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Physical Self - Persons who do not value themselves and do not

- Refers to the body which we interface with our trust their possibilities.
environment and fellow being.
2. High Self Esteem
Different Schools of Thought View on the - A positive self-esteem, which makes the person be
Physical Self satisfied of themselves.
William James
- considered body as initial source of sensation and 3. Inflated Self Esteem
necessary for the origin and maintenance of - People who holds high regards of themselves.
Sexual Self
Sigmund Freud Human Sexual Behavior
- Construction of self and personality makes the - Defined as any activity– solitary, between two
physical body the core of human experience. persons, or in a group – that induces sexual arousal.

Wilhelm Reich Understanding Basic of Sexual Behavior

- All psychological processes, are part of the - Men sexual behavior can occur any time, by being
physical process and vice versa. arouse to certain stimuli.
Mind + Body = One - At puberty, the testes begin to secrete androgens
(male sex hormones) which produces secondary sex
Erik Erikson characteristics like growth of bodily hair and change
- Bodily organs is important in early developmental in tone of voice.
stages of a persons life. - Female sexual behavior starts at puberty where the
two ovaries begin to produce estrogens and
Carl Jung progesterone (female sex hormones.).
- Argued that the physical body and the external
world can be known only as psychological TYPES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
experiences. 1. SOLITARY BEHAVIOR
- involving only one individual.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
- The role of the body is of primary importance. 2. SOCIOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR
- involving more than one person.
3 Basic Body Types
1. Endomorph Diversity of Sexual Behavior
- Big, high body fat, often pear - shaped, with a high 1. Heterosexual
tendency to store body fat. - is a sexual attraction and behavior directed to other
2. Mesomorph sex.
- Muscular and well - built, with a high metabolism
and responsive muscle cells 2. Homosexuality
3. Ectomorph - is a romantic and/or sexual attraction between
- Lean and long, with difficulty building muscle members of the same sex.

Self – Esteem 3. Transgenderism

- Refers to the overall self -evaluation or sense of - these are people who view themselves as a third
self-worth. gender, they are transvestites (who wears clothes of
the other gender).
Well, we all know that self-esteem comes from
what you think of you, not what other people think 4. Transsexuality
of you. - “Gloria Gaynor” - these are people who believed they were born with
the body of the other gender.
3 Different Kinds of Self Esteem
1. Low Self Esteem 5. Bisexuality
- are person who can be romantically or sexually ➢ Feminine or masculine
attracted to same sex
Gender identity
II. GENDER AND SEXUALITY - The personal psychological sense of being male or
Interest in gender female.
• Shift in using “sex” and “gender” ▪ Often assumed to match one’s biological sex
• social psychologists opt to use the term gender Transsexuals
because it encompasses the range of difference - people who have literally changed their sex
between men and women and emphasizes the social ▪ They have been surgically and hormonally
construction of maleness and femaleness (Burn, altered so that they appear to be a sex different
1996) from the one they were born in.

Sex Transgender
- Biological Sex- Biologically sex prescribed - In general, people whose gender identity or gender
characteristics that differentiate males and females expression differs from what is associated with their
in terms of reproductive organs and chromosomes. assigned sex at birth.
- Multidimensional Model of Sex (Crawford &
Unger, 2000): Gender role
1. Chromosomes (XY, XX) Social sex role or Gender role
2. Gonads (Ovaries & Testes) - the adherence to culturally created behaviors and
3. Gonadal hormones (Estrogens or androgens) attitudes deemed appropriate for females or males
4. Internal accessory organs (fallopian tubes, vas Gender belief system
deferens) - People’s expectations what it means to be male
5. External Genitalia (Penis, Clitoris) and female.
- People who fall outside the male and female • “Men should have big biceps”
dichotomy are generally called intersexuals (1.7 %
of the population) Gender Stereotypes
- Generalized beliefs about the characteristics of
Gender men and women.
- is commonly defined as socially or culturally • “Women are emotional”
prescribed characteristics, behaviors, and interests • “Manloloko lahat ng lalake”
appropriate for women and men (Howard &
Hollander, 1997). Gender role
- Males are expected to be masculine in appearance, • Gender Roles vary with culture.
behavior, and personality, and females are expected • To some country, spouses prefer that both of them
to be feminine share the labor in providing and nurturing their
• SEX • Gender roles vary over time.
➢ Biological • In 1965 the Harvard Business School had never
➢ Determined at birth granted a degree to a woman. At the turn of the
➢ Universal twenty- first century, 30 percent of its graduates
were women.
➢ Present in either
• Even in the Philippines before, women were not
➢ Fixed allowed for schooling– gave birth to exclusive
➢ Male or Female schools.
• How is culture transmitted from one generation to
• GENDER another?
➢ Social, contextual • Peer influence suggests that who we are not
➢ Social expectations for males and females mostly because of how our parent’s raised us– but
➢ Present in both because of the peers that surround us.
➢ Changing • Much of culture’s influence is transmitted to
children by their peers.
Transgender & Transsexual **Gender and sexual orientation are fused into same
TRANSGENDER the same words/labels in Filipino culture (Ofreneo,
- Person whose gender identity or gender 2000)
expression does not match their assigned birth sex **Which means that gender expression is used to
TRANSSEXUAL signify sexual orientation.
- Person whose gender identity is opposite to his or
her biological sex to the extent that he/she will seek Bisexual & silahis
surgical sex reassignment Bisexual
– person who is attracted to both male and female
Sexual orientation
• Sexuality Silahis
- Fuzzy term used to refer to sexual behaviors (what - a male who is erotically attracted to both males
you do), eroticism (what turns you on), sexual and females (male bisexual)
orientation (who turns you on), as well as desires to • *There is no distinct term for the Filipino female
engage in sexual activity. bisexual
• Sexual Orientation
- the sexual and emotional attraction to the same Theoretical approaches to gender
and/or opposite sex 1. Essentialist approach
- Difference bet. Male and female are biologically
Traditional binary gender model determined.
✓ Nature

2. Socialization approach
- gender is not innate, but rather learned from the

3. Social Constructionist approach

- gender is created through our social interactions.
✓ Gender is fluid.

Modern Continuum Gender Model 4. Structuralist approach

- gender as a form of a social structure or the basis
for the systematic allocation of resources.
✓ Resources shape gendered behaviors.

“Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus”

- Do gender differences reflect natural selection?! -
- Are gender roles socially constructed? Or genes
has something to do with it?
In the Philippines…
• Bakla- males who are feminine or effeminate and “Your „opposite sex‟ is actually your nearly
who cross-dress identical sex.” - Hyde (2005)
• A contraction of the words babae (female) and
lalaki (male) (Tan, 1995a) however…
• Refers to male homosexual or gay man. MALE
• Tomboy- females who are masculine and who - slower to enter puberty (by about two years) but
crossdress quicker to die (by four years, worldwide).
• Refers to female homosexual or lesbian. - three times more likely to be diagnosed with
ADHD (attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder),
four times more likely to commit suicide, and five Sexuality
times more likely to be killed by lightning. MALE
- more capable of wiggling the ears. • More likely to initiate sexual activity.
• Desire sex more often.
- has 70 percent more fat, has 40 percent less FEMALE
muscle, is 5 inches shorter, and weighs 40 pounds • Wants more commitment than intercourse.
less. • Wants more emotional passion.
- is more sensitive to smells and sounds.
- is doubly vulnerable to anxiety disorders and III. EVOLUTION & GENDER: DOING WHAT
depression. COMES NATURALLY?
Gender and Mating Preferences
Independence & Connectedness • We all have hidden evolutionary predispositions.
MALE • We want to send our genes into the future.
• Prefer larger groups than more intimate one. • Everywhere, men preferred attractive physical
• Less emotional in relationships. features suggesting youth and health— and
• More independent reproductive fitness. Everywhere, women preferred
men with resources and status.
• More intimate– because they tend to read other’s Gender and Mating Preferences
emotions. • Females invest their reproductive opportunities
• Skilled at expressing emotions nonverbally. carefully, by looking for signs of resources and
• More caring. commitment.
• More “connected” • Males compete with other males for chances to
win the genetic sweepstakes by sending their genes
Social dominance into the future, and thus look for healthy, fertile soil
MALE in which to plant their seed.
• More dominant, driven, and aggressive. • Why are men attracted to beautiful (physically)
• Takes more risks. women?
• Tend to talk louder and interrupt more. • Evolutionary perspective: Because it suggest peak
of fertility.
FEMALE • Why women are attracted to men with stature?
• More dependent & submissive. • Evolutionary perspective: Women everywhere feel
• Less interruptive, more sensitive, more polite, less attracted to men whose wealth, power, and ambition
cocky. promise resources for protecting and nurturing
- Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt Gender & hormones
someone. • Are we all just biological beings?
• All our actions or thinking are due to hormonal
MALE secretions?
• Throughout the world, hunting, fighting, and • We could not deny the social forces that influence
warring are primarily male activities. us!
• More aggressive in general.
Physiological Aspects of Sexual Excitement
• Less aggressive. - These are part of the body that particularly
• Caveat: Aggression is also contingent. sensitive to touch, pressure and vibration which
• slapping a family member, throwing something, or contributes to sexual arousal.
verbally attacking someone—women are no less
aggressive than men. Phases of Sexual Response
Arousal/Excitement Phase
- Is a subjective sense of sexual pleasure. 6 times a day -- every 4 hours during the day and
Plateau Phase every 6 hours at night -- with both breasts.
- Is a brief period of time before the orgasm. It is the
body’s preparation for orgasm. Artificial Method of Contraception
Orgasm Phase Vaginal Ring
- Is an intense, highly pleasurable experience. - Releases a combination of estrogen and
Resolution Phase progesterone and surrounds the cervix. It remains in
- Stage where the decrease of arousal happens. there for 3 weeks and will be removed on the 4 th
Natural and Artificial Method of Contraception Oral Contraception
Natural Contraception - Known as the ―Pill‖. Contains synthetic estrogen
- This is a type of birth control that depend with and progesterone.
observations on woman’s body through monitoring
and recording different fertility signals during her Transdermal Patch
menstrual cycle. - This patch contains both estrogen and
progesterone. The woman should apply one patch
Artificial Method every week for three weeks on the ff areas: upper
- Is diverse method of contraception using to outer arm, upper torso, abdomen, or buttocks.
prevent conception of a woman.
Subdermal Implants
Natural Method of Contraception - It is a two rod -like implants under the skin of
Cervical Mucus Method woman during menstruation. It contains
- woman is fertile when the cervical mucus is etonogestrel, desogestrel, and progestin.
profuse and watery.
Hormonal Injections
Basal Body Temperature - Contains medroxyprogest erone & a progesterone.
- Done by monitoring the changes in the woman’s This prevents ovulation and change in the cervical
temperature every morning before any activity. mucus.

Calendar Method Intrauterine Device

- It is also called as Rhythm Method. It involves - It is a small T-shaped objected in uterus thru
avoiding coitus during the days that the woman is vagina to prevent fertilization.
Symptothermal Method - Is a procedure done to male through small incision
- It is a combination of Basal Body Temperature made on each side of the scrotum to block the
and Cervical Mucus Method. passage of sperms.

Ovulation Detection Chemical Barriers

- This method uses an over the counter kit that - These are used to cause death of the sperm before
requires the urine sample of the woman. it can enter the cervix of a woman. These are
Abstinence spermicides, vaginal gels and creams, and glycerin
- Done thru abstaining from sexual intercourse. films.

Coitus Interruptus/Withdrawal Method Diaphragm

- This is where the couple proceeds with coitus but - Inhibits the entrance of into the vagina. It should
the moment he ejaculates, the men withdraw before not be left in a place for more than 24 hours to
emission of spermatozoa outside of the vagina. avoid irritation.

Lactation Amenorrhea Method Male Condom

- This is exclusive for breastfeeding woman.
Method is only effective you feed your baby at least
- a rubber sheath placed in the erect penis before the accumulation of objects and achievements that
penetration to avoid the sperm to enter the vagina person acquired from different endeavors and
during ejaculation. experiences in life.

Female Condom THE SELF AS “ME”

- a synthetic rubber placed against the vaginal
opening to prevent the sperm to enter the vagina
during ejaculation.

Tubal Ligation
- Is a procedure done to female through cuttering,
cauterizing, or blocking the fallopian tube to inhibit
the passage of both sperm and the ova.


William James
- Father of American Psychology
- He identified various component of the Empirical “The possessions that we dearly have tell something
Self, one of which is what he called as the Material about who we are , our self concept, our past, and
Self. even our future”
- According to James, Man’s “Material Self” is not
only consisting of his own body but also includes WE ARE WHAT WE HAVE
different things he possess from ones family and Russell W. Belk
friends. - is an American business academician, currently a
- And things such as ones clothes, house, cars, Distinguished Research Professor and the Kraft
gadgets and even the amount of money he has in the Foods Canada Chair in Marketing at Schulich
bank. School of Business, York University
- The identification of the self to things started in
MATERIAL SELF INVESTMENT DIAGRAM our infancy stage when we make a distinction
- Influenced by the “Philosophy of Dress” of among self and environment and others who may
Herman Lotze desire our possesions.
Body - “ We regard our possessions as part of ourselves.
- We strive hard to make sure our body functions We are what we have and what we posses.”
Clothes Andrew Carnegie
- “Anytime we bring an object into the surface of - Pioneering American Philanthropist
our body , we invest that object into the - Once set the standard for giving back:
consciousness of our personal existence, taking in “ No man can become rich without himself
its contour to be our own and making it a part of the enriching others”
self.” “The man who dies rich dies disgraced.”
Immediate family
- We see them as a replica of ourselves. What they David Rockefeller (June 12, 1915 – March 20,
do or become affects us. 2017)
Home - was an American banker who was chairman and
- Is where our heart is. The earliest nest of our chief executive of Chase Manhattan Corporation.
selfhood - He was noted for his wide-ranging political
connections and foreign travel, in which he met
JAMES IDEA OF THE MATERIAL SELF with many foreign leaders. His fortune was
- One can define themselves and at the same time
defined by the people they are acquainted with thru
estimated at $3.3 billion at the time of his death in when you give. Compassion is the currency that
March 2017. leads to true wealth.”
- “I am convinced that material things can
contribute a lot to making one’s life pleasant, but, However, material possessions gain higher value in
basically, if you do not have very good friends and our lifetime if we use material possessions to find
relatives who matter to you, life will be really happiness, associate these things with significant
empty and sad and material things cease to be events, accomplishment , and people in our life.
As we grow older putting importance to material William James
possessions decreases. - According to James (1890) people will find more
Young vs. Experienced satisfaction in having been able to show of the
Young spiritual self like their intelligence, to have their
- Money may not buy happiness, but can damn well wishes be done, and to act upon their conscience
give it! than to count or show their possession, because he
Experienced said that the spiritual self “is the most enduring and
- You can have everything in the world and still be intimate part of the self”.
the loneliest man. And that is the most bitter type of - William James’s take on the spiritual self which is
loneliness, success has brought me world idolization inclined as the inner most workings of the person’s
and millions of pounds. But it’s prevented me from mind, the behavior, beliefs and even morals that
having the one thing we all need: A loving, ongoing involves every aspect of the human as a person.
Manifestation of the Spiritual Self
“I've got a few good friends, a big house and I can
go wherever I want whenever I want... but the more
money you make the more miserable you get. It just
so happens that I have a lot of money.”

- When he was younger he became homeless for a
while after his father lost his job and as a result he
had to live in a minivan parked on a relative’s lawn.
- Even through the darkest times he believed in the
law of attraction. Jim Carrey is a firm believer that 1. Person’s Will
the universe does listen to our wishes and that if we - Refers to one’s wishes, these are the things that we
work hard for them, they are attainable. want to see and achieve in our lives.
- He used to visualize how directors and fans
praised him because they were enjoying his work. 2. Intelligence and abilities
By the age of 28, he was still a struggling comedian - these area the perceived strengths of a person, the
he decided to write himself a check for 10 million things that they have confidence in doing and
dollars and gave himself 5 years to cash it in. believe to have a certain level of mastery.
- He kept the check in his wallet almost 4 years –
until July 1995, when he found that that he would 3. Morals
be making 10 million$ for his role in Dumb and - It is the definition of what is right and wrong ,
Dumber. distinguish the things that are acceptable for a
And now … person, the society and at the same time the
- “I hope everybody could get rich and famous and determination of the possible effects of their actions
will have everything they ever dreamed of, so they to themselves, their environment and other people.
will know that it’s not the answer.”
- “I realize now more than ever that the most 4. Values
valuable commodity in life is the feeling you get - Is the person’s ability to distinguish what is
important and what is not. With one’s values system
a person may be able to prioritize what they think - In a lot of cultures, health, wealth, and daily things
are the task or thing that is needed, what are the are related to supernatural.
things that should be done or to be resolved
immediately, and what are those that they can delay Functions of Religion
without grave repercussions. a. Cognitive Function
- Enabling humans to explains the unexplainable
The Practice of Religion: Belief in Supernatural phenomena.
Being and Power b. Emotional Function
- Helping individuals to cope up with anxieties that
Difference between Religion and Spirituality often accompany illness, accidents, deaths,
• Religion refers to beliefs and behaviors related to c. Social Function
supernatural beings and powers. Worldview is - Social control, conflict resolution and building
broader than religion. group solidarity
• Worldview refers to the collective body of ideas
that members of the culture generally share The Concept of “Dungan” – Spirit or Soul
concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their • The “soul” or spirit of a person has two
reality. dimensions; (1) human body and (2) spiritual. Soul
• Religion also differs from spirituality, which is a referred to as kaluluwa by the Tagalogs or Dungan
concern with the sacred in an individual manner. All by the Ilonggos comes from the root word duwa,
cultures have religion, spirituality, a worldview and two.
magic (Haviland, 2007). • The Dungan is not seen by the human eye, it takes
on a different form. For importance, it can be in a
Religion form an insect or a small animal such as lizard.
- Religion is an organized system of ideas about
spiritual reality, or the supernatural, along with Rituals and Ceremonies
associated beliefs and ceremonial practices • Rituals in the Philippines are quite common.
(Haviland, 2007) Visayan fishing villages practice the offering ritual
called harang.
Spirituality • A local shaman invokes sea spirits. These are
- Concern with the sacred, as distinguished from several stages of the ritual purification, invocation,
material matters. In contrast to religion, spirituality entreaty and feast which cover community life such
is often individual rather than collective and does as harvest, operation of fishing boats and cases of
not require a distinctive format or traditional illnesses (Kawada, 1996)
organization (Haviland, 2007)
General Features of Harang Ritual
Myth, Rituals and Supernatural - Purification of the Place (tuob)
Myth - Invocation of Spirits (pagtawag)
- A sacred narrative that explains the fundamentals - Explanation of Motivation, Request, & Entreaty
of human existence – where we and everything in (pangamuyo)
our world came from, why we are here, and where - Offering Communion (bayad)
we are going. - Feast (kan-on)


- A culturally prescribed symbolic act or procedure • In the Philippines, our country is know to have a
designed to guide members of a community in an culture that values the teaching of religion.
orderly way through personal and collective • Our notion of right and wrong is based on the
transitions. teachings of the church or any religion that the
- Two types: calendric and crisis. people are following.
• It is imperative for one to fully understand the
Supernatural extent and be able to define the cohesiveness of
- The Supernatural is around you all the time, their own beliefs to the teachings of their religion,
especially in non-industrialized societies this will enable one to be able to understand further
who they are what they want to do, and what are the 2. The Vipassana
things they can and cannot do based on the - The Vipassana and Dharma
acceptable behavior that are being taught in one’s • Vipassana practices aim at developing insight into
religious orientation. reality.
• Religion refers to beliefs and behaviors related to • Acquiring wisdom is by studying Buddha’s
supernatural beings and powers. teaching, the Dharma.
• Worldview is broader than religion. Worldview • Through the reflection of Dharma, Buddhis can
refers to the collective body of ideas that members achieve a deeper understanding of life.
of the culture generally share concerning the • Buddhists believe in nonviolence principle.
ultimate shape and substance of their reality.
• Religion also differs from spirituality, which is a
concern with the sacred in an individual manner. All
cultures have religion, spirituality, a worldview and
magic (Haviland, 2007).

The following are only brief definitions of the

worldviews from which all regions stem:
Theism – the belief in the existence of a supreme
Being (God)
Atheism – the view that does not believe in the
existence of a God
Polytheism –the view that there are many gods,
which contradicts the idea of a supreme Being
Pantheism – the worldview that God is all things,
in other words everything is God
Agnosticism – the view that one cannot truly know
if there is a God b. Christianity
Henotheism – the belief that there is one god who Christians believes in the Trinitarian God. One God
is above other gods in three personas:
Monotheism – the view that only one God exists 1. God the Father (Creator)
2. God the Son (Savior)
Some World Religion 3. God the Holy Spirit (Sustainer)
a. Buddhism - Eternal life after death will be achieved through
• Buddhism believes that life is not a bed of roses. faith in Jesus Christ
Instead, there are suffering, pain, and frustrations. - Jesus Christ is, God the Son, who came into flesh,
• When people, they want to experience the to spread the Good News of Salvation. He died on
goodness of life and avoid disappointments. the Cross for sin for the humanity but resurrected
• This becomes a habit known as the reactive cycle from the death
of wanting, like, dislike, and craving and aversion.
• This reactive cycle can be broken through the c. Hinduism
following: Beliefs:
- The practice of meditation • Hinduism covers a wide range of traditional
- Acquiring more wisdom and deeper understanding beliefs and religious groups; thus, there is no single
- Acceptance of things as they are founder or leader.
• Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth,
Buddhism Custom and Practices death and rebirth, governed by Karma. Karma is a
- There are two types of meditation practices: concept where reincarnated life will depend on how
1. The Samatha the past life was spent.
- Samatha is practiced as mindfulness of breathing • Hindus believe that the soul passes through a cycle
and development of loving-kindess (Metta of successive lives and its next incarnation is always
Bhavana). dependent on how the previous life was lived.
Hinduism Custom and Practices There are five major festivals observed by the
• Diwali and Navrati are the most celebrated festival Jews:
of the Hindus. 1. Rosh Hashanah- the New Year
• Diwali is the Festival of Lights 2. Yom Kippur- the Day of Atonement
• Navrati is the festival of nine nights, which 3. Pesach- Passover
celebrate the triumph of good over evil. 4. Shavout- Pentecost
• Hindus have set dates to honor particular 5. Sukkot- Tabernacles. The Jewish Sabbath begins
manifestation of God. on Friday evening at sunset and is an important time
when families gather for the Shabbat meal.
d. Islam
Beliefs: Finding and Creating Meaning in Life
• Muslims believe in Allah, who is their “One God”. Viktor E. Frankl
• They believe in the unity and universality of God. - “Between stimulus and response there is a space.
Muslims also have strong sense of community or In that space is our power to choose our response. In
“ummah” and an awareness of their solidarity with our response lies our growth and our freedom.”
all Muslims worldwide. • Viktor Frankl, the originator of Logotherapy,
• Islam means “willing submission to God.” indicates how his involvement in quest for the
• Muslims believe that Mohammed is the last and significance of life in a Nazi death camp changed
final prophet sent by God. his viewpoint of the world.
• Mohammed was born in Mecca in 570 CE and • Frankl states that we can’t abstain from affliction,
received revelations from God through the Angel yet we can pick how to manage it and discover
Gabriel over a period of 23 years. significance in it.
• The Holy Book of Islam called the Quran, which • Frankl’s hypothesis questions the thoughts of
was taught to be recited in Arabic because any Freud, who trusted the significance of life was to
translation is seen as inadequate. seek after joy. Frankl trusted that the motivation
behind life isolates the person from creatures as
- SHAHADA (THE CREED) well as enables us to survive troublesome
- SALAT (PRAYER) circumstances.
- SAWM (FASTING) - “Everything can be taken from a man but one
- HAJI (PILGRIMAGE) thing: the last of the human freedoms – to choose
- ZAKAT (ALMGIVING) one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to
choose one’s own way.”
e. Judaism - “When we are no longer able to change a situation
Beliefs: – we are challenged to change ourselves.”
• The Jews believe in the God of Abraham, the • For Frankl, man cannot avoid suffering but can
same God that liberated the Hebrews slaves from find meaning from it. His theory holds three
Egypt to Canaan, the Promised Land through the primary human capabilities called as noological
leadership of Moses and later, Joshua. possibilities:
• The Jews believe in the coming of Messiah, the • self-detachment,
Savior. • self-transcendence,
• The sacred scripture of the Jews is called the • the ability to “spiritually be in touch” with
Torah of the Law. something or someone independent of
• The Torah is the guide of the Jewish living. The spatiotemporal dimensions.
study and interpretation of Torah is part of the • To complement these capabilities, he identified
Jewish culture. three postulates.
• The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic
Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious Anthropological
law and theology. - “Man does not simply exist but always decides
• The Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural what his existence will be, what he will become in
life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and the next moment.” “Man is ultimately self-
aspirations", serving also as "the guide for the daily determining”
life" of Jews
- “Man’s key motivation is the search for meaning.”

- Life has unconditional meaning, regardless of the
circumstances or situation.
- “His life in the concentration camp, Frankl writes
that he found meaning that helped strengthen his
will to survive.”

Meaning of Life …
- Costello (2015) captured Victor Frankl’s message:
“ The ultimate secret on the spiritual foundation of
life is that love is salvation and joy eternity.” The
ultimate factor to find the meaning of life is love.
- The ability to use moral sensibility and conscience
may be seen through the expressions of religion , its
beliefs and practices.
- In the same manner, cultural rituals and
ceremonies are some manifestation what people
believe in.
- Moreover, seeking the meaning of life is a journey
that the spiritual self is on.