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1.1. CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS.

The Cardinal numbers (one, two, three, and so on) are adjectives referring to
quantity, and the Ordinal numbers (first, second, third, and so on) refer to distribution.

## NUMBER CARDINAL ORDINAL NUMBER CARDINAL ORDINAL

1 One First (1st) 16 Sixteen Sixteenth (16th)
2 Two Second (2nd) 17 Seventeen Seventeenth (17th)
3 Three Third (3rd) 18 Eighteen Eighteenth (18th)
4 Four Fourth (4th) 19 Nineteen Nineteenth (19th)
5 Five Fifth (5th) 20 Twenty Twentieth (20th)
6 Six Sixth (6th) 21 Twenty-One Twenty-First (21st)
7 Seven Seventh (7th) 22 Twenty-Two Twenty-Second (22nd)
8 Eight Eighth (8th) 23 Twenty-Three Twenty-Third (23rd)
9 Nine Ninth (9th) 24 Twenty-Four Twenty-Fourth (24th)
10 Ten Tenth (10th) 25 Twenty-Five Twenty-Fifth (25th)
11 Eleven Eleventh (11th) 26 Twenty-Six Twenty-Sixth (26th)
12 Twelve Twelfth (12th) 27 Twenty-Seven Twenty-Seventh (27th)
13 Thirteen Thirteenth (13th) 28 Twenty-Eight Twenty-Eighth (28th)
14 Fourteen Fourteenth (14th) 29 Twenty-Nine Twenty-Ninth (29th)
15 Fifteen Fifteenth (15th) 30 Thirty Thirtieth (30th)

## MATH VOCABULARY: Table, Row, Column.

If a number is in the range 21 to 99, and the second digit is not zero, we should
write the number as two words separated by a hyphen:
25 twenty-five
57 fifty-seven
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89 eighty-nine

## NUMBER CARDINAL ORDINAL NUMBER CARDINAL ORDINAL

40 Forty Fortieth (40th) 80 Eighty Eightieth (80th)
50 Fifty Fiftieth (50th) 90 Ninety Ninetieth (90th)
60 Sixty Sixtieth (60th) 100 A/One Hundred Hundredth (100th)
70 Seventy Seventieth (70th) 1,000 A/One Thousand Thousandth (1,000th)

Numbers over 100 are generally written in figures. If you want to say them aloud
or want to write them in words rather than figures you put ‘and’ in front of the number
expressed by the last two figures. For example:

## 203 two hundred and three (AmE: two hundred three)

622 six hundred and twenty-two (AmE: six hundred twenty-two)

## MATH VOCABULARY: Figure.

NOTE: The British use ‘and’ before tens and ones but the Americans usually leave the
‘and’ out.

## NUMBER CARDINAL ORDINAL

10,000 Ten Thousand Ten Thousandth
100,000 A/One Hundred Thousand Hundred Thousandth
1,000,000 A/One Million Millionth

Numbers between 1000 and 1,000,000 are usually said or written in words as:

## 1,803 one thousand, eight hundred and three

1,963 one thousand, nine hundred and sixty-three

## 2,840 two thousand, eight hundred and forty

NOTE: Notice that hundred, thousand, and so on is NOT followed by an ‘s’: two hundred
(NOT two hundreds).

## Four-figure numbers ending in 00 can also be said or written as a number of

hundreds. For example:

## 1800 can be said or written as ‘eighteen hundred’

If the number 1963 is being used to identify something, it is said as ‘one nine six
three’. We always say each figure separately like this with telephone numbers. If a
telephone number contains a double number, we used the word ‘double’:

561 6603 five six one (pause) double six ‘oh’ three
(AmE: five six one (pause) six six ‘oh’ three)

## MATH VOCABULARY: Double, Ones, Tens.

Beyond a million, the names of the numbers differ depending where you live.
The places are grouped by thousands in America and France, by the millions in Great
Britain, Germany and Spain.

NAME AMERICA UK
Billion 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000
Trillion 1 with 12 zeros 1 with 18 zeros
Quadrillion 1 with 15 zeros 1 with 24 zeros

1,412,605 one million four hundred twelve thousand six hundred and five
2,760,300 two million seven hundred sixty thousand three hundred

## 1.2. SAYING YEARS AND DATES.

YEARS

We normally say a year in two parts. In the case of years ending in ‘00’, we say
the second part in ‘hundred’:

## 1058 ten fifty-eight

1706 seventeen hundred and six (or ‘seventeen oh six’)
1865 eighteen sixty-five
1900 nineteen hundred

There are two ways of saying years ending in ‘01’ to ‘09’ before 2000. For
example:

## 1901 can be said as ‘nineteen oh one’ or ‘nineteen hundred and one’

The year 2000 is read ‘two thousand’, 2006 ‘two thousand and six’ (AmE: two
thousand six).

Post-2010 dates are often said as normal (2010 would be ‘twenty ten’).

DATES

We can say dates either with the day before the month, or the month before the
day.

## The first of January / January the first

NOTE: Be careful! The second of December 2007 is written in British English like this:
2/12/07 and in American English like this: 12/2/07

FLIGHT NUMBERS

## 110 one ten (or ‘one one oh’)

1248 twelve forty-eight
2503 twenty-five oh three
3050 three oh five oh (or ‘three zero five zero’, ‘thirty fifty)

TITLES

In names for kings and queens, ordinal numbers are written in Roman numbers.
In spoken English, the definite article is used before the ordinal number:

## Charles II - Charles the Second

Edward VI - Eduard the Sixth
Henry VIII - Henry the Eighth

1.4. NUMBER 0.

The figure 0 is normally called nought in UK and zero in USA. When numbers are
said figure by figure, 0 is often called like the letter O Examples:

My telephone number is nine six seven double two oh four six oh (967 220460)
My telephone number is nine six seven double two oh treble/triple six (967 220666)

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Zero scores in team-games are usually called nil in UK and zero in USA. In tennis,
table-tennis and similar games the word love is used (this is derived from the French
l’oeuf, meaning the egg, presumably because zero can be egg-shaped) Examples:

## 1.5. DECIMALS, FRACTIONS AND PERCENTAGES.

DECIMALS

Decimal Fractions are said with each figure separate. We use a full stop (called
“point”), not a comma, before the fraction. Each place value has a value that is one tenth
the value to the immediate left of it.

## 3.375 three point three seven five

2.36 two point three six
0.5 nought point five (AmE: zero point five)
0.75 nought point seven five (AmE: zero point seven five)

## MATH VOCABULARY: Decimal, Fraction, Value.

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FRACTIONS

Simple fractions are expressed by using “ordinal numbers” (third, fourth, fifth...)
with some exceptions:

## 1/2 One half / a half

1/3 One third / a third
2/3 Two thirds
3/4 Three quarters
5/8 Five eighths
4/33 Four over thirty-three

PERCENTAGES.

## 10% of the people – Ten per cent of the people

37% thirty-seven per cent

## MATH VOCABULARY: Percentage, Per Cent, Numeral.

REMEMBER: Use (,) and (.) in the opposite way –the points for the decimals and the
commas for thousands, millions, and so on.