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# STUDY PACKAGE

SUBJECT: MATHEMATICS
TOPIC: 16 XI M 16. Limits

Index:

1. Key Concepts

2. Exercise I to V

## 6. 10 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE

1
Limit

Page 2 of 18 LIMITS
1. Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as,
x → a when,
Limit+ f (a − h) = Limit+ f (a + h) = some finite value M.
h→0 h →0
(Left hand limit) (Right hand limit)
Note that we are not interested in knowing about what happens at x = a. Also note that if L.H.L. &
R.H.L. are both tending towards ' ∞ ' or ‘–∞’ then it is said to be infinite limit.
Remember, Limit ⇒ x ≠ a
x →a
Solved Example # 1

Find xLimit
→ π / 2 f(x)

Solution.
Here Limit f(x) = 1
x→ π / 2

Solved Example # 2

Find Limit
x→1 f(x)

Solution.
Left handed limit = 1 Right handed limit = 2
Limit
Hence x→1 f(x) = does not exist.
Solved Example # 3
(i) Find lim it f(x)
x →0
(ii) Find lim it f(x)
x →1
(iii) Find lim it f(x)
x →3

Solution.
(i) lim it f(x) = does not exists
x →0
because left handed limit ≠ right handed limit
(ii) lim it f(x) = 0 (iii) lim it f(x) = 1
x →1 x →3
2. Indeterminant Forms:
0 ∞
, , 0 × ∞, ∞ − ∞, ∞ º, 0º, and 1∞ .
0 ∞
Solved Example # 4
Which of the following limits are forming indeterminant from also indicate the form

## (i) lim 1 (ii) lim 1 − x

x →0 x x →0 1 − x 2

1 1 
(iii) lim x n x (iv) lim  − 
x →0 x →0  x x 2 2
(v) lim (sin x)x (vi) lim (n x)x
x →0 x →0
1

x →0 (1+ sin x )
(vii) lim x
(viii) lim (1)1/x
x →0

Page 3 of 18 LIMITS
Solution
0
(i) No (ii) Yes from
0
(iii) Yes 0 × ∞ form (iv) Yes (∞ – ∞) form
(v) Yes, (0)º form (vi) Yes (∞)º form
(vii) Yes (1)∞ form (viii)
NOTE :
(i) ' 0 ' doesn't means exact zero but represent a value approaching towards zero similary to ' 1 ' and
infinity.
(ii) ∞+∞=∞
(iii) ∞x∞=∞
(iv) (a/ ∞) = 0 if a is finite
a
(v) is not defined for any a ∈ R.
0
(vi) a b = 0, if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite.

## 3. Method of Removing Indeterminancy

To evaluate a limit, we must always put the value where ' x ' is approaching to in the function. If we get
a determinate form, then that value becomes the limit otherwise if an indeterminant form comes. Then
apply one of the following methods:
(i) Factorisation (ii) Rationalisation or double rationalisation
(iii) Substitution (iv) Using standard limits
(v) Expansions of functions.
1. Factorization method :-
We can cancel out the factors which are leading to indeterminancy and find the limit of the remaing
expression.
Solved Example # 5
lim it x − 24 x − 16
6

x →2
x 3 + 2x − 12
Solution.
( x − 2)( x 5 + 2x 4 + 4 x 3 + 8 x 2 + 16 x + 8)
lim it x − 24 x − 16 = limit
6

x →2
x 3 + 2x − 12 x →2 ( x 2 + 2x + 6)( x − 2)
168
= = 12
14
2. Rationalization /Double Rationalization.
We can rationalize the irrational expression by multiplying with their conjugates to remove the
indeterminancy.

4 − 5x + 1
Solved Example # 6 limit .
x →1 2 − 3x + 1
4 − 5x + 1
Solution. lim it
x →1 2 − 3x + 1
( 4 − 5 x + 1)(2 + 3 x + 1)( 4 + 5 x + 1)
= lim it
x →1 (2 − 3x + 1)( 4 + 5 x + 1)(2 + 3 x + 1)
(15 − 5x ) 2 + 3x + 1 5
= lim it × =
(3 − 3 x )
x →1 4 + 5x + 1 6
Solved Example # 7
 1 2 (2 x − 3)  1+ x − 1− x
lim − 3 lim
x →2  
Evaluate : (i) (ii)
 x − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 2x  x →0
x

(iii)
(
lim (2 x − 3 ) x − 1 )
x →1
2x 2 + x − 3
Solution (i) We have
 1 2 (2x − 3 )   1 2 (2 x − 3 ) 
lim − 3 = xlim −
x →2 
 x − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 2x 
 →2  x − 2 
x( x − 1)( x − 2) 

 x( x − 1) − 2(2x − 3) 
= xlim  
→2
 x(3x − 1)( x − 2) 
 x 2 − 5x + 6 
= xlim  
→2  x( x − 1)( x − 2) 
 
 ( x − 2)( x − 3)   x −3  1
= xlim
→2  x( x − 1)( x − 2) 
= xlim
→2  x( x − 1) 
=–

Page 4 of 18 LIMITS
    2
0
(ii) The given limit taken the form when x → 0. Rationalising the numerator, we get
0
 1+ x − 1− x 1+ x + 1− x 
lim 1 + x − 1 − x = lim  × 
x →0
x x →0 
 x 1 + x + 1 − x 
 (1 + x ) − (1 − x ) 
= xlim 
→0  x
 (
1 + x + 1 − x 

)
 2x   2  2
= xlim 
→0  x
 ( 
1 + x + 1 − x  ) = xlim
→0
  =
 1+ x + 1− x  2
=1
(iii) We have

lim 
(
 ( 2 x − 3) x − 1  )
 = lim 
(
 ( 2 x − 3) x − 1 

)
 2x + x − 3   ( 2x + 3)( x − 1) 
x →1  2 x →1

 (2x − 3) x − 1 ( )
= xlim 
→1  (2 x + 3)
 ( 
x − 1 x + 1  )( )
 2x − 3  −1 −1
= xlim 
→1  (2x + 3)
 ( 
x + 1  ) =
(5)(2)
=
10

## 4. Fundamental Theorems on Limits:

Let Limit Limit
x →a f (x) =  & x →a g (x) = m. If  & m exists then:

x →a  x →a 

## (iii) Limit f ( x) =  , provided m ≠ 0

x →a
g ( x) m
(iv) Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.
x →a x →a

 
Limit f [g(x)] = f  Limit g ( x )  = f (m); provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.
(v) x →a  x →a 
 
Solved Example # 8 Evaluate
lim x + 4
2
(i) lim (x + 2) (ii) lim x(x – 1) (iii) (iv) lim cos (sin x)
x →2 x →2 x →2 x →0
x+2
lim x − 3 x + 2 (vi) lim x + 3 x + 2
2 2
(v) x →1 x →1
x2 − 1 x2 − 1
Solution (i) x + 2 being a polynomial in x, its limit as x → 2 is given by xlim
→2
(x + 2) = 2 + 2 = 4
(ii) Again x(x – 1) being a polynomial in x, its limit as x → 2 is given by
lim x(x – 1) = 2 (2 – 1) = 2
x →2

lim x + 4 = (2) + 4 = 2
2 2
(iii) By (II) above, we have x →2
x+2 2+2
 
lim cos (sin x) = cos  lim sin x  = cos 0 = 1
(iv) x →0  x →0 
(v) Note that for x = 1 both the numerator and the denominator of the given fraction vanish. Therefore
x 2 − 3x + 2 ( x − 1)( x − 2) x−2 1
by (III) above, we have xlim →1
= xlim
→1 ( x − 1)( x + 1)
= xlim
→1 x + 1
=–
x −1
2 2
(vi) Note that for x = 1, the numerator of the given expression is a non-zero constant 6 and the
6
denominator is zero. Therefore, the given limit is of the form . Hence, by (IV) above, we
0
lim x + 3x + 2 does not exist
2
conclude that
x →1
x2 − 1
Limit sinx = 1 = Limit tanx = Limit tan −1x Limit sin −1x
5. Standard Limits:
Limits (a) x →0
x x →0
x
x →0 = x →0
x x
[ Where x is measured in radians ]
x

## (b) Limit (1 + x)1/x = e ; Limit 1 + 1  = e

x →0 x→ ∞
 x 4
Limit e − 1 = 1; Limit a − 1 = log a, a > 0
x x
(c) x →0 x →0 e
x x
Limit  n (1 + x ) Limit x − a = nan – 1.
n n
(d) x →0 =1 (e) x→ a
x x−a

Page 5 of 18 LIMITS
sin 2x
Solved Example # 9: Find Limit
x →0
x
Limit sin 2 x Limit sin 2x . 2
Solution. x →0 ⇒ x →0 =2
x 2x
e3x − 1
Solved Example # 10: Limit x →0
x/2
Limit 2 × 3 e − 1
3x
Limit e − 1
3x
Solution. x →0 x →0 = – 6.
x/2 3x
tan x − sin x
Solved Example # 11 Limit x →0
x3

## Solution. Limit tan x − sin x

x →0
x3
tan x(1 − cos x )
= Limit
x →0
x3
2
 x
x  sin 
tan x . 2 sin 2 tan x  2
= Limit
x →0
2 = Limit
x →0 .  x  = 1.
x3 x  
 2 
sin 2x
Solved Example # 12 Compute xlim →0 sin 3 x

 sin 2x 2x 3x 
lim sin 2x = xlim . .
→0  3 x sin 3 x 
Solution We have x →0 sin 3 x  2x
 sin 2x  2  3x 
= 2lim  . . 3lim ,x≠0
 x → 0 2 x  3  x → 0 sin 2 x 
2  sin 3 x  2 2
=1. + 3lim →  = ×1=
3  x 0 3 x  3 3
x
 2
Solved Example # 13 Evaluate xlim 1 + 
→∞
 x
x 2
Solution lim 1 + 2  = e xlim
→∞ x
.x
= e2 .
x →∞
 x

## lim e − e lim x(e − 1)

x 3 x
Solved Example # 14 Compute (i) x →3
(ii) x →0
x −3 1 − cos x
Solution (i) Put y = x – 3. So, as x → 3, y → 0. Thus
e3 + y − e 3
lim e − e
x 3

x →3
= ylim
→0
x −3 y
e3 . e y − e3
= ylim
→0 y
ey − 1
= e3 ylim
→0 = e3 . 1 = e3
y
(ii) We have
lim x(e − 1)
x
x(e x − 1)
(ii) x →0 1 − cos x
= xlim
→0 x
2 sin 2
2
 
 ex − 1 x2 
1
. lim  x 
.
= x = 2.
2 x →0  sin2 
 2 
x −8
3
Solved Example # 15 Evaluate xlim→2
x2 − 4
Solution (First Method)
The given expression is of the form
x 3 − (2)3 x 3 − (2)3 x 2 − ( 2)2
= ÷ 5
x − (2)
2 2
x−2 x−2
lim x − 8
3
x 3 − ( 2 )3 x 2 − (2)2
⇒ x →2
= xlim
→2
÷ xlim
→2
x2 − 4 x−2 x−2
x n − an
= 3(22) ÷ 2(21) (using xlim
→a
= nan–1 )
x−a

Page 6 of 18 LIMITS
= 12 ÷ 4 = 3
(Second Method)
The numerator and denominator have a common factor (x – 2). Cancelling this factor, we obtain
x3 − 8 x 2 + 2x + 4 lim x − 8
3
lim x + 2x + 4
2
= ⇒ x →2
= x →2
x2 − 4 x+2 x2 − 4 x+2
( 2) + 2( 2) + 4
2
12
= = =3
2+2 4
Note : Since x → 2, x – 2 is not zero, so the cancellation of the factor x – 2 in the above example is
carried out.
6. Use of Subsitution in Solving Limit Problems
Sometimes in solving limit problem we convert xlim
→a
f(x) by subtituting x = a + h or x = a – h as
lim f(a + h) or lim f(a – h) according as need of the problem.
h→0 h→0

1 − tan x
Solved Example # 16 lim it
x→π / 4 1 − 2 sin x
π π
Solution. Put x= +h ∵ x→ ⇒ h→0
4 4
π 
1 − tan  + h 
 4 
lim it
h→0 1 − 2 sin π + h 
 
4 
1 − tan h
1−
lim it 1 − tan h
= h→0 =
1 − sin h − cos h
−2 tan h
1 − tan h
= lim
h→0
it
h h h
2 sin2 − 2 sin cos
2 2 2
−2 tan h 1
= lim it
h→0 h h h  (1 − tanh)
2 sin 2 2 sin − cos 
2 2 2
tanh
−2
h 1 −2
= lim it = = 2.
h→0
sin
h (1 − tanh) −1
2 sin h − cos h 
h  2 2 
2
7. Limit When x → ∞
1
Since x → ∞ ⇒ → 0 hence in this type of problem we express most of the part of expression
x
1 1
in terms of and apply → 0. We can see this approch in the given solve examples.
x x
Solved Example # 17 lim it x sin 1
x→ ∞
x
lim it x sin 1
Solution. x→ ∞
x
sin 1 / x
= lim
x→ ∞
it =1
1/ x
Solved Example # 18 lim it x − 2
x → ∞ 2x − 3

Solution. lim it x − 2
x→ ∞ 2x − 3

lim it 1 − 2 / x = 1 .
x→ ∞ 2 − 3 / x
2
lim it x − 4 x + 5
2
Solved Example # 19 x→ ∞ 6
3x 2 − x 3 + 2
lim it x 2 − 4x + 5
Solution. x→ ∞
3x 2 − x 3 + 2
1 4 5
− +
x x 2 x3

Page 7 of 18 LIMITS
= lim
x→ ∞
it 3 2 =0
− 1+ 3
x x
lim 3x 2 + 2
Solved Example # 20 x→ − ∞
x−2
lim 3x 2 + 2
Solution. x→ − ∞
x−2
−1
Put x = x →–∞ t → 0+
t
1
3 + 2t 2 .
t2
= xlim
→ 0+ 1 − 2t
t
3 + 2t 2 t 3
= xlim
→ 0+ = =– 3.
− (1 + 2t ) | t | −1
8. Limits U sing Expansion
x ln a x 2 ln 2 a x 3 ln3 a x x2 x3
(i) ax =1+ + + + .........a > 0 (ii) e x =1 + + + + ......
1! 2! 3! 1! 2! 3!
x2 x3 x4 x3 x5 x7
(iii) ln (1+x) = x − + − + .........for − 1 < x ≤ 1 (iv) sin x =x − + − + .....
2 3 4 3! 5! 7!
x2 x4 x6 x 3 2x 5
(v) cosx =1 − + − + ..... (vi) tan x = x + + + ......
2! 4! 6! 3 15
x3 x5 x7 12 3 12.3 2 5 12.3 2.5 2 7
(vii) tan-1x = x − + − + .... (viii) sin-1x = x + x + x + x + .....
3 5 7 3! 5! 7!
x 2 5 x 4 61x 6
(ix) sec-1x = 1 + + + + ......
2! 4! 6!
n(n − 1) n(n − 1)(n − 2)
(x) for |x| < 1, n ∈ R (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + 1. 2 x +
2
1. 2 . 3 x 3 + ............ ∞

lim ex − 1− x
Solved Example # 21 x→0
x2
lim ex − 1− x
Solution. x→0
x2
 2 
1 + x + x .......  − 1 − x
 2!  1
= xlim   =
→0
x2 2
lim tan x − sin x
Solved Example # 22 x→0
x3
lim tan x − sin x
Solution. x→0
x3
 3   3 
 x + x ........  −  x − x .......
    1 1 1
= xlim
→0 
3   3!  = + = .
3 6 2
x3
(7 + x )1/ 3 − 2
Solved Example # 23 xlim →0
x −1
(8 + h)1/ 3 − 2
Solution. Put x → 1 + h hlim →0
h
1/ 3
 h
2 . 1 +  − 2
lim  8
h→0
h
 11  h 
2 
  − 1   
 1 h 33    + ....... − 1
8
2 1 + . + 
 3 8 1. 2 
  7
= hlim
→0
 
h
1 1
= hlim
→0 2 × =
24 12
x2
n(1 + x ) − sin x +
Solved Example # 24 lim 2
x→0

Page 8 of 18 LIMITS
x tan x sin x
x2
n(1 + x ) − sin x +
lim 2
x→0
x tan x sin x
 2 3   3 5  2
 x − x + x ..... −  x + x + x + ..... + x
 2 3   3! 5! 
    2 1 1 1
= xlim
→0 tan x sin x = + =
x3 . . 3 6 2
x x
9. Limits of form 1 ∞ , 0 0 , ∞ 0
0
All these forms can be convered into form in the following ways
0
(i) If x → 1, y → ∞ , then z = (x)y
nx
⇒ n z = y n x ⇒ n z = (1/ y )
1
Since y → ∞ hence y → 0 and x → 1 hence nx → 0
(ii) If x → 0, y → 0, then z = x y ⇒ n z = y n x
y 0
⇒ n z = 1/ ny = form
0
(iii) If x → ∞ , y → 0, then z = x y ⇒ n z = y n x
y 0
⇒ n z = = form
1/ nx 0
also for (1)∞ type of problems we can use following rules.
(i) lim (1 + x)1/x = e (ii) lim [f(x)] g(x)
x →0 x →a
where f(x) → 1 ; g(x) → ∞ as x → a
1
{ f ( x ) −1} . g( x )

→a [1 + f ( x ) − 1]
f ( x ) −1 [ f ( x ) −1] g( x )
= xlim = e xlim
→a

4x2 +2
 2 
Solved Example # 25 lim  2x − 1 
x →∞  2x 2 + 3 
 
Solution. Since it is in the form of 1∞
4x2 +2
 2   2x 2 − 1 − 2x 2 − 3 
lim  2x − 1  = e x→∞ lim   (4x 2 + 2) = e–8
x →∞    2
+ 
 2x + 3 
2 2 x 3
 
lim
Solved Example # 26: x → π (tan x) tan 2x
4
lim (tan x −1) tan 2 x
π
x→
Solution = e 4

2 tan x
lim (tan x −1)
π 1− tan 2 x
x→
= e 4

tan π / 4

−1(1+ tan π / 4 ) 1
= e = e–1 =
e
πx
tan
 a 2a
Solved Example # 27 Evaluate xlim
→a
2 −  .
 x
πx
tan
lim  2 − a 
2a
Solution. x →a
 x
 π πh 
tan + 
put x=a+h ⇒ lim 1 + h   2 2a 
h→0  
 ( a + h) 
 πh 
− cot   πh  h 
lim − cot .  1+ − 1
⇒ lim 1 + h   2a 
⇒ e
h →0 2a  a + h 
h→0
 a +h
 πh  2a
 
lim −  2a . π
h→0  πh  a +h
 tan 
⇒ e  2a  = e–2/π 8
Solved Example # 28: lim x x
x →0 +

Solution. y = xlim
→0
xx

Page 9 of 18 LIMITS
n y = xlim
→0
x n x
1
n 1
= xlim – x = 0∵ →∞ y=1
→0 1 x
x
1 0 . Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Play Theorem:
If f(x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h(x) ∀ x & Limit Limit Limit
x →a f(x) =  = x →a h(x) then x → a g(x) =  .

## [ x ] + [2x ] + [3 x ] + .... + [nx ]

Solved Example # 29: Evaluate nlim
→∞
n2
Where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function.
Solution.
We know that, x – 1 < |x| ≤ x
⇒ 2x – 1 < [2x] ≤ 2x
⇒ 3x – 1 < [3x] ≤ 3x
....................
....................
⇒ nx – 1 < [nx] ≤ nx
∴ (x + 2x + 3x + .... + nx) – n < [x] + [2x] + ..... +[nx] ≤ (x + 2x + .... + nx)
xn(n + 1) n
x.n(n + 1)

2
–n< ∑ [r x]
r =1

2
[ x] + [2x ] + .... + [nx ]
Thus, nlim
→∞
n2
lim x 1 +  – 1 < lim [ x ] + [2x ] + .... + [nx ] ≤ lim x 1 + 
 1  1
⇒ n→∞ 2  n→∞ n→ ∞ 2 
n n n 2 n 
x [ x ] + [2 x] + .... + [nx ] x lim [ x ] + [2x ] + .... + [nx ] = x
⇒ < nlim
→∞
≤ ⇒ n→∞
2 n2 2 n2 2
Aliter We know that [x] = x – {x}
n

∑r x
r =1
= [x] + [2x] + .... + nx – [nx]
= (x + 2x + 3x + ... + nx) – ({x} + {2x} + .... + {nx})
xn(n + 1)
= – ({x} + {2x} + .. + {nx})
2
n
x 1 + 1  { x} + {2x } + .... + {nx }

n
1
2 ∑ [r x] =
r =1

2  n
 –
 n2
n

## Since, 0 ≤ {rx} < 1, ∴ 0≤ ∑ [r x] < n

r =1
n n n

lim
∑ [rx] lim
∑ [rx] x 1 + 1 
  – lim
∑ {rx}
⇒ n→∞
r =1 =0 ∴ n→∞
r =1 = nlim
→∞ 2  n→∞
r =1
2 2
n
n n n2
n

lim
∑ [rx]
r =1
x
n→∞
=
2
n2
Solved Example # 30 lim it x sin 1
x →0 x
limit x sin 1
Solution. x →0 x
= 0 × (some value in [– 1, 1]) = 0
9
1 1 . Some Important Notes :
x
(i) lim nx = 0 (ii) lim =0
x→∞x x → ∞ ex
As x → ∞, n x increnes much slower than any (+ve) power of x where ex increases much faster than

Page 10 of 18 LIMITS
(+ve) power of x
(iii) Limit (1 − h)n = 0 & Limit (1 + h)n → ∞, where h > 0.
n→ ∞ n→ ∞

## (iv) If Limit Limit

x → a f(x) = A > 0 & x → a φ (x) = B (a finite quantity) then;
Limit [f(x)] φ (x) = ez where z = Limit
x →a x →a φ (x). ln[f(x)] = eBlnA = AB

x1000
Solved Example # 31 xlim
→∞
ex
1000
Solution. lim x =0
x→∞
ex
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Short Revesion (LIMIT)
THINGS TO REMEMBER :
1. Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as, x→a when
Limit Limit
x → a − f(x) = x → a + f(x) = finite quantity..
2. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS ON LIMITS :
Let Limit Limit
x → a f (x) = l & x→ a g (x) = m. If l & m exists then :
(i) Limit f (x) ± g (x) = l ± m
x→ a (ii) Limit .
x→ a f(x) g(x) = l. m

## (iii) Limit f (x) =  , provided m ≠ 0

x → a g (g) m
(iv) Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.
x→ a x→ a

 
(v) Limit
x→ a f [g(x)] = f  Limit
x→a
g (x) = f (m) ; provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.

 
For example Limit Limit f (x) l n l (l > 0).
x → a l n (f(x) = l n  x → a REMEMBER
 
Limit ⇒ x ≠ a
x→ a
3. STANDARD LIMITS :
Limit sinx tan x tan −1 x Limit sin −1 x
(a) x→ 0 = 1 = Limit
x→ 0 = Limit
x→ 0 = x→ 0
x x x x
[ Where x is measured in radians ]
x
 1 Limit
(b) Limit
x→ 0 (1 + x)1/x = e = Limit
x→∞ 
1 +  note however there h→0 (1 - h )n = 0
x n→∞
Limit
and h→0
n→∞
(1 + h )n → ∞
(c) If Limit f(x) = 1 and Limit φ (x) = ∞ , then ;
x→ a x→ a

Limit [f ( x ) ]φ ( x ) = e Limit
x → a φ ( x )[ f ( x ) −1]
x →a

## x → a φ (x) = B (a finite quantity) then ;

(d) If Limit f(x) = A > 0 & Limit
x→ a
Limit [f(x)] φ(x) = ez where z = Limit φ (x). ln[f(x)] = eBlnA = AB
x→ a x→ a

## Limit a − 1 = 1n a (a > 0). In particular Limit e − 1 = 1

x x
(e) x →0 x →0
x x
Limit x − a = n a n −1
n n
(f) x →a x−a
4. SQUEEZE PLAY THEOREM :If f(x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h(x) ∀ x & Limit Limit Limit
x → a f(x) = l = x → a h(x) then x → a g(x) = l.
0 ∞
5. INDETERMINANT FORMS : , , 0 x ∞ , 0° , ∞° , ∞ − ∞ and 1∞
0 ∞
Note : (i) We cannot plot ∞ on the paper. Infinity (∞) is a symbol & not a number. It does not
obey the laws of elementry algebra. (ii) ∞+∞=∞ (iii) ∞×∞=∞
a
(iv) (a/∞) = 0 if a is finite (v) is not defined , if a ≠ 0.
0
(vi) a b = 0 , if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite.
6. The following strategies should be born in mind for evaluating
10 the limits:
(a) Factorisation (b) Rationalisation or double rationalisation
(c) Use of trigonometric transformation ;
appropriate substitution and using standard limits
(d) Expansion of function like Binomial expansion, exponential & logarithmic expansion, expansion of sinx ,
cosx , tanx should be remembered by heart & are given below :
x 1n a x 2 1n 2a x 3 1n 3a x x2 x3
(i) a x = 1 + + + +......... a > 0 (ii) e x = 1 + + + +............

Page 11 of 18 LIMITS
1! 2! 3! 1! 2! 3!
2 3 4 3 5
x x x x x x7
(iii) ln (1+x) = x − + − +......... for − 1 < x ≤ 1 (iv) sin x = x − + − +.......
2 3 4 3! 5! 7!
3 5
x2 x4 x6 x 2x
(v) cos x = 1 − + − +...... (vi) tan x = x + + +........
2! 4! 6 ! 3 15
x3 x5 x7
(vii) tan x = x − + − +.......
-1
3 5 7
2 2 2
1 1 .3 5 12 .32 .52 7 x 2 5x 4 61x 6
(viii) sin-1x = x + x + 3
x + x +....... (ix) sec-1x = 1 + + + +......
3! 5! 7! 2! 4! 6!

EXERCISE–1
x2 − x 13
x −7 x Lim x − x.1nx + 1nx − 1
2
Q 1. Lim
x →1
Q 2. Lim Q3. x →1
x −1 x →1 5 x − 3 x x −1
 p q  2 x + 3x + 5x
1/ 3 1/ 5
1 + 3 tan x
Q 4. Lim  −  p, q ∈ N Q 5. Lim Q 6. Lim
x →1  1 − x 1 − x 
p q x →∞ 3x − 2 + (2x − 3)1/ 3
3π 1 − 2 cos 2 x
x→
4
a
Q 7. (a) Lim tan −1 where a ∈ R
x →0 x2
 2x x
(b) Plot the graph of the function f(x) = Lim  tan −1 2 
t →0  π t 
100 k 
 ∑ x  −100
Q 8. Lim K=1 
x →1 x −1
Q 9. Find the sum of an infinite geometric series whose first term is the limit of the function
tan x − sin x
f(x) = as x → 0 and whose common ratio is the limit of the function
sin 3 x
1− x
g(x) = as x → 1. (Use of series expansion or L’ Hospital’s rule is not allowed.)
(cos −1 x) 2
et + e− t
Q 10. Lim
x →∞ (x − l n cosh x) where cosh t = .
2
Lim Lim 1 − tan x
Q 11. x → π2 cos−1 [cot x] where [ ] denotes greatest integer function Q 12. x → π4
1 − 2 sin x
Lim sec 4 x − sec 2 x
Q 13. Lim [ln (1 + sin²x). cot(ln2 (1 + x))] Q 14. x →0
x →0 sec 3x − sec x
− cos x
Lim 2 − cos θ − sin θ Lim 2 −1
Q 15. θ→ π4 Q 16. x → π2 x ( x − π )
( 4θ − π) 2 2
Q 17. If Lim a sin x −3 sin 2x is finite then find the value of 'a' & the limit.
x →0 tan x
Lim 8 1 − cos x − cos x + cos x cos x 
x −1
Lim (1n(1 + x) − 1n2)(3.4 − 3x)
2 2 2 2

Q 18. x →0 8
x  4  Q 19. x →1 1 1
2 4 2 [(7 + x ) 3 − (1 + 3x) 2 ].sin(x − 1)
 1 1 1 1 
Q 20. Using Sandwich theorem to evaluate nLim  + + + .......... . + 

→∞  n 2 
n +1
2
n +2
2
n + 2n 
2

1
Q21. Given f (x)= Lim
n →∞
tan–1 (nx); g (x) = Lim
n →∞
sin2n x and sin(h(x) ) = [cos π(g(x)) +cos(2 f (x))]
2
Find the domain and range of h (x).
1 − sin 2x (x 3 + 27 ) 1n (x − 2)
Q 22. Lim
x→π Q 23. Lim
x →3
4 π − 4x
2
x −9
(cos α ) + (sin α) − 1
x x
27 − 9x − 3x + 1
x
Q 24. Lim
x →2 Q 25. Lim
x →0
x−2 2 − 1 + cos x

11
x
Q 26. Let f ( x ) = , x>0 and g( x ) = x + 3, x <1
sin x
= 2 − x, x ≤ 0 = x − 2x − 2, 1 ≤ x < 2
2

= x − 5, x≥2
find LHL and RHL of g( f ( x ) ) at x = 0 and hence find Lim g( f ( x ) ) .

Page 12 of 18 LIMITS
x→0
Pn
Q 27. Let Pn = a − 1 , ∀ n = 2, 3,.......and Let P1 = ax – 1 where a ∈ R+ then evaluate Lim
Pn −1
.
x→0 x
(3x 4 + 2 x 2 ) sin 1x + | x |3 +5
Q 28. xLim
→−∞
| x |3 + | x |2 + | x | +1
2f ( x ) + 1
Q.29 If f ( x ) = ln cosec ( xπ) 0 < x < 1 and g (x) = then
= ln sin (2 xπ) 1< x < 3/ 2 3f ( x ) + 1
find tan–1 (g(1− )) and sec–1 (g(1+ )) .
Q.30 At the end-points and the midpoint of a circular arc AB tangent lines are drawn, and the points A and B
are joined with a chord. Prove that the ratio of the areas of the two triangles thus formed tends to 4 as the
arc AB decreases indefinitely.
EXERCISE–2
1/ x
8x + 3  (1 + x)1/ x 
2
 2x 2 + 3  x+c
x
Q 1. Lim
x →∞  2  Q 2. Lim
x →∞  x − c 
= 4 then find c Q 3. x →0  e 
Lim
 2x + 5     

 2 π 
 π 
sec2   F π I
Q 4. Lim
x →0 sin 


 2 − ax  
 2 − bx 
Q.5 Lim
x→∞
GH
x 2 sin n cos
x JK
x2
  a  tan π2x
 cos  2 π  x     πx 
Q 6. Lim  a∈R Q 7. Lim  tan 
x →∞ 
  1 + x    x →1
 4 
 
1 nx
 x − 1 + cos x  x  a x + a x + a x +.....+ a x 
1 1 1 1

Q 8. Lim Q 9. Lim  1 2 3 n 
x →0   x →∞  n  where a1,a2,a3,......an > 0
 x   
sin −1 (1 − {x}).cos −1 (1− {x})
Q 10. Let f(x) = then find xLim
→0+
f(x) and xLim
→0 −
f(x), where {x} denotes the fractional
2{x} . (1− {x})
part function.
ae x − b cos x + ce − x
Q 11. Find the values of a, b & c so that Lim
x →0 =2
x. sin x
1  a2 + x2  aπ   πx  
Lim  − 2 sin   sin    where a is an odd integer
(a − x 2 ) 2  ax
Q 12. x →a 2
 2   2 
Lim tan x − x x n f (x) + g(x)
2 2

## Q 13. x →0 Q 14. Lim xεR

2
x tan x 2 n →∞ n
x +1
Q 15. Lim [1.x ] + [ 2 .x ] + [ 3 .x ] + ..... + [ n .x ] , Where [.] denotes the greatest integer function.
n →∞
n2
1 − x + ln x
Q 16. Without using series expansion or L'Hospital's rule evaluate, Lim
x →1 1 + cos πx
  ay   by  
 exp x ln(1 + ) − exp x1n(1 + ) 
 x   x 
Q 17. Lim  Limit
x→∞ y 
y →0
 
 
Q 18. If sn be the sum of n terms of the series, sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x +..... + sin nx then show that
Limit s1 + s 2 + ...... + s n = 1 cot x (x ≠ 2 kπ , k ∈ I)
n→∞
n 2 2
 n (1 + x)1+ x 1 
Q 19. Lim − 
x →0  x2 x

23 − 1 33 − 1 4 3 − 1 n3 − 1
Q 20. Let Pn = . 3 . 3 ....... 3 . Evaluate Lim
n →∞
Pn
2 +1 3 +1 4 +1
3
n +1
π
Q 21. A circular arc of radius 1 subtends an angle of x radians, 0 < x < as shown in
2
the figure. The point C is the intersection of the two tangent lines at A & B. Let
T(x) be the area of triangle ABC & let S(x) be the area 12 of the shaded region.
Compute :
Page 13 of 18 LIMITS
(a) T(x) (b) S(x) & (c) the limit of T (x) as x → 0.
S(x )
x  
Q 22. (a) Lim
x →∞ (b) Lim
x →∞ 
x + x + x − x
x+ x+ x  
2 θ 
n

Q 23. If f (n, θ)= ∏ 1 − tan r  , then compute Lim f (n, θ)
r =1  2  n →∞
Lim x x
− a x
Lim a x − xa
Q 24. Let l = x →a & m = x→a where a > 0. If l = m then find the value of ' a '.
x 2− a x−a
x
 π
 cosh  −t
x  where cosh t = e + e
t
2 (tan x − sin x) − x 3
Q 25. Lim  Q 26. Lim
x →0
x→ ∞  π  2 x5
 cos 
 x 
Q 27. Through a point A on a circle, a chord AP is drawn & on the tangent at A a point T is taken such that
AT = AP. If TP produced meet the diameter through A at Q, prove that the limiting value of AQ when P
moves upto A is double the diameter of the circle.
Q 28. Using Sandwich theorem, evaluate
1
1 2 n
(a) Lim + + ......... + (b) Lim (a n + b n ) n , 0 < a < b
n →∞ 1 + n 2 2 + n2 n + n2 n →∞

 x2 + 1 
Q 29. Find a & b if : (i) x →∞  x + 1 − ax − b = 0
Lim (ii) xLim  2 
   x − x + 1 − ax − b = 0
→−∞ 

## Q 30. Show that Lim

(sin (x + h) ) x+h
− (sin x ) x
= (sin x)x [ x cot x + l n sin x ]
h →0
h

EXERCISE–3
1

Lim 1 + 5x  x = ______.
2 2

x→0  2
Q.1 [ IIT’96, 1 ]
 1 + 3x 
Lim 1 − cos 2 (x − 1)
Q.2 [ IIT ’98, 2 ]
x→1 x −1
(A) exits and it equals 2 (B) exits and it equals - 2
(C) does not exist because x - 1 → 0
(D) does not exist because left hand limit is not equal to right hand limit.

## Q.3 Lim x tan 2x − 2x tan x

is : [ JEE '99, 2 (out of 200) ]
x →0 (1 − cos 2x)
2

1 1
(A) 2 (B) − 2 (C) (D) −
x
2 2
 x − 3
Q.4 For x ∈ R , Lim 
x →∞   = [ JEE 2000, Screening]
x + 2
(A) e (B) e −1 (C) e −5 (D) e5
sin( π cos x )
2
Q.5 Lim equals [ JEE 2001, Screening]
x →0 x2
π
(A) –π (B) π (C) (D) 1
2

a tan x − a sin x
Q.6 Evaluate Lim , a > 0. [REE 2001, 3 out of 100]
x →0 tan x − sin x
(cos x − 1)(cos x − e )
x
Q.7 The integer n for which Lim is a finite non-zero number is
x →0 xn
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
[JEE 2002 (screening), 3]
sin(n x )[(a − n )n x − tan x ]
Q.8 If Lim = 0 (n > 0) then the value of 'a' is equal to
x →0 x2
13
1 n2 +1
(A) (B) n2 + 1 (C) (D) None
n n
[JEE 2003 (screening)]
2 1 
(n + 1) cos −1  − n  .

Page 14 of 18 LIMITS
Q.9 Find the value of Lim 
n →∞  π
[ JEE ' 2004, 2 out of 60]
n 
EXERCISE–4
n +1
Limit 5 + 3n − 2 2 n
1. n→ ∞ 2n + 3
= (A) 5 (B) 3 (C) 1 (D) zero
n
5 +2 +3
n

cos2 − cos2x
2. Limit =
x → −1 x2 − | x |
(A) 2 cos 2 (B) − 2 cos 2 (C) 2 sin 2 (D) − 2 sin 2
1 1 − cos2x
3. The value of Limit
x →0 is:
x 2
(A) 1 (B) − 1 (C) 0 (D) none
4. Limit sin−1 (sec x).
x →0
(A) is equal to π /2 (B) is equal to 1 (C) is equal to zero (D) none of these

## Limit x − 9x + 20 where [x] is the greatest integer not greater than x:

2
5. x →5 x − [x]
(A) is equal to 1 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) none
|x+π|
Limit
6. x→ − π sinx :
(A) is equal to − 1 (B) is equal to 1 (C) is equal to π (D) does not exist

Limit ( x + 27 ) ln ( x − 2) =
3

7. x→3 2 ( x −9 )
(A) − 8 (B) 8 (C) 9 (D) − 9
100

∑x
k =1
k
−100
8. Limit =
x →1
x −1
(A) 0 (B) 5050 (C) 4550 (D) − 5050
9. Limit
x →∞ ( (x + a)( x + b) − x ) =
a+b
(A) ab (B) (C) ab (D) none
2
x 3 . sin x1 + x + 1
10. Limit =
x →∞
x2 + x + 1
(A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) none

11. Limit ( n + 2) ! + ( n + 1) ! , n ∈ N =
n→ ∞
( n + 3) !
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) − 1
12. Limit | x |sinx =
x →0
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) − 1 (D) none of these
x
 
Limit  x − 2x + 1  =
2
13. x →∞  x 2 − 4 x + 2 
 
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) e2 (D) e
x (1+ a cos x ) − b sin x
14. The values of a and b such that xLim
→0 = 1 are
x3
5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3
(A) , (B) , – (C) – , – (D) – ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 π  π 
2  3 sin + x  − cos + x  
Limit  6  6 
15. x →0
(
x 3 3 cos x − sin x
=
)
(A) − 1/3 (B) 2/3 (C) 4/3 (D) − 4/3
 x −1 , x ≥1  x +1 , x>0
16. If f(x) =  2 , g(x) =  2 and h(x) = |x|
2 x − 2 , x < 1 − x + 1 , x ≤ 0
then find Lim f(g(h(x))) 14
x →0
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) –1 (D) does not exists
17. Limit (1 − x + [x − 1] + [1 − x]) = where [x] denotes greatest integer function.
x →1
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) − 1 (D) does not exist
 sin [ x − 3]
18. Lt   , where [ . ] denotes greatest integer function is :
x→0
 [ x − 3] 

Page 15 of 18 LIMITS
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) does not exist (D) sin 1
  1  1 
x sin  + sin  2  x ≠0
19. Let f (x) =  x x  , then xlim
→∞ f(x) equals
 0 x=0
(A) 0 (B) − 1/2 (C) 1 (D) none of these.
 | x| 3
x 
3
lim  −    (a > 0), where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x is
x→a −  a
 a  
20.

(A) a2 + 1 (B) a2 − 1 (C) a2 (D) – a2
Lim ax 2 + bx + c
21. Let α, β be the roots of + bx + c = 0, where 1 < α < β. Then x → x
ax 2 = 1 then which of the
0
ax 2 + bx + c
following statements is incorrect
(A) a > 0 and x0 < 1 (B) a > 0 and x0 > β
(C) a < 0 and α < x0 < β (D) a < 0 and x 0 < 1

## 22. Limit 1.n + 2 ( n − 1 ) + 3 ( n − 2 ) + ...... + n .1 has the value :

n→ ∞
1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 + ...... + n 2
1 1 1
(A) (B) (C) (D) 1
2 3 4

23.

(
Lim  1 − e x
x→0 
)
sin x 

x  is (where [⋅] represents greatest integral part function)
(A) – 1 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) does not exist
24. If  = lim (sin x + 1 – sin x ) and m = lim [sin x + 1 – sin x ] where [.] denotes the greatest integer
x→∞ x→−∞
function then :
(A)  = m = 0 (B)  = 0 ; m is undefined
(C) , m both do not exist (D)  = 0, m ≠ 0 (although m exist)
n
 1
25. If f(x) = ∑ x −   x − 1  then lim f(0) is.
λ  λ + 1
λ =1 
n→∞

## (A) 1 (B) –1 (C) 2 (D) None

  n sin θ   n tan θ  
26. The limit θlim 
→0   +   , where [x] is the greatest integer function and n ∈ Ι, is
  θ   θ  
(A) 2n (B) 2n + 1 (C) 2n – 1 (D) does not exist
 1
27. x →∞ x − x  n
The limit Limit 2 1 +  is equal to :
 x
(A) 1/2 (B) 3/2 (C) 1/3 (D) 1
 π
x − 2 
28. lim  cos x  is : (where [.] represents greatest integer function.
x →π / 2  
 
(A) – 1 (B) 0 (C) – 2 (D) does not exist
29. If f(x) = sin x , x ≠ nπ , n = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ± 3, ,....
= 2 , otherwise and
g(x) = x² + 1 , x ≠ 0 , 2
= 4 , x=0
= 5 , x=2
Limit
then x → 0 g [f(x)] is :
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) does not exists
 2x x
30. The graph of the function f(x) = tLim  cot −1 2  , is
→0  π t 

## cos (sin x ) − cosx

31. The value of Limit
x→0 is equal to:
x4 15
(A) 1/5 (B) 1/6 (C) 1/4 (D) 1/2
 1 1 

e x   2 x  e −  3 x  e 
n x n x

    
32. Limit   , n ∈ N is equal to :
x →∞ n
x

Page 16 of 18 LIMITS
(A) 0 (B) ln(2/3) (C) ln(3/2) (D) none
 ay   by   
 exp x ln 1 + x   − exp x ln 1 + x   
       
33. Limit  Limit
x →∞ y =
y →0  
 
 
(A) a + b (B) a − b (C) b − a (D) − (a + b)

EXERCISE–5
1. Evaluate the following limits, where [ . ] represents greatest integer function and { . } represents
fractional part function
x
(i) lim [sin x] (ii) lim   (iii) lim sgn [tan x]
π x →2  2  x →π
x→
2
x 2 + 2 , x ≥ 2  2x , x > 1
2. If f(x) =  and g(x) =  , evaluate xlim f (g(x)).
 1 − x , x < 2 3 − x , x ≤ 1 →1

## 3. Evaluate each of the following limits, if exists

x2 − 4 a + 2x − 3 x
(i) lim (ii) lim ,a≠0
x →2 x + 2 − 3x − 2 x →a 3a + x − 2 x
4. Evaluate the following limits, if exists

( )
5 5
tan 3 x − 2x ( x + 2 ) 2 − ( a + 2) 2
2+ x
− e2
(i) lim (ii) xlim (iii) lim x e
x →0 3 x − sin 2 x →a x →0 1 − cos x
x−a
5. Evaluate the following limits, if exist :
 1 2 x 
(i) lim x2 + x − 1 – x (ii) lim  + 2 + .... + 2 
x→∞ x →∞ x 2
x x 
(iii) Limit
x →∞ {cos ( )
x +1 − cos x( )} (iv) lim
x →∞
x − 8x + x
2

tan2 x
e x − 1 − sin x −
6. Evaluate the following limits using expansions :(i) lim 2
x →0
x3
a + b sin x − cos x + ce x
(ii) If xlim
→0
exists, then find values of a, b, c. Also find the limit
x3
[1 . 2x] + [ 2 . 3 x] + ..... + [n . (n + 1) x ]
7. Evaluate xlim →∞
where [ . ] denotes greatest integer function
n3
x 2n − 1
8. If f(x) = nLim
→ ∞ 2n , find range of f(x).
x +1
9. Evaluate the following limits
(ln (1 + x ) − ln 2)(3.4 x −1 − 3 x )
Limit (cosα) −(sinα) −cos2α , α ∈  0 , π 
x x
Limit
(i) x →1
1 1 (ii) → x −4  
[(7 + x ) 3 − (1 + 3 x ) 2 ]. sin( x − 1) x 4
 2
10. Evaluate the following limits
 
  x 5 tan  12  + 3 | x |2 + 7
(i) Limit x 3
 x + 1+ x − x 2
2 4
(ii) Limit  πx 
x →∞ x → −∞
  | x |3 +7 | x | + 8
sec2  π 
 
 2 − b x
Limit  sin 2  π  
11. Evaluate the following limits (i) x →0   
  2 − a x 
nx
 1/ x + a 1/ x + a 1/ x + ....... + a 1/ x 
(ii) Limit  a 1 2 3 n 
x →∞   , where a1, a2, a3,......., an > 0.
 n 

## 12. Find the values of a & b so that: (i) Limit

(
1 + a x sin x ) − (b cos x) may find to a definite limit.
x →0
x4
(ii) lim  x 4 + ax 3 + 3x 2 + bx + 2 − x 4 + 2x 3 − cx 2 + 3x − d  = 4
x→∞  
 n (1 + x )(1+16
x)
1 
13. Find the limits using expansion : Limit  2
− 
x →0 x 
 x
sin −1(1− { x }) . cos −1(1− { x })
14. Let f(x) = then find Limit Limit
x→0 + f(x) and x→0 − f(x), where {.} denotes the fractional
2{ x } . (1 − { x })
part function.

( 
)
Limit cos (n!πx )  where x ∈ R. Prove that
2m

Page 17 of 18 LIMITS
15. Let f (x) = Limit
m→∞  n→∞ 
 1 if x is rational
f (x) = 0 if x is irrational .

  [12 (sinx ) x ] + [22 (sinx ) x ] +.......+[n2 (sinx ) x ] 
  
16. Limit  Limit
Evaluate x →0 + n→∞  3  ,
  n 
where [. ] denotes the greatest integer function.
17. Evaluate the following limits

## (i) Limit cos x cos x cos x ........ cos x

n→∞ n
2 4 8 2
Limit 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x
(ii) n→∞ tan + 2 tan 2 + 3 tan 3 +...... + n tan n .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
(iii) Limit logx −1( x ).logx ( x + 1).logx +1( x + 2).logx + 2 ( x + 3).....logk ( x 5 ) ; where k = x 5 − 1.
x →∞

23 − 1 3 − 1 4 − 1
3 3 2
n3 − 1
(iv) Let Pn = . 3 . 3 .......... . Prove that Limit
n → ∞ Pn = .
23 + 1 3 + 1 4 + 1 n3 + 1 3

EXERCISE–1
45 p−q 2 1
Q 1. 3 Q 2. Q 3. 2 Q 4. Q 5. Q.6 –
91 2 3 3
Q 7. (a) π/2 if a > 0 ; 0 if a = 0 and –π/2 if a < 0(b) f(x) = | x |
1 1 2
Q 8. 5050 Q 9. a =
;r= ;S= Q 10. l n 2 Q 11. does not exist Q 12. 2
2 4 3
3 1 21n 2
Q 13. 1 Q 14. Q 15. Q 16.
2 16 2 π
1 9 4
Q 17. a = 2 ; limit = 1 Q 18. Q 19. − 1n Q 20. 2
32 4 e

Q 21. Domain, x ∈ R, Range, x = ,n∈I Q 22. does not exist Q 23. 9
2
Q 24. cos²α lnCosα + Sin²α lnSinα Q 25. 8 2 (1n 3) 2 Q 26. – 3, –3, – 3
Q 27. (ln a)n Q 28. −2 Q 29. 0, 0 Q. 30 4
EXERCISE–2
− 12 π2 −2π 2 a2
Q 4. e − a −
2
/ b2
Q 1. e-8 Q 2. c = ln2 Q 3. e Q.5 Q 6. e Q 7. e-1
4
-1/2
π π π2a 2 + 4
Q 8. e Q 9. (a1.a2.a3....an ) Q 10. , Q 11. a = c = 1, b = 2 Q 12.
2 2 2 16a 4
2 g(x) + f (x)
Q 13. Q 14. f(x) when x> 1 ; g(x) when x < 1 ; when x = 1 & not defined when x = -1
3 2
x 1 2
Q 15. Q 16. – Q 17. a - b Q 19. 1/2 Q 20.
2 π2 3
1 x x sin x 1 1 3
Q 21. T(x) = tan2 . sin x or tan − , S(x) = x − sin x , limit =
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

## Q 22. (a) 1 (b)

1
Q 23.
θ Q 24. a = e2 Q 25. e
π 2

2 tan θ
1 1
Q 26. Q 28. (a) 1/2, (b) b Q 29. (i) a =1, b = −1 (ii) a = −1 , b =
4 2
EXERCISE–3
Q 1. e² Q 2. D Q 3. C Q 4. C Q5. B
2
Q6. lna Q7. C Q8. C Q.9 1−
π
17
Page 18 of 18 LIMITS
EXERCISE–4
1. D 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. D 6. D 7. C 8. B 9. B 10. C
11. A 12. B 13. C 14. C 15. C 16. B 17. C 18. C 19. C 20. C
21. D 22. A 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. A 28. C 29. A 30. C
31. B 32. B 33. B
EXERCISE–5
1. (i) 0 (ii) Limit does not exists (iii) Limit does not exists
2 5
2. 6 3. (i) (– 8) (ii) 4. (i) 1/3 (ii) (a + 2)3/2 (iii) 2e 2
3 3 2
1 1
5. (i) 1/2 (ii) 1/2 (iii) zero (iv) ∞ 6. (i) (ii)a = 2, b = 1, c = –1 and value = –
3 3
x 9 4
7. 8. {–1, 0, 1} 9. (i) − ln (ii) cos4 a ln (cos a) - sin4 a ln (sin a)
3 4 e 2
1 −
a
1 b2
10. (i) (ii) − 11. (i) e (ii) (a 1 a 2 a 3 ....... a n)
4 2 π
1 1
,b = 1 (ii) a = 2, b ∈ R, c = 5, d ∈ R
12. (i) a = − 13.
2 2
π π 1 sin x 1
14. , 16. 17. (i) (ii) − cot x (iii) 5
2 2 2 3 x x

18