Sie sind auf Seite 1von 45

THE EFFECT OF FLASHCARD ON STUDENT’S SPEAKING ABILITY

AT GRADE VII OF UPT SMP NEGERI 2 PAINAN

PROPOSAL THESIS

Submitted as a Partial Fulfiilment of the Requirement


To Get S1 Degree of English Department

Written By :

NAMA : WITRY SANDRA JENI


NIM : 150117003

ADVISOR I ADVISOR II

TITIK HARDEWIYANI, M.Pd BOBI SAPUTRA,M.Pd

PROGRAM STUDY ENGLISH EDUCATION (S1)


THE COLLEGE OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION (STKIP)
PESISIR SELATAN
LLDIKTI WILAYAH X
2019

1
CHAPTER I

INTRODUTION

A. Background of the Problem

Speaking is one of language skills that must be mastered by students

besides listening, reading and writing. To enable students to speak, they have

know grammar,structure, and vocabulary. In the other hand, if they don’t know

the language components above, they will not be able to speak English fluently

and correctly. Speaking is one of component in English learning. Speaking itself

is the way to share our ideas, feeling, opinion, thoughts or information by which

the language is used. In sharing ideas process it cannot happen in one way only,

but it must be done in two ways, where one become senders and the others

become receivers to build an interactive communication. In this situation, the

speakers perform their idea or transfer the information to the listener, and the

listener give responds to make clear what the speaker want to transfer can be

received by the listener.As the listeners, speaking is not only listen what will the

speaker share above but they are also understand it and also can giving response

like giving comment, critical until questionnaire. They are also important

component in speaking activity because the purpose of learning speaking is

speaker not only can deliver their information but they also should make

the listeners understand by their speech. In Speaking a foreign language,

vocabulary an important aspect. Vocabulary is one element that links the four

skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing. Students also should

acquired an adequate numbers of words and should know how to use them

1
2

accurately. Vocabulary is important to learn because the students may not have

good ability to do the communication when they do not have good enough

mastery on vocabulary. Vocabulary is fundamental to the mastery of the all

skill, because they aresmallest element of the sentences.

In teaching and learning process, the teachers are hoped to be able to

make a good situation in the class. Commonly, the teacher usually used the old

method to teach the students. After give explanation, the teacher asked the

students to answer the questions. So, they give not attention and feel boring at

the same time. The students were introduced to new words provided by

the teacher and classmates which they apply in the classroom activities.

Through teaching vocabulary by using picture, the students are able find the

new vocabulary from what they are seeing from the picture. The use of picture

as the media also is a kind of indirect learning because when the students see

the picture, they do not realize that the y are also learning to get the new

vocabulary too. The use of pictures make the vocabulary material is more

meaningful, to help the students memorize the word easily and to represent the

real object or the thing. The used of picture also a fantastic educational tool

and makes learning more fun than usually.

Based on the experience of researchers in practice teaching in UPT SMP

N 2 PAINAN and from the results of interviews with teachers who teach in

Seven grade, there are several problems that occur: The first, lack of mastery of

vocabulary of Seven grade students in learning English because when at

elementary school students do not know English learning.The Second, Students


3

do not understand the vocabulary taught through the lecture method conducted by

the teacher while teaching. based on the problems above , it can be concluded

that, vocabulary is the most important part for students able to understand

English well, with mastery of many vocabulary so that students are able to have

the skills to write, read, listening and speak.

Based the other problem is that the teacher sometimes does not facilitate

the students to speak, teacher takes more time to speak rather than students. she

does not use media to attract student attention and motivation. besides, she does

not guide students to become active in the group discussion. that's why most of

the students can not speak english. beside that it can be seen in teaching

speaking, the students can not express their ideas in english. they dont know

what to say athought they have ideas in their mind, so they are not willing to

ask and answer the questions.Therefore, researchers want to know the effect of

flashcard media in increasing the speaking skill of Seven grade students in

junior high school 2 painan. because of the lack of mastery of the vocabulary of

students and students it is difficult to recall the vocabulary that has been taught

by the teacher while learning English.

There is a reason of the researcher conducting a research by using

flashcard in teaching speaking to the Seven grade students of UPT SMP

Negeri 2 Painan. It was from the interviewed with English teacher of Seven

grade of UPT SMP Negeri 2 Painan, the teacher said that the students’

problem about vocabulary and then it has never been a research that using

pictures’ technique before in this school. So the researcher used flashcard


4

as a media in teaching speaking and apply it in the class.The purpose of of this

research is to know whether teaching vocabulary using flashcard improves the

speaking achievement to the Seven grade students of UPT SMP Negeri 2

Painan in academic year 2018/2019.

As we know, children very like colorful things ,so pictures is one of the

best teaching aids to teach vocabulary, speaking, and others.Pictures are kinds

of visual instruction materials might be used more effectively to develop and

sustain motivation in producing positive attitudes towards English and to teach

or reinforce language skills. Pictures attract children and motivate them like to

learn English. The use pictures are more effective than the use words because

they are easier to remember and retell. Children can see pictures, recall and

retell or describe a human, a place, a thing or a specific situation that is shown

in picture. It is much clearer than remembering boring words.Pictures are used

popularly in teaching vocabulary. Teacher can use pictures to help student be

albe to guess and remember meaning of words easilly. The use of pictures make

the vocabulary learning more enjoyable and interesting because they can

memories the meaning of the difficult words by singing the song with the

pictures as key words and without asking another person or looking them up in

the dictionary. Pictures reduce difficulties in teaching and learning new words.

B. Identification of the Problem

There are some problems found in teaching speaking at UPT SMP N 2

PAINAN. the problems come from both students and teacher. the students

problems are lack of vocabulary, worry to make mistake, so that the students
5

can not express their ideas. they dont know what to say, althought there are

some in their mind.the problem that researchers found was the lack of ability of

some students to master vocabulary when asked to mention some vocabulary

that had been learned in learning English and their lack of knowledge of

vocabulary in their daily lives.

In learing process they are little bite unactive in giving feedback and the

students still has low vocabulary that they learned so they have difficult time to

know the meaning of text or to know the meaning of the sentence will be

answer . Because of this situation the teaching process can not as well as that

hoped by teacher before. Beside of that the technigue used by the teacher does

not facilitate the students to speak, teachers take more time to speak rather than

let students to become activies in the class. teacher does not use media in

teaching to attract students attention and motivation to take part in speaking

activity.

Baesd on the reason, the researcher want to try to give a new strategy to

help the teaching process and make them active in giving feedback in learning

proccess then they can have gat many vocabulary to speak English by using

flashcard.

C. Limitation of the problem

Related to the identification of the problem above, there are several

problems that found by students in vocabulary understanding ,in this research

the researcher only focuses on The Effect of Flashcard on student’s Speaking

ability at grade VII in UPT SMP Negeri 2 PAINAN.


6

D. Formulation of the Problem

After focusing the research problem, the researcher formulates the

problem as follow: There are some effect of flashcard on student speaking

ability?

E. Research Question

Refers to the formulation of the research above, the researcher formulates

the research questions as follow: is the effect of Flashcard on students' speaking

ability?

F. Purpose of the Research

The purpose of this research is to know is the Effect of Flashcard on

student’s Speaking ability at grade VII in UPT SMP NEGERI 2 PAINAN.

G. Significance of the Research

Theorically, this research can develop a new theory from some expert

about the Effect of Flashcard Picture on Student Speaking abilty and use this

study as a reference to the next research. Beside of that, the researcher hopes that

this study will give some contribution, beneficial knowledge and additional

information. First, for the teacher, this study give them the information about the

Effect of Flashcard on Student Speaking abilty at grade VII In UPT SMP

NEGERI 2 PAINAN so the teacher can be more improving Student Speaking

ability by find or using new strategy and some ways based on the Effect of

Flashcard on Student’s Speaking ability. For the readers, researcher hopes this

research can help them to get the information and understand about the Effect of

Flashcard on Student Speaking abilty. The last, the researcher myself, as a


7

candidate of the teacher will develope the Using of Flashcard to improve Student

Speaking abilty and Vocabulary .

H. Definition of the Key Tern

To avoid misunderstanding, it is necessary for the researcher to define

some key terms as follow:

1. Flashcard : flashcard is a picture card that displays objects and events that

exist in everyday life.

2. The Effect of Flashcard : The use Flashcard can make the vocabulary

learning more enjoyable and interesting because Student can memories the

meaning of the difficult words. The use Flashcard reduce difficulties in

teaching and learning new words.

3. Student’s Speaking ability : Students are able to express their ideas, felling,

and though in English.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

A. The nature of Speaking

Speaking is one of activity to delivering information directly for the listener

by using speech and gesture. Speaking is a tool to communicate to carry out a

conversation in the language. It can express their thought, ideas, opinion and

feelings to other people for getting response or way of conveying message in order

to make understanding of wishes and contribute the other. In the other hand,

when someone has learning to speak a new language such as English language, it

will be facility when learners are actively engaged in attempting to communicate.

Speaking is a process of communication between at least two people.

Speaking is a way to express someone‟s ideas to his or her interlocutor.

Essentially, speaking is used as a means of communication among people in a

society in order to keep the relationship going on well.

Meanwhile,Cameron (2001:40) States that speaking is the active use of

language to express meaning so that the other people can sense of them. It means

that by using language, people can express or share their idea to the other people

or listeners, so that the listeners get to know what the speaker mean or the speaker

talks about. In speaking requires that the speaker not only can know how to

deliver the information, has good pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary but also

they can make the listeners to understand what they talk about so that the listeners

can give response to the speaker.

8
9

Harbert (in Ricard and Renandya, 2002:188) says that speaking usually

involves two or more people using language for interaction and transaction

purpose. It means that in speaking involves at least one speaker as a sender and

one listener as a receiver. When a speaker speaks, he express his attitudes,feelings

and interest toward the topic being talked.

In conclusion, speaking is a natural means of communication. By speaking

people say ideas, opinion, and feeling. So learning English means speaking and

communicating with the language.

Moreover, Herbert in Richard and Renanda (2002:210), state that speaking is

one of the central elements of communication. It mean that speaking is one of

important activity in communication, because in speaking the other people has

interaction and communicate, whereas they can transferring information or

express their idea. Besides of that, the important thing in communication is how

to the speaker and listener is same understand with the topic talks about, and

speaking is a good tool for building communication to the other people because

they can get the information directly although they explain by different way in

speaking.

Then, Chaney in kayi (2006:1), Speaking is the process of building and

sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of

context. It means speaking is a tool to communication to transfer the information

between the people in around the word and it can deliver directly by using speech

of gesture as a symbol to deliver the information. To get the good communication

with the different way, the important thing in this situation is not only the speaker
10

can deliver the information but the listener should know what is the that

information so they are can understand and giving response for the information

above.

B. The teaching of Speaking

Brown (1994) states that teaching oral communication is to provide oral

communication in teaching speaking. Teacher should spend more time and

students need to learn not keep conversation going. So that, the fluency, accuracy

and interaction can be reach by the students. It means that teacher has provide a

lot of time to students to speak with their friends to make their English well.

Nunan (2003:54-56) Sugges five principles for teaching speaking:

1. Be aware of differences between second language and foreign language

in learning context

2. Give students chance to practice with both fluency and accuracy

3. Provide opportunies for students to talk by using group work or pair

work, and limited teacher talk.

4. Plan speaking task that involve negotiation for meaning

5. Design classroom activites that involve guidance and practice in both

transactional and interaction speaking.

Based on the statement above, Student need much time and chance to

practice their English with fluently and correctly. Teacher has to provide time for

them to talk with their friends in group.

In developing speaking skill, teacher’s ability in speaking is very

important beacause, he/she will give a model to the student. Noonan (2005:1)
11

states that in teaching speaking, the student need to recognize that there are three

areas of knowledge involve in speaking:

1. Mechanic (pronounciation, grammar, and vocabulary). Using the right

words in the right order with the correct pronounciation

2. Fuctions (transaction and interaction). Knowing when claraty of message

is essential (transaction/ information exchange) and when precise

understanding is not required (interaction/ relationship building).

3. Social and cultural rules and norms. (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of

pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants) Understanding how

to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances,

about what, and for what reason.

In the teaching and learning process, teacher helps the students by

providing authentic practice that prepares them for real life communication

situation. Teacher helps the students to develop their ability to produce

chromatically corect and logically connect sentences.

C. Components of Speaking

1. Pronunciation

Pronunciation refers to the ability to produce easily comprehensible

articulation. There are 3 basic of the main range of the teaching technique

which can be involved to assist pupils in learning pronunciation. The first is

exhortation. Exhortation is the instruction to imitate and mimic, to make such

a sound, without futher explanation. The second is speech training. It is the


12

construction of special games and exercises which entail the use of word or

sentence so as to practice particular sounds, sequences of sounds, stress-

patterns, rhythm, and intonation. The third is practical phonetics which

including description of the organ of speech, description of the articulation of

sounds, description of stress ,rhythm, and intonation.

2. Grammar

The study of how words and their component parts combine to

form sentences, structural relationship in language or in a language, sometimes

including pronunciation, meaning, and linguistic history. Grammar is the set

of logical and structural rules that govern the composition of sentences,

phrases, and words in any given natural language. Grammars refers it is a

kind of regularity of sounds structure that nobody could learn language

without grammar.

3. Vocabulary

Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in

communication. Vocabulary refers to the selection of words that suitable with

content (Harris 1974: 68-69). Learning vocabulary is a very important part of

learning a language. The more words our know, the more we will be able to

understand what our hear and read; and the better we will be able to say what

we want to when speaking or writing.oneline Dictionary meriam webster:

Vocabulary is a list or collection of words or of words and phrases usually

alphabetically arranged and explained or defined. Vocabulary is a sum or

stock of words employed by a language, group, individual, or work or in a


13

field of knowledge. Vocabulary is a list or collection of terms or codes

available for use (as in an indexing system). Vocabulary is a supply of

expressive techniques or devices (as of an art form) For many people, the

word vocabulary is primarily associated with the number of words that a

person knows; one either has a large or a small vocabulary. But the word

has many shades of meaning and is nicely representative of the nuanced and

multi-hued nature of so much of the English lexicon.Vocabulary may

indeed refer to the collection of words known by an individual or by a large

group of people. It may also signify the body of specialized terms in a field

of study or activity (“the vocabulary of science”). It may designate a

physical object, such as a book, in which a collection of (usually

alphabetized) words is defined or explained.

Penny (1991: 60), beliau mengatakan, "Vocabulary can be defined,

roughly, as the words we teach in the foreign language." Barnhart (2008: 697)

:(1) stock of words used by person, class of people, profession, etc. (2) a

collection or list of words, usually in alphabetical order and defined."

According to Manser (1995: 461), Vocabulary is the total number of words in

a language. While Morales (2004-2005) stated that vocabulary is a listing of

the words used in some enterprise. Furthermore, Ur in Hidayati (2007: 7)

stated that vocabularies are the words that are taught in the foreign language.

From the opinions above, we can conclude that vocabulary is a listing of all

words that are taught in the foreign language. Vocabulary refers to the words

we must understand to communicate effectively.


14

As a linguist David Wilkins (in Thornbury 2002:13) says that

vocabulary learning is very important. ‘Without grammar very little can be

conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.’ Thus, vocabularies

are the flesh of a language while grammar is the skeleton. In order to be able

to use the language productively, students must know certain amount of

vocabularies, not only for communicating orally, but also written. It is in line

with the concept of communicative approach in which learners have a big

chance to use the language directly in classroom activities. This approach is

useful in improving students’ vocabularies. Through the approach students are

forced to use the language directly in either spoken or written communication

Through the approach students are forced to use the language directly

in either spoken or written communication.The questions relate with

vocabularies acquisition are what kinds of words one needs to know and how

many words he must know. The vocabularies that should a student know first

are the high frequency words. These are words that he uses most often in

communication either in classroom activities or outside classroom. The high

frequency words are called the general service vocabulary. Next, he also

should know the academic or sub technical words which are not in general

service vocabulary but occur frequently over a range of academic texts.

4. Fluency

Fluency is the smoothness of flow with which sounds, syllables,

words, and phrases are joined together when speaking. It can be seen

that fluency as the maximal affective operation of the language system so far
15

acquired by the students. It refers to the one who express a language quickly

and easily without any difficulty.

5. Comprehension

Comprehension the study how well students understand a language,

or that helps them to improve their understanding of it, in which they read a

piece of writing or listen to someone speaking, and then answer question.

Beside that, comprehension is the ability to understand completely and be

familiar with a situation, facts, etc. It refers to the ability of

understanding the speakers‟ intension and general meaning.

D. Flashcard

Learning vocabulary can be more effective by using visual aid such a

pictures. With visual aids (in this case picture), teacher can be easier to handle the

class in masthering the material. It help student recognize what the teacher explain

without any real object media. Pictures are not just an aspect of method but

through their representation of places, objects and people they are an

essential part of the overall experiences so, teachers must help students to

cope with. Visual aids in teaching are well established.One of the kinds of picture

media used in teaching vocabulary is flash card. Flashcards are easy to use and

founds media to help teaching and learning process especially in English

vocabulary.
16

1. Defenition of Flashcard

Flashcard is a card bearing words, numbers, or pictures that is briefly

displayed (as by a teacher to a class) usually as a learning aid. A flashcard is

a set of card-based instruction bearing information, as words or numbers, on

either or both sides, used in classroom drills or in private study. One writes a

question on a card and an answer overleaf. Flashcard-based instruction can

bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject matter that can be

learned via a question-and-answer format. Flashcard-based instruction is

widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced

repetition. According to Brown (2000), one main advantage of flash card-

based instruction is that, they can be taken almost anywhere and studied

whenever one wants. Erbey, Mclaughlin, Derby and Everson (2011)

studied the effects of using flashcard-based instruction with reading

racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary

students with learning disabilities. The purpose of this study was to measure

the effects of reading racetrack and flashcard-based instruction when teaching

phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The results show that some students

had more success with it than others.

Komachali and Khodareza (2012) also conducted a study to

investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university

students' vocabulary knowledge. The results showed the students in the

experimental group outperformed the students in the control group in their

vocabulary knowledge. Hence, it was concluded that the contribution of


17

vocabulary flash card in teaching vocabulary to students led to a higher level

of vocabulary improvement. Khodashenas, Farahani and Alishahi (2014)

attempted to investigate the effect of using flash card-based instruction in

comparison to educational cartoons on vocabulary learning of the

intermediate English as a Foreign Language learners. After

administrating a vocabulary pretest all 44 participants of the study were

randomly selected to form the experimental and comparison groups of the

study. In the experimental group the participants were taught through the

using of Magic English cartoons, while the participants of the comparison

group were taught through the use of flash card-based instruction. After the

instruction a post test was administered to both groups. The result of the

study indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between

the groups. Therefore, it was concluded that the use of Magic English series

could improve the students’ vocabulary knowledge.

There are numerous opinions in defining flashcard media.

However, the writer only chooses several of the definition to be discussed.

The definitions about flashcard which is chosen by the writer may be

stated as follows:

a. Flashcards are picture cards and can be used on their own or with word

cards. They are great for introducing new vocabulary, memorizing,

revising and consolidating vocabulary and concepts, and for stimulating

discussion.
18

b. Flashcards are pictures or photographs mounted on small cards.They

are used as a visual resource in language teaching.

c. A flashcard or flash card is a set of cards bearing information , as words

or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or in private

study. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf.

Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject

matter that can be learned via a question-and-answer. format. Flashcards

are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced

repetition.

d. Flashcards are sets of cards with a word or phrase on one side and its

meaning usually in translation on the other.

e. Flashcards are cards with single pictures which can be held up by the

teacher.

f. Flashcards are the cards on which words and/or pictures are printed or

drawn. They should be big enough to be seen clearly by every student

in the class. The flashcards is easy to make either as drawing

(manually or printed) or with cut out from pictures or magazine.

From the explanation above, it can be concluded that flashcards are

set of cards which contained pictures and words (also its‟ explanation or

some information based on the picture) about something, to help someone in

mastering a vocabulary of a language.


19

2. Types of Flashcard and How to make Flashcard

Haycraft stated that There are some kinds of flashcards as follows:

a. Word Cards

Word cards is number of cards which representing all the words in a

sentence. In using this kind of cards, students can be asked to arrange some

cards which contain some words into a correct sentence.

b. Picture Cards

This kind of card is used to represent vocabulary in number of

pictures. This kind of cards is also used to illustrate the characters in a

dialogue, to help students improvise.

c. Combining Word and Picture Cards

This kind of cards combined both words and picture in a card. This

kind of cards is used to make students easier in memorizing vocabulary by

combining visual aids and words so it can help the students‟ improvement in

vocabulary mastery.Also, as cited from eal.britishcouncil.org There are

various

3. Some Benefits in Using Flashcards

Flashcards as visual aids can play many roles in the teaching and

learning process, as follows:

a. To supply concrete reference for the idea

b. To make abstract idea become concrete

c. To motivate the learners

d. To direct the attention


20

e. To repeat information in different formats

f. To remind the previous learning

g. To reduce learning effort/simplify some information which is difficult to

be understood.

4. Some Ways in Using Flashcard

As cited from britishcouncil.org, there are some ways in using

flashcards, as follows:

a. Pairs

It is to use a set of image and word cards to play pairs (also known as

Pelmanism). Teachers might ask the learners to do a simple matching

activity before you play, to consolidate understanding.

b. Sorting activities

Learners sort the cards into categories/groups and explain their

choices, their reasoning and the connections between the items. The

items could sort into groups, a table, Venn diagram, or flow diagram for

example.

c. Bingo

It is to choose a grid size e.g. 3x3, 3x4, 4x4 and fill the grid with

picture cards, word cards or a mixture. Teachers could let the learners

choose, or choose the cards for them. They put the remaining cards in a bag

or pile and you or a learner selects in turn. The winner is the first player to

complete a line/the whole grid. Teachers might ask the learners to do a

simple matching activity before playing, to consolidate understanding.


21

5. The Using of Flashcard to speaking ability

Speaking is an activity used by someone to communicate with others

(Richards, 2008: 19). It takes place everywhere and has become part of daily

activities. When someone speaks, he or she interacts and uses the language to

express his or her ideas, feeling and thought. He or she also shares

information, suggestions, and comments to others through communication.

Furthermore, Brown (2001: 113) states the objective of speaking is the

students are able to participate and use English in short conversation, collect

the information, ask and answer the questions fluently and acceptably in

daily context.

One of the methods to increase the students’ speaking ability is using

pictorial flashcards. By using pictorial flashcards, the students not only know

about the vocabulary, but also can make a description that related to

the picture in the flashcards.Students can develop their vocabulary to

make a short description spontaneously. The pictorial flashcards are really

helpful the students to arrange short stories without remembering their

outline. The students can memorize every word which they had had before.

So, they can increase their speaking ability without writing it first.

The researcher makes sure that the pictorial flashcards is an

effective and creative strategies for teaching and learning between

teachers and students. The purpose of using pictorial flashcards is to

facilitate teachers deliver material and gives understanding to the

students. It can help the students to improve students’ on speaking skill.


22

Speaking skill is an important aspect to be mastered by the students in

learning English as a foreign language. Kayi (2006: 1) states that speaking is

the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and

non-verbal symbols. Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning

and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has

been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach

speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues because,

only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the

social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance.

The students should have the ability to speak English in order that

they can communicate with the others. As an effect to build their ability to

speak, teaching the speaking skill can be focused on making the students

active to speak up when they are involving a speaking activity in the

classroom. Therefore, speaking learning in the classroom should be

dominated by students.

6. Review of Related Finding

In supporting this research, the researcher reviews some related

finding which discussed the same problem with this research. The first found

was reviewed from , Brown (2001: 113) states the objective of speaking

is the students are able to participate and use English in short conversation,

collect the information, ask and answer the questions fluently and acceptably

in daily context.One of the methods to increase the students’ speaking ability

is using pictorial flashcards. By using pictorial flashcards, the students not


23

only know about the vocabulary, but also can make a description that

related to the picture in the flashcards. Students can develop their

vocabulary to make ashort description spontaneously. The pictorial

flashcards are really helpful the students to arrange short stories without

remembering their outline. The students can memorize every word which

they had had before. So, they can increase their speaking ability without

writing it first.

The Second related finding is come from Kemmis and McTaggart

(1988) in Burns (2010: 8), “action research has four major steps. There are

planning, action, observation and reflection”. In this scheme, the researcher

was helped by the teachers to find a problem, formulated a possible solution,

implemented the action, and reflected on the outcome of the action.The

researcher tried to find and implement the actual actions in order to

improving student's speaking ability through written Play Scripts using

flashcard in the Seven grade Students of UPT SMP N 2 PAINAN .The

researcher finds the problems and weaknesses of students' learning of

speaking, identifying the collected problems, planning and carrying the

actions, and then conducted the evaluation and reflection of the

implementations of action.

According to Syakur (1987: 5), speaking is a complex skill because at

least it is concerned with components of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation,

and fluency. Haley (2004:224) gave suggestion that "opportunities in the

classroom need to be created to promote oral fluency where learners can


24

gradually manages more complex oral games". Meanwhile the

difficulties of grammar construction, vocabulary mastery, and

pronunciation of words played as the main problem for the students'.

The other reason why this the picture on the backboard did not interest

was the students' misunderstand did not clear of the objective of the

picture. But, it had improved by the researcher on the next meeting

until the last meeting. From the results of classroom action research in

teaching language skills or the ability to speak the beginning with the

use of flashcard media in particular in this study can be summarized

that learning with flashcard media can more quickly improve the

quality of speaking ability. The use of flashcard media can make learning

activities more interesting and students' are more active in learning

process.

7. The Conceptual Frame work

The researcher assumed that a great number of students have

difficulties in mastering the four lsnguage skills, exspecially in speaking. The

students do not have capability to speak because of many factors such as: lack

of vocabulary, lack of grammar mastering and lack of self confidence to

speak. The problem is not only caused by the students them selves but also

caused by the teacher. The teacher used a lot of time to speak rather than the

students. Besides that, the teacher does not use media in teaching to attract

students attention. So the students were not willing to ask and answer teacher

teacher’s questions.
25

Teaching and Learn process

Flash card

Experment class Cotrol class

Students speak
ability
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

RESEARCH METHOD

In this chapter the resecher will explain about the method that will use tp get

the data of the research. There are some parts and step in the method of the

research. Firstly resign design, secondly populatiom amd sample, thirdly research

procedure next technique data collection and the last technique data analysis.

A. Research Design

In this research the researcher will conducte this rsearch by using Quantitative

Research. Acording to gay and Airasian (2011) Quantitative research is the

collection and analysis of numerical data to describe, explain predict or control

phenomena of internet, however, a Quantitative research approach entails more

than just the use of numerical data. It means that, quantitative research are

hypoteses that predict the results of the research before the study begins.

In quantitative research the researcher will use experimental study design. It

is used in order to know the effect and how effective it of using flashcard to

student speaking abilty at seven grade UPT SMP N 2 Painan. According to Gay

and Airisian (2000) The Posttest Only Control Group Design is a research design

that doesn’t have pretest, which the researcher uses a research subject from a

population, and then randomly assignees to groups, exposes to the different

treatments.

26
27

In this research, the researcher will research the significant effect of

Elaboration technique toward students’ speaking ability. It use two equal of

sample group. The first group or experimental group, it is treat through

Elaboration technique and the second group or control group which is treated

through Presentation, Practice, and Perform (PPP). The treatment will be giving

for nine meetings, this is supported by Gay and Arasian (2000:378), and they

propose that some period of time is required for treatment. It is assume that eight

meetings were enough to see the differences that would arise between

Elaboration technique and PPP technique. They also add that in experimental

study, the researcher manipulates at least one independent variable, control other

relevantt variables and observes the effect on one or more dependent variables.

In this case, the researcher would use two variables. Elaboration

technique is independent variable and the students’ score of speaking as a

dependent variable.

Table 1

Variables of the Research

Group Independent Variable Dependent Variable

E x1 0

C x2 0
28

In this case:

E = Experimental Class

C = Control Class

x1 = Elaboration Technique

x2 = Presentation, Practice and Perform (PPP)

0 = Students’ Score of Speaking

B. Population and Sample

1. Population

People or persons that will use in quantitative research that call as

population. According to Gay and Airasian (2000:122), population is the

group that the researcher would like the result of the study to be generalized.

In this research, the populations are the students at grade sventh of SMPN 2

Painan. Based on the data of administration, the Seven grade students of

SMPN 2 Painan who registered in 2018/2019 academic year, they were

distributed into Six classes: VII.A, VII.B, VII.C, VII.D, VII.E VII F.

Table 2
The sum of student at Seven grade in SMPN 2 Painan
No Class Sum of students
1 VII.A
2 VII.B
3 VII.C
4 VIII.D
5 VIII.E
6 VII. F
Total
(Taken by Administration affair of UPT SMPN 2 Painan)
29

2. Sample

According to Gay and Airasian (2000:121), sampling is the process of

selecting number of individuals for study in such a way that they represent the

larger group from which they are selected, called by population. The

individual selected are called by sample. In this research, the researcher will

use cluster sampling technique. Gay and Airasian (2000:129) define cluster

sampling as sampling in which groups not individually are not randomly

selected.

In this research, the researcher chosen sample classes by seeing mean

score of six classes.

Table 3
Mean score of students’ speaking score
At UPT SMPN 2 Painan
Who are registered in academic year 2019/2020
No Class Mean Score The Result by looting
1 VII.A 65
2 VII.B 63,4 Experimental Class
3 VII.C 63.4 Control Class
4 VII.D 67,6
5 VII.E 63,9
6 VII.F 63.5

Then, the researcher get two classes which have the same or almost the

same of mean score as the control class and experimental class. The researcher

decide VII.B as experimental class and VII.C as control class. The researcher
30

taught speaking of descrptive text by using Elaboration technique in experimental

class and with Presentation, practice, and performance technique in control class.

Table 4
The Sample Class
Sample Class Treatment Test

G1 T X
G2 O X

Where :

G1 : The Experimental Group

G2 : Control Group

t : Experimental Treatment

O : Control Treatment

x : Posttest of the sample class

C. Research Procedure

In general there are three phases in procedures of this research. They

are preparation, application and final phase.

1. Preparation Phase

a. Researcher made the research schedule

b. Researcher prepared the material that is appropriate based on

curriculum or syllabus

c. Researcher made the lesson plan for eight meetings (Experimental

Class)
31

d. Researcher made lesson plans for eight meetings (Control Class)

2. Application phase

In application phase is the researcher’s plans to teach in experimental

class and control class

The Application Phase

Experimental Class Control Class


(Elaboration Technique) (Presentation, Practice,
and Perform)
a. Pre-Teaching Activity a. Pre-Teaching Activity

1) The teacher prepared the 1) The teacher prepared the

students in physics and mental students in physics and mental

for the study. for the study.

2) The teacher gave some 2) The teacher gave some questions

questions that related with the that related with the last

last knowledge to the material knowledge to the material which

which learn by the students. learn by the students.

3) The teacher will explain the 3) The teacher explained the

purpose of study or purpose of study or curriculum.

curriculum.

4) The teacher gave the point of 4) The teacher gave the point of

material and explanation material and explanation

according to the syllabus according to the syllabus.


32

b. Whilst-Teaching Activity b. Whilst-Teaching Activity

Exploration Exploration

1) The teacher sticks flashcard on 1) The teacher sticks flashcard on

the white board where the the white board where the

content is descrptive text (The content is descrptive text (The

text about describing peoples text about describing peoples

and places) and asking the and places) and asking the

student to give information student to give information

about content of the text. about content of the text.

2) The teacher will talk a 2) The teacher will talk a

descrptive text about people descrptive text about people

and places and asking the and places and asking the

student to identify topic and student to identify topic and

write important information in write important information in

text. text.

3) The teacher give the example 3) The teacher give the example

about language features based about language features based

on the text. on the text.

4) The teacher explain to student 4) The teacher explain to student

about descriptive text about about descriptive text about

people and places then The people and places then The
33

teacher will ask students for teacher will ask students for

reading the text. reading the text.

Elaboration Elaboration

1) After students read the 1) The teacher would presentation

descrptive text, the teacher about the material.

explain the material.

2) After that, the teacher will ask 2) The teacher give questions for the

students find out the difficult students.

word from text.

3) The teacher take the students’ 3) The students answer the question

attention. Ask the students’ about some information relate the

about difficult word and require topic.

the students to write in the

whiteboard.

4) The teacher explain about 4) The students and teacher discusse

difficult word with example or about the topic.

relate information and without

direct translation.

5) The teacher give exercise for the

students and discusse it.


34

Confirmation Confirmation

1) The teacher ask the students to 1) The teacher ask the students to

review about it and teacher review about it and teacher

gives respond. gives respond.

2) The teacher give appreciation 2) The teacher give appreciation for

for the students. the students.

c. Post-Teaching Activity c. Post-Teaching Activity

3) The teacher ask student’s 1) The teacher ask student’s

problem in learning. problem in learning.

4) The teacher give homework 2) The teacher give homework

for the students. for the students.

3) The teacher close the meeting. 3) The teacher close the meeting.

1. Final Phase

After teaching all of the material, in the final phase, the researcher

gave post-test to experimental class and control class.


35

D. Instrumentation

Instrument of this research is speaking test. According to Brown

(2004: 3), a test in a sample terms is a method of measuring a person’s

ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain. To see the effect

flashcard of the students speaking ability on their English, the researcher

used the speaking test. The purpose of the test was measure the students

speaking ability by seeing the mean scores. The researcher constructed the

test in Flashcard which are different topic and 40 items of multiple choices

for post test. The post test was done to compare the mean score between two

classes, which the class got the highest score after giving post test. In

constructing the test, there are two essentials elements which will consider.

They are validity and reliability.

1. Validity

A test is said valid when the content of the test constitutes a

representative sample of the intended aspects. Thus, the test of speaking was

being valid if the content of that test had studied by the students. Moreover,

this instrument also included the components that were scored in testing

speaking ability. Additionally, the instrument of post test was arranged

based on the curriculum, students’ textbook, handout, and other sources.

Thus, the instrument was assumed that had content validity. Content validity

is the degree which a test measures an intended content area and concerned
36

with the appropriateness of the interpretation made from the test scores (Gay

and Airasian, 2000: 163).

Besides, they add that validity is the most important characteristics of

a test or measuring instrument. In other words, validity is whether a test can

measure what to measure. Beside, the level of material was taken from the

same curriculum, textbooks, handout and other sources that related. Thus,

there was no discrimination in arranging the material both of two groups

which were given different treatment.

a. To find the validity of the test, the researcher will use Product

Moment Correlation with formula by Arikunto (2009 : 70)

∑ 𝑥𝑦
rxy =
√(∑𝑥 2)(∑𝑦 2)

Where :

x = the students total score in the test (try out)

y = the students total score in daily test

rxy = correlation between x and y

∑xy= the result of multiply x and y

x2 = quadrate of x

y2 = quadrate of y

Arikunto (2009: 75) also explains the degree of coefficient

correlation as following:

Between 0.80 until 1.00 is very high

Between 0.60 until 0.80 is high

Between 0.20 until 0.40 is low


37

Between 0.00 until 0.20 is very low

b. Item difficulty (Haladyna, 2009 : 108)


𝐵
P = 𝐽𝑆

Where:

P = Item difficulty

B = Number of Students who answer correctly

JS = Number of students who are tested

The classification of item difficulty as follow:

P = <0,24 = Too Difficult

P = 0,25 – 0,44 = Difficult

P = 0,45 – 0,75 = Moderate

P = 0,76 – 0,91 = Easy

P = >0,92 = Too Easy

Haladyna in Downing and Rachel (2009:108) classify the item

discrimination as follow:

Table 5. Classification of Item Discrimination

Item discrimination Criteria

<0,24 Discarded

0,25 – 0,44 Accepted

0,45 – 0,75 Accepted

0,76 – 0,91 Accepted

>0,92 Discarded
38

2. Reliability

Another element which should be considered in constructing

instrument is reliability. Gay and Airasian (2000:169) state that basically,

reliability is the degree to which a test constantly measures whatever it

measures. In other words, the result of the test is constant although it is done

by another person.

Furthermore, besides considering the reliability of the instrument, the

researcher also should think the reliability of the score. Reliability of the

scorer is the scoring reliability of two (more) independent scores (Gay and

Airasian, 2000:175). Then, they add that the purpose of it is to see the

consensus among the scorers. By looking at this idea, there are more than one

score needs for the test. Thus, the researcher will use the formula from

Arikunto (2009:87) to find out the reliability of the test as follow:

𝑛 (𝑛−𝑀)
R11 = (𝑛−1) (1 − 𝑀 𝑛 )
. 𝑆12

Where:

R11= the whole of reliability of the test

M= Average score of the try out test

n= Number of the students who follow the try out test

S12= Standard deviation of the try out items test


39

Table 6 Criterion of Reliability Test

Coefficient of Reliability Criterion

0,80 ≤ R11 ≤ 1,00 Very High Reliability

0,60 ≤ R11 ≤ 0,80 High Reliability

0,40 ≤ R11 ≤ 0,60 Enough Reliability

0,20 ≤ R11 ≤ 0,40 Low Reliability

0,00 ≤ R11 ≤ 0,20 Very Low Reliability

Criterion of the test that was used is between 0,40 – 1,00 (Arikunto,

2009 : 89). Those classifications above mean that, if the value of R11 is around

0,40 – 1,00, it can be concluded that the test has good reliability and the test

can be used.

Moreover, before giving post-test to the sample classes, the researcher

gave try out about 50 items in multiple choices to the VII.F classes besides the

sample classes. Try out was given to sort the items of the test numbers that are

valid to be given as post test. Next, after giving try out, the researcher found

some difficult items that need to be fixed. Then, the researcher taught reading

of narrative text and recount text by using Elaboration technique to the

experimental class and Presentation, practice, and performance technique to the

control class during eight meetings. Last, the researcher gave post-test to the

both of the classes.


40

E. Technique of Data Collection

The researcher collected the data through some steps. First, the

researcher collected the students’ reading task at the first semester. Then the

researcher found the mean score of reading task. Based on mean score of

reading, the classes which had the closest homogenous was taken as

experimental class and control class. Next, the researcher gave the treatment to

experimental class used Elaboration technique for eight meetings and control

class used Presentation, Practice and Perform (PPP) technique. During the

treatment, the researcher taught narrative genres and recount genres based on

the syllabus and lesson plan. After giving the treatment, the researcher gave the

post-test which consist of 40 items in muliple choice form to both classes. After

the post test was done, the researcher collected the data based on students’

answer. The score of test given was used as the data of this research.

F. Technique of Data Analysis

After the researcher had collected the data, the researcher found the

mean score of both classes, experimental and control class. For the post-test,

the researcher gave 40 items in multiple choice form with 75 minutes. The

highest point is one hundred and the lowest point is zero. After that, the

researcher found the mean score of both experimental and control class. The

mean score of student’s experimental class and control class was compared in

order to know whether Elaboration technique is effective or not in improving

students’ reading comprehension.


41

For getting the mean score, the researcher will use formula that is

suggested by Gay and Airasian (2000:485)formula as follow:

∑ 𝑥1 ∑ 𝑥2
𝑥̅1 = and 𝑥̅2 =
𝑛1 𝑛2

In this case:

𝑥̅1 = Mean score of experimental group

∑ 𝑥1 = Sum of scores in experimental group

𝑛1 = Number of students in experimental group

𝑥̅2 = Mean score of control group

∑ 𝑥2 = Sum of scores in control group

𝑛2 = Number of students in control group

The researcher took many criteria to give score in students’ reading

achievement. That is very important as a validity and reliability of the data

(Brown 2004:25) states that in examining validity, we also be concerned with

the appropriateness of the test score for a given purpose.

Where:

(𝑛1 −1)𝑆12 +(𝑛2 −1)𝑆22


S=√ 𝑛1 +𝑛2 −2

Where:

t = The value of t-calculated

𝑥̅1 = Mean of experimental group

𝑥̅2 = Mean of control group


42

𝑛1 = Number of experimental group

𝑆12 = Standard-deviation of experimental group

𝑆22 = Standard-deviation of both of group

G. Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing is a process of making the result of a study Gay

and Airisian, (2000:473). In this case, there are two hypotheses testing as

follow:

𝐻1 =Using Elaboration Technique give positive effect toward students’

reading comprehension.

𝐻0 =Using Elaboration technique does not give good effect toward

students’ reading comprehension.

Gay (2000:476) states that is the value t- calculate less than value of

t- table at level of significant 0,05 it can be concluded that Elaboration

Technique gave good positive effect to improve students’ reading

comprehension, on the other hand if t-calculated is bigger than t-table at the

level of significant 0,05 it can be concluded the Elaboration Technique does not

give good effect to students’ reading comprehension.

The formula of t-test is followed by Sudjana (2005:239):

𝑥̅ 1 −𝑥̅ 2
t =𝑠 1 1
√𝑛 +𝑛
1 2

The criteria of testing the hypotheses are:


t
test>ttable = H1 is accepted
t
test<ttable = H0 is rejected
43
44