering gear arm


puller.

Figure 15-7 — Steering wheel puller.

Push and Pull Puller Set


The push and pull puller set (Figure 15-8) is used in
conjunction with a variety of attachments and
adapters. The push and pull puller consists of a 13
1
/2-inch steel bar, which is slotted to receive two 9 1/2-
inch legs. A pressure screw in the center of the bar is
13 inches long. It has a diameter of 1 inch, and is
threaded. The puller is universal and versatile. With
the use of the bearing pulling attachment, bearing
cup pulling attachment, sheave puller attachment,
threaded adapters, step plate adapters, additional
legs, and many other special adapters, this puller is
Figure 15-8 — Push and pull puller set.
capable of removing or replacing bearings, gears,
pinions, pulleys, wheels, and bushings. The push and
pull puller set has many uses.

Cylinder Sleeve Puller


The cylinder sleeve puller (Figure 15-9) is used to
pull cylinder sleeves from engine blocks. It is
adjustable to provide clearance regardless of the
position of the cylinder studs and to simplify
centering the tool over the bore. This puller is
used in conjunction with four adapter plates
supplied with the puller. The combination is
capable of pulling cylinder sleeves from 3 3/16- to 5
3 Figure 15-9 — Cylinder sleeve puller.
/4-inches in diameter.
15-3
Slide Hammer Puller
The slide hammer puller set (Figure 15-10) is a universal-type
puller equipped with a two- and three-way yoke, three
medium jaws for outside pulls and two small jaws for inside
pulling. The small jaws can be inserted through a 1/2 inch
opening. The capacity of the medium jaws is 6 1/4 inches. The
slide hammer puller set includes a mounting attachment for
removing solid components such as axles and wheel hubs.
The slide hammer puller is also equipped with a locking
feature, which holds the jaws open or locks them on the work.

Universal Wheel Puller Set


The universal wheel puller set (Figure 15-11) consists of a
body and drive assembly that receives three long jaws, three
short jaws, or a special grooved hub set. The interchangeable
jaws pivot and swing to any desired bolt circle. Tapered, right Figure 15-10 — Slide hammer
and left hand threaded stud nuts complete the set, all of which puller set.
are carried in a metal case. The wheel puller set is capable of
pulling any demountable wheel hub for any
passenger car and most lightweight trucks.

Cotter Pin Puller


A cotter pin puller (Figure 15-12) is an S-shaped tool
used to install or to remove cotter pins. One end is
used to insert through the cotter pins for extracting.
The other end is used for spreading the cotter pin.
The shank is beveled square for easy handling and
for a firm grip. This type is 7 inches long.

Blocks
Blocks (Figure 15-13) are constructed for use with
fiber line and wire rope. Wire rope blocks are heavily
constructed and have a large sheave with a deep Figure 15-11 — Universal wheel puller set.
groove. Fiber line blocks are generally not as
heavily constructed as wire rope blocks and have small
sheaves with shallow, wide grooves that revolve on a pin.
Blocks fitted with one, two, three, or four sheaves are often
referred to as single, double, treble, and quadruple blocks,
respectively. Blocks are fitted with a varying number of
attachments, depending on their particular use. Some of the
most commonly used fittings are hooks, swivel or loose side,
sister hooks, shackles, eyes, and rings. Depending on the
various combinations of blocks available to do the job, the
mechanical advantage can be increased indefinitely.
All line used in rigging should be good grade manila or the Figure 15-12 — Cotter pin
equivalent, and all wire should be plow steel or the equivalent. puller.

15-4
Figure 15-13 — Blocks.

Chain Assembly
The chain assembly (Figure 15-14) is a heavy
duty linked chain with a grab hook at one end
and a ring at the other. The chain assembly is
used for such applications as towing vehicles,
slinging loads, and hauling objects. The chain
assembly is available in a wide variety of lengths Figure 15-14 — Chain assembly.
and link sizes depending on the nature of the
use.

Cable Jaw Grip


The cable jaw grip (Figure 15-15) is used to tighten or
stretch wires or cables for various operations.
Examples of application include removing kinks or
bends in cables, tightening cables on loads or bales, or
for cleaning and oiling of cables. Cable grips,
depending on their application, vary in size and design.

15-5 Figure 15-15 — Cable jaw grip.


Tension Puller
Like the cable jaw grip, the tension puller (Figure 15-
16) is used to tighten or stretch cables. The tension
puller has strong cable attached to a cable notch gear.
At the end of the cable is a hook. This hook can be
attached to the eyelet of the cable to be tightened.
Tension is then applied to the cable by moving the
tension handle in an up and down motion.

Figure 15-16 — Tension puller.

Trip Wire Grapnel


The trip wire grapnel (Figure 15-17) is a metal weight
resembling three or four fish hooks, with a common shank
ending in an eye. The hooks spread out in different directions
at the other end of the shank. Attached to the eye portion of
the shank is a marlin cord of varying length. The trip wire
grapnel is designed to clear trails, tunnels, caves, and
buildings of trip wires, booby traps, and mines. It fits into a 30
round magazine pouch between the magazines. A small tool is
included to pop off the tips of the arms should sharp points be
required.
Figure 15-17 — Trip wire grapnel.

Using a Gear and Bearing Puller


The following steps describe how to use a gear
and bearing puller properly:
1. Check all gripping edges and threads of a
puller for damage before using it.
2. Place the puller firmly in position and
secure it (Figure 15-18).
3. Use the proper size wrench for turning the
Figure 15-18 — Using a gear and bearing
pressure screw or nut to avoid rounding the
puller.
corners of the nut or of the screw head.
4. Turn the pressure screw or nut slowly in a clockwise direction until the gear bearing is
removed.

WARNING
Turn the pressure screw or nut slowly to prevent injury as
the gear bearing is released.

15-6
Using a Slide Hammer Puller Set

WARNING
DO NOT slide the handle too rapidly. The gear may fly off
and cause injury.

The following steps describe how to use a slide


hammer puller properly:
1. Check to make sure that you have all parts
before starting the process. Make sure the
threads are clean and will move freely.
2. Lock the adapter on the component to be
removed (Figure 15-19).
3. Slide the hammer handle up the shaft in the
direction of the pull.
4. Slide the handle in a series of slides until the
gear is loose or comes off.

Using the Block


Figure 15-19 — Using a slide hammer
The following steps describe how to use a block
puller set.
properly:
1. Secure one end of the rope or ropes to the load to be moved
(Figure 15-20).
2. Pass the other end of the rope over the pulley of the block
attached to some type of solid support.
3. Apply the necessary manpower to the end of the rope to lift the
load.

Using the Cable Jaw Grip


The following steps describe how to use a cable jaw grip properly:
1. Place end of cable between the jaws of cable jaw grip as shown in
Figure 15-21.
2. A tension puller can be attached to the eye of the cable jaw grip.
3. While applying the pressure with the tension puller, hold the jaws
together over the cable.
4. Apply enough pressure to the cable to hold the jaws firmly against
the cable.
5. Remove your hand from the cable jaw grip while adding more
tension.
6. Continue adding pressure to the cable using the tension puller
until the desired tension is reached.

Figure 15-20 — Using


15-7 a block.
Figure 15-21 — Using a cable jaw grip.

Care of Pullers
Use the following guidelines when working with pullers:
• Use each tool only for its designated purpose.
• Keep the pullers clean at all times.
• DO NOT grease or oil the gripping edges. The grease will cause the tool to slip.
• Clean all the tools after each use and store them so the threads will not become damaged.
• To prevent the attachments and adapters from being separated from the puller, store them
together in the proper container or original package.
• Oil the pullers after each use and wipe them clean before using again. Occasionally apply
linseed oil to wooden parts of the tools to prevent them from drying out.
• Never use a damaged chain assembly. Replace the damaged chain links promptly.
• Always use the proper size and design of cable jaw grips for each task. Using the wrong size
or style can be dangerous.
• Be sure the tackle used with blocks is safe and meets the lifting requirements.
• When using the tension puller, be sure the hook (or hooks) is the correct size to hold the cable
snugly.
• When swinging the trip wire grapnel, hold the rotating tool at a safe distance from the arm.
• When storing for long periods, apply a coat of rust preventive compound on the tools and store
them in a dry place.

15-8
End of Chapter 15
Pullers
Review Questions
15-1. Which of the following types of pullers has a capacity of 14 inches in diameter?

A. Electrical unit
B. Gear and bearing
C. Slide hammer
D. Universal gear

15-2. Which of the following pullers can remove bronze bushings without crumbling them?

A. Cylinder sleeve
B. Slide hammer
C. Universal bearing and bushing
D. Universal wheel puller

15-3. Which of the following types of pullers is used in close quarters?

A. Electrical unit
B. Cylinder sleeve
C. Battery terminal and small gear
D. Universal bearing and bushing

15-4. Which of the following types of pullers is capable of pulling demountable wheel hubs from
passenger cars?

A. Gear and bearing


B. Push and pull
C. Universal bearing and bushing
D. Universal wheel puller

15-5. The chain assembly is used for towing vehicles and which other application?

A. Clearing trails
B. Removing cylinder sleeves
C. Slinging loads
D. Tightening cables

15-6. The cable jaw grip and tension puller are similar in what way?

A. Both can remove small trees


B. Both fit inside a 30 round magazine pouch
C. They have identical hooks
D. Both are used to tighten cables

15-9
15-7. The trip wire grapnel is designed to clear trails, tunnels, and caves of what hazard?

A. Mines
B. Projectiles
C. Sharp edges
D. Trip hazards

15-8. When using a slide hammer, what step must you accomplish first?

A. Check to make sure you have all parts


B. Lock the adapter on the component
C. Lubricate the threads
D. Slide the hand up the shaft in the direction of the pull

15-9. Grease should NOT be applied to what surface of pullers?

A. Gripping edges
B. Guide rods
C. Pressure screw
D. Sliding hammer

15-10. What substance should be applied to wooden parts of pullers?

A. Grease
B. Linseed oil
C. Turpentine
D. Wax

15-11. Tackle that is used with blocks should meet what critical requirement?

A. Cleanliness
B. Color code
C. Lifting
D. Lubrication

15-10
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

15-11
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 16
DIGGING TOOLS
Digging tools are designed for the breaking and digging of soil. Common types of digging tools are
the long-handled and D-handled shovel, spade, posthole digger and auger, and a mattock.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of digging tools and their uses. You will also learn
how to select the right digging tool for the job, use various types of digging tools, and provide the
proper care of the digging tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of digging tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of digging tools.
3. Determine the proper care of digging tools.

DIGGING TOOLS
Types and Uses
Long-Handled Shovel
The long-handled shovel (Figure 16-1) consists
of a curve-shaped steel blade attached to a long
wooden handle. The lower metal edge of the
blade is tapered to help it cut into the ground.
The long-handled shovel is used for heavy
digging, especially when it is necessary to throw Figure 16-1 — Long-handled shovel.
or move dirt a substantial distance.

D-Handled Shovel
The D-handled shovel (Figure 16-2) resembles
the long-handled shovel except that it has a
shorter handle with a D-shaped handgrip at the
end. The D-handled shovel is used for light work
Figure 16-2 — D-handled shovel. or for digging in cramped, tight places.

Spade
The spade (Figure 16-3), like the shovel, has a
steel blade attached to a wooden handle The
edge of the blade may be round, pointed, or
square in shape and the handle may have the
D or T-shaped handgrip. The spade is used for
heavy digging or digging in confined areas.
Figure 16-3 — Spade.

16-1
Posthole Auger
The posthole auger (Figure 16-4) is a long tool made up of
a steel shaft that has two shovel-like blades at one end.
The blades have curved faces which are hinged to permit
slight movement with the concave surfaces of these
blades facing each other. The posthole auger is used to
bore holes in the ground for posts, poles, and explosive
charges.

Figure 16-4 — Posthole auger.

Posthole Digger
The posthole digger (Figure 16-5) has two
concave blades similar to the posthole auger
except that each blade is fastened to a long
wooden handle. The blades are hinged at the top
so that separating the handles will close them
and moving the handles together will open them. Figure 16-5 — Posthole digger.
Like the auger, the posthole digger is used to
bore holes in the ground for posts and explosive
charges, and perform similar jobs.

Mattock
The mattock (Figure 16-6) is designed for digging and cutting operations. The mattock can have a
single- or double-beveled head (Figure 16-7). However, the single-beveled mattock can be combined
with other digging tools to perform a variety of functions. For example, the “pick-mattock” is a
combination of the single-beveled mattock and pick.

Figure 16-6 — Mattock. Figure 16-7 — Double-beveled mattock.

16-2
Using the Long-Handled Shovel

WARNING
Wear proper eye protection when working where flying
particles may cause eye injury.

The following steps describe how to use a long-handled shovel properly:


1. Hold one hand at the end of the handle and place the other hand a few inches below it.
2. Press the blade into the ground (Figure 16-8). Use the foot on top of the blade for extra force if
necessary.

Figure 16-8 — Using a long-handled shovel.

3. With the shovel embedded in the soil, push the handle downward and pull back slightly to
break the dirt loose.
4. While holding the handle down with one hand, slide the other hand near enough to the shovel
blade to raise the weight of the blade and dirt.

16-3
Using the Spade

WARNING
Wear proper eye protection when working where flying
particles may cause eye injury.

The following steps describe how to use a spade properly:


1. Hold the handle in the upright position with both hands and push the blade into the ground with
one foot, illustrated in Figure 16-9.

Figure 16-9 — Using a spade.

2. With the blade in the ground, push the handle downward and pull back to break the dirt loose.
3. Slide one hand near enough to the blade to raise the weight of the blade and the dirt.

Using the Posthole Digger


The following steps describe how to use a posthole digger properly:
1. Define the edges of the hole by driving the posthole digger several times into the spot where
the hole is to be dug.
2. Hold the handles slightly separated near the top and bring the blades down sharply into the
soil by the force of the arms.
16-4
3. Pull the handles apart to grasp the soil and lift the digger out of the hole (Figure 16-10).
4. Continue the process until the hole is the required size and depth.

Figure 16-10 — Using a posthole digger.

Using the Mattock

WARNING
Wear proper eye protection when working where flying
particles may cause eye injury.

The following steps describe how to use a mattock properly:


1. Distribute body weight equally on both feet. The knees should be set but not tense. The feet
should be spread apart at a comfortable distance. The body should be relaxed and free to
swing and bend from the hips as seen in Figure 16-11.
2. When practicing using the mattock, swing with either the right or the left hand leading. When
your position becomes tiring, reverse your hands on the handle of the mattock.

16-5
Figure 16-11 — Using a mattock.
3. With the right hand leading, the left foot should be brought slightly toward the work. To start the
swing, hold the handle at the end with the left hand and near the center with the right hand.
Raise the mattock over the right shoulder. Swing the mattock down toward the work, allowing
the right hand to slide back along the handle toward the left hand so that at the finish of the
swing, the hands are close together.
4. With the left hand in the center of the handle, the mattock is swung in the same manner,
except that the positions are reversed.
5. Light swings are accomplished with wrist motion only, allowing the head of the mattock to do
the work.
6. Use the wrists, forearms, and shoulders for heavy swings.

CAUTION
Slight prying may be done with the mattock. However,
prying must be done cautiously to prevent breaking the
wood handle.

Care of Digging Tools


Use the following guidelines when working with digging tools:
1. Digging tools should be cleaned often and after each use and the metal parts oiled before
storing.

16-6
2. Never use a tool other than for the job it was intended.
3. Store all digging tools in their proper places when not in use.
4. Replace defective handles immediately.
5. Treat wooden handles occasionally with linseed oil to prevent drying out, splintering, and
moisture penetration.

WARNING
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal injury,
properly dispose of all cleaning rags in non-combustible
containers. Cloths used to apply or remove linseed oil are
fire hazards because they may ignite by spontaneous
combustion. These cloths should be either destroyed after
use or hung up to dry in a well-ventilated place and stored
in metal containers.

6. Do not use a dull or defective tool.


7. Before swinging a tool, always be sure no one is close enough to be injured.
8. Clean the mattock thoroughly after use and before short- or long-term storage.
9. Store the mattock so the head will not be struck against metal or other hard surfaces.
10. For long-term storage, coat the mattock head with a rust preventive compound and store in a
dry place in a rack or box with the cutting edges protected.

16-7
End of Chapter 16
Digging Tools
Review Questions
16-1. The long-handled shovel is used for what type of digging?

A. Heavy
B. Light
C. Moderate
D. Trivial

16-2. What type of shovel resembles the long-handled shovel?

A. D-handled
B. Mattock
C. Posthole auger
D. Spade

16-3. What tool consists of a steel shaft that has two shovel-like blades at one end?

A. D-handled shovel
B. Mattock
C. Posthole auger
D. Spade

16-4. What tool is used to bore holes in the ground for posts, poles, and explosive charges?

A. D-handled shovel
B. Mattock
C. Posthole auger
D. Spade

16-5. Which of the following types of heads can the mattock have?

A. Pick and spade


B. Pick and triple-bevel
C. Single- or double-bevel
D. Spade and double-bevel

16-6. When using a mattock, which body parts should be used for heavy swings?

A. Legs, forearms, and shoulders


B. Legs, waist, and wrists
C. Waist, thighs, and biceps
D. Wrists, forearms, and shoulders

16-8
16-7. When not in use, digging tools should be in which of the following locations?

A. Below the workbench


B. On the workbench
C. Proper storage location
D. Shop floor

16-8. Treat wooden handles with linseed oil to prevent drying out and which other condition?

A. Moisture repellant
B. Polished surface
C. Soft and pliable surface
D. Splintering

16-9. Before swinging a tool, always ensure no one is close enough for what condition?

A. To be injured
B. To cast a shadow on the digging spot
C. To supervise the digging operation
D. To verify improper form

16-9
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

16-10
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 17
CHOPPING TOOLS
There are many types of chopping tools used in forestry work, area clearance, and emergency
rescue. When you consider which of these tools to use, keep in mind the specific purpose of each
one.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of chopping tools and their uses. You will also learn
how to select the right chopping tool for the job, use various types of chopping tools, and provide the
proper care of the chopping tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of chopping tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of chopping tools.
3. Determine the proper care of chopping tools.

CHOPPING TOOLS
Types and Uses
Axes
Axes are cutting tools used for the cutting down of trees and for the chopping and splitting of wood.
They may be either single or double-edged. Single-bit, double-bit, and crash axes are the most
common types. Sizes of axes vary depending upon their design and purpose.

Single-Bit Ax
The single-bit ax (Figure 17-1) is used to cut
down or prune trees. It can also be used to cut or
trim logs and heavy brush, or to split and cut
wood. It has a forged, hardened steel head, a
ground polished cutting edge, and an elliptical
tapered eye for the long, slightly curved handle.
The head has a flat face at one end and a cutting
Figure 17-1 — Single-bit ax.
edge or “bit” at the other.

Double-Bit Ax
The double-bit ax (Figure 17-2) is used for the
chopping down and the lopping and topping of
trees. The double-bit ax has a wedge-type head
Figure 17-2 — Double-bit ax. with two cutting edges.

17-1
Crash Ax
The crash ax (Figure 17-3), or fireman’s ax, is
used by emergency personnel to gain quick
access to a given area. This ax has a steel head
with a cutting blade or bit at one end, and a
spike-like extension at the other.

Hatchets Figure 17-3 — Crash ax.

Half-Hatchet
The half-hatchet (Figure 17-4), commonly called a
hatchet, consists of a forged steel head with a
hardened, tempered blade and a hickory handle
firmly attached with wedges. The hatchet has an
octagonal, flat striking head opposite the blade. A
beveled slot in the blade is for removing nails.

Figure 17-4 — Half-hatchet.

Adz
The adz (Figure 17-5) is a chopping tool used for
chopping and smoothing lumber or logs where a
great deal of wood or bark is to be removed. The
adz is a form of ax where the edge of the blade
is at a right angle to the handle. It has a curved
steel head attached to a curved handle. Figure 17-5 — Adz.

Timber Wedges
The timber wedge (Figure 17-6) is used with a sledge,
primarily to split logs and timber. When sawing timber
or thick lumber, it may also be used to spread the cut
so the saw will not bind. The timber wedge is a steel
tool resembling a slender single-bit ax head. One end
is slightly fan-shaped and sharpened to a dull edge.
The other end is flat, where a sledge can strike when
Figure 17-6 — Timber wedges. driving the wedge into a log.

Maul
The maul (Figure 17-7) features an octagonal face
on one end of the head and an ax on the other
end. These hardened, heavy striking tools will
have a striking face on one end and a striking face Figure 17-7 — Maul.
or a special purpose striking end on the other.
17-2
Using the Single-Bit Ax

WARNING
Always wear suitable eye protection.

NOTE
Reverse the position of the hands, feet, and shoulder if left-
handed.

The following steps describe how to use a single-bit ax properly:


1. First, clear the work area of material that might deflect the ax blade. The user’s body weight
should be evenly distributed, with knees set, but not tense. The feet should be spread at a
comfortable distance to retain balance, while the body should be relaxed and free to swing and
bend at the waist.
2. To use the ax, grasp the ax handle with both hands close together near the end of the handle,
with the right or leading hand closer to the ax head. The left foot should be closer to the work.
3. To start the swing, bring the ax back over the right shoulder (Figure 17-8), bending the elbow
as the right hand slides up the handle toward the ax head.
4. On the downswing, let the right hand slide down the handle, toward the left hand.
5. At the end of the downswing, the right hand will be beside the left hand at the end of the
handle (Figure 17-9).

Figure 17-8 — Start the swing with the ax Figure 17-9 — Finish the swing with the
over the shoulder. hands together.

17-3
Using the Adz

WARNING
Always wear suitable eye protection.

The following steps describe how to use an adz properly:


1. To use the adz, first clear the work area of branches and debris.
2. Block the timber to be worked on so it cannot slip, slide, or roll.
3. Straddle the timber and grip the adz handle with both hands (Figure 17-10). The right hand
should be held approximately 12 to 15 inches above the left hand.
4. Use short, choppy down strokes (Figure 17-11) while keeping the hands in approximately the
same position on the handle. The right hand does not slide toward the left hand as in swinging
the ax, because the right hand must be in a position to keep control of the adz head at all
times. Sliding the right hand to the end of the handle would allow the adz blade face to be
deflected toward the user.

NOTE
As wood chips accumulate on the work surface, clear them
away to prevent deflection of the adz blade.
Reverse the position of the hands if left-handed.

Figure 17-10 — Straddle the timber. Figure 17-11 — Use short, choppy down
strokes.
17-4
Using the Timber Wedge

WARNING
Always wear suitable eye protection.

The following steps describe how to use a timber wedge properly:


1. To use the timber wedge, first block the log to be split, or steady it so it cannot roll.
2. With the left hand, hold the wedge’s narrow edge on the log where a split is desired.

CAUTION
Do not use a timber wedge that has nicks or burrs, since
the rough sections can scratch the hands or can cause
chips to break off when struck by sledge.

3. Hold the sledge handle in the right hand, close to its head, and start driving the wedge into the
log with a pounding action (Figure 17-12).
4. Give the wedge a few blows, then start a second wedge on the line farther along the log and
drive it with a few sledge blows.
5. Alternate driving the wedges (Figure 17-13) into the log until log splits. For longer logs, more
than two wedges should be used.

NOTE
Reverse the position of the hands if left-handed.

Figure 17-12 — Drive the wedge into the Figure 17-13 —Alternate driving the
log. wedges.
17-5
Care of Chopping Tools
Use the following guidelines when working with chopping tools:
• Always wear eye protection when working where flying particles may injure the eyes.
• Keep arms, legs, and feet out of path of ax.
• Before swinging a tool, be sure no one is close enough to be injured.
• Never use any tool that is defective.
• Do not use dull or defective tools.
• Do not use a tool not designed for the job. It can be dangerous.
• Before using an ax, clean the work area of material that might deflect the ax blade.
• Clean all chopping tools after use.
• Store tools to protect the heads and cutting edges.
• For prolonged storage, keep the tools free of rust by wiping with oil.
• In very cold weather, never use a chopping tool before the blade is warm. A cold blade is brittle
and will break easily.
• Promptly replace the wooden handles on all chopping tools when needed. When changing the
handle, apply a light coating of linseed oil.

WARNING
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal injury,
properly dispose of all cleaning rags in non-combustible
containers.

17-6
End of Chapter 17
Chopping Tools
Review Questions
17-1. Which of the following axes are the most common?

A. Hatchet, maul, and crash


B. Salvage, maul, and adz
C. Single-bit, double-bit, and crash
D. Single-bit, hatchet, and salvage

17-2. Which of the following chopping tools is used by emergency personnel?

A. Adz
B. Crash ax
C. Hatchet
D. Single-bit ax

17-3. What type of chopping tool has a beveled slot in the blade for removing nails?

A. Adz
B. Crash ax
C. Hatchet
D. Single-bit ax

17-4. What type of chopping tool has a curved steel head attached to a curved handle?

A. Adz
B. Crash ax
C. Hatchet
D. Single-bit ax

17-5. When using a single-bit ax, what step should occur first?

A. Clear the work area of material that might deflect the ax blade
B. Place both hands together at the bottom of the handle
C. Place both hands together at the top of the handle
D. Position your feet shoulder’s distance apart

17-6. When using a timber wedge, for what reason is it important to block the log to be split?

A. Aligns your feet


B. Easier to split the log
C. Guides the wedges
D. Prevents it from rolling

17-7
17-7. Which of the following protective devices should be worn when using chopping tools?

A. Climbers
B. Electrical gloves
C. Eye protection
D. Hard hat

17-8. When should chopping tools be cleaned?

A. After each use


B. Before each use
C. Monthly
D. Annually

17-9. For prolonged storage of chopping tools, keep the tools free from rust by wiping the tools with
what substance?

A. Anti-seize compound
B. Grease
C. Oil
D. Paint

17-8
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

17-9
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 18
TIMBER-HANDLING TOOLS
Timber-handling tools are used for lifting or moving heavy objects such as logs or timbers. The timber
carrier, peavey, and cant hook are the most common examples of timber-handling tools.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of timber-handling tools and their uses. You will
also learn how to select the right timber-handling tool for the job, use various types of timber-handling
tools, and provide the proper care of the timber-handling tools to keep them in good working
condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of timber-handling tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of timber-handling tools.
3. Determine the proper care of timber-handling tools.

TIMBER-HANDLING TOOLS
Types and Uses

Timber Carrier
The timber carrier (Figure 18-1) consists of a pair
of large chisel-bill hooks with sharp, pointed
ends. These hooks are hung by pivots in the
center of a large wooden handle, 4 feet in length.
The timber carrier is used to lift logs and timbers
from one level to another as well as carry them.

Figure 18-1 — Timber carrier.

Peavey
The peavey (Figure 18-2) has a sturdy pole-type
wooden handle, about 5 feet in length, which fits
into a cylindrical tapered steel socket. The
socket has a sharp, spiked point. Hinged to the
side of the socket is a curved hook that ends in a
sharp point. The peavey is used for rolling,
turning, and carrying logs and timbers.
Figure 18-2 — Peavey.

18-1
Cant Hook
The cant hook (Figure 18-3) is similar to the
peavey. The cant hook has a sturdy pole-type
wooden or fiberglass handle, about 5 feet in
length, which fits into a cylindrical, tapered steel
socket. The socket has a toe hook, which provides
a second biting edge on the log or timber. Hinged
to the side of the socket is a curved hook that
ends in a sharp point. The cant hook may have an
extended leg to lift the log or timber off the ground
for cutting. The cant hook is used for rolling,
turning, and carrying logs and timbers. The cant
Figure 18-3 — Cant hook.
hook may be used on the end of the log or timber
to slide it out of the way or into position.

Using a Timber Carrier


The proper use of a timber carrier is illustrated in Figure 18-4.

Figure 18-4 — Using a timber carrier.

18-2
Using a Cant Hook
The proper use of a cant hook is illustrated in
Figure 18-5.

Care of Timber-Handling Tools


Use the following guidelines when working with
timber-handling tools:
1. Keep the points on tools sharp by filing
when points are even slightly dulled.
2. Oil the metal portions of these tools on
occasion to prevent rust.
3. Inspect the pivots on the timber carrier to
ensure the correct tightness.
Figure 18-5 — Using a cant hook.
4. Ensure that all hooks are securely
embedded in the log to be carried.
5. Be sure that all personnel at the end of the timber carrier or peavey handles lift and lower the
log in unison.
6. Never toss tools from one location to another, as damage or injury may result.
7. Replace defective or damaged handles immediately.
8. Coat the handles occasionally with linseed oil to prevent drying out.

WARNING
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal injury,
properly dispose of all cleaning rags in non-combustible
containers.

18-3
End of Chapter 18
Timber-Handling Tools
Review Questions
18-1. What timber-handling tool, if any, consists of a pair of large chisel-bill hooks?

A. Cant hook
B. Peavey
C. Timber carrier
D. None

18-2. The peavey’s handle is approximately how long, in feet?

A. One
B. Three
C. Five
D. Seven

18-3. The peavey is used for rolling, turning, and what other action for logs and timbers?

A. Carrying
B. Dragging
C. Holding
D. Staking

18-4. The cant hook is different from the peavey in what way?

A. Aluminum socket
B. Extended leg
C. Hickory handle
D. Sharp point

18-5. The cant hook is used for rolling and turning, and can also be used to perform what action?

A. As a cutting marker
B. As a splitting wedge
C. Carrying bushes
D. Carrying logs

18-6. When timber-handling tool points are dulled, what action should be used to sharpen them?

A. File
B. Lubricate
C. Paint
D. Sand

18-4
18-7. The pivots on the timber carrier should be inspected to ensure what condition?

A. Correct sloppiness
B. Correct tightness
C. Dulled points
D. Oiled handle

18-8. When using a timber carrier, all personnel should lift at what interval?

A. In sequence
B. In the front first
C. In the rear first
D. In unison

18-9. After using the timber-handling tools, the handles should be coated occasionally with what
chemical to prevent drying out?

A. Grease
B. Linseed oil
C. Silicone
D. Turpentine

18-5
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

18-6
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 19
CLIMBING AND RIGGING TOOLS
Many types of tools are used to maintain overhead electrical distribution systems. Sometimes the
maintenance can be accomplished with the use of an aerial lift or line maintenance truck; however,
access to a telephone pole with a truck may be difficult, or there may not be a truck available. When a
truck is unavailable, personal climbing equipment becomes necessary. Climbing poles is not difficult if
care is taken to select, fit, and maintain climbing and rigging equipment.
In this chapter, you will learn about climbing and rigging tools and their uses. You will also learn how
to select and fit the climbing or rigging tool for the job and provide the proper care of the climbing and
rigging tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Determine the purpose of climbing equipment.
2. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to climbing equipment.
3. Determine the proper care of climbing tools.
4. Determine the purpose of rigging tools.
5. Recognize the safety precautions that apply to rigging tools.
6. Determine the proper care of rigging tools.

CLIMBING TOOLS
Types and Uses
Climbing tools consist of body belts,
safety straps, climbers, gloves, and a
hardhat. Climbing tools are used for
scaling poles and trees, erecting
power lines, and support for clearing
and topping trees.

Body Belt
The lineman’s body belt is made up
of four parts (Figure 19-1): a cushion
or pad section for comfort and
support, a belt with a tongue and
buckle, a tool saddle, and D-rings
attached to the cushion. Two
measurements are necessary for
fitting the body belt. One is used to
determine the D-ring position on the
belt and the other to actually fit the
belt to your body. The most critical
Figure 19-1 — Body belt.
19-1
measurement of a body belt, in terms of comfort, is the “D” measurement. The proper “D” size is
normally found by measuring from the prominent part of one hip around the back to the same point on
the other hip bone. Add 2 inches to this measurement, so the D-ring heels will be just forward of the
hip bones rather than on them. The measurement to properly size the body belt is determined by
measuring completely around the waist where the belt is worn. All measuring is over the work clothing
to be worn under the belt. Refer to Figure 19-2 for distances.

Figure 19-2 — Measurements concerning lineman’s body belt.

Safety Strap
Workers must use their safety straps
(Figure 19-3) at all times upon reaching a
work position on any pole, tower, or
structure. Before workers transfer their
weight to the safety strap, they should
ensure that the snaps on the safety strap
are fastened properly to the D-ring of the
lineman’s body belt. The only safe way to
determine that the snap is securely
fastened to the D-ring is to actually look at
the D-ring each time you fasten the snap.
Never depend upon the sound or feel of
the snap. Leaning back for a test can also
be dangerous because the snap may be
caught in something other than the D-ring. Figure 19-3 — Safety strap.

19-2
Climbers
Climbers are used for ascending,
descending, and maintaining work positions
on the pole (Figure 19-4). They consist of
leg irons with straps, pads, and gaffs. The
leg irons are adjustable from 14 to 20 inches
in half-inch increments. The gaffs are
attached to the leg iron and are normally
replaceable. Adjust the leg iron to a position
1 inch below the prominent inside bone of
the knee. Secure the climber to your leg and
foot with adjustable leather or Velcro straps.
Figure 19-4 — Climbers.
Gloves
Wear gloves to protect your hands (Figure 19-5). Use gloves whenever you are required to handle
rough, scaly, or splintered objects, such as a wooden pole. Gloves should fit snugly, but not tightly.
They should be flexible enough to allow for easy movement of the hand when you are working or
handling tools.

Hardhat
A hardhat protects your head from falling objects and accidental contact with electrical circuits (Figure
19-6). It is made up of a shell and a suspension system. Adjust the headband portion of the
suspension system to fit around the crown of your head. Adjust the chinstrap, which is attached to the
shell, to fit beneath the chin. Adjust both the headband and the chinstrap to fit comfortably. DO NOT
overtighten. Electrical workers must wear insulating hardhats rated as class E, electrical type. Class E
hardhats are rated to meet a test of 20,000 volts 60 Hertz (Hz) for 3 minutes with 9 milliamps (MA)
maximum leakage. Hardhat requirements are found in the 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
Article 1926.100 and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2014.

Figure 19-5 — Gloves. Figure 19-6 — Hardhat.


19-3
Inspect the Climbing Equipment
Body Belt
Inspect of the body belt before use. Inspect all leather parts for tears, cracks, and cuts. Inspect the
stitching for rotting and broken threads. Inspect the D-rings and rivets for rust, breaks, and cracks.

Safety Strap
Inspect your strap before each use and every 6 months if stored for a period of time. Like the body
belt, safety straps should be inspected for tears, cracks, and cuts. Also inspect the stitching for rotting
and broken thread and the buckle for rust, breaks, and cracks. If you discover any of these things on
the strap, it should be taken out of service. If you have any doubt about the serviceability of the strap,
discard it.

Climbers
Inspect climbers before each use. Inspect straps and pads frequently for cuts, loose stitching,
enlarged eyelet holes, and tears; and inspect buckles for rust and damage. Inspect gaffs for burrs,
and ensure they are sharp.

Gloves
Inspect gloves for holes and cuts. Also inspect the stitching for rotting and broken threads. If there is
any doubt about the serviceability of the gloves, replace them.

Hardhat
Inspect the hardhat shell for dirt, cracks, and burns. Check the suspension system for cuts and the
chinstrap for elasticity and fraying before use. Replace the hardhat immediately if there are any signs
of wear, damage, abuse, or environmental degradation.

Using Climbing Tools


The following steps describe how to properly use climbing tools to ascend and descend a utility pole
safely.

Ascending Procedures

NOTE
Before climbing, ensure your arms are protected by rolling
down your shirtsleeves. Protect your hands with leather
gloves.

1. Once the pole and climbing equipment have been inspected and deemed serviceable, you are
ready to don your climbing equipment and climb up (ascend) the pole. A demonstration of
ascending a utility pole is shown in Figure 19-7.
2. When ascending, take short, comfortable steps approximately 8 to 10 inches high. Always take
short glances up the pole to determine where you are going and if any obstacles are in your
path during the climbing process. On each step, transfer the weight of your body to the lower
leg with the knee locked. This procedure should be smooth and rhythmic.

19-4
3. Keep hips, shoulders,
and knees at a
comfortable distance
from pole. It is important

Interaction Available
to maintain a proper
climbing position. Keep
your shoulders and hips
in a relaxed position.
Remember to use 8- to
10-inch steps, maintain
hand-foot coordination,
and keep one knee
locked at all times. Each
time you take a step up,
lock the knee of the leg
with which you just
Figure 19-7 — Ascending a pole.
stepped up.
4. Use your legs to lift your body during climbing and use your hands for balance only. Novice
climbers have a tendency to pull themselves up using their arms. Using the arms to pull up is a
poor practice to get into because your arms will tire very quickly.
5. With the stepping leg, make an inverted “J” with the gaff and plunge it into the pole
approximately 6 inches above the ground. Step up on that gaff by putting your full weight on it,
while keeping your knee locked and positioned away from the pole. Take another step with the
other leg approximately 8 to 10 inches above the first.
6. Each time you take a step, your gaffs should be directed towards the heart of the pole. In order
for your gaff to achieve penetration into the heart of the pole and ensure safe positioning, your
feet must be turned out and kept apart. Keeping your feet turned out will ensure that the gaff,
and not the side of your foot, will hit the pole. The horizontal distance between your heels is
determined by the size of the pole.
7. Coordination of hand movement is very important. The right hand will move up with the right
leg and the left hand will move up with the left leg in a rhythmic motion. Repeat this action until
you reach the desired level above ground.
If you follow these simple procedures, you will not have any problems ascending the pole.

Descending Procedures
1. Descending the pole is nearly the opposite of ascending. Keep a proper climbing position by
remaining at a comfortable distance from the pole, relaxing the shoulders, hips, and knees.
Look down between your legs as you descend. An example of descending a utility pole is
shown in Figure 19-8.
2. Coordination here is very important. The right hand will drop with the right leg and the left hand
will drop with the left leg in a rhythmic motion. This motion is the opposite of how we walk or
march, and it may take some practice for you to get the hang of it.
3. Before taking a step down, relax the leg that is in the highest position on the pole. Remove this
leg from the pole while at the same time supporting your full weight on the other leg. Allow your
leg to hang down towards the ground, and straighten it by locking your knee. This action will
enable you to keep the leg straight while you aim the gaff and step (drop) down.

19-5
4. Aim the gaff at the heart
(center) of the pole
beneath your body. Be
sure to point your toes

Interaction Available
upward when aiming.
5. Aim and then drop the
gaff of the leg removed
from the pole into the
targeted position that
you sighted between
your legs. Ensure that
the drop is an
unrestricted action,
using your full body
weight. Do not ease
yourself down onto your Figure 19-8 — Descending a pole.
gaff; drop with some
amount of force. Easing down on the gaff will prevent full penetration into the wood of the pole
and is likely to result in gaffing out. If done correctly, the leg that has dropped should support
the full weight of your body.
6. Use the upper leg to gauge how far to drop. If the drop is done correctly, the upper leg will be
parallel with the ground. Remove the uppermost leg from the pole by “rolling” the knee to the
outside (away from the pole) before taking the next step. Repeat the initial procedure of
stepping down after removing the uppermost leg from the pole. Remember, coordination and
rhythm are very important. You take your last step to the ground at approximately 6 inches or
less from the bottom of the pole to prevent gaffing yourself and/or injuring your knee.

Care of Climbing Tools


Use the following guidelines when working with climbing tools:
• Always inspect climbing tools thoroughly before using them.
• Never climb without using a safety strap.
• Clean leather items by wiping the surface with a soft, dampened cloth or sponge.
• Keep leather items soft and supple by occasionally applying Neatsfoot oil.
• Never expose leather items to excessive heat or punch extra holes into them.
• When straps are stored in a bag with other equipment, ensure sharp objects and tools are
stored in special compartments to avoid damage to the leather straps.
• Never drop the strap and body belt or throw them to the ground.
• Do not use any belt or strap that is cracked or dried out.
• Examine all stitching frequently and repair immediately if needed.
• Inspect D-rings on the safety belt and snap-hooks of the safety strap frequently. Never use a
safety belt or safety strap with broken, bent, or badly worn rings or fasteners.
• Keep spurs sharp by filing after use.
• Oil all metal parts before storing.

19-6
• Clean the hardhat shell with mild soap and warm water.
• When climbing, ensure that the spurs are securely driven into the wood at each stop.

RIGGING TOOLS
Types and Uses
You will use rigging tools during the installation, maintenance, and removal of assorted equipment.
This equipment, if used as intended, will enable you to perform your work safely, quickly, and easily.
Without the proper knowledge of rigging tools, you would need to lift heavy objects by hand and climb
up and down the pole every time you needed additional tools or materials. For example, the block
and tackle is the tool of choice when you need to manually lift and position heavy equipment and
support material, such as crossarms and distribution transformers, to the top of a utility pole;
whereas, the hand line allows utility workers working at the top of a pole to raise smaller equipment
components, hardware, or tools with little effort. Because these tools are essential to the safe
movement of equipment that can be heavy and awkward, it is essential to maintain and inspect them
on a regular basis. The correct and timely maintenance of these items will ensure their long life and
reliability. Incorrect maintenance can lead to their failure, which could result in equipment damage or
injury to yourself or your co-workers.

Hand Line
The hand line (Figure 19-9) is the simplest rigging tool that you will use
in the field. In its simplest form, it is just a rope used to raise and lower
relatively lightweight tools and equipment. There are basically two
types of hand lines: single and continuous. A single hand line is nothing
more than a single piece of rope with each end braided so the ends will
not unravel. Using this hand line requires the individual to do all the
raising and lowering of equipment needed. The hand line is normally
used when no other type of lifting capability is available.

Figure 19-9 — Hand


line.

Block and Tackle


Whenever the load exceeds the limits of a hand line, use a
block and tackle. It will allow you to lift the object safely and
with little effort. A block and tackle arrangement is a
combination of blocks and ropes by which an object or load
can be lifted or moved in a desired direction. Blocks are
designated by the length of the shell in inches and by the
number of sheaves. Blocks with one, two, three, or four
sheaves are called single, double, triple, and quadruple
blocks, respectively. The size of the sheave and the depth of
the groove in the sheave usually determine the largest size
rope for any block. Frames of the blocks can be made of
wood, metal, or a combination of both. Figure 19-10 shows an
example of a double-sheaved block and tackle.
Figure 19-10 — Block and
tackle.
19-7
Wire Rope
During the course of a career, you may
need to hoist or move heavy objects. Wire
rope is used for heavy-duty work. In the
following paragraphs, we will discuss the
characteristics, construction, and usage of
many types of wire rope as well as the safe

Interaction Available
working load, use of attachments and
fittings, and procedures for the care and
handling of wire rope.
Wire rope consists of three parts: wires,
strands, and core (Figure 19-11). In the
manufacturing of wire rope, a number of
wires are laid together to form the strand.
Then a number of strands are laid together
around a core to form the wire rope.
The basic unit of wire-rope construction is
the individual wire, which can be made of
steel, iron, or other metal in various sizes.
The number of wires to a strand will vary,
depending on the purpose for which the
wire rope is intended. Wire rope is Figure 19-11 — Wire rope.
designated by the number of strands per
rope and the number of wires per strand. Thus, a 1/2-inch, 6 by 19 wire rope will have 6 strands with
19 wires per strand; but it will have the same outside diameter as a 1/2-inch, 6 by 37 wire rope, which
will have 6 strands with 37 wires of much smaller size per strand.
Wire rope that is made up of a large number of small wires is flexible. The small wires are, however,
easily broken, so the wire rope does not resist external abrasion. Wire rope that is made up of a
smaller number of larger wires is more resistant to external abrasion but is less flexible.
The core is the element around which the strands are laid to form the wire rope. The core can be of
hard fiber, such as manila, hemp, plastic, paper, or sisal, or it can be made of wire strand. Each type
of core serves the same basic purpose: to support the strands laid around it.
A fiber core offers the advantage of increased flexibility. Also, it serves as a cushion to reduce the
effects of sudden strain and acts as a reservoir for the oil to lubricate the wires and strands to reduce
friction between them. Wire rope with a fiber core is used in places where flexibility of the wire rope is
important.
A wire-strand core not only resists heat better than a fiber core, but it also adds about 15 percent to
the strength of the wire rope. On the other hand, the wire strand makes the wire rope less flexible
than a fiber core would.
An independent wire-rope core is a separate wire rope over which the main strands of the wire rope
are laid. It usually consists of six seven-wire strands laid around either a fiber core or a wire-strand
core. The core strengthens the wire rope more, provides support against crushing, and supplies
maximum resistance to heat.
Wire rope can be made by either of two methods. If the strands or wires are shaped to conform to the
curvature of the finished wire rope before laying up, the wire rope is termed preformed. If they are not
shaped before fabrication, the wire rope is termed nonpreformed. When cut, preformed wire rope
tends not to unlay, and it is more flexible than nonpreformed wire rope. With nonpreformed wire rope,
19-8
twisting produces a stress in the wires; and, when it is cut or broken, the stress causes the strands to
unlay. In nonpreformed wire rope, unlaying is rapid and almost instantaneous, which could cause
serious injury to someone not familiar with it.
The main types of wire rope used by the U.S.
Navy are 6, 7, 12, 19, 24, or 37 wires in each
strand. Usually, the wire rope has six strands
laid around a fiber or steel center.
Two common types of wire rope, 6 by 19 and
6 by 37 wire rope, are shown in Figure 19-12.
The 6 by 19 type of wire rope (Figure 19-12,
view A), having 6 strands with 19 wires in
each strand, is commonly used for rough
hoisting and skidding work where abrasion is
likely to occur. The 6 by 37 wire rope (Figure
19-12, view B), having 6 strands with 37 wires
in each strand, is the most flexible of the
standard 6-strand wire ropes. For that reason,
it is particularly suitable when you are going
to use small sheaves and drums, such as
those used on cranes and similar machinery.

Chain Hoist
Chain hoists (Figure 19-13) come in a variety
of designs and rated lifting capacities. They Figure 19-12 — Two types of wire rope.
are made of steel or aluminum alloy and
range from 1/2- to 12-ton lifting capacities.
While rigging, you will use hand chain hoists
that are generally rated at 1 1/2 to 3 tons.
You will use these hoists in support of
various maintenance and construction
applications. The chain hoist in Figure 19-13
is typical of what you will use in the career
field. It is designed to easily lift or move
heavy weights and for applying tension to
utility pole guying systems.
The chain hoist consists of a hoist
mechanism, two hooks, a ratchet lever, a
selector lever, and a handwheel. The hooks
generally have a safety snap so that the load
cannot accidentally come off the hook. The
selector lever is used to select up or down
movement. The handwheel is used to quickly
take up the slack in the chain before actual
lifting begins. Hand chain hoists have been
designed with built-in safety features that
indicate when a hoist has exceeded its safe
working capacity. If you use a hoist in a
manner that exceeds its rated design limit, Figure 19-13 — Chain hoist.
the hooks or the ratchet lever will begin to
19-9
bend. This bending signals impending failure. Because of the damage that will be done to the hoist, it
is important to ensure that you never exceed the lifting capacity.

Hooks and Shackles


Hooks and shackles (Figure 19-14) provide a useful means of moving loads without tying directly to
the object with a line, wire rope, or chain. Attach them to wire rope, fiber line, blocks, or chains. Use
shackles for loads too heavy for hooks to handle.

Figure 19-14 — Hooks and shackles.

19-10
Inspect hooks at the beginning of each workday
and before lifting a full rated load. Inspect the
areas of a hook, illustrated in Figure 19-15, for
wear and strain. Be especially careful during the
inspection to look for cracks in the saddle
section and at the neck of the hook.
When the load is too heavy for you to use a
hook, use a shackle. You should inspect
shackles, like hooks, on a daily routine and
before lifting heavy loads. The inspection areas
of a shackle are illustrated in Figure 19-16.
You should never replace the shackle pin with a
bolt. Never use as shackle with a bent pin, and
never allow the shackle to be pulled at an angle;
doing so will reduce its carrying capacity.
Packing the pin with washers centralizes the
shackle, as shown in Figure 19-17.

Figure 19-15 — Hook inspection.

Figure 19-16 — Shackle inspection. Figure 19-17 — Packing a shackle with washers
Mousing is a technique often used to close the open section of a hook to keep slings, straps, and so
on, from slipping off the hook, as shown in Figure 19-18. To some extent, it also helps prevent
straightening of the hook. Hooks should be moused with rope yarn, seizing wire, or a shackle. When
using rope yarn or wire, make 8 to 10 wraps around both sides of the hook. To finish off, make
several turns with the yarn or wire around the sides of the mousing, and then tie the ends securely, as
shown in Figure 19-18. Shackles are moused when there is danger of the shackle pin working loose

19-11
and coming out because of vibration. To mouse a shackle, simply take several turns with seizing wire
through the eye of the pin and around the bow of the shackle.

Figure 19-18 — Mousing.

Slings
Slings are widely used for hoisting and moving heavy loads. Some types of slings come already
made. Slings can be made of wire rope, fiber line, or chain.

Wire Rope Slings


Wire rope slings offer the advantages of both strength and flexibility. These qualities make wire rope
adequate to meet the requirements of most crane hoisting jobs; therefore, wire rope slings are used
more often than fiber line or chain slings.

Fiber Line Slings


Fiber line slings are flexible and protect finished material better than wire rope slings. However, fiber
line slings are not as strong as wire rope or chain slings and are more likely to be damaged by sharp
edges.

Chain Slings
Chain slings are most often used for hoisting heavy steel items, such as rails, pipes, beams, and
angles. Chain slings are the most appropriate type of sling for hot loads and loads that have sharp
edges that might otherwise sever the sling components.

Using Wire Rope and Fiber Line Slings


There are three types of wire rope and fiber line slings: endless, single-leg, and bridle. The following
paragraphs describe the uses of wire rope and fiber line slings.
An endless sling (Figure19-19), usually referred to as a sling, can be made by splicing the ends of a
piece of fiber line or wire rope to form an endless loop. An endless sling is easy to handle and can be
used as a choker hitch. To make a single-leg sling, commonly referred to as a strap, form a spliced
eye in each end of a piece of fiber line or wire rope. Sometimes you can splice the ends of a piece of
wire rope into eyes around thimbles, and then fasten one eye to a hook with a shackle. In this
arrangement, the shackle and hook are both removable.

19-12
The single-leg sling can be used as a choker hitch in
hoisting by passing one eye through the other eye and over
the hoisting hook. The singe-leg sling is also useful as a
double-anchor hitch and works well for hoisting drums or
other cylindrical objects where a sling must tighten itself
under strain and lift by friction against the sides of the
object.
Single-leg slings can be used to make various types of
bridles. Three common uses of bridles are shown in Figure
19-20. Two or more single slings can be used for a given
combination.
The bridle hitch provides excellent load stability when the
load is distributed equally among each sling leg. The load
hook is directly over the center of gravity of the load, and
the load is raised level. The use of bridle slings requires that
the sling angles be carefully determined to ensure that the
individual legs are not overloaded.

Figure 19-19 — Endless slings. Figure 19-20 — Multi-legged bridle slings.

NOTE
It is wrong to conclude that a three- or four-leg bridle will
safely lift a load equal to the safe working load of one leg
multiplied by the number of legs. This wrong conclusion
results because there is no way of knowing whether each
leg is carrying its share of the load.

19-13
When a four-legged bridle sling lifts a rigid load, it is possible for two of the legs to support practically
the full load, while the other two legs only balance it.
When lifting heavy loads, ensure that the bottom of the sling legs are fastened to the load in an effort
to prevent damage to the load. Many pieces of equipment have eyes fastened to them during the
process of manufacture to aid in lifting. With some loads, though, fastening a hook to the eye on one
end of each sling leg suffices to secure the sling to the load.
Use a protective pad to protect a fiber line or wire rope sling from exposure to sharp edges at the
corner of the load. Pieces of wood or old rubber tires are often available and handy for padding.

Care of Rigging Tools


Use the following guidelines when working with rigging tools:
• Always inspect rigging tools thoroughly before using them.
• Determine the weight of a load before attempting any lift.
• Inspect ropes for breaks, cuts, abrasion, and melted or fused fibers each time they are used.
• Keep the slings free of kinks, loops, and/or twists.
• Clean fiber ropes periodically to remove dirt and grit. One way is to rinse them with a hose and
allow them to air dry. Do not use solvents, bleach, or a harsh detergent, and never use heat to
dry them. Use mild soap or liquid laundry detergent.
• Remove excess twists before storing ropes. Flake or coil the ropes loosely.
• Inspect wire rope for kinks, bird cages, knots, crushing, fraying, stretching, abrasion, corrosion,
heat damage, or other signs of failure.
• Remove a wire rope from service when an inspection reveals widespread corrosion and pitting
of the wires.
• Clean wire ropes at frequent intervals to remove any accumulation of dirt, grit, rust, or other
foreign matter.
• Inspect the chain hoist for evidence of spreading or excessive wear on the hook. Replace the
chain hoist if the links of the chain are distorted.
• Attach the sling securely to the load.
• Keep slings well lubricated to prevent corrosion.

19-14
End of Chapter 19
Climbing and Rigging Tools
Review Questions
19-1. Climbing tools consist of body belts, safety belts, and which of the following other devices?

A. Climbers
B. Hand line
C. Hoist
D. Safety glasses

19-2. Climbing tools are used for scaling poles and trees and for which of the following other
purpose?

A. Erecting power lines


B. Lifting heavy objects
C. Pruning bushes
D. Pulling high-voltage wires

19-3. An electrical worker’s hardhat should be rated as what class?

A. B
B. C
C. D
D. E

19-4. All leather parts of the body belt should be inspected for which of the following conditions?

A. Cuts, flexibility, and softness


B. Flexibility, softness, and color
C. Tears, cracks, and cuts
D. Tears, cracks, and flexibility

19-5. When stored for a period of time, the safety strap should be inspected at an interval of how
many months?

A. 1
B. 3
C. 6
D. 9

19-6. If the serviceability of the safety strap is in doubt, what action should be taken?

A. Discard the belt


B. Perform the annual inspection
C. Service the belt
D. Take the belt to the tool room

19-15
19-7. When climbing, what tool should you use?

A. Safety strap
B. Eye protection
C. Blousing strap
D. Rubber boots

19-8. To keep leather items soft and supple, what substance should be applied?

A. Linseed oil
B. Neatsfoot oil
C. Talcum powder
D. Vaseline

19-9. Leather climbing items should NOT be exposed to which of the following conditions?

A. Cold weather
B. Excessive heat
C. Indirect sunlight
D. Rain

19-10. What result can occur if sharp objects and tools are stored with climbing straps?

A. Damaged straps
B. Damaged points
C. Loosen D-rings
D. Change gaff angles

19-11. Which of the following tools is the simplest rigging tool?

A. Chain hoist
B. Hand line
C. Wire rope
D. Wire sling

19-12. Which of the following tools is used for hoisting heavy objects?

A. Chain hoist
B. Hand line
C. Wire rope
D. Wire sling

19-13. Which of the following rigging tools is used to move loads without tying directly to the object
with a line or chain?

A. Chain hoist
B. Hand line
C. Shackle
D. Sling

19-16
19-14. At what interval should rigging hooks be inspected?

A. Annually after the weight test


B. Before lifting a full rated load
C. Every quarter after the weight test
D. Monthly after overhaul

19-15. A shackle pin should be replaced with what item?

A. Heavy-duty bolt
B. Locking wire
C. Packing
D. Replacement shackle pin

19-16. When heavy loads are to be lifted, the bottom sling legs should be in what condition to prevent
damage to the load?

A. Lubricated for operation


B. Fastened to the load
C. Have taglines attached
D. Painted orange for safety

19-17. Before lifting a load, what factor should you determine?

A. Height of the lift


B. Size of the load
C. Time of the lifting evolution
D. Weight of the load

19-18. Slings should be kept free of kinks, loops, and what other condition?

A. Grease
B. Twists
C. Oil
D. Excessive sun

19-19. A wire rope should be removed from service when the inspection reveals what condition?

A. Exceptionally clean wires


B. Excessive grease at the hooks
C. Moderate paint splatters on the wires
D. Widespread corrosion and pitting

19-17
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

19-18
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 20
CONCRETE AND MASONRY TOOLS
There are a number of tools used in concrete and masonry projects. Concrete tools include screeds,
floats, trowels, edgers, and groovers. Masonry tools include trowels, jointers, chisels, and line blocks.
When you consider which of these tools to use, keep in mind the specific purpose of each one.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of concrete and masonry tools and their uses. You
will also learn how to select the right concrete and masonry tool for the job, use various types of
concrete and masonry tools, and provide the proper care of the concrete and masonry tools to keep
them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of concrete tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of concrete tools.
3. Determine the proper care of concrete tools.
4. Identify the different types of masonry tools.
5. Determine the proper uses of masonry tools.
6. Determine the proper care of masonry tools.

CONCRETE TOOLS
Types and Uses

Vibrator
The concrete vibrator (Figure 20-1) is used to
consolidate concrete after it has been poured.
Concrete vibration is important in removing air
pockets in the mix. It is performed before the
surface is finished.

Wood Screed Board


The wood screed board (Figure 20-2) is used to cut
off excess wet concrete to bring the top surface of
a slab to the proper grade.

Figure 20-1 — Concrete vibrator.

Figure 20-2 — Wood screed board. 20-1


The wood screed board is a straight 2- by 4-inch board about a foot longer than the width of the area
being worked on. The concrete should be screeded as soon as it has been poured and vibrated. The
screed board should rest on the concrete form and a sawing motion used while the screed board is
pulled toward the end of the poured area. Fresh concrete should be poured into lower areas and the
screeding process repeated.

Power Screed
The power screed, shown in Figure 20-3, is used to cut off excess concrete from the top surface of a
concrete slab. It is useful for screeding large concrete slabs that would be difficult to screed using a
wood screed board.

Figure 20-3 — Power screed.

Bull Float
A bull float (Figure 20-4) will smooth the surface of
freshly laid concrete by applying pressure to the
concrete’s surface. This pressure levels ridges and
fills voids left by the screeding process by pushing
the aggregate down and allowing the liquid to rise
and dry, leaving behind a smooth surface. The bull
float is used to float large areas of concrete. A bull
float is generally 42 or 48 inches long and 8 inches
wide. It has handle sections that come in 5- or 6- Figure 20-4 — Bull float.
foot lengths that can be joined together so they will
reach 15 to 20 feet over a slab.

Darby Float
The darby float (Figure 20-5), is used to level
concrete on smaller areas, with a surface that is
generally less wavy than that created with a bull
float. It is usually made of magnesium or
aluminum.

Figure 20-5 — Darby float.

20-2
Magnesium Float
The magnesium float (Figure 20-6) is another
option for smoothing smaller areas. It ranges in
length from 12 to 16 inches, with widths from
3 1/8 to 3 1/2 inches.

Figure 20-6 — Magnesium float.

Steel Trowel
A trowel produces a hard, smooth, dense surface
on concrete and is used immediately after floating.
The steel trowel (Figure 20-7) is used to increase
the wear resistance of the concrete. Troweling
multiple times allows the worker to apply
increasingly greater pressure to make the
concrete denser. Each successive troweling
Figure 20-7 — Steel trowel. should be done with a smaller trowel tipped at a
greater angle than the last troweling.

Finish Trowel
A finish trowel, also known as a pool trowel
(Figure 20-8), is similar to the steel trowel,
except the ends are rounded to prevent digging
into the concrete during the finish troweling.

Figure 20-8 — Finish trowel.

Concrete Whirlybird
The concrete whirlybird (Figure 20-9) is a walk-
behind power trowel. It is useful for troweling
large concrete surfaces.

Figure 20-9 — Concrete whirlybird.

20-3
Edger
The edger (Figure 20-10) is used to round the
edge of the slab after the bleed water disappears
from the concrete surface. Edging is done mostly
on patios, curbs, sidewalks, and driveways to
give a tight, clean-looking edge that resists
chipping.

Figure 20-10 — Edger.

Groover
The groover (Figure 20-11) is used to cut joints
in concrete to control the location of cracks that
might form as the slab contracts. The groove
sizes range from 1/4 to 1/2 inch wide and are
usually 1/2 inch deep.
Figure 20-11 — Groover.

Concrete Saw
The concrete saw (Figure 20-12) is used much
like the groover; to cut joints in concrete to control
the location of cracks. It is used for large concrete
projects.

Figure 20-12 — Concrete saw.

Using Concrete Tools


The following steps describe how to use concrete
tools to finish concrete properly:
1. Bring the surface to the required elevation
by striking off the excess concrete with a
screed (Figure 20-13).
Figure 20-13 — Screeding operation.

20-4
2. If a smoother finish is required than the
one obtained by screeding, work the
surface sparingly with a wood or aluminum
magnesium float (Figure 20-14).
3. As the sheen of water begins to leave the
surface, use an edger to dress the corners
of the concrete edges (Figure 20-15).
4. To achieve a dense and smooth finish, use
a steel trowel to obtain an unslippery and
fine textured surface. Use a circular motion
immediately after the first regular troweling.
a. In this process, keep the trowel flat
on the surface of the concrete
(Figure 20-16). Where a hard steel
troweled finish is required, follow the
Figure 20-14 — Hand float in use.
first regular troweling by a second
troweling.
b. During the final troweling, the trowel should be tilted slightly and heavy pressure exerted
to thoroughly compact the surface.

Figure 20-15 — Edger in use. Figure 20-16 — Troweling.

NOTE
Avoid overworking the concrete during finishing operations.
Hairline cracks are created by a concentration of water and
extremely fine aggregates at the surface.

20-5
5. To create a nonskid surface, perform a brooming operation using a hair bristle brush to score
the concrete. When brooming, make sure the direction of the scoring is at right angles to the
direction of the traffic.

Care of Concrete Tools


Use the following guidelines when working with concrete tools:
• Wear appropriate personal protective equipment when working with concrete. This includes a
hard hat, eye protection, and skin protection such as gloves, waterproof boots, long sleeves,
and long pants.
• Be careful of the edges of finishing tools, which can be sharp.
• Clean tools after use to avoid concrete build-up.

MASONRY TOOLS
Types and Uses
Pointing Trowel
The pointing trowel (Figure 20-17) is used by
bricklayers for pointing up their work, as well as for
patch work and for cleaning other tools. The length
of pointing trowels ranges from 4 1/2 to 7 inches.

Mortar Trowel
The mortar trowel (Figure 20-18) is similar to the
steel trowel used in concrete work. The mortar
trowel is used for spreading mortar on a surface Figure 20-17 — Pointing trowel.
before laying brick or block.

Convex Jointer
The convex jointer (Figure 20-19) is used to strike joints in brick and block walls, giving the joints a
neat, finished appearance. Each end of the jointer is a different size, with popular sizes of 1/2, 5/8, 3/4,
and 7/8 inches.

Figure 20-18 — Mortar trowel. Figure 20-19 — Convex jointer.

20-6
V-Jointer
The V-jointer (Figure 20-20) is similar to the convex jointer. It has
one turned up end for easy use.

Slicker
The slicker (Figure 20-21) is another type of jointer for finishing
mortar. It has a ridge that leaves an even depression in the mortar.

Figure 20-20 — V-jointer.

Rake Out Jointer


The rake out jointer (Figure 20-22) is used to
remove old mortar when repointing masonry. It is
offset to throw mortar out as the joint is raked. The
tab at the end helps rake the corners.

Figure 20-21 — Slicker.

Line Block
The line block (Figure 20-23) is used to hold a
mason’s line to keep masonry construction Figure 20-22 — Rake out jointer.
level.

Using a Pointing Trowel


The following paragraphs describe how to use a
pointing trowel properly.
The secret of mortar joint construction and pointing is
in how the trowel is held for spreading mortar. Figure
20-24 shows the correct way to hold a trowel. It should
be held firmly in the grip shown, with the thumb resting
on the top of the handle, not encircling it.
Right-handed users should pick up mortar from the
outside of the mortar board pile with the left edge of the
trowel as shown in Figure 20-25. A pickup for one brick
forms only a small pile along the left edge of the trowel.
Enough can be picked up to spread one to five bricks,
depending on the wall space and user’s skill. A pickup
for five bricks is a full load for a large trowel, as shown
in Figure 20-26.
Figure 20-23 — Line block.
20-7
Figure 20-24 — Correct way to hold a trowel. Figure 20-25 — Proper way to pick up
mortar right-handed.

Right-handed users work from left to right along the wall. Holding the left edge of the trowel directly
over the center line of the previous course, the trowel should be slightly tilted and moved to the right
as shown in Figure 20-27. An equal amount of mortar should be spread on each brick until either the
course is completed or the trowel is empty. Any mortar left over should be returned to the mortar
board.

Figure 20-26 — Fully loaded trowel for five Figure 20-27 — Working from left to right.
bricks.
20-8
The mortar for a bed joint should not be spread too
far ahead of laying; four or five brick lengths is best.
Mortar spread out too far ahead dries out before
the bricks become bedded and causes a poor
bond, as shown in Figure 20-28. The mortar must
be soft and plastic so that the brick will bed in it
easily.
The mortar should be spread about 1-inch thick
and then a shallow furrow made in it as shown in
Figure 20-29. A furrow that is too deep leaves a
gap between the mortar and the bedded brick. This
reduces the resistance of the wall to water
penetration. A smooth, even stroke should be used
to cut off any mortar projecting beyond the wall line
with the edge of the trowel as shown in Figure 20-
30. Enough mortar should be retained on the trowel
to butter the left end of the first brick to be laid in
the fresh mortar. The rest back should be thrown Figure 20-28 — A poorly bonded brick.
on the mortar board.

Figure 20-29 — Making a furrow. Figure 20-30 — Cutting off excess mortar.

The first brick to be laid should be picked up with the thumb on one side of the brick and the fingers
on the other, as shown in Figure 20-31. As much mortar as will stick to the end of the brick should be
applied and then pushed into place.
The excess mortar at the head joint and at the sides should be squeezed out as shown in Figure 20-
32. It is important to be sure the mortar completely fills the head joint. After bedding the brick, the
excess mortar should be cut off and used to start the next end joint. Any surplus mortar should be
thrown back on the mortar board where it can be restored to workability.

20-9
Figure 20-31 — Proper way to hold a brick Figure 20-32 — Making a head joint in a
when buttering the end. stretcher course.

Care of Masonry Tools


Use the following guidelines when working with masonry tools:
• Wear appropriate personal protective equipment when working with concrete. This includes
eye protection and gloves.
• Be careful of the edges of finishing tools, which can be sharp.
• Clean tools after use to avoid mortar build-up.
• Cover the tip of a pointing tool to protect the tool and yourself.

20-10
End of Chapter 20
Concrete and Masonry Tools
Review Questions
20-1. What concrete tool consolidates concrete after is has been poured?

A. Bull float
B. Steel trowel
C. Vibrator
D. Wood screed board

20-2. What concrete tool cuts off excess wet concrete to bring the top surface to the proper grade?

A. Bull float
B. Steel trowel
C. Vibrator
D. Wood screed board

20-3. The bull float performs what action to freshly laid concrete by applying pressure to the
concrete’s surface?

A. Creates swirl marks


B. Edges the corners
C. Levels the surface
D. Smooths the surface

20-4. What concrete tool produces a hard, smooth, and dense surface on the concrete?

A. Bull float
B. Steel trowel
C. Vibrator
D. Wood screed board

20-5. The concrete whirlybird is used to trowel what type of concrete surfaces?

A. Inclined
B. Rounded
C. Small
D. Large

20-6. The groover is used to create what effect in concrete to control the location of cracks that
might form as the slab contracts?

A. Joints
B. Round edges
C. Diagonal hash marks
D. A checkerboard pattern

20-11
20-7. When working with concrete tools, the operator should wear a hard hat, eye protection, gloves,
and which of the following personal protective equipment?

A. Face shield
B. Hearing protection
C. Reflective vest
D. Waterproof boots

20-8. To avoid concrete build-up, at which of the following intervals should you clean concrete tools?

A. After each use


B. Before each use
C. Monthly
D. Quarterly

20-9. What masonry tool can be used to clean other tools?

A. Line block
B. Mortar trowel
C. Pointing trowel
D. Slicker

20-10. What masonry tool spreads mortar on the surface before laying brick or block?

A. Line block
B. Mortar trowel
C. Pointing trowel
D. Slicker

20-11. The convex jointer is used to strike joints in brick and block walls giving the joints what type of
appearance?

A. Neat
B. Rough
C. Textured
D. Uneven

20-12. What masonry tool is a jointer for finishing mortar?

A. Slicker
B. Line block
C. Mortar trowel
D. Pointing trowel

20-13. The rake out jointer is used to remove what type of mortar when repointing masonry?

A. Clean
B. Fresh
C. Moldy
D. Old

20-12
20-14. What masonry tool aids in keeping the masonry construction level?

A. Line block
B. Mortar trowel
C. Pointing trowel
D. Slicker

20-15. In what condition should the edges of masonry tools be kept?

A. Crimped
B. Dull
C. Polished
D. Sharp

20-16. To avoid mortar build-up, at which of the following intervals should you clean masonry tools?

A. After each use


B. Before each use
C. Monthly
D. Quarterly

20-13
RATE TRAINING MANUAL – User Update
SWOS makes every effort to keep their manuals up-to-date and free of technical errors. We
appreciate your help in this process. If you have an idea for improving this manual, or if you find an
error, a typographical mistake, or an inaccuracy in SWOS manuals, please write or e-mail us, using
this form or a photocopy. Be sure to include the exact chapter number, topic, detailed description, and
correction, if applicable. Your input will be brought to the attention of the Technical Review
Committee. Thank you for your assistance.
Write: SWOS Project Manager
1534 Piersey Street Suite 321
Norfolk, VA 23511-2613
COMM: (757) 444-5332
DSN: 564-5332

E-mail: Refer to the SWOS Norfolk page on the NKO Web page for current contact information.

Rate____ Course Name_____________________________________________

Revision Date__________ Chapter Number____ Page Number(s)____________

Description
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Correction
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

(Optional) Your Name and Address


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

20-14
This manual contains active content, you must "trust" this document or select "play" to view the active content.
If you can read this warning, you may not have yet activated this document.

CHAPTER 21
INTERIOR FINISH TOOLS
There are numerous tools for finishing interiors. These include rasps, saws, drywall tools, sanders,
trowels, and various types of cutters.
In this chapter, you will learn about different types of interior finish tools and their uses. You will also
learn how to select the right interior finish tool for the job, use various types of interior finish tools, and
provide the proper care of the interior finish tools to keep them in good working condition.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Identify the different types of interior finish tools.
2. Determine the proper uses of interior finish tools.
3. Determine the proper care of interior finish tools.

INTERIOR FINISH TOOLS


Types and Uses
Drywall Rasp
The drywall rasp (Figure 21-1) is used to perform minor
trimming on drywall panels that are too tight for the
space they are going into. A good drywall rasp is self-
cleaning.

Drywall Circle Cutter


The drywall circle cutter is similar to the circle gasket
cutter. The drywall circle cutter (Figure 21-2) marks a
round hole to be cut in drywall. This tool is commonly
used to cut holes for ceiling mounted lighting fixtures.
Figure 21-1 — Drywall rasp.
Drywall Saw
The drywall saw (Figure 21-3) is used for cutting drywall that has already been placed. Openings,
such as windows, are easier to cut in drywall once installed. Unlike other saws, the drywall saw has a
sharp point, which is used to get a hole started.

Figure 21-2 — Drywall circle Figure 21-3 — Drywall saw.


cutter. 21-1
Drywall Lifter
The drywall lifter (Figure 21-4) is used to lift and hold
sheets of drywall into place while being attached to the wall
or ceiling. You may also hear this tool referred to as a
board lifter.

Drywall Panel Hoist


Figure 21-4 — Drywall lifter.
The drywall panel hoist (Figure 21-5) is used to lift and hold
sheets of drywall into angled positions while being
attached. The drywall panel hoist allows one person to install
large sheets of drywall at various heights.

Finish Knife
The finish knife (Figure 21-6) is used in drywall work to
smooth mud and tape seams. The steel blade makes the tool
easy to clean when the job is complete. The handle is usually
made of a material such as polypropylene so that it will hold
up to exposure to chemical cleaning agents.

Figure 21-5 — Drywall panel hoist.


Figure 21-6 — Finish knife.
Mud Pan
The mud pan (Figure 21-7) is used for mixing and holding mud for drywall taping, texturing, and
patching. Mud pans have watertight seams and range in length from 10 to 24 inches.

Clinch-On® Cornerbead Tool


The Clinch-On® cornerbead tool (Figure 21-8) is used to
install cornerbead on walls covered with drywall. One blow
from the rubber mallet will crimp the cornerbead tightly
and accurately into place.

Figure 21-8 — Clinch-On®


Figure 21-7 — Mud pan. 21-2 cornerbead tool.
Inside Corner Tool
The inside corner tool (Figure 21-9) is used to finish inside
corners on drywall installations. It is a one-piece, flexible,
stainless steel tool with a 103 degree angle that flexes to 90
degrees.

Outside Corner Tool


The outside corner tool (Figure 21-10) is used to finish
outside corners on drywall installations. It is a one-piece,
flexible, stainless steel tool with an 80 degree angle that
Figure 21-9 — Inside corner tool.
flexes to 90 degrees.

Hawk
The hawk (Figure 21-11) is used to hold drywall mud right
before it is applied. It can carry a larger amount of mud than a
trowel can from the mud pan to the wall or ceiling where it will
be applied.

Figure 21-10 — Outside corner


tool.

Figure 21-11 — Hawk.

Pole Sander
The pole sander (Figure 21-12) is used to sand drywall joints.
The attached pole helps reach joints, such as those on ceilings
or high walls, which are difficult to reach using regular hand
sanders.

Hand Sander
The hand sander (Figure 21-13) is used to sand drywall joints.

Figure 21-12 — Pole sander.

Figure 21-13 — Hand sander.

21-3
Mud Masher
The mud masher (Figure 21-14) is used for mixing drywall mud.
The 24-inch handle makes the mud masher a good tool to use
when you are mixing mud in a 5 gallon bucket.

Mastic Trowel
The mastic trowel (Figure 21-15) is used to apply mastic to walls
and floors before ceramic tiling. The smooth edges are used to
apply a thin coat of mastic to the surface. The notched edges are
used to ridge the mastic for better adhesion to the tile.

Notch Trowel
Figure 21-14 — Mud masher.
The notch trowel (Figure 21-16) is used to apply mortar to
surfaces. The flat side of the trowel is used to apply a skim coat to
a surface. The notched side is used to comb the mortar.

Figure 21-15 — Mastic trowel. Figure 21-16 — Notch trowel.

Rubber Surface Trowel


The rubber surface trowel (Figure 21-17) is used in tile
grouting.

Tile Nipper
The tile nipper (Figure 21-18) is used to make circular cuts
in ceramic tile. When using the tile nipper, take small bites,
or nips, from the tile because large nips can cause the tile to Figure 21-17 — Rubber surface trowel.
break. Eye protection is critical, as sharp tile fragments can
fly from the cut in any direction.

Tile Cutter
The tile cutter (Figure 21-19) is used to make straight or
angled cuts in ceramic tile. A scoring wheel makes a score
across the tile surface, which can then be broken along the
score line. Tile cutters come in various sizes to
accommodate various tile sizes. The beams holding the
scoring wheel can be adjusted for height to accommodate
various tile thicknesses.
Figure 21-18 — Tile nipper.

21-4
Using Interior Finish Tools
The following paragraphs describe how to use interior
finish tools properly.
When attaching drywall, hold it firmly against the framing
to avoid nail pops and other weak spots. Nails or screws
must fasten securely in a framing member. If a nail misses
the framing, pull it out, dimple the hole, fill it in with
compound, and then try again. If you drive a nail in so
deep that the drywall is crushed, drive in another Figure 21-19 — Tile cutter.
reinforcing nail within 2 inches of the first.
As you nail, it is important that you dimple each nail, that is, drive each nail in slightly below the
surface of the drywall without breaking the surface of the material. Dimpling creates a pocket that can
be filled with joint compound. Although special convex headed drywall hammers are available for this
operation, a conventional claw hammer also works, as shown in Figure 21-20.

Figure 21-20 — Dimpling of gypsum drywall.


Nail or screw drywall from the center of the sheet outward. Sheets are single or double nailed. Where
you double-nail sheets, single-nail the entire sheet first and then add the second (double) nails, again
beginning in the middle of the sheet and working outward. Single nails are spaced a maximum of 8
inches apart on walls and 7 inches apart on ceilings. Do not double-nail around the perimeter of a
sheet.
Begin by attaching sheets on the ceiling. First check to be sure extra blocking that will receive nails or
screws is in place above the top plates of the walls. By doing the ceiling first, you have maximum
exposure of blocking to nail or screw into. If there are gaps along the intersection of the ceiling and
wall, it is much easier to adjust wall pieces.
Ceilings can be covered by one person using two tees made from 2- by 4-inch wide boards. This
practice is acceptable when dealing with sheets that are 8 feet in length. Sheets over this length will
require a third tee, which is very awkward for one individual to handle. Two people are needed to
install drywall on ceilings. A drywall panel hoist can be used, if available, to position larger drywall
sheets on the ceiling.

21-5
Walls are easier to hang than ceilings, and one person can work alone effectively, although the job
goes faster if two people work together. As you did with the ceiling, be sure the walls have sufficient
blocking in corners before you begin.
Make sure the first sheet on a wall is plumb and its leading edge is centered over a stud. Then, all
you have to do is align successive sheets with the first sheet. The drywall lifter shown earlier in Figure
21-4 is useful for raising or lowering a sheet while you level its edge. After you have sunk two or three
screws or nails, the sheet will stay in place. A gap of 1/2 inch or so along the bottom of a sheet is not
critical; it is easily covered by finish flooring, baseboards, and so on. If you favor a clean, modern line
without trim, manufactured metal or vinyl edges, called casing beads, are available for finishing the
edges.
Finishing gypsum board drywall is generally a three coat application. Attention to drying times
between coats prevents rework that involves cost as well as extra time.
Where sheets of drywall join, cover the joints with joint tape and compound as shown in Figure 21-21.
The procedure is straightforward:
1. Spread a swath of bedding compound about 4 inches wide down the center of the joint as
shown in Figure 21-21, view A. Press the tape into the center of the joint with a 6-inch finish
knife as shown in view B. Apply another coat of compound over the first to bury the tape as
shown in view C. As you apply the compound over the tape, bear down so you take up any
excess. Scrape clean any excess, as sanding it off can be tedious.

Figure 21-21 — Finishing drywall joints.


21-6
2. When the first coat is dry, sand the edges with fine grit sandpaper while wearing personal
protective equipment. Using a 12-inch knife, apply a topping of compound 2 to 4 inches wider
than the first applications, as shown in Figure 21-21, view D.
3. Sand the second coat of compound when it is dry. Apply the third and final coat, feathering it
out another 2 to 3 inches on each side of the joint. You should be able to feather the joint
compound with a 12-inch knife. Otherwise, you should use a 16-inch feathering trowel.
When finishing an inside corner as shown in Figure 21-22, cut your tape the length of the corner
angle you are going to finish. Apply the joint compound evenly with a 4-inch knife about 2 inches on
each side of the angle. Use sufficient compound to embed the tape. Fold the tape along the center
crease as shown in Figure 21-22, view A and firmly press it into the corner. Use enough pressure to
squeeze some compound under the edges. Feather the joint compound 2 inches from the edge of the
tape, as shown in Figure 21-22, view B. When the first coat is dry, apply a second coat. A corner
trowel, shown in Figure 21-22, view C, is almost indispensable for taping comers. Feather the edges
of the joint compound 1 1/2 inches beyond the first coat. Apply a third coat if necessary, let it dry, and
sand it to a smooth surface. Use as little compound as possible at the apex of the angle to prevent
hairline cracking. When molding is installed between the wall and ceiling intersection, it is not
necessary to tape the joint, as shown in Figure 21-22, view D.

Figure 21-22 — Finishing an inside corner.

21-7
When finishing an outside corner, as shown in Figure 21-23, be sure the corner bead is attached
firmly. Using a 4-inch finishing knife, spread the joint compound 3 to 4 inches wide from the nose of
the bead, covering the metal edges. When the compound is completely dry, lightly sand and apply a
second coat, feathering edges 2 to 3 inches beyond the first coat. A third coat may be needed,
depending on your coverage. Feather the edges of each coat 2 or 3 inches beyond each preceding
coat.

Figure 21-23 — Finishing an outside corner.

Corner beads are no problem if you apply compound with care and scrape the excess clean. Nail
holes and screw holes usually can be covered in two passes, though shrinkage sometimes
necessitates three. A tool that works well for sanding hard to reach places is a sanding block on an
extension pole; the block has a swivel head joint.
To give yourself the greatest number of decorating options in the future, paint the finished drywall
surface with a coat of flat oil base primer. Whether you intend to wallpaper or paint with latex, oil base
primer adheres best to the facing of the paper and seals it.

Care of Interior Finish Tools


Use the following guidelines when working with interior finish tools:
• Keep the tools clean and dry.
• Keep sharp edges and points covered when the tool is not in use to avoid damage to the tool
or injury to anyone handling it.

21-8
End of Chapter 21
Interior Finish Tools
Review Questions
21-1. What interior finish tool is used to perform minor trimming on a drywall panel that is too tight for
the space it is going into?

A. Finish knife
B. Pole sander
C. Drywall rasp
D. Drywall saw

21-2. What interior finish tool has a sharp point to get a hole started