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 Testosterone-responsible for the

deeping of the voice for male and


hair growth.
 Estrogen-responsible for the growth
Organ System Overview of mammary glands for female.
6. Cardiovascular System
1. Integumentary -transports materials in body via
-forms the external body covering. blood pumped by heart: Oxygen,
-protects deeper tissue from injury. Carbon Dioxide, Nutrients, Wastes.
-synthesize vitamin D.  Heart-pumps oxygenated blood;
-location of cutaneous nerve serves as the pumping organ.
receptors. 7. Lymphatic System
 Melanocytes – responsible for the -returns fluids to blood vessels.
production of melanin. -disposes of debris.
2. Skeletal System -involved in immunity.
-protects and support body organs.  Lymph nodes
-provide muscle attachment for 8. Respiratory System
movement. -keeps blood supplied with oxygen.
-site of blood cell formation. -removes carbon dioxide.
-stores minerals.  Lungs-helps to keep blood supplied
 RBC – Erythrocytes: Erythropoiesis with oxygen.
 Bone marrow-responsible for the 9. Digestive System
production of RBC, WBC and -breaks down food.
Platelets. -allows for nutrient absorption into
 99% of Calcium ca be found in our blood.
bones and 1% is in our blood. -eliminates indigestible material.
 Bone demineralization-bone loses  Bile-gives color to the body.
calcium. 10. Urinary System
 Epiphyseal plates-responsible for the -eliminates nitrogenous wastes.
growth of our bone. -maintains acid-base balance
 Femur-large bone in thigh. -regulation of materials such as
3. Muscular System water and electrolytes.
-allows locomotion.  30-40cc of urine per hour.
-maintains posture.  When it reaches 500cc, the urge to
-produces heat. urinate comes.
4. Nervous System  The faster the urethra, the faster you
5. Endocrine System get want to urinate.
-secretes regulatory hormones. 11. Reproductive System
-responsible for growth, -production of offspring.
reproduction, metabolism.
 ductless system.
 Exocrine-more ducts contain e.g.
tear ducts and salivary ducts.
The Human Body – All -chemical for energy cell building:
carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins,
Orientation minerals.
 Anatomy-study of the structure and -vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble.
shape of the body and its parts. -vitamin A plays a key role in
 Physiology-study of how the body maintaining your vision. Without it,
and its parts work or function. you would go blind.
-vitamin D is produced by your skin
when it's exposed to sunlight. It is
best known for its beneficial effects
Necessary Life Functions:
on bone health, and deficiency
 Maintain Boundaries makes you highly susceptible to bone
 Movement fractures.
-locomotion -As a powerful antioxidant, vitamin E
-movement of substances protects your cells against premature
 Responsiveness aging and damage by free radicals.
-ability to sense changes and react. - vitamin K plays a key role in blood
 Digestion clotting. Without it, you would run
-break-down and delivery of the risk of bleeding to death.
nutrients.
-mastication-medical term for  Oxygen
chewing. -required for chemical reactions.
-hunger pangs-state of getting -ketones-fuel of the body; need to be
hungry. balanced; product of fat metabolism.
 Metabolism -ketosis-metabolizing fats.
-chemical reaction within the body.
-produce energy; making body
structures. Survival Needs:
 Excretion  Water
-elimination of wastes from -60 to 80% of body weight.
metabolic reactions. -provides for metabolic reactions.
-sensible water loss-water from the  Stable body temperature
body that can be measured e.g.  Atmospheric pressure must be
urine. appropriate.
-insensible water loss-water from the  Homeostasis
body that can’t be measured e.g. -maintenance of stable internal
sweat/talk. environment; a dynamic state of
 Reproduction equilibrium.
-production of future generation. -must be maintained for normal body
 Growth function and sustain life.
-increasing of cell size and number.
 Nutrients
 Homeostatic imbalance
-a disturbance of homeostasis results
in disease.
 Stimulus
-reaction to something e.g. sad,
happy, mad, scared.
 Maintaining Homeostasis
-the body communicates through
neural and hormonal control
systems.
 Receptor 2. Direction
-responds to changes in the
environment (stimuli)  Dorsal - location referring to the back or
-sends information to control center. upper side of an organism or parts of an
 Control center organism.
-determines set point.  Ventral - on or relating to the underside
-analyzes information. of an animal or plant; abdominal.
-determines appropriate response.  Lateral - more distant to the body
 Effector midline. In the anatomical position, the
-provides a means for response to radius is lateral to the ulna. A simpler
the stimulus. example is the "thumb" is lateral to the
"pinky."
 Medial - closer to the midline; on the
Feedback Mechanism inner side. The sternum (breast plate) is
medial to the clavicle (shoulder bone).
1. Negative Feedback  Superior - above, towards the cephalic
-includes most homeostatic control (head) end. The cranial cavity (head
mechanisms. cavity) is superior to the scapula
-shuts off the original stimulus, or (shoulder blade).
reduces its intensity.  Inferior - below, towards the plantar
-works like a household thermostat. (foot) end. The patella (knee cap) is
2. Positive Feedback inferior to the femur (thigh bone).
-increases the original stimulus to
 Anterior - towards the front of the body.
push the variable farther.
The sternum is anterior to the spine. Also
-in the body, this only occurs in blood
known as ventral, but this term is not as
clotting and birth of a baby.
common in human anatomy.
 Posterior - towards the rear/backside of
the body. The fibula is posterior to the
The Language of Anatomy tibia. Also known as dorsal, but this term
is not as common.
-Special terminology is used to prevent
 "Oblique sections" - separates top from
misunderstanding. Exact terms are used for:
bottom at a diagonal. This term is
1. Position common.
 Superficial - closer to the skin, nearer the
body surface. Skin is superficial to the
organs.
 Deep - further from the body surface.
In the limbs, the following terms are also
used:

 Distal - further from the limb's


attachment to the trunk (where 'trunk'
refers to the 'torso' of the body: the
body minus the head, neck, and limbs).
 Proximal - nearer to the limb's
attachment to the trunk. The humorous
is proximal to the radius.
 Intermediate- in between two
structures. The nose is intermediate to
the eyes.

3. Regions

4. Structures
Cellular Physiology: Membrane Two common forms of Active
Transport Transport:
 Membrane Transport 1.Solute Pumping
-movement of substance into and
-amino acids, some sugars and ions are
out of the cell.
transported by solute pumps.
Transport is by two basic methods: -ATP energizes protein carriers, and in most
1. Active Transport concentration gradients.
-no energy is required 2. Bulk Transport
-transport substances that are unable to
pass by diffusion.  Exocytosis-moves materials out of
-they may be too large the cell
-they may not be able to dissolve in that -material is carried in a membrane
fat core of the membrane. vesicle.
-they may have to move against a -vesicle migrates to plasma
concentration gradient. membrane.
2. Passive Transport -material is emptied to the outside.
-the cell provides metabolic energy.  Endocytosis-extracellular substances
are engulfed by being enclosed in a
Passive Transport Processes: membranous vesicle.
1. Diffusion
Types of Endocytosis:
-particles tend to distribute themselves
evenly within a solution. 1.Phagocytis- cell eating
-movement is high concentration to low
2. Pinocytis- cell drinking
concentration, or down a concentration
gradient.  Solution
-homogenous mixture of two or
Types of Diffusion: more components.
a) Simple Diffusion  Solvent
-unassisted process. -dissolving medium.
-solutes are lipid-soluble materials or  Solutes
small enough to pass through -components in smaller quantities
membrane pores. within a solution.
b) Osmosis  Intracellular fluid
-simple diffusion of water. -nucleoplasm and cytosol
-highly polar water easily crosses the  Interstitial fluid
plasma membrane. -fluid on the exterior of the cell.
c) Facilitated diffusion
-substances require a protein carrier
for passive transport.
Cell Life Cycle 4. Anaphase
-daughter chromosomes are pulled
 Interphase toward the poles.
-cell grows; cell carries on metabolic -the cell begins to elongate.
processes. 5. Telophase
 Cell Division -daughter nuclei begin forming.
-cell replicates itself. -a cleavage furrow (for cell division)
-function is to produce more cells for begins to form.
growth and repair processes.
 DNA Replication
-genetic material duplicated and
readies a cell for division into two
Protein Synthesis
cells.  Gene
-occurs toward the end of -DNA segment that carries a
interphase. blueprint for building one protein.
-DNA uncoils and each side serves as  RNA
a template. -is essential for protein synthesis.
Events of Cell Division: Functions of Protein:
1. Mitosis 1. Building materials for cells
-division of the nucleus; results in the 2. Act as enzymes (biological catalysis).
formation of two daughter nuclei.
2. Cytokinesis Role of RNA:
-division of the cytoplasm; begins when 1. Transfer RNA (Trna)
mitosis is near completion -transfers appropriate amino acids to the
-results in the formation of two daughter ribosome for building the protein.
cells. 2. Ribosomal RNA (Rrna)
-helps form the ribosomes where
proteins are built.
Stages of Mitosis: 3. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
-carries the instructions for building a
1. Interphase
protein from the nucleus to the
-no cell division occur; the cell carries out
ribosome.
normal metabolic activity and growth.
2. Prophase
-first part of cell division; centromeres
migrate to the poles. Transcription and Translation
3. Metaphase
 Transcription
-spindle from centromeres are attached
-transfer of information from DNA’s
to chromosomes that are aligned in the
base sequence to the complimentary
center of the cell.
base sequence of mRNA.
 Translation
-base sequences of nucleic acid is -single layer, but some cells are shorter
translated to an amino acid than others.
sequence. -often looks like a double cell layer.
-amino acid are the building blocks of -sometimes ciliated, such as in the
proteins. respiratory tract.
-may function in absorption or
secretion.
Body Tissues Stratified Epithelium:
 Cell 1. Stratified Squamous
-are specialized for particular -cells at the free edge are flattened.
functions. -found as a protective covering where
 Tissues fiction is common.
-groups of cells with similar structure -location: skin, mouth, esophagus
and function. 2. Stratified Cuboidal
Four primary types of Tissues: -two layers of cuboidal cells.
3. Stratified Columnar
1. Epithelium/Epithelial Tissues -surface cells are columnar, cells
-found in different areas; body underneath vary in size and shape.
coverings; body linings; glandular tissue.  Stratified cuboidal and columnar
-cell fits closely together; avascular (have -rare in human body.
no blood supply). -found mainly in ducts of large
-tissue layer has one free surface. glands.
-the lower surface is bound by a 4. Transitional Epithelium
basement membrane. -shape of cells depends upon the amount
-regenerate easily if well nourished. of stretching.
-functions: protection, absorption, -lines organs of the urinary system.
filtration, secretion.

Glandular Epithilium
Simple Epithelium:
 Gland
1. Simple Squamous -one or more cells that secretes a
-single layer or flat cells. particular product.
-usually forms membranes.
-lines in the body cavities. Two major gland types:
-lines lungs and capillaries.
2. Simple Cuboidal 1. Endocrine Glands
-single layer of cube-like cells. -ductless; don’t have point of exit; it
-common in glands and their ducts. flows with blood instead.
-forms walls of kidney tubules. -secretions are hormones.
-covers the ovaries. 2. Exocrine Glands
3. Pseudostratified -empty through to the epithelial
surface.
-include sweat and oil glands. -used to protect and support the
body.
 Hyaline Cartilage
-most common cartilage.
Connective Tissue -composed of abundant collagen
 Connective Tissue fibers and rubbery matrix.
-found everywhere in the body. -entire fetal skeleton is hyaline
-includes the most abundant and cartilage.
widely distributed tissues.  Elastic Cartilage
-provides elasticity.
Functions of Connective Tissue: -examples: supports the external ear.
 Fibrocartilage
1. Binds body tissues together.
-highly compressible.
2. Supports the body.
-examples: cushion-like discs
3. Provides protection.
between vertebrae.

 Variations in blood supply


-some tissue types are well Types of Connective Tissue:
vascularized. 1. Dense Connective Tissue
-some have poor blood supply or are -main matrix element is collagen fibers.
avascular. -cells are fibroblasts.
 Extracellular Matrix -examples: tendons and ligaments.
-non-living material that surrounds  Tendon- attach muscle to bone.
living cells.  Ligaments- attach bone to bone.

2. Areolar Connective Tissue


Two main elements of cellular matrix: -most widely distributed connective
tissue.
1. Ground substance
-soft, pliable tissue.
-mostly water along with adhesion
-contains all fiber types.
proteins and polysaccharide molecules.
-can soak up excess fluid.
2. Fibers
3. Adipose Tissue
-produced by the cells.
-matrix is an areolar in which fat globules
-three types: collagen fibers, elastic
predominate.
fibers, reticular fibers.
-many cells contain large lipid deposits.
-functions: insulates the body; protects
some organs; serves as a site of fuel
 Bone (osseous tissue) storage.
-it is composed of bone cells in 4. Reticular Connective Tissue
lacunae (cavities), hard matrix of -delicate network of interwoven fibers.
calcium salts, and large numbers of -forms stroma (internal supporting
collagen fibers. network) of lymphoid organs such as
lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow
 Blood
-blood cells surrounded by fluid
matrix.
-fibers are visible during clotting.
 -functions as the transport vehicle
for materials.

Notes:
 Biconcave-shape of the RBC.
 Symphysis pubic-where the pubic
hair grows.
 Flagellum should proportional to the
head for the sperm to move properly.
 Semi-permeable membrane-only
selected cells are allowed to pass.
 Permeable membrane-all cells are
allowed to pass.
 Impermeable membrane-no cells are
allowed to pass.
 Exocytosis-bring it out of the cell.
 Endocytosis-bring it inside the cell.
 Growth and replication of the cells is
the reason why every time our skin
get some scars, it heals itself
spontaneously.
 Coitus-medical term for sex.
 Chemotherapy-can also kills normal
cells aside from killing partially the
cancer cells.
 Mucus-slime-like fluid that can be
found in the intestine (for instance).
 Two sweat glands are Apocrine (have
a distinct smell) and Eccrine (palm
sweat).
 Fibroblasts-build up matrix.
 Fibroclasts-break down matrix for
modeling.
 Spleen-cemetery of red blood cells
(RBC last only for 20 days).
Cells and Tissues  Cytosol
-fluid that suspends other elements.
 Carry out all chemical activities  Organelles
needed to sustain life. -metabolic machinery of the cell.
 Cells are the building blocks of all  Inclusions
living things. -non-functioning units.
 Tissues are groups of cells that are
similar in structure and function. Cytoplasmic Organelles:
 Cells are not all the same. a) Cytoskeleton
 All cells share general structures. -network of protein structures that
 Cells are organized into three main extend throughout the cytoplasm.
regions: nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma -provides the cell with an internal
membrane. framework.
Cell Diversity: -three different types: microfilaments,
intermediate filaments, microtubules.
1. Cell that connect body parts b) Centrioles
-fibroblasts and erythrocytes
2. Cells that cover and line the body organs
-epithelial cell -rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules.
3. Cell that move organs and body parts
-skeletal muscle cell and smooth muscle -direct formation of mitotic spindle during
cell. cell division.
4. Cell that stores nutrients c) Endoplasmic Reticulum
-fat cell -fluid-filled tubules for carrying
5. Cell that fights disease substances.
-macrophage cell
Two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum:
Organelles:
 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. Nucleus -studded with ribosomes.
-control center of the cell. -site where building materials of
- contains genetic material (DNA). cellular membrane are formed.
-three regions: nuclear membrane,
 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
nucleolus, chromatin.
-functions in cholesterol synthesis
1. Nuclear Membrane
and breakdown, fat metabolism, and
-barrier of nucleus.
detoxification of drugs.
-consists of a double phospholipid
d) Mitochondria
membrane.
-“powerhouses” of the cell.
-contain nuclear pores that allow for
-change shape continuously.
exchange of material with the rest of the
-carry out reactions where oxygen is
cell.
used to break down food.
2. Cytoplasm
-provides ATP for cellular energy.
-material outside the nucleus and inside
e) Golgi Apparatus
the plasma membrane.
-modifies and packages proteins.
-produces different types of packages 5. Nucleoli
such as secretory vesicles, cell -nucleus contains one or more nucleoli
membrane components, lysosomes. -sites of ribosome production.
f) Ribosomes -ribosomes then migrate to the
-made of protein RNA cytoplasm through nuclear pores.
-sites of protein synthesis.
-found at two locations: a. free in the
cytoplasm and b. attached to rough
endoplasmic reticulum.
g) Lysosomes
-contain enzymes that digest non-usable
materials within the cell.
h) Peroxisomes
-membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes.
-detoxify harmful substances.
-break down free radicals (highly
reactive chemicals).
-replicate by pinching in half.
3. Chromatin
-composed of DNA and Protein.
-scattered throughout the nucleus.
-chromatin condenses to form
chromosomes when the cell divides.
4. Plasma membrane
-barrier for cell contents.
-double phospholipid layer: hydrophilic
heads and hydrophobic tails.
-other materials in plasma membrane:
protein, cholesterol, glycoproteins.

 Microvilli
-finger-like projections that increase
surface area for absorption.
 Membrane junctions
-tight junctions
-desmosomes
-gap junctions
 Selective Permeability
-the plasma membrane allows some
materials to pass while excluding
others.
-this permeability includes
movement into and out of the cell.