Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

UPDate Magazine JANUARY-JUNE 2017 • Volume 4 • Number 1

“We can use Philippine Studies, or the study of our culture, to understand
the nature of Philippine economic instutions and the economics
behavior of Fililpinos as consumers and as businessmen.”
—Dr. Orville Jose C. Solon, Dean, UP School of Economics (2015-2018)
UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 1
Panimula Islam and Philippine Studies
Sir Anril P. Tiatco at Jem R. Javier 3 Mariamme D. Jadloc 15
A new direction for Philippine Studies The Arts and Philippine Studies
Michael L. Tan 4 Haidee C. Pineda 18
Sciences and Philippine Studies Ang Wikang Filipino at ang Philippine Studies
Benito V. Sanvictores Jr. 6 Haidee C. Pineda 22
Economics and Philippine Studies Engineering and Philippine Studies
Benito V. Sanvictores Jr. 9 Anna E. Regidor 26
Philippine Studies/Pilipinolohiya:
Business and Philippine Studies Pagtingin mula sa loob, para sa loob
Chi A. Ibay 12 Kevin Brandon E. Saure 29

On the cover: A dance segment of Pilandok, a

theatrical offering of the Sining Kambayoka of the
Mindanao State University - Marawi City taken by
Kevin Brandon E. Saure. Pilandok is a folk story
about a young man’s fascinating adventure from
being thrown into a cage, rescuing a sultan’s
daughter, to almost inheriting a kingdom.

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jem Roque Javier MANAGING EDITOR Mariamme D. Jadloc COPY EDITOR Chi A. Ibay ART DIRECTOR Denes V. Dasco
ISSUE WRITER M i ch ael L. Tan EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS Albino C. Gamba Jr., Haidee C. Pineda, Anna Kristine E. Regidor, Benito V. Sanvictores Jr., Kevin Brandon
E. Saure PHOTOGRAPHERS Leonardo A. Reyes, Jefferson Villacruz ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER Shirley S. Arandia CIRCULATION OFFICERS Narciso S. Achico Jr., Pia Ysabel C.
Cala, Raul R. Camba, Evangeline C. Valenzuela

The UPDate Magazine is UP Diliman’s platform for discussion and a biannual publication of the UP Diliman Information Office under the Office of the Chancellor, UP Diliman, Quezon
City. Its editorial office isMagazine l
located at the 2/FJanuary-June 2017
Villamor Hall, Osmeña Avenue, UP Diliman, Quezon City, with telephone numbers (+632) 981-8500 locals 3982 and 3983, email address: The opinions expressed in this news magazine do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the University of the Philippines Diliman unless otherwise
specified in the story.

a palihan para sa pagpaplano
ng programang Tri-College PhD
Philippine Studies sa Antipolo
noong Marso 2017, isa sa mga
naging paksa ay ang pangangailangang
palakasin at panatilihin ang programa ng
Araling Pilipino sa UP Diliman.

Isa sa mga maraming haka-haka ay nakatuon sa

kontekstong identidad: “tatak UP Diliman.” Kunsabagay,
ang UP Baguio ay pinapaigting ang Araling Cordillera. Sa UP
Manila, meron silang Manila Studies; sa UPLB matatagpuan
ang Southern Luzon Studies Center, sa UP Visayas ay West
Visayas Studies Center; sa UP Mindanao naman ay ang
Mindanao Studies Program. Kumbaga, ito ay isang pag-
aangkin na ang Araling Pilipino ay usaping UP Diliman.

Nasa mandato ng unibersidad ang layuning mapaunlad

ang isang makabuluhan at mapanuring edukasyon,
pananaliksik at programang pang-ekstensiyon na
sentro, paikot, palabas at pabalik sa bayan. Obligasyon
ng unibersidad ang magsanay ng mga mag-aaral,
magsagawa ng mga pananaliksik, malikhaing proyekto
at programang pang-ekstensiyon na nakaangkla sa
kaunlaran at kabihasnang mula at para sa bayan.

Ang isyung ito ay isang pagninilay-nilay sa konsepto

ng Araling Pilipino ayon sa iba’t ibang cluster ng
akademikong komunidad ng kampus. Sinimulan ito sa
kontekstuwalisasyon sa sanaysay ni Tsanselor Michael L. Tan
na nauna nang ibinahagi noon sa Lingayen, Pangasinan sa
okasyong pagpaplano ng programang doktorado sa Araling
Pilipino noong Enero 2016. Iminungkahi ng Tsanselor ang
pagpapaunlad ng Araling Pilipino na hindi lamang nakatuon
sa isang akademikong yunit. Isang pagdiin na kailangang
mulat ang mga kurso at programa ng UP Diliman mula
sa apat na cluster nito sa iba’t ibang diskurso at dalumat
hinggil sa lipunang Pilipino at usaping-Pilipinas.

Ang mga susunod na tala ay mga serye ng panayam sa mga

piling eksperto upang ibahagi ang kanilang mga kaalaman
at kuro-kuro hinggil sa pagpapaunlad ng Araling Pilipino
sa kani-kanilang mga disiplina: Dr. Percival F. Almoro (para
sa agham at teknolohiya), Dekano Orville Jose C. Solon
(para sa ekonomiks), Dr. Erik Paolo S. Capistrano (para sa
negosyo), Dekana Macrina A. Morados (para sa araling
Islam), Prop. Leo Antonio C. Abaya (para sa sining biswal),
Dr. Galileo S. Zafra (para sa aralin sa wika), Dr. Enrico C.
Paringit (para sa inhenyeriya) at Dr. Zosimo E. Lee (para
sa araling panlipunan)u

Sir Anril P. Tiatco

Jem R. Javier
Mga Patnugot
UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 3
A new direction
for Philippine Studies

he term Sinology was coined and I thought of our own Philippine
MICHAEL L. TAN* by western scholars to refer Studies, which we really should be
to studies on China and the problematizing and interrogating.
speakers in Shanghai explained Like the Chinese, we have been
*Tan is Chancellor of UP Diliman. He is now on his
how it took on negative meanings studied to death by outsiders, mainly
second term as UPD head from 2017 to 2020. He is for the Chinese, representing the the Americans but also by some
also a medical anthropologist and a veterinarian. western imperialist gaze on China, Europeans.  In more recent years,
with all kinds of distortions and we have become the focus as well of
misinterpretations that continue to Filipino-Americans studying us.  As
In December 2015, be propagated today.
Yet, Chinese scholars today have
with the Chinese, we have often been
misread, misinterpreted, and even

I was in Shanghai decided the term can be retained with

the adjective “new”.  They consider
maligned, and it is interesting a new
variant here is foreign scholars putting
it important for Chinese scholars to down local studies.  
for a Confucius reappropriate Chinese studies and yet There has also been a backlash
are very open to having non-Chinese of sorts, of Philippine-based Filipino
Institute global coming in because they feel the views scholars criticizing Filipino-American
from the outside are important.  scholars as lacking authenticity. 
conference and Moreover, the new Sinology includes
the Chinese looking out into the
Surprisingly, I have not seen
critiques of contemporary western
there was an entire world to be better able to define
themselves in an age of globalization.
“Philippine experts.”
Then too, a source of dismay
I was so totally enthralled by for me are the scholars who publish
session on the “new the discussions, which were held about us, but whose work are in
in English and Chinese, and by such obscure or expensive journals
Sinology.”  Chinese and non-Chinese scholars, that we never get to see them.
As we reexamine our vision,
mission and goals. . .and more, we
should be tackling these issues. 
I see several important areas
for discussions: First, deconstructing
“Philippine,” especially given the
growing questions of a monolithic
“Philippine” culture.  I hope we can
agree to recognize Pangasinense,
Kapampangan, Tagalog studies as
part of Philippine Studies, maybe
even to go to even more localized
studies that are town- or city-
based.  Looking outwards, given

This essay was originally delivered at the
Strategic Planning of the PhD Tri-college

4 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

Philippine Studies Program in January 2016
at Lingayen, Pangasinan.
the sheer numbers of Filipinos that because the representations
overseas, we should be looking at in their textbooks and magazines
Filipino-American, Japinoy and other (National Geographic in particular)
diasporic studies.  But even as we returned to us, shaping our thinking
do that, I hope we can examine the about ourselves.  Even today,
emergence of Philippine and Filipino there is room for looking at those
institutions and “lifeways” (I am representations, including current
trying to balance structuralism ones.  (I notice there are some
and phenomenology.) Internet discussions on how Filipinos
Let me say hyphenated groups are represented in American TV,
can be domestic.  “Taga-saan ka” has usually negatively.)
become elusive today, someone with Third, inter- and transdisciplinary
a Tagalog mother and an Ilocano perspectives. We have seen the value
father being raised in Manila for of multi-disciplinary approaches
example.  Just this week one of my but we might need to be bolder
students spoke of “morotiyanos”, and engage academic units in the
Christians who grow up in Iligan or sciences and engineering, in math, in
a Muslim area, totally acculturated law.  (You can do an imaginary tour of
to the dominant Muslim culture, Diliman to see which units we should
yet remaining Christian.  He is also engage.)  Over in UP Manila we have
looking into Bangsamoro identity, a medical anthropology program that
which is supposed to cover Muslims is doing Philippine Studies of its own.  Tan
and Christians but he asks, too, as There are so many disciplinary areas
a Balik-Islam (convert to Islam), for engagement. fieldwork (including cyber-work). 
where people like himself will Fourth, regional and global The pedagogies should bring out
place themselves. perspectives.  We cannot define more of the subaltern voices -- the
Second, deconstructing “studies” ourselves without looking outwards, lumad kampuhan last year would
to go beyond the privileging of toward the southeast Asian region have been a good opportunity -- but
text and static space, to encourage foremost, and beyond.  There is an we should challenge ourselves to
multi-sensorial, multivocal studies.  I active Philippine Studies program dissect the views of the powerful
think too of Auge’s anthropology of in Beijing University that sends and their entitlement processes
hypermodernity, where culture and students to Ateneo each year, even (how do they justify so much of
cultural experiences unfold in all kinds if Ateneo does not have a Philippine the perverse).
of spaces: corridors, airport and train Studies program.  They only recently I’ve rambled on what Philippine
waiting lounges and the Internet.  contacted me asking for linkages, Studies might be, but want to
Older themes remain important, the and were unaware of our Philippine urge some time into what we do
plaza complex studies for example, Studies program. not want to be.  Offhand, we can
but just as important will be studies In terms of our academic agree we do not want to produce
of malls (and our own UP Town programs, I urge a reexamination graduates who are diletanttes,
Center).  We need to “place” Filipinos of our requirements, which are who continue older traditions of
as they do place-making. excessively stringent but may not exoticising and othering Filipinos
I do appreciate the growing necessarily add to the rigor of and the Philippines.  I am still
number of studies that review old the program.  I will admit some shocked at occasional lapses when
studies.  We went through a similar ambivalence here, having just read our own students refer to the
phase in global anthropology, two qualifying exams of very poor Filipino urban poor, or indigenous
younger ones interrogating the quality, including one retake.  Was communities, as “these people”.
classic works but it reached the point it good that we had a qualifying “These people” spills over into
where it became almost Freudian, exam as a filter?  Or is the problem our anxieties over popular culture. 
of angst-filled new generations of with the way we conduct courses, Might we be bold enough to look
anthropologists ruthlessly slaying their the lecturers not necessarily being at Aldub and its imitations?  We do
fathers (and mothers). the examiners?  Are we asking our have rich studies in our dissertations
Our context is different, more students to cover too much ground, that accepted both “highbrow” and
of a former colony looking at how without a focus? “popular” cultures.  It is time we do
we were represented by our former We need to look at our an inventory and analysis of those
colonizers (mainly Spain and the pedagogies, encourage more of dissertations, to help us set our
US), and it is important to work on team teaching, blended learning, directions for the future u

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 5

Sciences and
Philippine Studies
An interview with Dr. Percival F.
Almoro*, UP College of Science

What is Philippine
Studies in the sciences?

Almoro: Philippine
Studies in the sciences
are studies about
people’s indigenous
knowledge towards
understanding nature
and man. In the
natural sciences, an
important example of
Philippine Studies is
the ethno-astronomy

*Dr. Percival F. Almoro is professor at the National

Institute of Physics (NIP) and is a UP scientist 1. He
is currently the NIP deputy director for facilities and
resources. Almoro is a Senior Member of the Optical
Society of America (OSA). He is also a Topical Editor
of the OSA Applied Optics journal. As topical editor,
he is responsible in assigning reviewers and in making
decisions on the reviewed manuscripts in specialised
fields including but not limited to Interferometry,
Holography, Speckle, Statistical Fringe Processing and
Nondestructive Testing.

6 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

book “Balatik” (Orion hilippine Studies in scientific
research, on the other hand,
the course instruction some concepts
based on ethno-astronomy and
constellation) by UP are studies that promote other examples found uniquely in
Diliman Prof. Dante techniques and strategies
highlighting home-grown innovations.
the Philippines, to which students
can connect to, makes teaching of
L. Ambrosio of the Scientific research permeates not astronomy and optics easier and
only the natural and social sciences more fun.
Department of History. but also the applied disciplines such Engagements of students with
The book describes as engineering, medicine and law; home-grown scientists, though
and, the creative fields like the arts short in duration, not only impart
how the annual motion and music. These include various specialized knowledge but could
of celestial bodies was methods, ideas and products that inspire students to become
work especially well with local future researchers in their
used by our forefathers physical conditions and constraints, respec tive disciplines.
as a precise time table people and culture. Philippine Studies
in scientific research helps in the Is there a need to integrate
for clearing fields dissemination of the various syntheses Philippine Studies in enriching
and planting crops, of local and foreign methodologies the discipline?
and viewpoints that advances the
despite having no discipline for the benefit of humanity. Integrating Philippine Studies in a
access to the modern given discipline, if conscientiously
Is it integrated in Physics? done, may have profound benefits.
Gregorian calendar. Here, the caveat is any discipline
“Balatik” demonstrated Whenever possible, I always try or specialized knowledge is always
to integrate Philippine Studies in universal in nature and applicability,
the Philippine ethnic teaching physics. Philippine Studies, i.e., disciplinal knowledge transcends
groups’ depth particularly “Balatik,” fits nicely as nationality. Nevertheless, Philippine
introductory lessons in Physics 10 and Studies provides a deep reservoir
of knowledge in in the Optics course. Ethno-astronomy of local knowledge and practices of
negotiating with the is a complement to the main topics our people.
in Physics 10 which cover western There are factors that enrich
environment and their astronomy (i.e., contributions from a discipline and a factor that is
various engagements the Greeks, Copernicus, Galileo and considered a necessity is the openness
Newton). The Optical Physics course, to diverse perspectives. In a western-
with neighbouring on the other hand, includes imaging dominated research environment,
regions; it merged systems and processing of optical
signals. Here, “Balatik” provides
Philippine Studies will always
be a constant source of creative
indigenous knowledge practical examples for the study and ideas and techniques that work.
with formal processing of optical signals and in
harnessing the benefits from our
Whenever applicable, integrating
sound local knowledge in solving
science education. natural environment. Integrating into scientific problems is already an
indication to the right path. Merger
of local knowledge with foreign-
developed ideas often leads to new
unpredictable research directions,
effects of which are profound not
only on the identified end-users but
towards advancing the field.

What will be the benefit of

integrating Philippine Studies into
the discipline?

Philippine Studies offers viewpoints

and strategies that worked for so
long given our local settings. A 7
Ancient Filipino Astronomy and an excerpt on the comparison of names
of the constellation in Filipino Astronomy from the book “Balatik” (Orion
constellation) by UP Diliman Prof. Dante L. Ambrosio (inset)

distinguishing feature of the scientific about their related work through In collaboration with the UPD
enterprise is how knowledge is our “lenses,” triggering a process of Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, we
advanced. Across all disciplines, a academic and collaborative exchanges attempted to document and translate
mantra in scientific research has that lead to recognition and mutual local terms related to light. The
been, “Build on what has been benefit. Tacitly, Philippine Studies initial compilation demonstrated the
reported.” Philippine Studies in the benefits the local researchers and the cultural and historical contexts of
sciences is anchored on a similar greater science community. some concepts in optics. It explained
mantra, “Build on what you know, Perhaps a big challenge for how light is used in daily life in a
utilize what you have.” Philippine Studies in the sciences certain region leading to a more
Armed with ideas and techniques would be to document these various scientific understanding of the
rarely or never heard of in other disciplinal local knowledge. Once generation, detection and control of
countries, local researchers are documented, published and made light. An outlook for the study was
motivated to contribute to the accessible through the internet, such to expand the translation to include
discipline through publications and to systematic local knowledge may more technical terms in optics and
share their work to the wider science provide an illuminating approach for them to take root in indigenous
community. Foreign colleagues, in to solving otherwise intractable knowledge fit with our rich culture
turn, would be enthusiastic to learn problems in the discipline. and history u

8 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

SunStar Davao

ECONOMICS An interview
with Dr.
AND Orville Jose C.
UP School of

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 9

In your view, what is

Philippine Studies?

Solon: From the vantage

point of a foreigner or
outsider, like a researcher
from Kyoto University or
the National University
of Singapore, Philippine
Studies may be simply
defined as those that
concern specific interests
on the Philippines like
culture, economy or
government. Perhaps,
their objective is to get
a better understanding
of the Philippines to
advance their own
interest in business
and politics. It may be
in this context that
foreign universities
receive visitors from *Prof. Orville Jose C. Solon, PhD is the eighth dean
the Philippines as concerning problems, of the UP School of Economics (UPSE). He currently
teaches Health Economics, Public Economics,
Economics of Regulation, Econometrics and
experts or resource drivers and developments Mathematical Economics. Prior to his appointment
as dean, he led the Health Policy Development
persons from different in Philippine society, Program (HPDP) in 2012, a multi-year effort
based at the UPSE that supports the formulation
fields like economics, including economic of Philippine health policies. His collaboration
with both Filipino and foreign scholars yielded

sociology or political growth, employment a significant number of publications in journals

that include Health Economics, Economics Letters,
Social Science and Medicine, Journal of Pediatrics
science to gather insights and poverty. and Medical Care.

10 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

owever, the question is a history can be classified as Philippine no amount of Philippine Studies
bit difficult to figure out Studies. Here, we have to distinguish integrated within economics courses
if taken from the vantage between an analysis of how the would be able to rescue our students
point of a Filipino professor Philippine economy responded to from incompetence.
or researcher practicing in the internal and external shocks versus an If our goal is to push forward
Philippines. When the economics of analysis of how such responses were the national interest, I am not certain
conditional cash transfers is discussed influenced by uniquely Philippine if Philippine Studies is the right
in class using Pantawid Pamilyang institutions and behaviors. vehicle. A better understanding of
Pilipino Program (4Ps) as an example, policy levers and its intended and
is that Philippine Studies? Would Is there a need to integrate Philippine unintended effects is how someone
research on the effects of 4Ps on Studies in enriching the discipline? If with solid economics training can
job seeking behaviour among poor yes, how? If no, why not? contribute to national interest. For
families be considered Philippine example, economic methods in
Studies? The danger is that, with a I am not sure why Philippine impact evaluation might lead us to a
broad enough definition, we might Studies needs to be integrated with better understanding of the effect of
end up classifying everything about us economics. Having a solid foundation 4Ps on poverty reduction.
as Philippine Studies. on first principles and clear
However, one might identify understanding of the methods of What will be the benefit of
studies regarding economic concepts, generating empirical evidence should integrating Philippine Studies into
institutions and behaviors as being be sufficient for our graduates to be the discipline?
truly part of Philippine studies. able to debate the nature of Philippine
Researchers leading to the 1995 economic problems and effectively Maybe the question should be
National Health Insurance Law participate in the formulation of how can economics benefit from
pointed out that many families did better economic policies. The sociology Philippine Studies?
not have a concept of insurance or of Philippine economic concepts, We can use Philippine Studies,
did not want to talk about insurance institutions and behaviors may be or the study of our culture, to
believing that doing so was a way of better left to the experts. understand the nature of Philippine
courting misfortune or illness. Families I do not know that Philippine economic instutions and the
also had different responses when Studies integrated with economics economics behavior of Fililpinos as
asked about their monthly incomes; will make our students better Filipinos consumers and as businessmen. We
responses varied depending if income or more nationalistic. If we fail to need to understand, for example,
was being understood as “sweldo,” teach how to compose a testable why Filipinos have no one word
“kita,” sahod,” “delihensiya” and hypothesis, how to properly collect for income; instead, we have
others. But these research interests on data and effectively conduct analysis, “sahod” (wage), “tubo” (profit) or
economics concepts of Filipinos are “suweldo” (salary). We can learn
EA Sasis

best handled by sociology, that the concept of “kita” for an

not economics. employee is different from that of
a farmer or scavenger. That most
Is it integrated in your discipline? If Filipinos have no ready conception of
yes, how and if not, why not? “opportunity cost” might be useful
in understanding economic decision
If we employ the loose definition of making. We can use these studies
Philippine Studies where all things to better understand how proposed
pertaining to Philippines and Filipinos economic policies might affect
are considered under it, one might say economic well-being.
that it is integrated in our discipline. In Students of economics can
our daily classes, we use examples and benefit from Philippine Studies.
case studies based on the Philippine But the nature of Philippine Studies
economy and economic institutions. requires a different skill set than what
But if we limit Philippine Studies we have in economics. I do not even
to concepts, behavior and institutions think that economics can be one
unique to the Philippines, we might of the core disciplines underlying
observe very little integration. It Philippine Studies. Perhaps,
would be challenging to determine sociologists or anthropologists
how much of our courses and are in a better position to do
references on Philippine economic Philippine Studies u

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 11

Business An interview
with Dr. Erik

Paolo S.
UP Cesar E. A.

Philippine Virata School

of Business

Studies CHI A. IBAY

Do you have

a course on
Philippine Studies
at the College?

Capistrano: We
do not have a
specific course on
Philippine Studies
(PS) but in courses
like finance or
marketing, we
always put some
Filipino flavor the
way we teach
our courses.

12 Capistrano
Is putting a Filipino perspective a
directive from the college?


ot really. For example,
courses in finance, when
it comes to applications,
will be more on the
Philippine stock market. Or, when
students are made to calculate
financial ratios or stock market
performances, examples are usually
based on our local markets. In courses
on cross-cultural management or
marketing or strategy, there is always
a comparison: this is what Filipinos
do and this is what internationals do.
Then, we extend it to what Filipinos
abroad do and what foreigners in
the Philippines are doing. So we try
to inject a mix of different flavors “Spirit of Business” by Napoleon V. Abueva.
and cultures, but still of course the
baseline or foundation is always the culture, sociology, politics and in their third year and most will be
Philippine context. anthropology, I bring in the business done with their General Education
and economics angles. (GE) courses. It is the same with
Does VSB have its own definition of my IT course, where I teach the
Philippine Studies? Your specialization is? managerial aspects, for example,
how does IT boost our Business
Right now, we do not have a formal My specialization is in operations Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry?
definition that is accepted by the and information technology (IT). It Or, what is the general attitude of
college. I have observed that when is studying the pertinent business Filipinos toward any technology-based
you talk about PS in UP, it is more practices unique to the Philippines issues? Or, how can we exploit the
about anthropology, or sociology or that can be aligned with whatever we fact that the Philippines is the social
mostly College of Social Sciences and teach them in terms of management media capital of the world? How
Philosophy (CSSP) disciplines. As far as theory. Before, my course was about do we harness all these different
our understanding of PS is concerned, production operations, basically behaviors of Filipinos? The thing is,
nobody is looking to us or the School manufacturing. But because the Filipinos always find new uses for
of Economics to inject the business Philippines is more service than existing things that nobody even
and economics angles to it. manufacturing-oriented, we shifted thought about. I told my students
I am also involved with the content and changed the course’s to look at last year’s presidential
CSSP’s Department of Linguistics name to Operations Management to campaign, where we were actually
because of Korean Studies. While encompass the service sector. What more active in social media compared
studies on Korea are more on the I do is ask my students to examine to the United States. Between Clinton
Philippine companies and see how vs Trump and Duterte vs Binay
they apply certain practices that we and everyone else, we were more
teach them in class. I tell them to dynamic. So I said, how do we harness
*Prof. Erik Paolo S. Capistrano is assistant professor at
think about the Filipino’s ingenuity, the Filipinos being so active in social
the Cesar E. A. Virata School of Business (VSB) where their being “madiskarte” or their media for business use?
he teaches Operations Management, Information way of doing things, to improve the
Technology, Management Science, Systems Analysis
and Design and Management Information Technology. quality of service at the staff level. Are you the only faculty teaching
He is also author to different publications, including these courses?
“Factors affecting online tax filing-An application of the Do they need a certain
IS Success Model and trust theory” in Computers in
Human Behavior Vol. 43, 251-262, 2015 (co-authored background like sociology to be Our college secretary, Prof. Manuel
with J.V. Chen, R.J.M. Jubilado and D.C. Yen) and “The able to put that across? is also injecting a lot of Filipino
Causes to Relative Advantage in Internet Auctions” in
International Journal of Business and Systems Research,
context into the same courses. In
Vol. 7 No. 4, 2013 (co-authored with B.C. Su, J.V. Chen I would image they already have the finance, the theory is always basic, it
and J.V. Chandler). background because I teach students is always universal. When it comes to

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 13

application, it is more on Philippine students end up working abroad. an international view? We do not
companies, the stock market or We have an increase in the number want our students to be isolated
political situation. In marketing of students who are on international in the Philippine context, but we
classes, it is how to come up with exchange programs or when they don’t want them to also lose their
marketing materials that cater to graduate, they end up working Philippine roots.
Filipino audiences, which are more on abroad. Let us face it: VSB is the
the “hugot,” or “touching the heart,” multinational capitalist center at UP. Do you think the GE subjects in PS
rather than the intellect. Up to now, If you look at our students, we have are enough?
why is song-and-dance advertising a bigger number of Filipino-Chinese
more effective? It is always in the whose parents have business interests That’s what we are expecting: that
Philippine context that we ask them in Hong Kong, Taiwan or Shanghai is what the GE program is about.
to apply their learnings. so we cannot force them to think My expectation is that once they
Again, since we do not have a exclusively for Filipinos. come to my class, because they have
universal context of what PS is in the already taken GE, they are supposed
college, we are on our own. Is PS a new thing? to have some basic knowledge and
Because of the nature of the appreciation on how the Filipino
subject, it is the current situations Even here, when we say PS, we culture can work into management so
that are integrated in the teaching ask: is that a new thing? As far that I do not start from scratch.
of the course, and not the historical as the Philippine context was Do you think insights into the
perspectives, which are provided by concerned, all I had was SocSci 1 Filipino way of thinking will make for
the GE courses. The synthesis is the and 2 and Kas 1, which was more more nationalistic graduate?
current situation. on ancient Philippine history and I would not say nationalistic, at least
Humanities. But the professors did not right away. At the very least, it
For the record, is PS integrated into not explicitly call it PS. It was more will make for a more sensitive person
the discipline? like Humanities in the Philippine when it comes to Filipino needs.
context, or Social Sciences in the Being nationalistic does not mean a
It is, but I would say it is informally Philippine context. I am actually good bottom line. At the very least, it
integrated. There is no mandate curious about the PS offered by the makes one more sensitive about our
from our administration to have a tri-college. From what I understand, own people without sacrificing the
Philippine angle into it. It is more like it is a relatively new program. bottom line. In other words, in means
an unwritten, implied, informal thing. That is our dilemma. With finding better means to make doing
In my case, I got my PhD in Taiwan so all this talk about globalization, business in the Philippines easier,
I reoriented myself that it is not going especially in business, and with the finding ways to make producing
to be exclusively in the Philippine ASEAN integration, how do we things easier, without resorting to the
context but Philippines vs East Asia, balance a Philippine view vis-a vis Chinese model u
Philippines vs Southeast Asia but the
baseline will always be the Philippines. Makati business district skyline

Can you say many of the VSB faculty

think that way?

Right now, we are changing. While

most of them will have as the priority
the American model, the application
is in the Philippine context. All of our
textbooks are by western authors
anyway, and even the Asian authors
would borrow from western models
but the application would always be
in the Philippine context.

Is there a need to formalize PS

in VSB?

I would like to think that we do not

need to, especially since a lot of our

14 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

Islam and
What is your
interpretation of
Philippine Studies?

Morados: As a student

Philippine of Philippine Studies,

I subscribe to the
general view that it is
a discipline that looks

at issues affecting the
Philippines using a
Philippine or Filipino
perspective or point
of view.

An interview with Prof. Macrina A. hen as an academic discipline,
it must adopt an-all-
encompassing approach in
Morados,* Dean, UP Institute investigating the nuances
of Filipino society and culture. No
of Islamic Studies matter how general, it must be able
to include other ethno-linguistic
groups in the country. With this
inclusiveness, there would be broader


*Prof. Macrina A. Morados is dean of the UP Institute

of Islamic Studies and a Shari’ah counselor. She teaches
Adat and Muslim Personal Law on Family Relations,
Introduction to Islamic Law and Jurisprudence, History
of Muslims in the Philippines and History of Islamic
Civilization. Her research areas are Islamic Law and
Jurisprudence, Women and Children’s Rights in Islam,
Muslim Divorce Law in the Philippines, Muslim Personal
Laws in the Philippines, Islamic Values Formation
and Islam and Peace Building. She is a member of
various organizations, including the Shari’ah Bar of the
Philippines of the Supreme Court of the Philippines and
the Research Association of Islamic Social Sciences of UP.

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 15

students and experts in this field
must be able to appreciate different
disciplinal perspectives.

Is it integrated in your discipline?

Here in the Institute of Islamic Studies

(IIS), we have a course on Muslim
Culture and Society in the Philippines.
When we talk about Muslim culture
and society, we have to inculcate
in our students the appreciation
that Muslims in the Philippines are
Filipinos and that we belong to
the larger society, the mainstream
society. However, we remain distinct
when it comes to our Moro identity.
To my mind, this is close to the Dr.
Cesar Majul’s framework in his book
“Muslims in the Philippines.” Then we
have Dr. Samuel Tan who highlighted
the Saleeby-Majul historical framework
in understanding the Muslims in the
Philippines and debunking the Spanish-
American historical framework. While
the Spanish-American framework
stressed the need of the Moros to be
civilized, Saleeby and Majul debunked
said notions.
Moreover, the approach in
teaching Philippine Studies should go
beyond the periodization of historical
events and must also go beyond the
conventional approach of looking at
the beginning of our history from the
discovery of the Philippines in 1521.
I don’t have problems in teaching
Philippine studies based on our colonial
experiences, maybe as one period
aspects or areas to consider in narratives to complete the mosaic of of time in our history. Like asking
problematizing the distinct identities the mainstream culture—the kind of the questions what happened to the
of the Filipinos. One possible way to culture that we want to call Filipino Philippines during the coming of the
do it is to adopt a holistic approach in culture. For instance, the eating of Spaniards? During the American and
highlighting the realities of Philippine Balut is truly Filipino, the same as the Japanese period? Our past history
culture i.e. which is made up of eating “tyula itum” for the Tausugs or in relation to our contemporary time
traditions, practices and beliefs that Muslim Filipinos. In other words, I can is another good subject. But another
are so diverse. say Moro culture is part and parcel of question need to be asked is what
Using the above premise, we the mainstream Filipino culture. happened before 1521.
cannot therefore discount the reality Therefore, Philippine Studies The period before 1521 referred
that before Philippines came into without highlighting the contributions to the Islamic era or it can go
being, we already have Muslims and of Islam and the indigenous practices beyond to the pre-Islamic era. This
indigenous people in and outside and knowledge system is not is very important in reconstructing
Mindanao. There may be mainstream complete. It affirmed the need to our place and identity as part
culture but we have to recognize the study Philippine Studies using the of the NUSANTARA** region.
marginal culture in the periphery. We multi and interdisciplinary approaches Understanding Islam in our history
should give justice to the marginal and methodologies. It is because is the gateway in understanding

16 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

our place in this Nusantara region. majority of the people of Luzon that as a vehicle to promote cultural
The inclusion of the history of Islam, converted into Christianity, and here understanding to promote tolerance
the history of the Moros and the is a group of people down south who and to bridge the gap. If we teach in
Lumads is very important. Because refused to become Christians. a context that promotes tolerance,
while the conventional teachings of Philippine Studies can do a more understanding, at the end of the day
Philippine Studies connect us with the challenging work by redefining or we will be embracing each other.
western world, and understand what offering a different perspective and So we will be talking of a Philippine
happened when the western came, that includes correcting historical nation component of the Christians,
the study of Islamic history would injustices committed to the the Muslims, the indigenous.
connect us to the Malay world. minority. Historical injustices like Walang Philippine Studies kung
Along this line, we have to give the marginalization of the regional walang Islamic at Moro components
importance to regional history and people, the minority in our academic sa narrative na iyon. Ito ang role
local history. Philippine Studies can literature. In fact, kulang ang ng Philippine studies. To project
be likened to a jigsaw puzzle where pagkaintindi that’s why we have this a new perspective embracing the
very small components are needed to alienation which Philippine Studies contribution enriching the making of
complete the whole picture. In other should be able to provide a bridge. the Philippine Studies.
words, Philippine Studies is the bigger A Moro is a Filipino and part of the
picture and the small components are Philippine nation, of Filipino identity. What will be the benefit of
the stories of the Lumads, Moros and But we lack bridging mechanisms integrating Philippine Studies into
other indigenous people in the country. because we continue the western the discipline?
Our Philippine history is not only perspective. Susugan natin yung local
the history of the people of Luzon perspective, indigenous perspective. We have to recognize the role of the
and the Katagalugans. Dito rin ang Philippine Studies ay academic institution in promoting
We do not want a Philippine makakatulong sa pagdiskubre ng the kind of Philippine Studies I am
Studies that is only celebrating the indigenous knowledge dahil kung talking about because to change the
culture of the majority but less are sa mainstream ang pinag-aaralan ay perception of the people against
said about the periphery. But these western perspective sa Philippine the Muslims regarding the Philippine
narratives in sidelight are important in studies we have to dig deeper. Studies, we have to change the mind
understanding our identity as a people. and the only way to change the mind
Philippine Studies should be Is there a need to integrate is through literature. If we have
able to appreciate other indigenous Philippine studies in enriching to change the culture, we have to
sources or Islamic sources on how we the discipline? change the narratives in the books.
define our identity. In constructing More role for IIS u
the Moro identity, it is important to Yes, we’ve been doing this. When
factor in religion (rituals), experiences we teach Muslim culture and society, **
NUSANTARA is a contemporary Indonesian
(pre to post-colonial experiences), we connect to the mainstream term meaning archipelago. It has been
ethnicity (being Maranaw or Tausug, Philippine society because we use adopted to mean the “Malay world.”
etc), maratabbat (pride).
There is something that the
Philippine Studies can do and that
is to teach history as a vehicle to
promote nation-building, love of
country. The moment the Spaniards
came to the country and Moros
fought against colonization — that
should be taught and marked as the
first expression of Filipino sense of
nationalism and patriotism. The Moro
early sense of nationalism was very
evident in the concept of “Ummah”
and “kawman” or community.
In the mainstream history
books, we are looked at like savages
because of the divide and rule tactic
of the colonizers. They had to make
the Moro images bad because the

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 17

he Arts An interview with
Prof. Leo Antonio

and Philippine UP College

C. Abaya,*

of Fine Arts


What is Philippine hilippine Studies would also
mean a kind of learning
Studies? in the areas of history,
sociology, psychology,
or the humanities in the Philippine
Abaya: My understanding matter is not about the context: our people, our culture,
of Philippine Studies Philippines, as long as our history, our customs, our way
of life, anything Filipino. It does not
is that it is a certain one actually discusses have to be, for instance, situated in
orientation. It is also a the Philippines, for it to qualify as
in a Filipino language, Philippine Studies. Para sa akin, the
framework for the design then it can be Philippine novels, the works and the academic,
artistic, literary outputs of Filipinos
and implementation Studies. The medium of working outside the Philippines,
of courses that put to communication in itself is a mapa-OFW ka, mapa-expat ka in
another country, or emigrant ka, I
focus Philippine matters, way for students to learn, think that still qualifies as Philippine
for example the use of apply or appreciate better Studies, not limited to place. Kasi in
the present time, iyung concepts and
Philippine languages as ‘yung katutubo nating notions natin ng space or place ay
medium of instruction. mga lengguwahe. expanded na. Porous na ang borders
natin even if some of our leaders or
Even if the subject world leaders insist on building walls.

18 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

Is it integrated into your discipline? How do you deal with that also to study or to learn more about
especially with foreign students? the Philippines so it’s not actually
If you mean being an artist o sa visual What is your approach? very difficult. You don’t need to exert
art, yes, integrated siya in two ways. effort or force it.
One, we have courses, for example, When they do their research, I ask
na Philippine art talaga ang content them to do projects wherein they Is there a need to integrate
ng course so, nandoon ‘yun. But at are able to integrate or immerse Philippine studies in enriching the
the same time, I also teach courses themselves in Filipino communities or discipline?
where I demand that papers, research in our Filipino culture, whether they
citations would include at most man are going to a museum or they’re Maybe, yes, I think there is. There
lang—kalahati—Philippine titles or going to watch activities that involve are many ways of going about
examples. Sometimes the idea would other Filipinos or Filipino institutions. it. Pwedeng i-articulate ‘yan, for
be to study certain foreign artists You have to understand that in all example, sa syllabi or course design
who have made very important probability, the reason why they’re by requiring not one or two or
contributions to the discipline of the here in the first place is because more Philippine titles as a kind of
visual arts and then, as a way to see they’re predisposed to it. I think there a reference, kasi the downside, for
how that actually works in a cultural is a conditioning that they are here example, when you’re teaching art
context, we try to study, compare

and contrast with Filipino artists
who are practicing here or abroad,
basta Filipino.
For some courses, I don’t even
think there is a need to force the
idea or concept of Philippine Studies
because it’s already ingrained in the
nature of the course. For example,
I teach graduate (students), and
sa undergrad senior year. I mentor
students towards the creation of their
respective theses. I emphasize to them
that they use their own experience
as a primary resource for their works.
Iyon ang instances na I don’t need
to force the issue. I do have or there
were actually instances where I had
to be a bit more conscious because
we did have foreign students and
it’s when one needed to articulate
certain things.

Prof. Leo Antonio C. Abaya is a faculty at the UP

College of Fine Arts (CFA) Department of Studio
Arts. He is an expert in using various media including
painting, collage, paper, sculpture and installation. In
2013, his first full-length film “Instant Mommy” was
shown at the prestigious film festivals that include the
9th Cinemalaya Philippine Independent Film Festival
as finalist, 33rd Hawaii International Film Festival
(Spotlight on the Philippines) and 50th Taipei Golden
Horse Film Festival (Asian Window). Abaya

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 19

tapos practice-based naman iyung ang exploration of traditional Filipino are. It’s hard to be too certain of
teaching mo (hindi ‘yung history or art to see how one can use it in a what is Filipino and what is not
theory), it becomes artificial when contemporary sense. Not only doon Filipino. I think it should be a process
you try to force people that it has sa teaching, but even doon sa faculty of inquiry, a process of questioning,
to be Filipino; that there has to development namin. of exploration because these things
be Philippine ethnic motifs in the cannot be forced.
works, for instance. I think that’s What are benefits of integrating I think tama ‘yung nag
a superficial way of integrating. It Philippine Studies into the discipline? e-explore, nagtatanong, nagpo-
should not stop at iconographies, Ano po ‘yung positive benefits, or problematize tayo. In the process,
rather, mas importante kung negative kung meron man? that makes us very much aware—our
ano iyung naisasaloob, nai- place and who we are in connection
internalize. We need to give them I don’t feel there’s anything wrong to our neighbors, for instance, our
opportunities to be sensitive to with the idea of integrating it into Malaysian heritage, our being part
what is going on around them, the courses. I think if something of South East Asia, our cultural and
to be empathetic sa kapwa nila could be wrong, it is the way it historical connections with them.
rather than the tokens of what it is integrated. When it becomes By being with our neighbors, the
is to be Filipino. superficial, that’s where things chances of understanding who we
Doon sa Department of become parochial; things become are are also high if not higher, if we
Studio Arts, doon sa research and narrow. I think even the idea of operate by difference.
development agenda namin, kasama questioning or problematizing the
notion of nationalism is actually How were you able to integrate
Ang Kahanginan (below) is created by Abaya based on very Philippine Studies kasi it’s part your Filipino identity while studying
the concept of flying as a way of narrating the Bagobo of our questioning who we are. It abroad? How about in your discipline?
mythology on Lumabat’s journey to heaven, the work’s
visual framework are movement and rhythm, similar to ought to be part of it rather than
that of the wind in the universe. just showcasing what we think we When I was pursuing graduate

20 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

Lual is a clay sculpture incorporating a kiln in the shape of a birthing

Rita Gudiño
woman created by UPCFA professor and ceramicist Rita Gudiño drawing
inspiration from her experience in giving birth and its equivalence to
the clay firing process.

school in the U.K., iyung feeling ko not to rely too much on what’s just Fine Arts. But having said that, hindi
of being an ‘other’ was very strong. prescribed. I studied undergrad at rin naman parochial; malawak din
It was heightened. So much so that I the time of the internet’s infancy. naman ang pananaw ng College
became interested in what England There were not as many resources pagdating sa ganyan.
had of the Philippines. Of course, then as there are now. I guess iyung Ang advantage ng pag-
they had plenty, in terms of resources hinahanap nating openness, dapat incorporate ng Philippine Studies sa
and materials that I can read on and mas meron niyan ngayon kesa noon. pag-aaral is when something is done
study. Hindi forced e. It just came Though puwede nating masabi na over and over and over again, it
naturally. Being different, being an because of this, we start to lose becomes second nature.
‘other,’ made me more aware that the idea of being local. Because of Also, there’s so much to
I’m a Filipino and then, it was in this this kind of globalized orientation, learn. It’s not like by saying we are
kind of being alone that I started to we tend to internationalize incorporating Philippine Studies into
look for Filipino things. I was the only ourselves too much. I think rather the curriculum or into the teaching
Filipino in my college (although I met than focus on idea of nationalism, of visual art, we already know the
some Filipinos socially there). When I iyung appreciation of what is entirety of Philippine Studies. No.
was studying, iyon ang hinahanap ko local is a more concrete way of Because with that kind of awareness,
sa libraries, galleries, museums nila, embracing the idea of being a rich na ground siya to discover certain
pati na rin sa everyday life. Filipino. Iyan ang ine-encourage ko things we don’t know or we don’t
Malaking lessons sa akin iyon. sa mga estudyante ko. know yet.
Iyung idea that actually napaka- The essence of Philippine
rich ng ating heritage, ng ating What are the other benefits of Studies is not just studying the
kultura, that even in a distant integrating Philippine Studies to Philippines na parang disembodied
country like England, there’s so your discipline? ka. When you study, for example,
much material on the Philippines if Philippine languages, hindi ka
you just bother looking. I think sometimes forcing ourselves disembodied, you’re living it, you’re
If there is anything that I realized to confront certain things is good. speaking it.
having studied abroad is that a lot Why? Sometimes you need to face It’s a kind of Philippine Studies
of the literature I read here, dito sa or answer certain questions that na binubuhay, isinasabuhay. If we
undergrad especially on art, napaka- are difficult. Another benefit pag integrate Philippine Studies into our
Americanized. It was in England i-integrate mo ang Philippine Studies courses, bibigyan natin ng chance
where I got to know names of very sa pagtuturo, especially sa visual arts, iyung estudyante na isabuhay
exciting, very interesting artists who I think it reinforces our identity as a kung ano ang pagiging Filipino sa
were of other nationalities. It kind college, as a premier institution of kaniyang pag-aaral rather than just
of put me in a certain perspective. I teaching art in the Philippines. I think putting Philippine motifs in their
think the attitude is to be more open, kasama iyun sa brand ng College of works, for instance u

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 21

Ang Wikang Filipino
at ang
Philippine Studies
Panayam kay Dr. Galileo S. Zafra,*
UP Kolehiyo ng Arte at Literatura

ng Philippine ring paninindigang intelektuwal.
Studies ay itinuturo Sa konteksto ng kolonyal na
bilang ganap kasaysayan ng edukasyon sa Pilipinas,
Ano ang na programang
akademiko. Sa kasalukuyan, may
kinakatawan ng Philippine Studies
ang pagbalikwas sa makakanluraning
Philippine programang Philippine Studies sa
tatlong kolehiyo: Kolehiyo ng Arte at
oryentasyon ng pagtuturo at
pagkatuto sa akademya, sa isang
Studies? Literatura (BA, MA, PhD), Kolehiyo ng
Agham Panlipunan at Pilosopiya (MA,
banda, at ang pagsisikhay na gawing
makabuluhan ang edukasyon sa
PhD), at Asian Center (PhD). May lipunang Filipino, sa kabilang banda.
ganap na akademikong programang Sa karanasan ng UP, ang pagbalikwas
Zafra: Ang Philippine Studies din sa ibang bansa
tulad sa Japan, US, Russia, China,
na ito ay umigting bandang dekada
1960-1970—panahon ng makabayang
Philippine France at Korea.
Ang Philippine Studies ay isa ring
pagkilos at pakikisangkot. Dahil
ramdam noon ang epekto ng
Studies ay isang dominyo ng pananaliksik. Pinag-
aaralan ang iba’t ibang aspekto
lumalalang krisis panlipunan,
naudyukan ang mga nasa akademya
akademikong ng lipunan, kultura at kasaysayang na higit na umugnay sa sambayanan
Filipino upang magtampok ng mga at ihanap ng koneksiyon ang kanilang
larang, dominyo bagong kaalaman, dalumat at gawaing akademiko sa paglutas
pananaw tungkol sa Pilipinas at sa ng mga suliraning panlipunan at
ng pananaliksik mga Filipino. Sa ganitong pagturing, pagpapabuti ng buhay ng higit
ang iba’t ibang kolehiyo (lampas sa na nakararaming Filipino. Ilan sa
at isang tatlong nabanggit na kolehiyo) o mga kongkretong manipestasyon
disiplina ay maaaring mag-ambag ng pag-ugnay na ito ang pagtuon
paninindigang sa pagpapayaman ng mga bagong sa paksang Filipino, ang paggamit
tuklas sa larang ng Philippine Studies. ng wikang Filipino sa pagtuturo at
intelektuwal. Ang Philippine Studies ay isa pananaliksik, ang pag-angkop ng

22 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

mga balangkas ng pag-iisip mula

sa labas upang maging mas lapat
sa pagsusuri ng paksang Filipino,
ang pagtuklas ng mga metodo
at teoryang magpapatingkad sa
katangian at kabuluhan ng sariling
kultura, at pagbuo ng mga dalumat
na halaw o nakabatay sa kultura at
karanasang Filipino. Nag-ibayo pa
ang pagsusulong ng maka-Filipinong
edukasyon noong dekada 1980 nang
itatag ang Pilipinolohiya (1989),
isang konstrak at kalipunan ng mga
kaisipan na kumakatawan sa ganap
na paghiwalay ng “Philippine Studies”
mula sa kanluraning konstrak nito
bilang area studies lamang.
Ang Philippine Studies bilang
paninindigang intelektuwal ay
isang masigasig na pagkilos,
pagpoposisyon, pagtataya upang ang
pagtuturo, pag-aaral, pananaliksik
at iba pang gawaing akademiko ay
mailagay sa konteksto o maipook
sa lipunan at kalinangang Filipino
at gawing higit na makabuluhan sa
buhay ng sambayanang Filipino.

Nakapaloob ba ito sa iyong

disiplina? Kung oo, paano? Kung
hindi, bakit?

Ang Philippine Studies ay hindi

lamang nakapaloob sa disiplina
kundi isa na nga sa mga programang
akademikong nililinang ng
Departamento ng Filipino at Panitikan
ng Pilipinas (DFPP) sa simula’t simula.
Sa katunayan, nang itatag ang DFPP Zafra
noong 1966, inatasan itong magturo
ng Philippine Institutions 100 (PI100) Sa unang semestre ng akademikong dito ang batsilyer na programang
at mga kursong Philippine Studies. taon 1966-1967, nagbukas ang interdisiplinaryo ang dulog at
Departamento ng 14 seksiyon nakatuon sa mga paksain at realidad
ng PI100, Philippine Studies 101 sa Pilipinas.
(Philippine Traditions in the Drama) at Ang iba pang disiplina ng DFFP—
Philippine Studies 112 (The Nationalist ang wika at panitikan ng Pilipinas at
*Si Dr. Galileo S. Zafra ay isang propesor sa
Departamento ng Filipino at Panitikan ng Pilipinas and Independence Movements). malikhaing pagsulat sa Filipino—ay
ng Kolehiyo ng Arte at Literatura sa Unibersidad Noong 1969, nakapagpatapos ng 29 maituturing na buod at ubod ng
ng Pilipinas Diliman (UPD). Dalawang beses siyang mag-aaral sa AB Philippines Studies. Philippine Studies o mga pag-aaral
nanungkulan bilang direktor ng Sentro ng Wikang
Filipino sa UPD, mula 2000 hanggang 2003 at 2008 Noon namang 1974, unang naigawad hinggil sa Pilipinas.
hanggang 2011. Siya ay naging Visiting Professor ang digring MA Philippine Studies kay Ang wikang Filipino na itinakda
sa Research Institute of World Languages ng Osaka
University sa Japan noong Abril 2009. Kabilang
Nicanor Tiongson. Maituturing na at kinikilalang wikang pambansa at
sa kanyang mga natamong gawad at parangal ang ang DFPP ang tanging yunit sa buong nililinang batay sa iba’t ibang wika
“Pinakamahusay na Nailathalang Pananaliksik” at UP Diliman, kundi man sa buong UP sa Pilipinas ay tagapagpahayag ng
“Gintong Aklat Award” para sa UP Gawad Tsanselor at
Balagtasan: Kasaysayan at Antolohiya; at ang National
System, na buong-buong lumilinang realidad ng mga Filipino. Sa gayon, sa
Book Award mula sa Manila Critics Circle.  sa Philippine Studies, dahil nananahan halip na tingnan ang wikang Filipino

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 23

bilang daluyan lamang ng kaalaman, May mga aspekto itong inilalantad at paglalathala at pagsasalin na may
tinitingnan ito bilang karunungan ipinahihiwatig tungkol sa kasaysayan, diin sa katangian at oryentasyong
mismo. Sabi nga ni Lumbera: heograpiya at modernidad ng interdisiplinaryo at multi-disiplinaryo.
“Produkto ng lipunang Filipino ang lipunang nagluwal ng panitikang ito. Maaari itong magsimula sa mga guro
wikang pambansa. Nakalangkap dito Kaya sentral pa rin ang pag-aaral ng at mananaliksik mula sa Kolehiyo
ang kultura ng mga taong gumamit panitikan sa pangkalahatang larang ng Arte at Literatura, Kolehiyo ng
noon at gumagamit ngayon nito sa ng mga pag-aaral hinggil sa Pilipinas. Agham Panlipunan at Pilosopiya,
kanilang pakikipamuhay sa ibang Bukod sa kaalamang puwedeng at Asian Center ngunit dapat
tao at sa mga institusyon ng ating ipahayag o ipahiwatig ng panitikan, na mahikayat din ang iba pang
lipunan…. Kapag sinasabing may mahalaga rin ang larang ng panitikan kolehiyo tulad ng Inhenyeriya,
‘henyo’ ang wika, hindi talinghaga sa pagpanday ng malikhain at Agham, Ekonomiks, Negosyo, at
lamang ang kasabihan. Kapag mapanuring kakayahan ng mga iba pa. Puwede ring hikayatin ang
binungkal ang wikang ngayo’y mag-aaral na mapakikinabangan iba’t ibang yunit ng UP System na
kinagawian na nating ituring na isa nila sa pagpapahayag at pagsusuri mag-ambag sa produksiyon ng
lamang instrumento, isang dulang ng sa iba’t ibang aspekto ng lipunan at kaalaman upang magkaroon ng
kaalamang hindi pa natin naaarok kulturang Filipino. demokratiko’t pambansang karakter
ang mabubuksan sa atin.” ang itatatag na estruktura sa antas
Bumanggit din si Lumbera ng May pangangailangan bang ng Unibersidad.
mga mapangahas at matagumpay ipaloob ang Philippine Studies para Puwede nang magsimula
na proyekto ng pagtuklas ng mapayaman ang disiplina? Kung oo, sa ilang hakbang tulad ng mga
karunungang nakapaloob sa sariling paano? Kung hindi, bakit? sumusunod: imbentaryo ng mga
wika. Kabilang dito ang proyekto ng pananaliksik sa larang ng Philippine
sumusunod: P. Roque Ferriols, S.J., sa Dahil ang Philippine Studies ay Studies; paglalaan ng isang pisikal na
larang ng pilosopiya, na bumungkal nililinang na nga ng DFPP, ang espasyo na magsisilbing repositoryo
sa kalooban ng Filipino; P. Alberto kailangan ngayon ay palakasin at ng mga aklat, journal, tesis at
Alejo, sa larang ng teolohiya, na isulong pa ang larang na ito sa disertasyon, at di-limbag na materyal
naglahad ng pagpapahalagang Departamento, sa UP at sa buong na may kinalaman sa Philippine
relihiyoso sa punto-de-bista ng mga bansa. Isang kongkretong hakbang Studies; pagbalangkas ng adyenda
Filipino; Prospero Covar, sa larang para maisapraktika ang pagtataguyod ng pananaliksik at pagsasalin;
ng antropolohiya, na sumiyasat sa sa larang na ito ang pagtatatag ng pagdaraos ng regular at tuloy-tuloy
pagkataong Filipino; Zeus Salazar, sa isang Philippine Studies Institute o na talakayan hinggil sa iba’t ibang
larang ng kasaysayan, na luminang Surian ng mga Pag-aaral Hinggil sa paksa sa larang ng Philippine Studies;
ng Pantayong Pananaw bilang lente Pilipinas sa antas ng DFPP at maging pag-iisa-isa sa mga nalinang nang
sa pagtatampok ng isang kabuuang sa antas ng Unibersidad. dalumat at nasubukang metodo
pangkalinangan; Virgilio Enriquez, sa Ang Departamento ay puwedeng ng pananaliksik; paglilista ng mga
larang ng sikolohiya, na bumalangkas maging Surian. Bukod sa pagtuturo, eksperto sa iba’t ibang larang na
ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino bilang at pagiging malaon nang tahanan may nagawa nang saliksik tungkol sa
sikolohiyang nakabatay sa karanasan, ng programang batsilyer, magiging Pilipinas; paglilimbag ng journal na
kaisipan at oryentasyong Filipino; pangunahing tungkulin at tunguhin maglalathala ng mga bagong saliksik
at Virgilio S. Almario, sa larang ng nito ang pananaliksik, malikhaing na may paksain at oryentasyong
teorya at panunuring pampanitikan, gawa, paglalathala, pagsasalin at Philippine Studies.
na bumalangkas ng Bagong iba pang gawaing nag-aambag sa
Pormalismong Filipino, isang sistema produksiyon ng kaalaman tungkol sa Ano ang benepisyo ng pagpapaloob
ng pagsipat sa kasaysayan at estetika Filipino at para sa Filipino. Ang ubod ng Philippine Studies sa disiplina?
ng panulaan. Ang magkakatulad sa ng mga gawaing ito ay ang wika at
lahat ng nabanggit na mga proyekto panitikan ng Pilipinas, at mananatiling Sadyang mahalaga na maipaloob
ay ang pananangan sa wikang Filipino interdisiplinaryo ang dulog. ang Philippine Studies sa lahat
bilang sentral na materyal sa pagbuo Sa antas naman ng UP, ng disiplina, maging iyong mga
ng mga dalumat, pananaw at teorya puwedeng pag-isipan ang larang ng agham, teknolohiya,
na magagamit sa pagpapatingkad pagtatatag ng isa pang estruktura na inhenyeriya at matematika.
sa katangian at kahalagahan ng magsisilbing sentro ng mga gawaing Maaaring ang pagpapaloob na ito
karanasan at kalinangang Filipino. may kaugnayan sa pag-aaral hinggil ng Philippine Studies sa mga disiplina
Ang panitikan ng Pilipinas naman sa Pilipinas sa UP Diliman o sa buong ay mangahulugang pagbibigay-
ay hindi lamang anyo ng sining kundi sistema ng UP. Dito naman maaaring diin sa mga tiyak na paksain at
produktong kultural. Dumaan ito sa isakatuparan ang mga kahalintulad suliraning may kinalaman sa Pilipinas.
proseso ng produksiyon at resepsiyon. na pananaliksik, malikhaing gawa, Kaalinsabay nito, kailangan din ng

24 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

pagpopook ng mga
teorya, metodo at
pananaw mula sa labas,
upang maging mas
lapat sa karanasan ng
mga Filipino. Ang mas
malaking hamon ay
ang tumuklas ng mga
dalumat na hinango sa
kalinangang Filipino, mga
karunungang magiging
tunay na ambag sa
tradisyon ng kapantasan
sa bansa at sa daigdig.
Samantalang nililinang
sa iba’t ibang disiplina
ang mga espesyalisasyon,
ang interdisiplinaryong
Philippine Studies ang
magsisilbing tudla at
talim upang magamit
ang mga nalinang
sa mga disiplina
sa kapakanan ng
sambayanang Filipino u

Tattoo na gamit ang mga titik ng

Baybayin, sinaunang sistema na
pagsulat ng mga ninuno ng mga Filipino.

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 25

and Philippine

An interview with Dr. Enrico C.

Paringit,* UP College of Engineering

26 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 DIWATA microsatellite

What is Philippine

Studies for you?

Paringit: I would
define Philippine
Studies to be
that body of
concerning the
societal and
cultural identity

of Filipinos and
of the Philippines
—its role and Paringit

relationship to t is to my view a broad, dynamic While subscribing to international
and interdisciplinary field which norms, it is inevitable that Philippine
the world. is highly experiential
and interactive.
engineering education and
professional practice as delivered
to students would also touch on
How is it integrated in subjects like conventions, standards
*Dr. Enrico C. Paringit is an Associate Professor at
the College of Engineering Department of Geodetic your discipline? and conditions being used in, and
Engineering and Training Center for Applied Geodesy appropriate for the Philippines and
and Photogrammetry. He has spearheaded high-
impact research in the fields of land surveying,
Engineering is a actually a very Filipinos. Aside from meeting hard,
remote sensing and geographic information technical and rigid study, often geographical aspects like climate
system, environmental monitoring and disaster subscribing to universally accepted and physiography, conventions and
risk assessment and management, including micro
mapping project Disaster Risk Exposure Assessment theories and places high regard for specifications are also rooted on
for Mitigation (DREAM). He has authored and co- standards in a broad community of historical or cultural grounds. Even
authored over 100 publications including book practice – imagine machine parts that what seemingly inane features like
chapters, papers published in international peer-
reviewed journals and papers presented in local and are not compatible across countries naming or labeling, sizing, coloring
international conferences. and you have an engineering disaster! -what I call “soft” features, have

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 27

cultural significance. While industrial Filipino mythical deity? And why identity, sense of belongingness and
designers sometimes strive to be not a bird or a star or a real figure even ownership. While putting these
culturally neutral, it is necessary for like a Filipino hero instead? perspectives in context, these need
practice of profession as well as for The social media phenomenon to be presented in a systematic and
design of technologies or innovations is another good example. The logical manner.
to also observe and adapt to local social network sites succeeded in
norms or customs. Design of buildings Filipinos because we highly value our What will be the benefit of
and structures are heavily founded family and natural knack for social integrating Philippine Studies
on norms and traditions of Filipino interaction. It might as well have been into the discipline?
families and dwelling practices. built with Filipinos in mind. But this
Home spaces uniquely Filipino are also has a universal appeal and so Integrating national cultural,
not just there for purely aesthetic this aspect must be investigated for linguistic and social dimensions will
reasons. Surveying protocols and its social engineering or decision go a long way in ensuring success of
other land tenure instruments are science value. technological interventions and roll
based deeply on customary rights as out of science-based solutions. This
practiced by Filipinos. Is there a need to integrate will attract greater participation and
Sometimes, the acceptance Philippine Studies in enriching public involvement necessary to amass
and use of technology may be the discipline? support. Study of Filipino identity
dependent on cultural sensitivity and culture will develop an ability to
and supposedly reflect the We may not have been conscious relate and eventually engage in any
aspirations of its target audience. about this before but it is becoming initiative that will in turn maximize
Look at Diwata-1, the first Philippine more apparent that any technological benefits for people, and at the very
microsatellite. Instead of using milestone, in order to be relevant, least avoid technological aversion.
some dull letter-number series will have to be viewed into context And this can only be made possible
like “R2D2” you wonder why of prevailing cultural or social milieu if the understanding of underlying
Filipino engineers and scientists, during that period. These are not historical, cultural, religious,
despite their highly specialized mere marketing ploys but rather puts societal and even political nuances
background, still named it after a great emphasis on expressions of are considered u

Siglo, an electric vehicle made by students and graduates of the UP College of Engineering Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute.

28 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

Philippine Studies/Pilipinolohiya:
Pagtingin mula sa loob, para sa loob
Panayam kay Dr. Zosimo E. Lee,*
UP Kolehiyo ng Agham Panlipunan
at Pilosopiya


Nagsilbing dekano ng College of Social Sciences and

Philosophy (CSSP) si Dr. Zosimo K. Lee mula 2004
hanggang 2010. Siya ay Professor 12 sa Departamento
ng Pilosopiya. Lee

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 29

Sa inyong eron bang masasabing na perspective; mula sa loob dahil

pananaw, ano ang

Philippines Studies?
M metodolohiya that can
bring together the different
academic disciplines so that
one can say that he or she is enrolled
in the PS?
iba rin talaga ‘yung mga kategoriya
na naipapalabas dahil napapaloob
ka sa pag-unawa ng wika at saka
kabihasnan—ang lente na ginagamit
mo ay ‘yung wika mismo. Kung ang
Dito pumapasok yung Pantayong pagsusulat ay sa Filipino, talagang
Lee: Ang focal Pananaw. Andiyan din sina Virgilio
Enriquez ng psychology at si Zeus
iba ‘yung dating ng diskurso at
pagdalumat, kasi ang audience ay
point ng Philippine Salazar ng history. Malaki ang kapwa Pilipino.
kanilang nai-ambag in terms of ‘Yung pagsasaliksik na sinusulat
Studies (PS) ay bringing what can be called the emic sa Filipino, palagay ko ay nakakalikha
Philippine concerns. perspective. May tinatawag na emic
at etic perspectives.
ng categories. Ang paggamit natin
ng Filipino bilang wikang pang-
They necessarily Sa etic perspective, medyo naka-
labas ka and you look at something
akademiko ang isang malaking
role ng PS. Tayo lang ang pwedeng
have something objectively. Kapag emic, you look at it makagawa noon. Malaki ang nagawa
from within.
to do with the Malaki na talaga ‘yung pag-
ng ganoong klaseng perspective
dahil kumbaga ay pumapaloob ka sa
Philippines. Basically, evolve ng Pantayong Pananaw
in terms of really proposing a
pananaw ng Pilipinolohiya.
Maski yung termino na Philippine
it is an approach perspective that is from within, lalo Studies, parang medyo banyaga pa
na ang paggamit ng wika. Kung ang ng konti. Parang may pagka-etic
that helps Filipinos lapit mo ay pantayong pagtingin, pang perspective. Pero ‘pag sinabi na
to understand mas mayroong resonance. Si Salazar,
ipinaglaban niya ang paggamit ng
Pilipinolohiya, tinitignan mula sa loob.
Lumabas ‘yan noong time ni Poping
themselves better. wika sa akademikong diskurso. Covar (Prospero Covar). Siya talaga
Ganoon naman ang nangyari sa ‘yung nagpasimuno dun sa paggamit
From the ibang kultura kagaya sa Pransiya—si ng terminong Pilipinolohiya.
perspective of CSSP, Lyotard ay nagsulat sa Pranses; sa
Germany, talagang Aleman ang
Ideally ang nagagawa ng PS
ay makapagbigay-salamin sa ating
ang iba’t ibang ginagamit nila. Pero ang punto ay sarili. Pero sa tooto lang, mas
gamitin itong wika bilang pang- nagagawa pa ito ng literature at
departamento ay akademikong diskurso, saka rin ito humanities in terms of providing
merong kaniya- uunlad bilang pananaw, bilang
perspektiba. Sa umpisa, maraming
pictures of ourselves.
Medyo pupunahin ko ang
kaniyang pagtingin lalabas na wikang banyaga dahil
hindi naman, kumbaga, familiar.
science and technology na focus.
Sa tingin ko, only a few people
sa ibig sabihin ng PS. Pero kapag nakuha mo ‘yung daloy in the science and technology
ay mapapaloob ka na doon sa community will admit that the
For example, even pagtingin. Kaya nagkaroon talaga research problems they are working
the word “culture” ng productive period at intellectual
production noon.
on are not dictated by Philippine
concerns. Kumokpya, ginagaya
o kabihasnan, Halimbawa, sa Departamento yung uso na pinaguusapan sa ibang
ng Kasaysayan, talagang napakalalim bansa. That’s alright. Pero in so far
iba ang tingin ng ng kanilang pagtuturo sa Filipino. as PS are concerned, tayo (CSSP)
anthropology, Ganoon din ideally sa Sikolohiya,
Sosyolohiya at Antropolohiya.
ang nauuna, tayo ang gumagawa at
nakapagbibigay ng sariling pansin
iba ang tingin Pero, lumalabas na Kasaysayan ang sa ating mga sariling problema.
pinaka-advanced, lalo na doon sa Although of course, pwede
ng sociology, iba pagpapalitaw at pagpapalinaw ng mong gawin yun sa Ingles pero
rin ang tingin ng mga konseptong ginagamit natin
para maunawaan natin ang ating
iba pa rin ang dulog at epekto
kung maririnig mo sa Filipino at
psychology, political kasaysayan at kabihasnan. ginagamit ang Filipino bilang
Maraming tesis at disertasyon wikang pang-akademya.
science at linguistics. ang nasulat na gumagamit ng emic But, I would still believe, I

30 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017

Isang komunidad sa Batanes na nagtutulong-tulong sa paghahanda ng ihahain para sa pistang darating.

mean yabang ko ito, that more than gumagawa muli ng paglalagom at their worth in more than one
the sciences, sa humanities at social pag-advance ng teorya. academic discipline.
sciences mas pinagtututuan ng pansin ‘Yung isa pang napapansin
ang mga concerns tungkol sa bayan. Ano ang PS bilang isang ko, at least kung titingnan
By the way, ‘yung observation na ‘yan doktoradong digri sa ninyo yung mga dissertation sa
tungkol sa science at technology was Unibersidad? Philippine Studies, by nature, multi-
made by a scientist, not me. disciplinary or inter-disciplinary
Sa pagkaalam ko, ang PS PhD sila. For example, yung ginawa
Ano sa tingin ninyo ang mga program ang pinaka-multi- tungkol sa kasaysayan ng Philippine
hadlang o suliranin sa pagyabong disciplinary sa lahat ng available architecture, ‘yung Edifice Complex
ng PS? na doctorate degrees. Sa kurso, (Gerard Lico). Necessarily ito ay
you will take on two or three historical, sociological, at tsaka
Academic community tayo disciplines. Kung kasama ang architectural or multi-disciplinary
pero yung lengwaheng pang- sociology sa disciplines na gusto kasi yung pagformulate ng kanyang
akademiko ay accessible only to mong talakayin, you need to be as research question is already societal.
few. Hindi siya popular language. good as the PhD sociology majors.
Hindi siya ganoon kalaganap. Ang PS PhD ang most- Anu-ano ang mga hakbangin ng
Hindi masayong nadi-disseminate. challenging PhD degree dahil inyong disiplina na nauugnay sa PS?
Also, PS has not advanced bawat department, they will
much in terms of conceptualization require you the whole majors. Dati-rati meron mga nagtuturo ng
dahil, sa tingin ko, wala nang Kaya kapag nakapasa ka rito, Philosophy in Filipino. Hanggang
masyadong theoretician meron kang “K.” The particular sa ngayon meron isang nagtuturo
pagkatapos nina Enriquez, Salazar disciplines look down on PS PhD ng pilosopiya sa Filipino pero hindi
at Covar. Sa palagay ko, there is because it is a hybrid program and masyadong nagsusulat. Yung isa,
a very sufficient body of work yet, bilib ako sa mga nakakatapos sinulat niya ang kanyang tesis sa
kaya lang parang wala pa ring nito because they have proven Filipino. Tesis ito sa pilosopiya.

UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017 31

Ang paggamit ng Filipino Napatunayan din nila sa (UP) literature and culture. On one hand,
sa kultura ay hindi lang pang- Integrated School na ang early grades mayroon kang trend towards the
translation, pero para rin sa ay dapat sa mother tongue (itinuturo) nation o ang kabuuan, pero mayroon
paglikha ng kategorya mismo sa kasi mas mabilis yung learning ng ding trend towards the regional
wika. Kasi kapag ginagamit ang bata. Interestingly, that has really cultures, and that’s okay. Hindi
wika sa pamimilosopiya, mas lalong spawned the regional studies naman kailangan one or the other. In
nagiging mayabong ito. Kailangan program kasi they have to develop fact, kung mas mayabong ang local
yung energy and drive to decide and the materials na mother tongue- culture, that’s where you draw the
to prove. based. That is good, in a way, kasi we national perspective.
now focus on the regional languages.
Labas sa UPD, ano ang masasabi Although, nagkakaproblema Metodolohiya? Diin? Framework?
niyong kalagayan ng PS? dahil, halimbawa, ‘yung Bicol
sa Camarines Sur ay iba sa Bicol First, it is an attitude. Kung pag-
Yung interesting development ng Albay. So they have to agree aaralan mo ang lipunang Filipino, ano
actually sa ibang universities ay among themselves kung papaano ba ‘yung dulog, ano ‘yung lapit na
yung regional studies programs. ba ‘yung homogenization ng gagamitin: mula sa loob o mula sa
Halimbawa, West Visayas Studies iba’t ibang dialects. Dahil kung labas? Ang kanyang challenge talaga
program sa UP Visayas at mayroong meron nang printed material na ay tungkol sa pananaw.
Kapampamagan Studies Center sa ginawa, for example, sa Naga, Sa ibang kultura, the Japanese
Angeles University. Sa Pangasinan, hindi ‘yun maiintindihan ng mga will talk about Japanese society in
ang alam ko ay mayroon din silang tao sa Albay. Pero, at least, yung Japanese, in their own categories.
Pangasinan Studies Program. regional languages are given Ganun din ang South Korea.
Actually, tayo ang nagpasimuno doon focus, given attention. Mahalaga ang sariling pag-unawa
sa mother tongue-based learning. By focusing on the regional base sa iyong sariling kategorya kasi
Yung Linguistics Department languages, hopefully, that would lead mas may dulog, mas may resonance.
natin talaga ang nagsulong nun. to the preservation of the language, Yun ang sa palagay ko ang pinasisikat
ng PS. Mas magbibigay ito ng isang
larawan (ng lipunan) na masasabi
natin sa ating sarili na mas tunay. Mas
matutulungan natin ang ating sarili
para maunawaan natin ang ating
mga sarili.

Ang PS ba ay esensyalismo?

Continuing dialogue naman eh, sa

palagay ko. I tend to look at it as
dialogical, so it is going to be tested
with what is really there. It is a process
of iterations and reiterations.
Again, to refer to what I said earlier,
and as I know, wala nang masyadong
gumagawa ng theoretical na pag-
uulat o paglalagom tungkol sa
ating kinalalagyan base doon sa
mga pag-aaral na ginagawa sa
Pilipinolohiya tungkol sa lipunang
Pilipino. Where are we so far?
Mahalaga yung iteration na yun
para makita natin paano tayo mag-
a-advance o susulong. Kailangan
muna yung synthesis and integration
para mabigyan tayo ng direksyon
kung paano natin mas maaaring
mapausbong o mapaunlad ang ating
pang-unawa sa ating mga sarili u

32 UPDate Magazine l January-June 2017