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DAS NÖRDLICHE KARPATENBECKEN

DAS NÖRDLICHE KARPATENBECKEN IN DER HALLSTATTZEIT


IN DER HALLSTATTZEIT
Der Band versammelt die Beiträge einer Tagung, die im Dezember Wirtschaft, Handel und Kommunikation
2014 in Košice im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes VEGA 02/0051/12
„Contribution of East European nomadic groups to shaping of cultural-
in früheisenzeitlichen Gesellschaften zwischen
historical development of Slovakia in the Hallstatt period“ stattfand. Ostalpen und Westpannonien
Die meisten Beiträge präsentieren die neuesten Ergebnisse zur regio-
nalen sowie chronologischen Gliederung der Hallstattzeit im nördli-
chen Karpatenbecken, ausgehend vom Bereich der heutigen Slowakei
und den Gebieten der Ostalpen und Westpannoniens. Hier breitete
sich die Osthallstattkultur aus, die ein heterogenes Geflecht klein-
räumig organisierter Gemeinschaften ist, die untereinander zwar
vielerlei Ähnlichkeiten und Übereinstimmungen im Grabbrauch,
Sied lungsformen und Sachbesitz zeigen, aber auch mancherlei Unter-
schiede und Eigenheiten.
In einigen Beiträgen steht der Forschungs-, Aufarbeitungs- und
Publikationsstand der Hallstattzeit im Vordergrund. Darüber hinaus
werden auch Themen besprochen, die aus sozialarchäologischer Sicht
vor allem Fragen nach der Etablierung von Eliten behandeln. Diese
können sich nicht nur in den Gräbern zeigen, sondern hinterließen
ihre Spuren auch in Form von besonderen Funden und Befunden
innerhalb der Siedlungen.
Einen Schwerpunkt bilden auch Beiträge zu einer der wichtigsten
Innovationen der Hallstattzeit – der Eisenmetallurgie, die vom his-
torischen Standpunkt ihrer Enstehung und Weiterverbreitung nach
Europa im Detail besprochen wird.
Herausgegeben von
ELENA MIROŠŠAYOVÁ, CHRISTOPHER PARE
und SUSANNE STEGMANN-RAJTÁR
ARCHAEOLINGUA

Edited by
ERZSÉBET JEREM and WOLFGANG MEID

Volume 38
DAS NÖRDLICHE KARPATENBECKEN
IN DER HALLSTATTZEIT
Wirtschaft, Handel und Kommunikation
in früheisenzeitlichen Gesellschaften zwischen
Ostalpen und Westpannonien

Herausgegeben von
ELENA MIROŠŠAYOVÁ, CHRISTOPHER PARE
und SUSANNE STEGMANN-RAJTÁR

BUDAPEST 2017
The publication of this volume was generously funded by
the Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz

Front Cover
Triple vessel from the hillfort of Smolenice-Molpír (main fortification, House 42),
from the excavations conducted in 1969 by Mikuláš and Sigrid Dušek.
Photo: Mikuláš Dušek, Archaeological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Nitra
(Archeologický ústav Slovenskej akadémie vied Nitra).

VOLUME EDITOR
Erzsébet Jerem

ISBN 978 615 5766 00 8


HU-ISSN 1215-9239

© The Authors and Archaeolingua Foundation

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and
retrieval system, without requesting prior permission in writing from the publisher.

2017
ARCHAEOLINGUA ALAPÍTVÁNY
H-1067 Budapest, Teréz krt. 13.
Desktop editing and layout by Szilamér Nemes
Printed by Prime Rate Kft.
Contents

ELENA MIROŠŠAYOVÁ – CHRISTOPHER PARE – SUSANNE STEGMANN-RAJTÁR


Vorwort .................................................................................................................................................... 9

I.

CHRISTOPHER PARE
Frühes Eisen in Südeuropa: Die Ausbreitung einer technologischen Innovation am Übergang
vom 2. zum 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. ......................................................................................................... 11

BIBA TERŽAN
Zum frühen Eisen im Südostalpenraum ............................................................................................... 117

FLORIAN MIKETTA
Die ältesten Eisenartefakte Mitteleuropas ........................................................................................... 143

II.

CHRISTOPH HUTH
Frög – Sopron – Nové Košariská.
Überlegungen zum Quellenwert früheisenzeitlicher Grabbeigaben .................................................... 173

GERHARD TOMEDI
Siedlungen und politische Strukturen in Mittel- und Oberitalien sowie im Südostalpenraum............ 191

SABINE PABST
Italische Einflüsse im hallstattzeitlichen Spiral- und Scheibenfibelhandwerk des Ostalpenraumes ... 209

III.

MARTIN TREFNÝ
Notes on Eastern Elements of the Hallstatt Culture in Bohemia ......................................................... 243

ERIKA MAKAROVÁ – MARTIN HLOŽEK


Clay Symbols from an Early Iron Age Cemetery in Moravičany ........................................................ 261

DANIEL SCHÄFER
Neue Forschungen zu den hallstattzeitlichen Gräbern aus Salzburg-Maxglan, Kleßheimer Allee ..... 273

IV.

ELENA MIROŠŠAYOVÁ
East Slovakia in the Hallstatt period – the current state of knowledge ............................................... 311
LUCIA BENEDIKOVÁ
Kulturkontakte des slowakischen Teils der Westkarpaten während der Hallstattzeit .......................... 335

SUSANNE STEGMANN-RAJTÁR
Zur Abfolge der Osthallstatt- und der Vekerzug-Kultur: Ein Überblick zum Forschungsstand
der Hallstattzeit in der Südwestslowakei ............................................................................................. 383

VLADIMÍR MITÁŠ
Der slowakische Bereich des Eipel/Ipeľ-Flusses während der Hallstattzeit
(Ein Überblick zum Forschungsstand)................................................................................................. 403

FARKAS MÁRTON TÓTH


A Cemetery of the Early Scythian Age in Dédestapolcsány – Verebce-tető.
The research of a new site complex in Northern Hungary and its cultural connections ..................... 421

CAROLA METZNER-NEBELSICK
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –
New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia ........................................................... 433

KATALIN NOVINSZKI-GROMA
Inhumation graves at the Early Iron Age cemetery of Süttő ................................................................ 471

ÉVA ĎURKOVIČ
Győr-Ménfőcsanak (Hungary, c. Győr-Moson-Sopron),
a lowland settlement of the Early Iron Age ......................................................................................... 499

MÁRIA FEKETE – GÉZA SZABÓ


Ein orientalischer Bronzegefäßtyp aus der Hallstattkultur: Die Ziste ................................................. 507

PETER BARTA – PETRA KMEŤOVÁ – SUSANNE STEGMANN-RAJTÁR –


KARL-UWE HEUSSNER – ALEXANDER ŠIVO
Archived radiocarbon and dendrochronological samples from Smolenice-Molpír:
a contribution on site use in the Early Iron Age and the formation of the archaeological record ....... 527

SEBASTIAN MÜLLER
Die hallstattzeitliche Höhensiedlung Smolenice-Molpír:
Überlegungen zur funktionalen und sozialen Struktur ....................................................................... 547

ANJA HELLMUTH KRAMBERGER


Archäologische Hinweise zu kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen
mit reiternomadischen Gruppen im östlichen Mitteleuropa und im Vorderen Orient ............................571

Verzeichnis der Autoren .....................................................................................................................591


Abb. 1. Blick in den historischen Saal der Pavol Jozef Šafárik-Universität Košice. In erster Reihe von links:
Elena Miroššayová, Gerhard Tomedi, Carola Metzner-Nebelsick, Christopher Pare und Christoph Huth.
In zweiter Reihe Erzsébet Jerem (links) und Lucia Benediková (rechts).

Abb. 2. Begrüßung der Teilnehmer der Tagung durch Christopher Pare von der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität
Mainz. Neben ihm Ladislav Mirossay, Rektor der Pavol Jozef Šafárik-Universität Košice, Martin Pekár,
Leiter des Bereiches für Geschichte der Universität und Susanne Stegmann-Rajtár vom
Archäologischen Institut der Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –
New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia

CAROLA METZNER-NEBELSICK

Abstract: This paper deals with two topics: first with sumptuous pottery vessels with animal protomes or with metal
applications which are characteristic of the eastern Hallstatt Culture, and it will secondly introduce a destroyed
tumulus grave from the early Hallstatt period from Lengyeltóti in Somogy County in Transdanubia south of Lake
Balaton which, among other objects, once contained such vessels.

Keywords: Early Hallstatt period, eastern Hallstatt Culture, Southeast Pannonia, wagon burial, sumptuous pottery
vessels, animal protomes

Clay vessels with animal protomes in the eastern Hallstatt culture

Sumptuous vessels and animal protomes have often been called one of the characteristics of the Early
Iron Age or Hallstatt Period of the East Alpine region – the so-called eastern or East Hallstatt culture
(“Osthallstattkultur” or also referred to as “Osthallstattkreis”). These protome vessels were collected
and discussed by Anita Siegfried-Weiss (1980) and Biba Teržan (1990, 232 map 27). Since then
interesting new finds of this iconic prestigious drinking and feasting equipment made of pottery have
been published. The most tremarcable examples are still the lustrous red- and black painted vessels of
the Kalenderberg-Group of the eastern Hallstatt Culture (NEBELSICK 1997). One of the most elaborate
vessel sets of the Kalenderberg-Group was discovered in barrow 3 of Langenlebarn in Lower Austria,
excavated by Wolfgang Neugebauer and subsequently published by Fritz Preinfalk (PREINFALK 2003).
A fair amount of vessels with bull-head-protomes was also found in the two barrow cemeteries Černica
and Gradac of Kaptol in Croatia at the southeastern fringe of the Hallstatt world. Some were recently
re-edited by Hrvoje Potrebica and complemented with new ones from more recent excavations1. These
bull-head-protomes are often associated with a larger vessel type, which is a hybrid between the Hallstatt
conical-neck-vessel “Kegelhalsgefäß”, but with a rather short neck2, and a vessel type with a round
lower body and a collar-neck rim, the “Kragenrandgefäß”. In Kaptol this particular squat “Kegelhals”-
vessel type is sometimes covered with a bowl-shaped lid.3 As the distribution map indicates (Fig. 1) this
vessel type is mainly found in graves south of Lake Balaton, in the Sava-Drava interfluve, in the Požega
Mountains (Kaptol) and in southwestern Hungary and northeastern Croatia, i.e. the distribution area
of the Southeast Pannonian or Dalj Group, with a northern outlier in the well-known barrow cemetery
of Nové Košariska in western Slovakia (PICHLEROVÁ 1969, pl. 45,1). Its distribution thus transgresses
boundaries of cultural groups within the eastern Hallstatt culture (Metzner-Nebelsick in print) like for
the vessels with bull-head-protomes.
A different, or rather more restricted, communication network between communities on the eastern
fringes of the eastern Hallstatt Culture can be illustrated by the distribution of another vessel type: the
painted clay rhyta with and without animal-shaped handles or ladles with handles in the shape of bird-
1
POTREBICA 1998; ibid. 2013, 104-111; 176-180; 190-196; 2012b; POTREBICA – MAVROVIĆ MOKOS 2016 and
catalogue Zagreb 2010, fig. 103-104; 106; for a summary of the excavations of 14 tumuli in Kaptol between
1965-1971 see also: ŠIMEK 2004.
2
See: Kaptol-Černica (VEJVODA – MIRNIK 1971, pl. 6,9-10; pl. 10,73,8).
3
see: Kaptol-Gradac (catalogue Zagreb 2010, 77 fig. 103).
434 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 1. Distribution of large vessels with a short conical neck


(METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, 113 fig. 41 with additions; see list 1).

beaks from the Dalj cemetery (Fig.2; Fig.3). Although the angled clay rhyta occur in various shapes, the
variant with an animal handle is specific for the Drava region and for Kaptol. These distribution patterns
reflect the shared identity of elite families of the early Hallstatt period along the Drava River.
The particular role of the vessels with bull-head-protomes in a sepulchral context is highlighted by
the possible symbolic meaning of bulls in the Hallstatt world. Potrebica, the most recent excavator of
the site of Kaptol, stressed their possible role within a Dionysiac ritual (POTREBICA 2012a, 20), since the
bull is associated with this god. Dionysos however shares his animal form as a bull with his father Zeus.
Louis Nebelsick has previously emphasized the Dionysiac aspects of burial rituals, with special regard
to the barrows of Nové Košariska in western Slovakia and other sites (NEBELSICK 1997; ibid. 2016).
The lavish display of wealth in graves by means of pottery was stressed again by Nebelsick as
a specific trait of the Kalenderberg-Group at the northeastern alpine fringe (NEBELSICK 1997). Since
the restoration of the princely graves of Strettweg, “Kultwagen” barrow (EGG 1996a) and Kleinklein,
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 435

Fig. 2. Dalj Busija, Vineyard Kraus: red slip coated rhyta with animal handles (after catalogue Zagreb 2010).

Kröllkogel (EGG – KRAMER 2013; KRAMER 2013, 362–374; pl. 49–87), we know that also in the
southeast alpine Hallstatt Culture – sometimes referred to as Sulm-Valley-Group (“Sulmtal Gruppe”)
– pottery vessels played an important role within the burial ritual, although here bronze vessels clearly
dominated the scene, in particular as far as the display of social standing in the mirror of luxurious items

Fig. 3 Distribution of clay ladles and rhyta with zoomorphic handle (see list 2).
436 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

was concerned4. For the pottery however, two different functions of vessels within the burial ritual can
be proposed: that of the equipment of the deceased (singular and plural) as containers of provisions for
the afterlife and secondly their role as containers for drinks for libations of the mourning community at
the burial site. In the latter category feasting equipment for an unknown number of people during the
ceremony must be included. For the first interpretation, the image of the deceased as a host in an afterlife
symposium was implied. Further symbolic connotations of those vessel sets will be addressed below.
Some of the pots used in the course of feasting during the burial or as libation containers were smashed
in an act of ritually charged violence, possibly because they could not be used in a profane context again.
Some were put on the pyre and buried with the deceased together with the objects personifying his or her
status and with the mentioned undestroyed grave goods for eternal feasting5.
In contrast to the Kalenderberg-Group or the southeast alpine regions of the Hallstatt East our
knowledge of ritual aspects of the burial customs of the Southeast Pannonian or Dalj Group is still very
scarce due to the lack of modern excavations for a longer period of time (METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002,
88 ff.) excavations have meanwhile taken place on the promontory of Batina in northeast Croatia in a
tumulus and flat grave cemetery, further unpublished Hallstatt period tumuli have been found in front of
the late prehistoric hillfort in Batina as well as in a flat grave cemetery of Sotin in eastern Slavonia by
Daria Ložnjak Dizdar, Marko Dizdar and other colleagues. They promise substantial new insights into
burial customs and grave inventories in the region6.

Numerical symbolism

If we take a closer look at the bull-headed-protome vessels, several types can be distinguished (Fig.
4a–b): Next to those attached to “Kragenrand”-vessels, vessels with a conical neck (“Kegelhalsgefäße”),
vessels with a squat conical neck (Fig. 1) or a large pottery situla, also smaller vessel types bear such
protomes like handled bowls7 or the afore-mentioned rhyta with cattle figurines. Finally, animal figurines
of cattle are also found on top of clay lids8. The most western examples of a ladled bowl with horn-
shaped ends, similar to those in the Kröllkogel of Kleinklein (EGG – KRAMER 2013, pl. 74–75), has
been found in Hallstatt in a so-called ‘ritual place’ (“Ritualplatz”), possibly an unrecognised grave
(Fig. 4b,2; MORTON 1952, 51 fig. 5,2; 52; 1980, title picture)9. This so far unique small red painted
bowl possesses three black painted handles each with a set of bull’s horns. We may assume that here the
number three embodies another symbolic aspect.

4
For an analysis of metal drinking sets in graves of the eastern Hallstatt Culture see also: SCHUMANN 2015, 235-254 ff.
5
Some of this ritual activity survives in the form of rather small, secondarily burnt sherds from the Kröllkogel
in Kleinklein (KRAMER 2013, pl. 87); for general aspects of secondarily burnt pottery in cremation graves with
special regard to the Lusation Culture see NEBELSICK 1997; NEBELSICK in COBLENZ – NEBELSICK 1997.
6
BOJČIĆ ET AL. 2011; HRŠAK ET AL. 2013; HRŠAK ET AL. 2014; HRŠAK ET AL. 2015; HRŠAK ET AL. 2016;
DIZDAR ET AL. 2009; LOŽNJAK DIZDAR – HUTINEC 2010; 2011; 2012; 2014; LOŽNJAK DIZDAR – DIZDAR 2015;
POTREBICA – DIZDAR 2014; see also METZNER-NEBELSICK in print.
7
Such a bowl was found in grave 3 of the cemetery of Keszthély-Fenékpuszta at Lake Balaton (HORVÁTH 2014, 90
fig. 18,9). It can be compared with examples from the Kröllkogel in Kleinklein (M. KRAMER 2013, Taf. 75,1-2).
8
In the Dolenjsko on the southeast alpine fringe bull-head-protomes also occur on footed vessels (TERŽAN 1990,
232 map 27).
9
Morton does not attribute the vessel to a grave. According to his observations it was found in a 3 cm thick burnt
layer 1 x 0,6m in diameter. In the center of which burnt bones of cattle and pig were found together with pottery
sherds. Next to the handled bowl a double-conical vessel with a short neck and channeled décor on the shoulder
were found. This feature was located 80 cm away from a grave, so these vessels may originally have belonged
to its inventory.
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 437

Fig. 4a Various vessel types with bull-head-protomes: 1.4 Vaszar, Pörösrét, tum. VI a. V;
2–3.5. Nové Košariska, tum. I and VI; scale ca. 1:6 (after PATEK 1993; PICHLEROVÁ 1969).
438 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 4b. 1. Kaptol, barrow IV, grave 1; 2. Hallstatt, ‘Ritual place’; 3. Kleinklein, Kröllkogel; Somlóvásárhely,
tum. II; scale ca. 1:3 (after VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987; PATEK 1993; EGG – KRAMER 2013; 2 after MORTON 1952).

As recently Bernhard Pinsker has emphasised for the princely early La Tène grave 1 in barrow 1
from the Glauberg in Hesse, Germany (PINSKER 2006), the number three not only had an immense
symbolical value in La Tène art, but can also be seen as a significant component of the mythological and
religious system of the Indo-European languages10. As I have shown for Late Bronze Age hoards with
bronze drinking sets (METZNER-NEBELSICK 2003), three vessels or multiples of three such as six, nine
or twelve, sometimes complimented by another vessel of a different function, is a re-occurring feature
in Late Bronze Age hoards11. The symbolic meaning of Late Bronze Age ‘pure’ hoards (hoard find
containing only one object category) with bronze sheet metal vessels seems to have been transmitted –
at least in some cases – well into the Hallstatt period, as can be seen in the princely graves of Hochdorf
or Kappel in southwest Germany (KRAUSSE 1996; DEHN – EGG – LEHNERT 2005). Both burials contain
nine vessels of a particular type (ribbed bronze buckets – ‘Rippenzisten’ – in Kappel and drinking horns
in Hochdorf) for nine symbolically present members (including the deceased) of a symposium staged for
the afterlife. We do not know whether these imagined drinking parties comprised of mythical ancestors,
gods, heroes or rather symbolically present members of the social community of the deceased.

10
Pinsker's work is based on George Dumézil and his ideology of the three functions in the epics of the Indo-
European peoples and on Ferdinand Maier’s remarks on Celtic beliefs (MAIER 2004).
11
For symmetry of multiples of three in other contexts see also WARMENBOL 2010.
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 439

Fig. 5. Number game of the pottery vessels from the Langenlebarn, tum. 3, showing a strong emphasis on the
number three and its multiples.
440 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

If we analyze the Kalenderberg group´s Langenlebarn barrow 3 (PREINFALK 2003) with its ostentatious
equipment of pottery vessels, a comparable number game can be observed (Fig. 5). In this case there
are nine large vessels with a conical neck (“Kegelhalsgefäße”), three additional vessels with conical
neck, but with specific function and form (one cernos, one broad and one very large vessel of this type);

Fig. 6 A,1–4. Goričan near Varaždin, Tum. 1982/XII, grave 1; B,1–3. Martijanec-Gamulica tumulus with tin-foil
applications on a red slip coated vessel with a conical neck; C,1–2. Dalj Busija, vineyard Kraus: red slip coated
ladles with tin-foil applications (see also fig. 2); scale 1:6 (after VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, pl. 21,8; METZNER-
NEBELSICK 1997, 19 Fig. 8,1–4; VINSKI-GASPARINI 1961).
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 441

three “Kragenrand”-bowls; three situlae12; three inswung bowls (“Einzugschale”); six simple bowls;
three open vessels with a foot (one “Fußschüssel” and two “Fußschalen”); another group of six vessels,
comprising of one “Kragenrand”-bowl, one vessel with bull-head-protomes and four handled bowls
(“Henkelschüssel”) as well as three cups (two handled bowls, one wooden cup with a bronze handle).
Additionally, the conical-neck-vessel in form of a cernos carries three little vessels on its rim (for all
figures: PREINFALK 2003, 53 with a list of all vessels). The symmetry is only “spoiled” by one single
miniature vessel (PREINFALK 2003, pl. 18) which may not have played a role in this feasting scenario.
Although Langenlebarn and other well-known graves of the Kalenderberg group contain bull-
head-protomes, it is interesting to note that this particular symbolism does not seem to have been
a compulsory feature of grave good assemblages, since vessels of this type were not found in the
large cemeteries such as Sopron-Burgstall, Loretto or Bad Fischau Malleiten (EIBNER-PERSY 1980;
NEBELSICK 1997; KLEMM 1996).

Other sumptuous vessel types of the eastern Hallstatt culture

Next to the afore-mentioned vessels with bull-head-protomes other specific pottery types and
ornamentation motifs of the so-called Hallstatt east deserve special attention. In southwest Transdanubia
and in northeast Croatia the bull-rhyta represent a specific form, which may have had a more complex
meaning than the proposed Dionysiac aspect. A cow with two calves is depicted on the handle of a
chryton from tumulus 1982/XII, grave 1 of Goričan near Varaždin in the Drava valley (Fig. 6A) (VINSKI-
GASPARINI 1987, pl. 21,8; METZNER-NEBELSICK 1997, 19 fig. 8,1–4). An anthropological analysis of
this cremation burial has not been published, the boat-shaped or Navicella fibula with a transversal rib
on the bow hints at a female grave. This is interesting, since a good parallel can be found in the cow-calf-
vessel (‘Kuh-Kälbchen-Gefäß’) from grave 671 in Hallstatt, one of the richest female (cremation) graves
in the Hallstatt cemetery13. Maybe the combination of a cow and a calf alludes to a specific symbolism
favoured among elite Hallstatt women.
The distribution pattern of the clay rhyta, including all variants, has not changed within the last 20
years14. The specific variant of bull-rhyta has only been found in Dalj, Goričan and Kaptol (Fig. 3). Dalj-
Busija (Fig. 2) is the only case where two almost identical rhyta with a bull-shaped handle occur. They
were accompanied by two red-coated ladles with meander-ornaments in tin-foil-application technique
(Fig. 6 C,1-2). Although the circumstances of its discovery indicate that this find complex was almost
certainly incomplete, we can confidently state that they were found together15. This ensemble with the
lustrous red paint and the tin-foil applications clearly represents one of the most extraordinary clay

12
Interestingly the decor of the situla in Langenlebarn (PREINFALK 2003, fig. 27, Fn.5/2) resembles that on one of
the clay situlae from the Kröllkogel in Kleinklein (EGG – KRAMER 2013, pl. 55).
13
KROMER 1959, pl. 130,2a-c; 220; - the inventory includes a spiral of gold wire, parts of two bronze belts, two
belt hooks - one richly ornamented -, a necklace of 84 amber beads and a spacer, an amber comb fragment, three
spectacle fibulae and two bracelets damaged by fire. A second bronze vessel with a similar zoomorphic handle
has been found in more recent excavations in the Hallstatt cemetery by Anton Kern (KERN ET AL. 2008, 133).
14
METZNER-NEBELSICK 1997, 21 fig. 9-10; ibid. 2002, with additions 152 fig. 59; 153 fig. 60; also KRAUSSE 1996,
177 fig. 142.
15
All four vessels were found in 1911 together in a grave in a vineyard which belonged to a Mr. Kraus in Dalj.
Victor HOFFILLER (1938, 15 f.) states that at least one of the ladles was found on top of the two rhyta. Although
there is no specific mentioning of a grave, the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb bought the finds from a man
called Franz Schmiederer. The same man sold several finds from this location to the collector Josef Bátor, who
then sold them to the Prehistoric Department of the Ethnographical Museum in Berlin (today Museum für
Vor- und Frühgeschichte SMPK Berlin) in the same year (METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, 669). Analogies with
evidence from other sites make it almost certain that we are dealing with parts of a grave assemblage.
442 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 7. Batina, northeast Croatia, barrow 1, grave 2: sherd of a large vessel (probably with a conical neck) with
red slip and tin-foil applications . Without scale (after HRŠAK ET AL. 2013, 12 fig. 5; drawing B. Köhler).

vessel sets of the eastern Hallstatt Culture. Thus we find an expression of an undoubtedly ‘Hallstatt’
aesthetical identity on the most eastern fringe of the Hallstatt world. The two ladles with a handle in
shape of a bird-beak are also the two most eastern examples for tin-foil ornamentation that is so typical
for the Hallstatt East (METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, 95 fig. 29)16. Whether they were produced in Dalj or
were imported from Batina or the area of the upper Drava River remains unclear.
A new find of a red-coated large vessel with an unusual ornament in tin-foil application technique
was found in tumulus 1 from the barrow necropolis of Batina-Sredno in the course of recent excavations
(Fig. 7). This barrow cemetery was discovered by my husband Louis Nebelsick and me in 198817. Lavish
tin-foil applications like those in Dalj with meander motives were also found on vessels from the large
tumulus at Martijanec (Fig. 6B; VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, pl. 20,17), which will be discussed below.
Another find of Hallstatt pottery vessels with a red slip and bronze applications and a vessel with a
bull-head-protome will be introduced in this article. They were found in a destroyed burial context in
Lengyeltóti in the Somogy County south of the Balaton.

The destroyed barrow from Lengyeltóti, Kom. Somogy:


a new Hallstatt period sumptuous burial from Transdanubia
The burial which is published in this article was destroyed and only some of the objects could be rescued
from final loss. They are now stored in the Rippl Rónai Múzeum in Kaposvár and were generously

16
The four perforations on one handle show how valuable the vessels were. The perforations were made in
antiquity as a repair after it had been broken. Wires of strings laced through the holes would have held the
handle together.
17
HRŠAK ET AL. 2012, 18; for the barrow necropolis: METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, 187-198; fig. fig. 85; 87. We
measured the tumuli roughly with the help of detailed ordinance map and field walked the whole terrain with a
pace counter. The results were then plotted by Louis Nebelsick on a scaled map.
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 443

offered to me for publication by the museum’s archaeologist Szilvia Honti in 199418. They represent
the scarce remnants of what was once an extraordinary burial mound in the vicinity of a hillfort in
Lengelytóti in Somogy county.
The barrow was located on private property in the Kossúth Lájos Street (Kossúth Lájos utca)
(Fig. 8) and was flattened by the property owners in the course of building activities without informing
the local museum about it. When Szlivia Honti arrived at the scene, she was only able to collect some
smaller items from the already completely destroyed barrow19. She noticed a structure of twice man-
long measurements, very likely the burial chamber. A stone packing or other features were absent. In
some distance from this mound a second barrow of comparable dimension was located which which has
also been destroyed.

Fig. 8 Detail from the Josephinean map of 1783–1785 showing the vicinity of Lengyeltóti with two barrows
clearly visible.

A first mention of the mounds is was made by Bálint Kuzsinszky (1920; oral. comm. Honti) who
states that an isolated, more than five meter high tumulus was located in the Kossúth Lájos Utca 61.
It is unclear whether this barrow is the one which was destroyed and which is published in this article
or the other one close by. That we are dealing with two formerly large tumuli or burial mounds can be
deduced from an early depiction on the Josephinean map from 1783–85 (Fig. 8). West of the village of
Lengyeltóti, close to a road at a place called Rudera, two humps are visible at the northern foot of a hill
(the Mohácsi hegy). Roughly one hundred years later those humps or barrows were still visible (Fig. 9),
as the Austrian Topographical Record (‘Österreichische Landesaufnahme’) from 1869–1887 in the scale
1:25.000 indicates. Possibly a third barrow was then recorded south of the road. The modern google-
image shows that the village of Lengyeltóti has grown along the old road (Fig. 10); the course of the

18
I would like to thank Szilvia Honti (Rippl Rónai Múzeum Kaposvár) for the opportunity to draw and photograph
the finds. The ink versions of my original pencil drawings were made by Barbara Köhler, LMU Munich.
19
Oral information by Szilvia Honti.
444 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 9. Detail from a map of the Austrian Topographical Record (‘Österreichische Landesaufnahme’) from 1869-
1887 with additions in the scale 1:25.000 showing a similar section of the surroundings of Lengyeltóti.

road makes it clear that the location of Kossúth Lájos ut. 61 matches the position of the barrows on the
first recording in the late 18th century.
Before I will discuss the preserved finds, a short look at the environment of the southern shore of
Lake Balaton during the Hallstatt period helps to define its micro-regional context.

The micro-region south of Lake Balaton in the Hallstatt period –


a brief recapitulation of previous research

Still comparatively little is known about southern Transdanubia between the southern shore of Lake
Balaton and north of the Mecsek Mountains in the Hallstatt period. The hillfort and adjacent barrow
cemetery of Nagyberki-Szalacska in Somogy County can be identified as a central place of power. But it
is located roughly 100 km south of Lengyeltóti, and therefore belongs already to a different micro region.
Szilvia Honti excavated in the settlement, but the excavations still remain largely unpublished. The pottery
shows numerous parallels to Kaptol. In particular, several large ornamented clay situla lids, channeled
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 445

Fig. 10. Google image of the Kossuth Lajos utca in Lengyeltóti.

handles with horn protomes and embossed bowls were found, which are typical for the HaD1 period20.
Sherds of large vessels have parallels in the graves from Nagyberki-Szalacska (KEMENCZEI 1974; 1976).
Pottery with a glossy black slip and with plastic or incised hook- or spiral-motifs is also known from
the settlement. In the cemetery, several examples of red-coated pottery are attested as well. This vast
barrow cemetery at the foot of the hillfort was recently surveyed by aerial photography published by
Zoltán Czajlik and others (CZAJLIK 2008, 97 fig. 2; CZAJLIK ET AL. 2012, pl. 2; CZAJLIK – HOLL 2015,
65 fig. 7), underlining the importance of the site. Several barrows were excavated in the 19th and early
20th centuries (Kabay 1960; Kemenczei 1974, 15). Nine barrows with cremation burials were excavated
between 1971 and 1974 and partially published by Tibor Kemenczei (KEMENCZEI 1974; 1976).
In the County of Tolna five Hallstatt period barrows with cremation burials had been excavated by
Mór Wosinsky in 1892 in Felsőnyék (WOSINSKY 1896, 403–404; pl. 102; PATEK 1968, 56; 1993, 14 fig.
5; 160)21. From the cremation cemetery of Tamási, County Tolna, dating also into the Hallstatt period
(Ha C and Ha D) fibulae are known (WOSINSKY 1896, 506; pl. 119,8–11). The most spectacular Hallstatt
period finds have been made in Regöly around 60 km west of Lengyeltóti in the late Ha D barrow of
Regöly-Strupka Magyar birtok which will be discussed in this volume (SZABÓ – FEKETE 2011; 2014).
In the micro region south of Lake Balaton in closer vicinity of Lengyeltóti a Hallstatt
period settlement at Balatonboglár-Berekre-Dűlő was recently published by András Jáky (JÁKY
2015/16) as well as a small late Hallstatt cemetery from Szólát-Kertek mögött (JÁKY 2016). A
single find of a Navicella fibula from Balatonboglár/Boglárlelle (now in the Magyar Nemzeti
Múzeum in Budapest) was mentioned by PATEK (1993, 14 fig. 5; 159). This find suggests the
existence of another Hallstatt site here, possibly a burial. Some flat graves in Zamárdi-Arany

20
I was able to see some of the material in the museum in Kaposvár.
21
One sherd carries a spiral motive as in the barrows of Nagyberki-Szalacska (WOSINSKY 1896, pl. 102,1).
446 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

J. utca and in Szamárdomb are so far unpublished, but are mentioned by Patek (1993, 163).
That the area of Lengyeltóti was of prominent importance in the Urnfield period is attested by two large
Ha A1–2 hoard finds from Lengyeltóti (WANZEK 1992; HONTI 1995; HONTI – JANKOVITS 2015/2016).
There are also two hill top/hillfort settlements: one on the Tatárvár hill and another one on the adjacant
Mohács hegy (Fig. 9)22. Kuzsinszky, Patek as well as Frigyes Kőszegi mention fortifications on Tatárvár.
This hillfort must have had a Hallstatt occupation phase as well. Patek published pottery finds from the
northern part of this site which date to the Ha C period (PATEK 1968, 59; 131; pl. 91–92). These include
characteristic inceptive Hallstatt shapes a cup with proto-Kalenderberg ornamentation, a Hallstatt C
cantharos.23 Unfortunately there have been no modern excavations on the site. The position of the two
or three barrows in the area of modern Kossúth Lájos Street indicates that maybe a very similar spatial
arrangement, typical of the Hallstatt hilltop settlements, can be attested for Lengyeltóti. It may thus
be compared with the situation in Nagyberki-Szalacska, Sopron-Burgstall, Pécs-Jakabhegy and others.
Like in Etruria the barrow cemeteries of eastern Hallstatt centers of power were located outside the
settlement’s ramparts and often led up to its entrance. Thus a claim on the pastwas made. The inhabitants
marked their power and importance by visibly alluding to their already powerful ancestors.
Another settlement in the wider area is the Urnfield period hillfort of Fonyód-Várhegy (KŐSZEGI
1988, 141). Kőszegi also mentions early Hallstatt period pottery which was discovered at an excavation.
Honti (pers. comm.) mentioned a Hallstatt as well as a La Tène occupation phase. In some places, the
ramparts are still several meters high, the gate or entrance area however cannot be dated exactly; the
ramparts were possibly partially hightened in the late La Tène period as is the case in Sopron-Burgstall.
From the northwest and southwest bank of Lake Balaton László Horváth has published a couple of
early Hallstatt burials: Keszthély-Árpád Street (utca) 47, Keszthély-Vadaskert and a few graves from
Kesztely graves of Keszthely-Fenékpuszta (HORVÁTH 2014). He also mentions other settlements and
graves of the Hallstatt period, among them a tumulus cemetery from Zalaszántó-Tátika with 288 certain
barrows, all located to the north and to the south of Lake Balaton (HORVÁTH 2014, 64; 65 fig. 1).

The finds from the Hallstatt period tumulus from Lengyeltóti

Unfortunately, the finds or rather fragments of objects which could be rescued by Szilvia Honti are very few
in number and only represent a reminder of the once certainly significant contents of this destroyed grave.

Description of the finds:

One piece (2x3x0,5 cm) of burnt bone and two larger charcoal pieces indicate that we are dealing with a
cremation burial. Judging from the patina some metal objects were burnt on the pyre.

Surviving finds:
pottery:

Fig. 11,1a–b. Single sherd, presumably from the shoulder of a larger vessel of undetermined form
with a light brown slip, traces of a graphite coating and the remains of a sheet bronze application. The

22
KUZSINSZKY 1920, 26-27 fig. 33-34; PATEK 1968, 59; KŐSZEGI 1988, 156; 217-218 map. 7; HONTI - JANKOVITS
2015/16, 71.
23
Németh published them again (NÉMETH 2010, 16). Kuzsinszky also mentioned a Scythian type lock ring from
Lengyeltóti-Tatárvár (KUSZINSKY 1920, 26).
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 447

Fig. 11. Pottery fragments form the Lengyeltóti tumulus. Scale 1a–2a: 1:2; 1b; 2b; 3–5: 1:1. 1a: pottery with
sheet bronze application (drawings: C. Metzner-Nebelsick; B. Köhler).

6 mm broad rectangular bronze application with light green patina shows tiny punch marks at the sides.
Traces of a pitch-like substance are visible.
Fig. 11,2a–b. Broken off clay protome of fine clay with smooth surface; original surface/slip is not
preserved, the light ocher coloured clay shows traces of black paint; fine tempering: preserved length:
2 cm.
Fig. 11,3. Single sherd of an originally large vessel of brown-black clay with remains of an ocher-
orange paint coating; smooth surface, fine tempering with glimmer particles; thickness of the sherd:
1,1cm.
Fig. 11,4.–5. Three tiny sherds of a vessel with smooth surface and glossy cherry red slip.
Fig. 12,1. Fragment of the outer end of a bronze bit with inserted reign hook and a second inserted
ring fragment; loop end with round section; hook with square section; diameter of the central ring: 2,4
cm.
Fig. 12,2. Bronze object with rectangular perforation in the center, probably fragment of a miniature
side piece; ends and back side broken off; length: 4,6 cm.
Fig. 12,3. Looped bronze button with round top; damaged by fire; rough grey-brown and blue-green
patina; dm: 1,1 cm; height: 0,8 cm.
Fig. 12,4a. Fragmented flat piece of an iron object with traces of corroded wood in the center; 5,3
x 2,7 cm; thickness: 0,3 cm; dm of the wooden trace: 2,2 cm.
Fig. 12,4b. Little fragment of thin iron sheet; 2,4 x 1,6 cm.
448 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 12,5. Fragment of an iron nail with slightly rounded head and rectangular shaft; end broken off;
1,4 x 1,4; width of the nail’s head: 0,7 cm.
Fig. 12,6. Fragment of an iron rod, upper part slightly bent; thinner lower part broken off; center
with rectangular section; ends with oval shaped section; at the end traces of decomposed wood (2,5 cm);
length: 13,5 cm.
Fig. 12,7. Fragment of an iron rod of the same type, both ends broken off; corroded surface, on one
side traces of decomposed wood; length: 12,9 cm.
Fig. 12,8. Small fragment of an iron rod of the same type; one end slightly bent; corroded surface;
preserved length: 7,1 cm.
Fig. 12,9. Small fragment of an iron rod of the same type; both ends broken off; corroded surface,
on one side with traces of decomposed wood; preserved length: 7,3 cm.
Fig. 12,10. Small end of a fragmented iron rod; corroded surface; preserved length: 2,5 cm.
Fig. 12,11. Small fragment of an iron rod; corroded surface; preserved length: 3,2 cm.
Fig. 12,12. Small fragment of an iron rod; both ends broken off; corroded surface; preserved length:
3,1 cm.

Fig. 12. Horse gear (1–3) as well as wagon parts (4–13) and piece of riveted sheet iron form the Lengyeltóti
tumulus. scale: 1:2; 1–3 bronze; 4–14 iron (drawings: C. Metzner-Nebelsick; B. Köhler).
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 449

Fig. 12,13. End (?) part of an iron rod with a groove on one side; corroded surface; preserved length
4,2 cm.
Fig. 12,14. Two pieces of sheet iron, corroded together with a small rivet on the upper iron sheet;
edge preserved; on the back side of the lower iron sheet traces of decomposed wood on the surface; 2,2
x 1,7 cm; length of the rivet 0,5 cm.
Fig. 13,1. Fragment of a cast bronze tube with bowl shaped upper end; lower end broken off; traces
of fire damage with porous grey-green patina; length: 2,4 cm.
Fig. 13,2. Fragment of a bronze rod with two broken off ends, middle part u-shaped; traces of fire
damage with porous brown and light green patina; length: 3,4 cm.
Fig. 13,3a. Bronze nail with round, mushroom-shaped top and pointed shaft with oval section; intact
glossy surface; length: 2,7 cm; Dm of nail top: 0,7 cm; length of shaft: 1,7 cm.
Fig. 13,3b. Bronze nail with round, mushroom-shaped top and pointed shaft with bean-shaped
section; intact glossy surface; length: 2,2 cm; Dm of nail top: 0,8 cm; length of shaft: 1,2 cm.
Fig. 13,3c. Bronze nail with round, mushroom-shaped top and pointed shaft with oval section; intact
glossy surface; length: 2,1 cm; Dm of nail top: 0,7 cm; length of shaft: 1,3 cm.
Fig. 13,4a. Bronze nail from a piece of folded sheet bronze with pointed lower end; thickness of
sheet bronze: 0,1 cm; length: 2,2 cm.
Fig. 13,4b. Bronze nail made from a piece of folded sheet bronze with pointed lower end; thickness
of sheet bronze: 0,1 cm; length: 2 cm.
Fig. 13,4c. Bronze nail made from a piece of folded sheet bronze with pointed lower end; thickness
of sheet bronze: 0,1 cm; length: 2 cm.
Fig. 13,4d. Bronze nail made from a piece of folded sheet bronze with pointed lower end; thickness
of sheet bronze: 0,1 cm; length: 1,2 cm.
Fig. 13,4e. Bronze nail made from a piece of folded sheet bronze with pointed lower end; thickness
of sheet bronze: 0,1 cm; length: 1,8 cm.

Fig. 13. Wagon parts (3–4) and fragments of metal vessels (?) (1–2.5) form the Lengyeltóti tumulus. scale: 1:2;
all bronze (drawings: C. Metzner-Nebelsick; B. Köhler).
450 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 14. Various fragments of bronze vessels (1–3.5–6); navicella fibula (7) and little rivet (4) form the
Lengyeltóti tumulus. scale: 1:2; 1: bronze and iron; rest bronze (drawings: C. Metzner-Nebelsick; B. Köhler).

Fig. 15. Selection of fragments of embossed sheet bronze from a vessel form the Lengyeltóti tumulus
(see also fig. 14,6); scale ca. 1:1 (photo Metzner-Nebelsick).
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 451

Fig. 13,4f. Bronze nail made from a piece of folded (?) sheet bronze with pointed lower end; traces
of fire damage; length: 1,6 cm.
Fig. 13,4g. Bronze nail (?); traces of fire damage; length: 1,9 cm.
Fig. 13,5. Bronze bead (?) or reinforcement of a rim of a metal vessel with a piece of bronze wire in
the center, both ends broken off; surface damaged by fire, rough brown patina; length: 1 cm; dm: 0,3 cm.
Fig. 14,1. Fragment of the rim of a bronze sheet vessel with iron wire as reinforcement (“Seele”);
length 2 cm; dm of iron wire: 0,3 cm.
Fig. 14,2. Three overlapping fragments of bronze sheet, middle sheet loop-shaped; probably part of
a bronze sheet vessel; 3 x 2,8 cm; thickness of the sheet metal: 0,1 cm.

Fig. 16. Horse gear and wagon parts (1.3–12); navicella fibula (2) form the Lengyeltóti tumulus; scale 1:1;
1.6–12: iron; 2–5: bronze (photo Metzner-Nebelsick).
452 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 14,3. Small fragment of slightly bent piece of bronze sheet with grooved ornamentation; light
green patina; 1,1 x 0,9 cm; thickness of bronze sheet: 0,08 cm.
Fig. 14,4. Small bronze rivet with broken off shaft; dm 0,6 cm; dm of the shaft: 0,1 cm.
Fig. 14,5. Several small pieces of bronze sheet, from a vessel, similar to fig. 14,2; some pieces show
traces of fire damage; thickness of bronze sheet: ca. 0,1 or less cm.
Fig. 14,6. Several small fragments of bronze sheet with point-boss-decoration: a line of bosses is
flanked by smaller punch marks, part of a metal vessel or a bronze sheet cover of a wooden object (also
fig. 15).
Fig. 14,7. Bow of a Navicella fibula, pin not preserved; rough brown patina, damaged by fire; length:
3,7 cm; dm 1,2 cm.
Fig 15. Several small fragments of bronze sheet with point-boss-decoration: a line of bosses is
flanked by smaller punch marks, part of a bronze situla or other vessel type (see also fig. 14,6).
Fig. 16. 1. Iron nail (see fig. 12,5); 2. bronze Navicella fibula (see fig. 14,7); 3. bronze nail (see fig.
13,3a); 4. bronze nail (see fig. 13,3b); 5. bronze nail (see fig. 13,3c); 6a–b. iron rod (see fig. 12,6); 7. iron
rod (see fig. 12,7); 8. iron rod (see fig. 12,8); 9. iron rod (see fig. 12,9); 10. iron rod (see fig. 12,13); 11.
iron rod (see fig. 12,12); 12. iron rod (see fig. 12,11).

Interpretation of a fragmentary grave inventory

Embossed bronze sheet objects – fragments of bronze vessels in Lengyeltóti

Although the fragmentation of the several pieces of embossed sheet bronze makes it very difficult to
identify its form, there are parallels which indicate that they originally belonged to more than one bronze
vessel. Until the discovery of the late Hallstatt barrow from Regöly (SZABÓ – FEKETE 2011; 2014) no
Hallstatt burials with bronze vessels were known from the region south of Lake Balaton and north of the
river Kapos (PATAY 1990, pl. 80 B). This fact can be explained by the state of research and underlines
the importance of the Lengyeltóti burial. The nearest Hallstatt period barrows are known from the area
around the Somló Hill (Somlóhegy) in the County of Veszprém (PATEK 1993, 68 fig. 49; 71 fig. 51)
or from Vaskeresztes, Diófás dűlő in Vas County (FEKETE 1985), all dating to the HaC1 to HaC2/D1
period.
A parallel for the embossed pieces (Fig. 14,6; 15) of sheet bronze, which was decorated with a
similar pattern, was found in the Gamulica tumulus in Martijanec in northern Croatia. Ksenija Vinski-
Gasparini argued that the highly fragmented bronze sheet pieces with bosses and punch marks belonged
to a cylindrical bronze situla with a 32 cm wide rim and a height of more than 50 cm (Fig. 17). The
bronze sheet functioned as a prestigious cover for a wooden bucket from which several pieces survived
(VINSKI-GASPARINI 1961, 60–61; pl. 8,1–21). The ornamented bronze cists from the Kröllkogel in
Styria represent another parallel, although they are mostly figuratively ornamented, and – as it seems –
did not reveal traces of a wooden container (EGG – MUNIR 2013, 204–223)24. However, we cannot be
sure that the bronze sheet fragments from the Lengyeltóti tumulus did belong to such a vessel type. The
point-boss-ornamentation (“Punkt-Buckel-Zier”) with tiny punches framing larger bosses is also present
on conical situlae or various other vessel types in the Kröllkogel25. Nonetheless a “Seele”, a metal wire
to reinforce the rim (Fig. 14,1), was not only found in Lengyeltóti and in Martijanec but also in the
Kröllkogel cists (EGG – KRAMER 2013, 212 fig. 83; 213 fig. 84). In two cases of the Kröllkogel cists

24
The cylindrical cists from the Kröllkogel have a diameter around 30 cm like in Martijanec. They are however
under 30 cm high.
25
Kleinklein, Kröllkogel (EGG - MUNIR 2013, 201 fig. 77), for the handled bowls: ibid. 262 fig. 108; pl. 46.
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 453

Fig. 17. Sheet bronze coating of a wooden bucket (ciste) from Martijanec-Gamulica tumulus, northwest Croatia;
scale 1:2; bronze (drawing B. Köhler after Vinski-Gasparini 1961, pl. 8,1–21).

and in Martijanec the “Seele” was made of bronze wire26, in contrast to the iron example in Lengyeltóti.
Although the preservation is rather poor, the little bronze bead from Lengyeltóti (Fig. 13,5) with a
bronze wire inside could indeed be seen as another “Seele”, in this case a bronze one. If this is the case,
then it would mean that a second vessel with reinforced rim was originally present in the Lengyeltóti
grave.
Regarding the thinness and the often rounded profile of some Lengyeltóti bronze sheet pieces the
most convincing comparison for them seems to be a spherical bowl, like those found with and without
a handle in the Kröllkogel grave (Fig. 18,1-2). Indeed the overlapping bronze sheet pieces (Fig. 14,2)
in Lengyeltóti may be seen as the rest of a handle construction. In fact some of the handled bowls from
the Kröllkogel also show the same boss-punch-ornamentation as the pieces from Lengyeltóti (Fig. 14,6;
15). Those pieces may thus represent fragments of such bowls.
The broken, slightly bent rod-like bronze object with a round and in parts u-shaped section (Fig. 15,2)
seems to be enigmatic at first glance. It can, however, be compared to similar pieces from the Kröllkogel
and thus be interpreted as part of the handle of a bronze vessel. In this case the original bronze vessel
set in Lengyeltóti must at least have consisted of three different functional types: a cist i.e. cylindrical
situla (maybe two because of a second reinforced rim: Fig: 13,5), a spherical bowl or a handled spherical
bowl and a larger vessel with a movable handle such as a cauldron (Fig. 18). The tiny bronze sheet
fragment with an incised ornament (Fig. 14,3) may support this reconstruction. Comparable ornaments

26
EGG - MUNIR 2013, 206; 207 fig. 81 for cist VII, on the drawing of cist IX (ibid. 212 fig. 83) Egg and Munir do
not mention a wire (clearly to be seen on the drawing); they mention one for cist X (ibid. fig. 84) which is again
not to be seen on the drawing; for Martijanec: VINSKI-GASPARINI 1961, 60; pl. 8,21-26).
454 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 18. Possible comparisons for bronze vessel types in Lengyeltóti (represented by sheet bronze fragments
3a–f) from the Kröllkogel, Kleinklein (1–2.4–5 [4: ciste IX; 5: selection from ciste X]) and Burgstall near
Leibnitz (6), all Ausria. 1–5: scale 1:2; 6: 2:5 (from EGG – KRAMER 2013, 212–213 fig. 63–64; 262 fig. 108;
PRÜSSING 19991; pl. 68,259).

are common on basin shapes such as the“Kreuzattaschenbecken” and “Becken-Tassen” (MERHART


1952, pl. 4–9; PRÜSSING 1991, i.e. pl. 3,23; 68,259), so that the staff-like bronze piece and the tiny
bronze sheet piece originally may have belonged to the same vessel, in this case a basin of von Merharts
type B 2b or C (Fig. 18). In the Kröllkogel the inventory dates to the Ha D1 period.

Dress accessories: Navicella or boat-shaped fibula:

The Lengyltóti grave can be more precisely dated by the bronze fibula with a boat-shaped bow (Navicella
fibula or Kahnfibel). This fibula type was common in an advanced phase of the Early Hallstatt period
commonly referred to as Ha C2, although there are still difficulties in translating this phase, once defined
by Georg Kossack (KOSSACK 1959) on the basis of Bavarian grave inventories, into a wider geographical
context (see also PERONI 1973 and NEBELSICK 1997, 68; 77-82 and his term 'Middle Hallstatt period).
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 455

Only the bow of the fibula has been preserved. It does not show any trace of ornamentation. Other
specimen from western Hungary are known. The geographically nearest parallel comes from grave 6
in Keszthély-Vadaskert (HORVÁTH 2014, 70 fig. 5,3–5), where three Navicella fibulae were discovered,
although with incised ornamentation at the end of the bow. They belong to a costume of a woman. This
type of Navicella fibula is rare in the southeast alpine region. It has however a wide distribution, reaching
as far north as western Poland (NEBELSICK 2014a, 70 fig. 2.29; ibid. 2014b, 407–410; 412 pl. 9.2,11).
Another Navicella fibula of this type is known from grave 14 from the Statzendorf cemetery in Lower
Austria (REBAY 2006, 19–21; pl. 14–15; 224). Besides the fibula this inhumed woman was adorned with
a bronze sheet belt with point-boss-ornamentation. However, it is unlikely that the embossed sheet bronze
fragments in Lengyeltóti belonged to such a belt since sheet bronze belts are typically a feature of the
western Hallstatt Culture. The Statzendorf specimen is a western element within this cemetery. Western
connections in Statzendorf are also represented by certain pottery types (REBAY 2006, 298 fig. 261)
paying tribute to the geographical position of the site at the western fringe of the East Hallstatt Culture.
In any case, the presence of a fibula type with a female connotation indicates that the cremation grave
from Lengyeltóti must have contained at least the (additional) burial of a woman. As will be seen in the
following discussion of the other finds, there are no preserved objects in the grave with an undoubtedly
male connotation. Since in the eastern Hallstatt culture single burials of women with elite status markers
as wagons are rare in comparison to the west, it is therefore highly likely that the grave also had a male
component. As a consequence, it can be assumed that the fibula belonged to a woman who followed a
man into the grave, as it is attested for several elite burials of the Eastern Hallstatt Culture27.

Iron rods and possible wagon parts

Crucial objects for the final interpretation of the destroyed grave inventory of Lengyeltóti are the also
mostly fragmented iron rods (Fig. 12,6–13; 16,6–12). Two lines of argument for their interpretation can
be pursued.
None of the rods seems to be intact so that we cannot assume that the longest piece with 13,5 cm
length represents the original form. One option is to interpret them as fragments of spits. Iron spits
are a common feature of the equipment of elite burials in the eastern Hallstatt Culture (TERŽAN 2004,
181 fig. 12; 184 fig. 13). They are indicators of a princely lifestyle, including the ability to entertain a
large number of guests. When present in a burial chamber they are regarded as symbols for an eternal
feast celebrated by the grave owner and his companions or an imagined community of ancestors in the
afterlife. Secondly, they may be seen as tokens of a ritual feast in the course of the burial ceremony itself.
In the cult wagon burial from Strettweg in Styria (EGG 1996a, fig. 81) or in tumulus 82 of the barrow
necropolis of Frög in Carinthia (TOMEDI 2002, pl. 59,2–8) several spits were discovered. They have a
rather angled rectangular section whereas the Lengyeltóti ones are more rounded28.
The most likely function of the iron rods seems to be an interpretation as wagon parts. The so
far best parallel is known from the wagon grave of Somlóvásárhely north of Lake Balaton (Fig. 19;
PATEK 1993, 82 fig. 62). This grave is the only wagon grave with complete iron tyres east of the
alpine fringe and west of the bend of the Danube29. This exceptional grave has attracted considerable
27
Sati or „Witwenfolge“ is attested in several burials of the east alpine Hallstatt Culture.
28
That the iron rods are spears is unlikely, since similar iron spear-like rods found in the warrior grave of Romaja
in Macedonia are pointed and bent at one end (EGG 1996b, 337 fib. 10,5-6).
29
The iron tyres of the wagon burial of Gyöngyös, Heves County in northeast Hungary (KEMENCZEI 2009,
168-169; 372 pl. 150,8; 373 pl. 151,7-9.13) or Szentes-Vekerzug in Csongrád County in southeast Hungary
(KEMENCZEI 2009, 288-289 pl. 66-67) should be mentioned as well, but they belong to a different cultural
setting.
456 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Fig. 19. Iron nail of the wagon wheels from barrow 1 from Somlóvásárhely, County Veszprém, Hungary scale
1:2; iron (from Patek 1993, 82 fig. 62).

attention, since it contradicts the seeming lack of four wheeled wagons, which has been proposed as
being a characteristic feature of the so-called eastern Hallstatt culture. Also further recent wagon finds
underscore that the paradigm of the absence of wagons in burials of the eastern Hallstatt culture can
no longer be maintained30. One of the most spectacular Hallstatt period burials, the tumulus of Regöly-
Strupka Magyar birtok (Szabó – Fekete 2011; 2014) which will be discussed in this volume by Gezá
Szabó and Mária Fekete, also contained wagon parts.
More than 20 iron nails with rectangular section and varying length have been found in the
Somlyóvásárhely grave. The longest nail measures 17,2 cm. Some of them have heads which define
30
Distribution: PARE 1992, 5 fig. 4. Biba Teržan was the first who questioned the seemingly absence of wagons
by mapping wheel hub-caps and tubular corner elements of wagon boxes (TERŽAN 1990, 230-231 map. 26); for
evidence of wagon parts in southern Transdanubia and north-eastern Croatia see also Metzner-Nebelsick 2002,
363-368 indicating the existence of more wagon burials and discussing the selective deposition of wagon parts.
- Recent excavations in Strettweg by Georg and Susanne Tiefengraber in the tumulus cemetery of Strettweg
and other ostentatious barrows revealed remains of real wagons in both Strettweg tumulus III and the nearby
Bleikolm barrow in Waltersdorf. (TIEFENGRABER 2015, 261).
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 457

them as nails. The badly corroded studded iron button from Lengyeltóti (Fig. 12,5), may in fact be
interpreted as a nail as well. In Somlyóvásárhely the interpretation of the nails as part of the tyres is most
convincing (EGG 1996b, 331 fig. 4). However, they are a rare construction detail, and Christopher Pare
does not offer any explanation for the (re)construction of the wagon from Somlyóvásárhely.
There are other comparable pieces found in situ attached to the iron tyres of wagons from graves of
the western Hallstatt Culture. In the wagon grave from tumulus 2 from Emmerting-Bruck in southern
Bavaria the length of the nails, which seem to have had a stabilizing function for the spokes of the
wheels, is remarkable (PARE 1992, pl. 72). In another southern German wagon grave from Kitzingen-
Rippersdorf in Franconia (PARE 1992, pl. 80,2–4) long rod-like iron objects with rectangular section
have been discovered as well. Linch pins, parts of the tires and the nave doubtlessly indicate a wagon,
the function of the objects in question however, is not easy to determine. Some look like bits, since the
omega-shaped hooks at the end often connect bits and sidepieces. In the case of Kitzingen-Rippersdorf
however, the bits were unbroken, i.e. single piece bits, which is a rather unusual feature in Hallstatt
wagon or rider’s burials. Although some of the fragments very likely belonged to mouth pieces (PARE
1992, pl. 81,2), some objects of this burial are enigmatic.
Several long iron rods, some of them bent, were discovered in a wagon grave near Gyöngyös, Heves
County in northeast Hungary which belongs to the Alföld-Group, but do not seem to belong to the
wagon itself (KEMENCZEI 2009, 168–169; 373 pl. 151,3–6.11–12).
Another argument for the existence of a wagon in the Lengyeltóti grave is the presence of some
pieces of thick iron sheet which show traces of corroded wood (Fig. 12,4a–b). They may be interpreted
as parts of the iron tires. Indeed, some of the pieces of the iron rods – i.e. the nails – also show traces of
corroded wood. This detail excludes their interpretation as spits.
There is another group of small objects which may be seen as parts of a wagon construction. The
seven little nails made of rolled up bronze sheet (Fig. 13,4a–g) have according to my knowledge
no exact parallels. They may have functioned as parts of the naves. In grave 1, tumulus 1 from
Großeibstadt, cemetery 1 in Franconia, Germany bronze nails of 1,8 cm length were used to fasten
a bronze mantle of the nave, they have however a flattened top and a rectangular section (Kossack
1970, 57; pl. 35,30.31).
Additionally three bronze nails with angled and pointed studs and a mushroom-shaped head survived
the destruction of the Lengyeltóti burial. They were clearly originally inserted into an organic, possibly
wooden underground (Fig. 13,3a–c; 16,3–5). Again, to my knowledge a direct parallel so far is missing,
but an interpretation as ornaments for a wooden object, like a wagon box, is a possible interpretation.
Pointed bronze nails with a mushroom-shaped head have also been found in the late Hallstatt period
Regöly-Strupka Magyar birtok tumulus (SZABÓ – FEKETE 2014, 153 pl. 127,10.25–10.31).

Possible horse gear fragments

Horse gear in the Lengyeltóti grave is again rather fragmentary. Thus their identification is difficult.
Possibly the looped and the little elongated bronze objects with a central perforation (fig. 12,1–2) can
be interpreted as the fragments of a bit and a miniature side piece. The two broken rings in the loop of
the supposed bit are an uncommon feature. That the piece is the central part of a bit is impossible. The
interpretation as a reign hook, fastened by an additional ring, is however convincing.
The interpretation of a perforated bronze object from the inventory as a side piece is debatable (Fig.
12,2); it resembles miniature side pieces which are a “Leitform” for the early Hallstatt period in south
central Europe and beyond (Pare 1992, 144 fig. 101c; Tomedi 2002, fig. 32). The fact that this supposed
side piece is rather flat may be the result of corrosion. In Vaszar, tumulus 7, a comparable iron miniature
458 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

side piece was found (Patek 1993, 83 fig. 19). If one accepts this interpretation Lengyeltóti would so far
represent the most south-eastern example of this type.
In contrast to the items discussed so far, a small looped bronze button (Fig. 12,3) can clearly be
interpreted as a reign or leather strap ornament. Parallels exist in Transdanubia itself, for instance in
the grave from Kismező in Vas County in western Hungary (PATEK 1993, 119 fig 97,4). Among other
artefacts, the Kismező grave contained a double set of horse gear, which symbolises and substitutes the
wagon itself. The iron bit in this grave represents a unique type. Patek reconstructs several loops (PATEK
1993, 119 fig. 97,8), which offers a better understanding for the Lengyeltóti bit construction or rather
the preserved part of the bit.

Embossed sheet bronze on pottery and other indications for a sumptuous pottery vessel set
in the Lengyeltóti barrow

Next to the fragments of bronze vessels, the putative wagon parts and the horse gear fragments as well
as the sherds of ostentatious vessels, there are two other remarkable pieces of pottery which survived the
destruction of the Lengyeltóti barrow, and which have not been discussed so far:
With this aspect we are returning to the starting point of this article. Among the little sherds which
were rescued by Szilvia Honti two have a cherry-red slip (Fig. 11,4–5). Next to the afore-mentioned
examples from Dalj and Batina (Fig. 2,6-7) comparisons in Transdanubia are known from a barrow in
Pécs-Kővágo szöllös (METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, 705; pl. 127,1–18; esp. 127,5) or among others from
the barrow cemetery of Nagyberki-Szalacska (KEMENCZEI 1974; 1976).
The last object to be discussed here is a sherd with an angular sheet bronze application with a
punched lining (Fig. 11 a–b). The original slip surface of the sherd is almost entirely worn off, a part of
a pitch-like substance which was likely the glue for another segment of the ornamentation is still visible.
Bronze ornaments on pottery are another marker for prestigious pottery of the eastern Hallstatt culture.
Their origins date back to the Urnfield period as Fritz Preinfalk has remarked (PREINFALK 2003, 50–52).
Also little bronze studs or little nails with a rounded top which were impressed into the clay have a
tradition in Transdanubia in the Urnfield period31. In the early Hallstatt period this technique is mainly
distributed in northern Italy, for example in Este, Padua and Bologna (i.e. TOVOLI 1985; CHIECHO-
BIANCHI – CALZAVARO CAPUIS 1989), or in Slovenia (DOBIAT 1980, 200)32. On Fig. 20 only those
examples are mapped were bronze sheet applications were used. The same technique using lead strips
lead was applied in Frög (TOMEDI 2002).

The wider chronological context of the Lengyeltóti grave

The dating of the destroyed Lengyeltóti grave into a developed Ha C horizon, often referred to as Ha
C2, is defined by the Navicella fibula. Indirectly it is supported by cross-dating it with tumulus 1 from
Somlóvásárhely. The bowls from this burial (METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, 141 fig. 55,8) show a Ferigile-
type profile and can thus be dated into a late Ha C or the horizon IIIb of my pottery sequence of the Iron
Age in southeast Pannonia (METZNER-NEBELSICK 1996; ibid. 2002, 167–181; METZNER-NEBELSICK
in print). The sumptuous vessels with bull-head-protomes or animal protomes also generally date to
this horizon. However, it is hard to differentiate between a Ha C2 or Ha D1 phase is in Transdanubia,
since originally the parameters of this sequence were developed on the basis of grave inventories from

31
For examples from the the Urnfield Period cemetary in in Budapest-Békásmegyer: KALICZ-SCHREIBER 1991.
32
The distribution maps and accompanying lists by DOBIAT 1980, 200; EGG 1996a, 235 fig. 136; and PREINFALK
2003, 51-52 do not always differentiate between bronze studs and sheet applications.
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 459

Fig. 20. Distribution of pottery vessels with sheet bronze applications (see list 3).

southern Bavaria (KOSSACK 1959). But even in Bavaria this division is not very clearly defined, therefore
it seems expedient to argue in favour of a horizon of rich graves dating to a Ha C2/Ha D1 phase instead.
In Transdanubia the Lengyeltóti grave would most likely have belonged to this horizon.
Since the Lengyltóti burial is almost completely destroyed, the interpretation of the gender of the
person or the individuals buried in it cannot be easily determined. Vessels with bull-headed-protomes
usually belong to burial assemblies of men. Moreover the majority of wagon burials are attributed to
male individuals. As it has been argued above, we may assume that an additional burial of a woman was
also present in the grave.
460 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Cultural context of the Lengyeltóti mound

Its position in the surrounding area

The importance of the find from Lengyeltóti which once must have been one of the sumptuous graves of
the early eastern Hallstatt Culture is evident, even though only sad leftovers of a former inventory could
be rescued. As the Josephinean map from the late 18th century indicates (Fig. 8), the dimensions of the
former barrow must have been huge, since it and a second one were depicted by the first cartographers.
The mound functioned as a widely visible landmark until the second half of the 19th century when the
two barrows and possibly a third were mapped during the pioneering Österreichische Landesaufnahme
survey programme (Fig. 9). Single giant tumuli are a rare feature, since tumuli are normally grouped
together in smaller or larger clusters. For the eastern Hallstatt culture the vicinity of such tumuli to
hillforts is typical. In Lengyeltóti an adjacent hillfort could not yet be securely identified, although the
nearby hilltop site, the Tatárhegy (Fig. 9) has revealed early Hallstatt period pottery (see above) and may
thus be identified as a hillfort in the future. It remains unclear if originally there have been more than the
two or three recorded barrows in Lengyeltóti which perhaps fell victim to previous destructions in the
course of time; or if the spatial arrangement which was still visible in the early 20th century points at
another direction: Also the Kröllkogel, Pommerkogel, Hartnermichelkmogel group in Kleinklein seem
to have consisted of only giant tumuli. In Jalžabet in the Croatian Drava Valley two tumuli controlling
the whole area are attested (ŠIMEK 1998)33. The two destroyed tumuli of Lengyeltóti may thus be seen
as another example of this phenomenon of the eastern Hallstatt Culture.

The cultural setting: the inventory and its comparisons:

The inventory of the Martijanec-Gamulica tumulus in northern Croatia represents a distant comparison
from a wider geographical context. Since this barrow was excavated in the course of a regular excavation,
we can assume that the inventory in the central burial chamber survived intact. It consisted of two
large vessels with a conical neck (‘Kegelhalsgefäß’) with red-slip and tinfoil-ornaments in meander
patterns, which were covered with conical handled lids. Additional vessels included two identical
ladles with bird-shaped handles (Fig. 6B) like in Dalj, Busija (Fig. 2) three bowls with inverted rim
(‘Einzugschalen’), a larger almost cylindrical coarse ware pot, possibly another pot of this type and
presumably several other open vessels, including channelled bowls and at least one cup, which have,
however, not been reconstructed (VINSKI-GASPARINI 1961, pl. 7,3–13). The metal inventory consisted
of a bronze covered wooden bucket (Fig. 17), slightly bent iron rods (VINSKI-GASPARINI 1961, pl 8)
and a little bronze ring. This inventory resembles the Lengyeltóti finds in several aspects: the cherry-
red painted pottery, the painted meander-motives (and metal applications on pottery – in Martijanec
using tin-foil technique and in Lengyeltóti made of sheet bronze) and probably the existence of a bronze
or bronze covered cist. Although its impressive dimensions, the stone built burial chamber and the
quality of the preserved finds characterise the burial as outstanding in the area, in comparison with other
extraordinary graves the Martijaniec-Gamulica tumulus not only lacks the splendour of the princely
graves from Kleinklein or Strettweg with which it is sometimes compared, or that of other graves in

33
Recently new research at the site has started under the direction of S. Kovačović and M. Šimek (ŠIMEK and
KOVAČOVIĆ 2014).
Sumptuous Vessels and Animal Protomes –New finds of the early Hallstatt Period in Southeast Pannonia 461

Carinthia, Styria, in Transdanubia34, but also that from Kaptol in the Požega Mountains further to the
southeast. Looking at the afore-mentioned inventories of sumptuous burials from Transdanubia with a
re-occurring combination of horse gear and sometimes wagon parts or lavishly decorated pottery (see
above), Lengyeltóti – despite its fragmentary preservation – shares more features with those graves.
The presence of presumably several bronze vessels in this grave is exceptional in Transdanubia.

Conclusion

This article discussed vessels with bull-head-protomes (Fig. 4), squat vessels with a short conical neck
(fig. 1) or ornamentation styles of pottery like the red-coated pottery, tinfoil or bronze applications
(Fig. 20) which are typical features of the eastern Hallstatt Culture. They are present in virtually the
entire area of the eastern Hallstatt culture and transgress group boundaries such as the Kalenderberg-
Group, the Southeast Pannonian or the Sulmtal-Kleinklein-Group to name just some. Those features
thus represent a super-regional identity in regard to aesthetic concepts or – in the case of the bull-head-
protomes – religious believes.
They connect the communities at the fringe of the Hallstatt East with those often perceived as
representing the core of the eastern Hallstatt Culture. These different markers of status displayed
by means of pottery indicate that during the periods Ha C and Ha D1 (Horizons IIIa, IIIb, IV of my
chronological system) a communication network of locally based elites existed along the Drava River
Valley, including the area of Kaptol (here with strong cultural contacts to the Balkans), and additionally
connecting areas at the southern shore of Lake Balaton or other regions of Transdanubia as well as the
out-posts of the Hallstatt Culture in Dalj in eastern Slavonia with each other.
In a second part of the article the destroyed elite barrow from Lengyeltóti in the County of Somogy
south of Lake Balaton was introduced which – although almost totally destroyed – still helps to fill
what was formerly a prominent gap of knowledge of the character of the early Hallstatt Culture in the
immediate zone south of Lake Balaton in southern Transdanubia. Thanks to maps from the 18th and
19th centuries the exact position of the two barrows in Lengyeltóti, which were mentioned previously by
Bálint Kuzsinszky could be located. The combination of the remains of a sumptuous pottery and metal
drinking vessel set, wagon and horse gear as well as the existence of a dress accessory associated with
women hints at a double cremation burial underneath a giant barrow. These features clearly indicate that
this grave inventory must once have represented one of the most prominent graves of the whole eastern
Hallstatt culture.

List 1 for fig. 1: vessels with a short conical neck

1. Batina; 2. Dotroslovo; Kaptol; 4. Dvorišće; 5. Goričan; 6. Nagyberki-Szalacska; 7. Gyenesdiás; 8.


Dabrony for references see METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, 113 fig. 41.
additions:
9. Kleinklein, Kröllkogel, Styria, Austria (EGG KRAMER 2013, pl. 52)
10. Fenékpuszta near Keszthely, grave 3 Hungary (HORVÁTH 2014, 88 fig. 17,1)
11. Vaszar-Pörösrét, barrow 13, Veszprém County, Hungary (PATEK 1993, 107 fig. 86,10)
12. Nové Košariská, barrow I, southwestern Slovakia (PICHLÉROVÁ 1969, pl. 6,1; 45,1)
34
For the latter see i.e.: Vaskeresztes-Diófás dűlő (FEKETE 1985); several destroyed tumulus grave inventories from
the area around the Somlóhegy in the Marcal Basin, Doba (esp. PATEK 1993, 68-69 Fig. 49-50; 71-PATEK 1993,
71-72 Fig. 51-52), Somlóvásárhely near Veszprém (ibid. 76-86 Fig. 56-66; EGG 1996),Vaszar-Pörösrét (PATEK
1993, 95-108 Fig. 74-87), Csönge in Vas County (ibid. 115-118 Fig. 94-96) or the barrows at Százhalombatta
(PATEK 1993, 134-137 Fig. 107-110).
462 Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

List 2 for fig. 3: clay ladles and rhyta with zoomorphic handle

1. Dalj Busija, vineyard Kraus, from a grave (METZNER-NEBELSICK 2002, pl. 72,9–12)
2. Goričan near Varaždin, barrow 1982/XII, grave 1, northern Croatia (VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987,
pl. 21)
3. Kaptol, tum IV,1, central Croatia (VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, pl. 20,10)
4. Martijanec, ‚Gamulica‘ tumulus, northwest Croatia (VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, pl. 20,17)

List 3 for fig. 20: sites with sheet bronze applications on pottery

1. Janíky, barrow IV ‘Zöldhalom’, southwest Slovakia (STUDENÍKOVÁ 1996, 504)


2. Nové Košariská, barrow VI, southwestern Slovakia (PICHLEROVÁ 1969, 106; pl. 25,2; 40–41)
3. Gemeinlebarn, tum. II, northeastern Austria (SZOMBATHY 1903, 65 fig. 54–55)
4. Langenlebarn, tum. III, northeastern Austria (PREINFALK 2003, 51; pl. 28)
5. Kleinklein, Wiesenkaisertumulus, Styria Austria (HACK 2002, pl. 10)
6. Leibniz, barrow, Styria, Austria (GRUBINGER 1930, 122; PREINFALK 2003, 51)
7. Strettweg, ‘Kultwagen’ barrow, Styria Austria (EGG 1996a, 229 fig. 133,18–22; HACK 2002, 133 fig.
331,6)
8. Wildon, tum. I, grave F (‘Galgenkogel’), Styria Austria (GRUBINGER 1930, 116 fig. 3; EGG 1996a,
235 fig. 136,1–2)
9. Lengyeltóti, barrow, Somogy County, southern Transdanubia Hungary (fig. 11,1a–b)
10. Szászhalombatta, barrows 75; 114, Pest County, northern Transdanubia Hungary (HOLPORT 1985,
50 fig. 7,14–18;16; PATEK 1993, 135 fig. 108,1–15; 136 fig. 109,13–18)
11. Velem-St. Vid, hillfort, Vas County, northern Transdanubia Hungary (EGG 1996a, 235 fig. 136,3
nach v. MISKE 1908)
12. Vače, grave find, Slovenia (unpublished, DOBIAT 1980, 200)
13. Kaptol, barrow, Croatia (POTREBICA 2013, 178)

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DAS NÖRDLICHE KARPATENBECKEN

DAS NÖRDLICHE KARPATENBECKEN IN DER HALLSTATTZEIT


IN DER HALLSTATTZEIT
Der Band versammelt die Beiträge einer Tagung, die im Dezember Wirtschaft, Handel und Kommunikation
2014 in Košice im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes VEGA 02/0051/12
„Contribution of East European nomadic groups to shaping of cultural-
in früheisenzeitlichen Gesellschaften zwischen
historical development of Slovakia in the Hallstatt period“ stattfand. Ostalpen und Westpannonien
Die meisten Beiträge präsentieren die neuesten Ergebnisse zur regio-
nalen sowie chronologischen Gliederung der Hallstattzeit im nördli-
chen Karpatenbecken, ausgehend vom Bereich der heutigen Slowakei
und den Gebieten der Ostalpen und Westpannoniens. Hier breitete
sich die Osthallstattkultur aus, die ein heterogenes Geflecht klein-
räumig organisierter Gemeinschaften ist, die untereinander zwar
vielerlei Ähnlichkeiten und Übereinstimmungen im Grabbrauch,
Sied lungsformen und Sachbesitz zeigen, aber auch mancherlei Unter-
schiede und Eigenheiten.
In einigen Beiträgen steht der Forschungs-, Aufarbeitungs- und
Publikationsstand der Hallstattzeit im Vordergrund. Darüber hinaus
werden auch Themen besprochen, die aus sozialarchäologischer Sicht
vor allem Fragen nach der Etablierung von Eliten behandeln. Diese
können sich nicht nur in den Gräbern zeigen, sondern hinterließen
ihre Spuren auch in Form von besonderen Funden und Befunden
innerhalb der Siedlungen.
Einen Schwerpunkt bilden auch Beiträge zu einer der wichtigsten
Innovationen der Hallstattzeit – der Eisenmetallurgie, die vom his-
torischen Standpunkt ihrer Enstehung und Weiterverbreitung nach
Europa im Detail besprochen wird.
Herausgegeben von
ELENA MIROŠŠAYOVÁ, CHRISTOPHER PARE
und SUSANNE STEGMANN-RAJTÁR