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Police Photography

Equipment – 1700 – Camera obscura was designed by Leonardo da Venci for accurate perspective and scale.

Chemicals – 1725 – 1777 – Light sensitivity of silver nitrate and silver chloride solution had been discovered and investigated.

Macro- photography accomplish by:

1. Joseph Nicephore Niepce – 1816 – was able to obtain camera images on papers sensitized with silver chloride
solution fixation was partial.

2. Louis Jacques Mande Daquerre – 1839 – “Daguerreotype” the first practical photography process, image was made
permanent by the use of hypo.

3. William Henry Fox Talbot- 1841 – He patented “Caletype process negatives on paper sensitized with silver-iodide
and silver nitrate. These were contact on sensitized papers. As the tone and resolving power. Daquerreotype was

4. Sir John F.W. Herchel – 1861 – He research on colors.

Police photography - is an art or science that deals with the study of the principles of photography the preparation of the
photographic evidence and its application to police work.

Photography- is derived from Greek words, photo – which means light and graphy which means – to draw.


Photography is an essential tool for the law-enforcement investigator. As a tool, it enable him to record the visible and
in many cases, the invisible evidence of a crime. Special techniques employing infrared ultraviolet and X-ray radiation enable to
record the evidence, which is not visible. The photographic evidence can then be stored indefinitely and retrieved when needed.
There is no other process which can ferret record remember and recall criminal evidence as well as photography.

Photographs are also a means of communication .It is a languages sometimes defined as the “the most
universal of all languages” Photography has an advantage as a languages because it does not rely upon abstract
symbols-words. Photography thus is more direct and less subject to misunderstanding .As a communication medium –
has few if any equal.

Forensic Photography – The process of photographing or recording of crime scene or any other objects for
court presentations.

Photomicrography – The art or process of photographing minute objects when magnified by means of the
microscope and enlarge from 10x up.

Photomacrography – Photographing of objects directly enlarge to the negative and magnified from 1 to 9x.

Infrared Photography – The art or process of photographing or recording unseen objects by means of infra-red
film and infra-red light.


1. Identification
a) Criminal
b) Missing person
c) Lost and stolen properties
d) Civilian
2. Communication and Microfilm files
a) Transmission of photos (wire or radio photo)
b) Investigative report files
3. Evidence
a) Recording and Preserving
1.Crime scenes
2.Vehicular accidents
3.Homiside and murder
4.Robbery cases
6. Object or evidence
7.Evidential traces
b) Discovering and proving
a) By contrast control (lighting film and paper filter)
b) By Magnification (Photomicrography)
c) By invisible radiation (infra-red ultraviolet X-ray)
4. Action of offenders (Recording)
a) Surveillance
b) Burglary traps
c) Confessions
d) Re-enactment of crime
5. Court Exhibits
a) Demonstration enlargements
c) Individual photos
d) Projection slides
e) Motion pictures
6. Crime Prevention
a) Security clearance
7. Public relations
8. Police training
a) Prepared training films (police tactics investigation to techniques)
b) Traffic studies
c) Documentaries (riots and mob control, disasters prison disorders
9. Reproduction and copying
a) Photographs
b) official records

It is an art or science, which deals with the reproduction of images through the action of light, upon, sensitized materials
(film or papers) with the aid of a camera and its accessories, and the chemical processes involved therein

A photograph is both the mechanical and chemical result of photography. To reproduce a photograph light is need aside
from sensitized materials (film or pictures) Light radiated or reflected by the subject must reach the film while or other lights is
achieved by placing the film inside a light tight box (Camera)
The effect of light of on the film is not visible in the formation of images of objects. To make it visible, we need or require
a chemical processing of the exposed film called development.
The visual effect of light on the film development varies with the quantity or quality of light that reached the
emulsion of the film .Too great in the amount of light will produce a transparent or white shade after a development.
The amount of light reaching the film is dependent upon several factors like lighting condition, lens opening used etc.


a) X-rays- radiation having a wavelength between 01 to 30 manometer and mill-micros. They are produce by
passing an electric current through a special type of vacuum tube.
b) Ultra-violet rays – radiation having a length of 30 to 400 milli-microns . It is used to photography fingerprints on
multi-colored background, documents that are altered chemically or over writings, and detection of secret
c) Visible light rays – rays having a wave length of 400 or 700 milli-microns
d) Infra-red rays - radiation having a wavelength of 700 to 1000 milli-microns .It is used in taking photographs of
obliterated writings, burnt or dirty documents or blackout photography.


1. Natural- (Sunlight)
a) Bright-object in open space casts a deep and uniform shadow
b) Hazy – objects in open space casts a transparent shadow
c) Dull – objects in open space casts no shadow
2. Artificial
a) Continuous radiation –incandescent lamps fluorescent lamps photoflood lamps etc.
b) Short duration –chemical flash bulb electronic flush


Perhaps the most important characteristics of a film are its variation in response to the different wavelength of
light source, which is called spectral sensitivity.
1. Blue sensitive-sensitive to ultra violet rays, and blue color only
2. Orthochomatic-sensitive to ultra-violet rays to blue and green color
3. Panchromatic-sensitive to ultraviolet rays.
4. Infra-red sensitive to ultra-violet rays, to all the color and also infrared rays.

The extend to which an emulsion is sensitive to light is referred to its emulsion speed. The two general types of
speed ratings are:
1. ASA rating (American Standard Association)
This is expressed in arithmetical value system. The speeds in numbers are directly proportional to the sensitivity of the
material. A film with an arithmetical value of 400 is four times as fast as one with a speed of 100.
2. DIN (Detche Industri Normen) rating
This is expressed in logarithmic value system. In this system an increase of
degrees double the sensitivity of the film.
3. ISO rating- combination of ASA and DIN rating.


1. According to chemical contents- Chloride papers, bromide papers, chloro-bromide papers.
2. According to contrast- #0, #1, #2, #3.
3. According to physical characteristics – weight (single, double) surface (glossy, semi-matte, matte) color (color,

A camera is basically nothing more than a light box with a pinhole or lens, shutter at one end and a holder of sensitized
material at the other. While there are various of camera from the simplest in construction (Box-type) to the most complicated, all
operate on the same principle. The exposure of the sensitized material to light is controlled by the lens and closing of lens to
The essential parts of a camera are: a light tight box, a lens, a shutter, a holder of sensitized, material, and a
viewfinder. All other accouterments of any camera merely make picture taking easier, faster, and convenient for the operator and
are called accessories.
1. Body or light tight box- suggests an enclosure devoid of light. An enclosure, which would prevent light from
exposing the sensitized, materialized material inside the camera. This does not necessarily mean that the box or enclosure to
always light tight at all times because if it does, then no light could reach the sensitized material during exposure. It means that
before and after the extraneous light, which is not necessary to form the final images.
2. Lens – The function of the lens is to focus the light coming from the subject. It is chiefly responsible for the
sharpness of the image formed through which light passes during the exposure.
3. Shutter- is used to allow light to enter through the lens and reach the film for pre-determined intervals of time, which
light is again block off from the film.
4. Holder of sensitized material- located at the opposite side of the lens. Its function is to hold firmly the sensitized
material in its place during exposure to prevent the formation of a multiple or blurred image of the subject.
5. View-finder- it is a means of determining the field of view of the camera or the extent of the coverage of the


1. Spherical Aberration - Photographic rays passing through the edges of a lens are bent or refracted more sharply
than those passing through the central part of the lens, thus they come to a focus nearer the central part of the central rays.
2. Coma – sometimes known as lateral spherical aberration. It concerns with rays entering the lens obliquely.
3. Curvature of field - when the image formed by a lens comes to a sharper focus on curved surface than on a flat
4. Distortion – cuter parts of the image produced by the lens will be magnified either less or more than the center

5. Chromatic Aberration - inability of the lens to focus all the colors in the same place.
6. Astigmatism – inability of the lens to focus lines. Running in different direction like for example a cross.
7. Chromatic different of magnification – inability of the lens to produce image sizes of objects with different colors.
8. Flares - a) optical
b) Mechanical

Types of lenses according to their degree of correction:

1. Achromatic lens – a lens corrected for chromatic aberration.
2. Rapid Rectilinear lens – lens corrected for distortion.
3. Anastigmat lens – lens corrected for astigmatism
4. Apochromat lens – lens corrected for astigmatism but with a higher correction to color.

1. Focal Length – is the distance measured from the optical center of the lens to the film plane when the lens is set of
focused at infinity position. As according to focal length, lenses maybe classified as:
a) Wide Angle lens – a lens with a focal length of less than the diagonal of its negative material.
b) Normal lens – a lens with a focal length of approximately equal or more but not more the twice the diagonal
of its negative material.
c) Long or Telephoto lens – a lens with a focal length of more than twice the diagonal of its negative material.
2. Relative Aperture – The light gathering power of the lens is expressed in the F – number system. It is otherwise
called the relative aperture. By increasing or decreasing the f – number numerically, it is possible to:
a) control the amount of light passing through the lens
b) control the depth of field
c) control the degree of sharpness due to lens defects
3. Depth of Field – is distance measured from the nearest to the farthest object in
apparent sharp focus when the lens is set or focused at a particular distance.
Hyper focal distance – is the nearest distance at which with a given particular diaphragm opening which will give the
maximum depth of field.
Focusing – is the setting of the proper distance in order to form a sharp image a lens of a camera except those fixed
requires focusing. A lens maybe focused any of the following:
a) Focusing scale or scale bed – a scale is usually found at the lens barrel indicating pre-settled distance a feet or in
meters. To focus the lens of the camera, the distance of the object to be photographed is measured estimated a calculated and
the pointer or maker on the lens barrel is adjusted to the corresponding number on the scale.
b) Range–finder – is a mechanism that measures the angle of the convergence of light coming from a subject as seen
from two apertures. There are two types of range finders:

1. Split – image through the range finder, the image of a straight line in the object appears into halves and
separated from each other when the lens is not in focus. When the images of the lines are aligned, the lens
is in focus.
2. Co-incident- through the eyepiece, a single image is double when the subject is out of focus. Make the
image coincide and the lens is ion focus.
c) Ground glass- is focused by directly observing the image formed at the
ground glass, screen placed behind the taking lens. If the image formed is blurred, fuzzy or not cleared, the lens is out of focus.
Make the image sharp, the lens is in focus.
d) Zone – This is possible in wide-angle lenses only. There are only three setting for focusing for focusing.
One for close distance (approximate 3-6ft) another for medium distance (approximately 15 infinity)

J. SHUTTER – Contraption or device used to block the path of light passing through the lens and exposing the sensitized
Generally are two types of shutters:
1. Central shutters - one that is located near the lens (usually between the elements of the lens) It is made of metal
leaves and its action starts from the center toward the side then closes back to the center.
2. Focal Plane shutters - is located near the focal plane or the sensitized material. It is usually made of cloth curtain. Its
action starts on one side and closes on the opposite sides.

K. EXPOSURE – is the product of illumination and time. Exposure is computed by any of the following methods:
1. Use of light exposure meter. The amount of light coming from a source of the amount of light being reflected by the
subject is measured by the meter. Proper adjustment therefore becomes simplified.
2. By taking into consideration exposure facture like, emulsion speed or film sensitivity, lighting condition, and kind of
Example: When using a film with an ASA rating of 100, for a normal subject, set the shutter speed
at1/25 in accordance with the following lighting conditions:

Bright sunlight – f-11

Hazy sunlight – f-8
Dull sunlight – 5-6
Exposure errors effects: a) detail
b) tone reproduction
c) contrast
1. Development – is process or reduction. Exposed silver halides are reduced into metallic silver. There is a separate
developer for film – (D76) and another for paper (Dektol). The factors that affects developing time are: agitation, temperature,
concentration of chemicals and exposure.
2. Stop – Bath – an intermediate bath between the developer and the fixer. It is usually combination of water plus
acetic acid or just plain water. Primarily, its function is to prevent the contamination of two chemical solutions.
3. Fixation – The process of removing unexposed silver halide remaining in the emulsion after the first stage of
development of the latent image. The usual composition of an acid fixing solution are solvent silver halide known as hypo, an
anti- staining agent like acetic acid, a preservative like sodium sulfate, and a hardening agent like potassium alum.
4. Processing method – negative positive method, reversal method.
Chemical composition of a developer:
1. Reducers or developing agents – Elon, Hydroquinone
2. Preservative – sodium sulphite
3. Accelerator – Sodium carbonate
4.Restrainer or fog preventer – Potassium Bromide
Chemical composition of fixer:
1. Dissolving Agent – Hypo or Sodium thiosulphate
2. Preservative – sodium sulphite
3. Neutralizer – Boric acid, acetic acid
4. Agitation or stirring during development

After processing an exposed film into a negative, the next step would be to turn the negative into a positive print or
copy. This could be done by either contact printing or projection printing. For contact printing, a contact printer is used while in
projection printing an enlarger is needed. There are four essential parts of an enlarger: a base and stand, a lamp house, a
condenser or diffuser, and a lens. Accessories of the enlarger are the steps in enlarging:
1. Preparation of the darkroom, chemicals and the enlarger.
2. Put off white light, switch on red light.
3. Place the negative in the holder with the dull side of the negative facing down.
4. Insert the negative holder into the enlarger.
5. Switch on the enlarger’s light.
6. Adjust the easel to the desired size of the photograph.
7. Focus the lens of the enlarger. Focusing is done by first opening the lens diaphragm fully. If after the image has been focused,
and the density of the negative permits, the lens of the enlarger must be stopped down a little bit.
8. Switch off the light of the enlarger.
9. Insert the photographic paper in the easel with the shinny side facing up.
10. Make the exposure.
11. Immerse the exposed photographic paper in the developer. The usual developing time for a normally exposed paper is about
1 to 1 ½ minutes.
12. Transfer the developed print in the stop bath for about to 30 seconds.
13. Place the prints in the acid fixer. The fixing time is about to 30 minutes.
14. Wash the print in running water for about 20 to 30 minutes.
15. Drying
16. Mounting
17. Drying chemical defects in negatives
a) Underdevelopment- Intensifier
b) Overdevelopment – Reducer
c) Stains – Stain remover
Frequent faults in printing.
1. Blurred Exhibits
2. Muddy and mottled exhibits
3. Yellowish exhibits
4. Dark exhibits
5. Light exhibits
6. Harsh exhibits
7. Flat exhibits
8 Fogged exhibits
9. Blemishes on prints
10. Distorted prints


In certain types of crimes, particularly these involving physical violence, the crime scene, including the location of
relevant objects with it is of vital importance in establishing points of proof. A permanent record of such a crime scene is
indispensable to a successful presentation of the case in court. If the scene altered through carelessness or haste, it cannot be
restored to its exact original condition and vital elements of proof may thereby lost. Moreover, in the initial stages of investigation,
the significance of certain aspects of the same may not be evident, although later may affect vitally the issues in the case.
Hence, the first step in the investigation of any crime is to photograph completely and accurately all the aspects of the scene
before any of the objects of evidence are removed or otherwise disturbed. Similar photograph can also be made after the body or
bodies have been removed. It is always wise to take too many photograph rather than too few.

Since crime scene photographs are designed to provide such views of the area as would have met the eye of an
observer, the procedure of taking crime photographs is straightforward. A set of four photographs is usual minimum to show a
room adequately, and many more maybe made in the case of a major crime. Medium distant views as well as close-up
photographs, should be made of important objects. Two lenses are usually sufficient. A wide angle lens for interior photographs
and a normal lens for cut door photographs and other purpose. Rarely is a telephoto lens is required in crime scene
Occasionally existing room light may be satisfactory for photographic purposes; however, the photographer will usually
have to provide additional illumination for interior shots Photoflood, photoflash, or electronic lamps can be used.
For general view of the scene, use the camera at eye level. These photographs provide a representation of the scene
as the average eye witness might have observed it naturally, if you wish to show an object not in the normal line of vision you
must place the camera elsewhere.
Measuring devices as rulers, yardsticks or tape measures can be used to show relative size of and distance between
objects or the degree of magnification of an enlargement. They should not obscure any important part of the evidence. In
document or small object photographs, 6 inch or 15 centimeter ruler placed at the bottom or just below of the object will show the
relative size of the objects in a photographic exhibit.
Photography proves itself as vital necessary to aids the investigation, solution, and prosecution of a crime scene.
Photography affords a permanent visual record of the crime scenes, person, places and things. Therefore standards procedures
are indicated in order to obtain the desired results.
Remember that photographs are often necessary to correct rate testimony of certain witness and usually add weight
and credibility to their testimony.
In photographing the scene, the photographer should attempt to record all useful information in series of photographs
that will help the viewer to understand WHERE and HOW crime was committed. The term crime scene refers to not only to the
immediate site of the crime, but also to adjacent areas, which may be important in establishing the location and surrounding of
the immediate site.

Photographic Procedure:
1. The camera should be mounted on a sturdy tripod whenever feasible to prevent camera movement.
2. The camera should be leveled whenever commensurate with the particular photograph to be taken.
3. Crime scene views include three general classes:
a. long views showing general classes
b. Medium views, pinpointing a specific object of evidence or significant segment of the crime scene.
c. close-up views, recording position and detail.
4. Photographs should be taken progressively as the photographer enters the building or room to avoid disturbing that
might otherwise remain unnoticed, and to maintain continuity.
5. Views should be taken to illustrate the general location of the scene of the crime. A large outdoor scene or a matter
involving several building may call for an aerial view.
6. Definitely required is view of the exterior of the building when the crime was committed inside. It is well to include the
street number when this is possible.
7. Needed next is the complete photographic coverage of the interior rooms within the crime area, which show the
condition in general and relate the overall scene to specific items and places.
8. Bodies of victim should be photographed exactly as found, from all angles and specially overhead when this can be
done, for identification purposes.
a. Close-up photographs, one to one. If possible, should be taken all wounds, bruises, discolorations, and
abrasion generally with color.
9. Measuring devices such as rulers, yardsticks, and tape measures can be used to show the relative size and
distance between objects of the degree of magnification of an enlargement.
They should not obscure any important part of the evidence. In photographing a document for example, the
ruler of 6 inch (0r 15 centimeter) is placed at the bottom or just below the object in a photographic exhibit.
10. Field notes
a) Record the date and time of arrival at the scene as well as the time of departure from the scene.
b) Specifically record the location area, street number, name of building, and type of scene.
c) Write down names and badge numbers of all investigative officers
present during photographing.
d) Total and record the number of exposures, which necessitates that bad negatives be saved for the record.
e) Record specific information on each exposure. This expressed either using AM or PM or military type 24
hour scales on which 3:00 pm becomes 1500 hours.

a. Direction camera pointed
b. General statement of what photographed
c. Exposure & ASA rating
d. Kind of film
e. The lighting whether available, flood lamps, flash, lamps, etc.
Problems in Fingerprint Photography
1. Black fingerprint on colored background
2. White fingerprint on colored background
3. Fingerprint on multi-colored background
4. Fingerprint on glass
5. Fingerprint on polished metal
6. Fingerprint on papers

Problems in Questioned Documents Photographs

1. On Handwriting
a. sequence of crossed lines
b. writing over folds
c. differentiation of inks and pencil
d. patching
2. On Papers
a. erasures
b. watermarks
c. elimination of paper background
d. faded writing
e. restored out writing
d. stamped papers

FILTERS – is a homogenous medium, which absorbs and transmits differentially light rays passing through it.
A color filter work in such a way that it will transmit its own color and absorbs other colors.
By using filters in combination with black and white films, the photographer can control tonal values to get a tonal
differences for visibility, emphasis, and other effects. With color films, filters are used to change the color quality of the exposing
lights to secure proper color balance with the film being used.

Because filter subtract some of the light passing through the lens, an increase in exposure time or lens opening is
necessary. The number of times that the normal exposure must be multiplied is called “filter factor”.
That filter factor value depends on film type and light source in addition to the absorption of the filter.

Types of filters in black and white photography

1. Correction filter- used to change the response of the film so that all colors are recorded at approximately the
relative3 brightness values seen by the eye.
2. Contrast filter- used to change the relative brightness values so that two colors which would otherwise be recorded
as nearly the same will have decidedly different brightness in the picture.
3. Haze filter- used to eliminate or reduce the effect of serial haze.
4. Neutral density filter- used for reducing the amount of light transmitted without changing the color value.
5. Polarizing filter- used to reduce



1. Angular writing - a style of writing taught to a written in some women’s colleges.

2. Arch - any arcade form in the body of the letter.
3. Arcaded and Garlanded type - two main groups on of which inclines its preference in a varying degree towards
“U” formation while the opposite group shows a predilection for “N” formations.
4. Alignment – is relation of the parts of the whole line of writing or line of individual letters in words or
signature to the baseline.
5. Ambidextrous - a person who can write both left and right hand.
6. Aniline ink - an ink made out of coal tar dissolved in acids.
7. Baseline – rules of imaginary line where the writing rest.
8. Beard – rudimentary curved initial strokes.
9. Bibliotics- refers to the science of handwriting analysis.
10. Buckle Knot – the horizontal and looped strokes that are often used to complete such letters.
11. Blunt - the beginning and ending stokes of letters both small and capital, in which the pen touched the paper
without hesitation.
12. Blunt Ending or Beginning – blunt ending and initial strokes are results of the drawing process in forgery.
13. Buckle knot - the horizontal and looked stroked that are often used to complete such letters as a A,P,F,H,T.
14. Cacography – is characterized as bad writing.
15. Calligraphy - is the art of beautiful writing.
16. Camera-lucida – it serves to refute the contention that the notched edges or microscopic serration on pen
strokes identify a particular writer.
17. Careless scribble - signatures used to acknowledge delivery, purchase of goods and mail.
18. Central Part of the Body- the part of a letter ordinary formed by a small circle that usually lies on the line of
19. Characteristics - any property or marks which distinguished one from the other in a document examination,
refers to identifying detail.
20. Chain of custody - refers to the sequential steps of collecting documentary evidence, verifying its authentically
and subsequent packaging and preserving the document to secure the genuineness of the document.
21. Checks – refers to a written order addressed to a bank or persons carrying on the business of banking by a
party having money in their hands requesting them to pay on presentment to a person named therein or to his
order, or to bearer, a named sum of money (De Leon, 1997).
22. Class characteristics - characteristics which are common to a group of writings.
23. Color of each denomination - the writing color tone gives a hold look to the picture of the central bank notes
that makes it stand out of the picture.
24. Collected standard – refers to a specimen handwriting which is executed from day to day in course of business,
special and personal affairs.
25. Copy, enlarge and chart - a three purposes of the photograph in questioned document examination.
26. Copybook Form – design of letters, which is fundamental to a writing system.
27. Commercial document - A document or instrument executed in accordance with code of commerce or
mercantile law.
28. Connecting Strokes – refers to the strokes of links that connects a letter.
29. Contemporary handwriting standard- five years prior to the date of questioned document.
30. Counterfeiting - an imitation of something genuine w/ intention to depend usually in the form of banknotes and
31. Cursive writing - writing in which the letters are for the most part are joined together.
32. Criminalistics – refers to the application of the physical sciences to the investigation of crimes such as
chemistry, physics, biology, physical anthropology, medicine, and evaluating physical evidence.
33. Diacritic - element necessary or added to complete a letter.
34. Dictated standard - specimen of hand writing secured by dictating the text of a questioned document or other
writing materials to a subjects.
35. Disguised writing - a writer deliberately try to alter his usual writing habit which hopes of hiding his identity.
36. Disputed Document – It is, therefore, always a questioned document, while a questioned document is not
always a disputed document. Disputed document means that there is argument or controversy over the
document. In this book, however, “Disputed Document” may be used interchangeably for a questioned
37. Divisions of writings - refers to the following: slow and drawn, deliberate and average and rapid.
38. Document - in its fullest meaning is any material, which contains marks, symbols or signs that may presently or
ultimately convey a meaning or message to someone. Any material which contain marks, symbol or sign which is
visible, partially visible, or invisible which convey meaning or message to someone.
39. Document Examination - specialized form of investigation of documents that applies the modern scientific
technique such as forensic chemistry, microscopy, and photography.
40. Document Examiners – refers to the person who studies scientifically in the examination of documents such as
bank tellers, signature verifier, examiner, and the like.
41. Elite - twelve letters per inch in typewriting
42. Extensors - the group of muscles that account for upward strokes.
43. Eye loop or Eyelet - the small loop formed by strokes that extend in divergent direction.
44. Evidence – this meant sanctioned by the Revised Rules of Court of ascertaining in a judicial proceeding the truth
respecting a matter of fact. (Sec.1, Rule 128, Revised Rules of Court of the Philippines)
45. Evidential Document – refers to all documents such as handwritings, type writings, printings and marks
intended to prove or capable of proving any principal or collateral fact of investagative or legal interest.
Encompasses all documents, writings, type writings, printings, and marks intended to prove or capable of
proving, any principal or collateral fact of investigative or legal interest.
46. Figures – refers to amount or value given in the document.
47. Filar-Micrometer - this device is useful in many instances for making accurate measurements and comparison
and question documents.
48. Flexors - the group of muscles that account for downward strokes.
49. Foot of the Letter or Oval – the lower portion of any down stroke which terminates on the baseline.
50. Forensic Science - refers to the application of science to criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police
agencies in a criminal justice system.
51. Forgery – refers to a documents falsely making or altering, with intent to defraud, a negotiable and legally
enforceable instruments, such as a check.
52. Form – refers to the shape or design of the individual letters.
53. Formation pen ink - the best writing inks, quick drying, water proof and durable.
54. Flying start & flying finish – refers to the motion of pen precedes the beginning of the strokes and continuous
beyond the end of vanishing point and are found to be free and natural writing.
55. Grapology - refers to the study of handwriting, especially as a means of analyzing the writer’s character,
aptitude, and attitudes.The method aims to be able to determine and know about person’s characteristic, traits,
and personality by the way he writes his letters and shapes his words shapes.
56. Handwriting – it is an expression of established muscular habits reacting or resulting from a fixed patterened
mental expression of ideas.
57. Haste - an element handwriting embracing skill, space freedom hesitation, rhythm, emphasis, tremor etc.
58. Hesitation - irregular thickening of an ink lines in which is found when the writing shows down or stop while
penman take stock of his position.
59. Hiatus – is a gap between strokes due to speed in writing and defective writing instruments.
60. Hitch – the introductory backward stroke.
61. Holograph Documents – is a document which is completely written and signed by one person.
62. Hook or Trough – the bend, crook or curved on the inner side of the bottom loop or curve of small letter.
63. Hump – the rounded outside of the bend, crook, or curve in small letters.
64. Indelible ink - are used mostly when a penetrating marking is desired that will not erased.
65. Indentation process - a canal look outline of the genuine signature is produced on the fraudulent document
which is placed at the bottom of the tracing with considerable pressure the outline of genuine signature with a
sharp pointed instruments.
66. Individual characteristics - characteristics which is highly personal and peculiar and is likely to occur in some
other instances.
67. Infrared film photography - the best way to bring out the writing on charred papers.
68. Investigator - in relation to written documents is the person who collects documentary evidence and preserve
this in its original form to present its damage and deterioration by proper packaging and correct technique of
69. Guided hand signature - signatures actually produced by corporation of two hands and two minds.
70. Knob – rounded appearance at the beginning or ending strokes.
71. Lateral Spacing – is considered as common characteristics when it conforms to the ordinary copy-book
72. Line quality - the overall character of the written stroke from the initial to the terminal. Refers also to the visible
record in the written stroke of the basic movement and manner of holding the writing instrument.
73. Lower left side of the check – is the location of magnetic ink character recognition in a check.
74. Lumbricals - the group of muscles that account for the lateral movements.
75. Main Stroke or Shank Stem – downward strokes of any letters.
76. Metallic thread - special thread placed vertically on the paper during manufacture of Central bank notes.
77. Micrometer caliper - is an instrument very accurate thickness measurements can be made and it often is a sort
papers that are actually different by the thickness rest alone.
78. Microscope - the instrument which makes it possible to see physical evidence directly that otherwise might be
invisible but its application to the investigation of documents is not so well understood.
79. Natural variation - a normal or usual deviation found between a repeated specimen of individual handwriting
and product of typewriting. Due to lack of machine-like precision of the human hand; is caused by external
factors, such as the writing instrument and the writing position; influences by physical and mental condition such
as fatigue, intoxication, illness, nervousness and the age of the writer; due to the quality of the writing prepared in
the course of time, variation in genuine signature appears in superficial parts and does not apply to the whole
process of writing.
80. Official Document - is an instrument issued by the head of Government Offices. The officers must issue the
document in the performance of their duties
81. Optical bleaches - minutes colorless fluorescent materials incorporated in the paper manufactures during the
post war period.
82. Patching - the going over of a defective portion of writing stroke in a questioned document.
83. Perjury- telling lies under oath: the telling of a lie after having taken an oath to tell the truth, usually in a court of

84. Pencil writing – refers to a writing is usually photographed by process panchromatic film.
85. Pen emphasis – it is the periodic increase in pressure of intermittently forcing the pen against the paper
surface with increased pressure.
86. Pen lift - stroke interruption caused by moving the writing instrument from the paper. Pen-lift or disconnection
between letters and letter combinations are maybe due to lack of movement control.
87. Pen failure - an interruption in a stroke caused by the failure of the ink of the writing instrument to register on the
surface of the paper.
88. Pen pressure - the average force with which the pen contrasts the paper. It is also the average force in which
the pen makes contact with the paper or the usual force involved in writing.
89. Pica - ten letters per inch in typewriting.
90. Plagiarism – refers to taking and using as one’s own the ideas, writing, etc. of another.
91. Photographs - is very necessary and useful in nearly every questioned document investigation and in many
cases it is impossible without them to present the facts to a court and jury in an effective convincing manner.
92. Photography – is the scientific technique of identifying the substance used in document.
93. Photomacrography - is the process of obtaining magnified photo of a small object without the use of a
microscope by using short focus lens and a long below extension.
94. Photomicrography - is the science of obtaining photographic magnification of above by using a camera
attached to compound microscope. The process of obtaining a magnified photograph of a small object without
the use of a microscope by using a short focus lens of a long bellows extension.
95. Photostat - reproduction of a document thru a sensitive paper in lines of film.
96. Post litem motam standard – refers to a requested standard.
97. Post litem motam examination - standard hand writing execute after the indent.
98. Principal movement in writing – refers to the following: finger and hand movement, whole arm movement, and
forearm movement.
99. Private document - a document or instrument executed upon the private person without the intervention of
notary public.
100. Public document - a document or instrument executed by the notary public or Public official with solemnities
required by law.
101. Print writing - It is otherwise known as “block lettering” or “roman capital”.
102. Proof – refers to the amount of evidence which will estabish the fact to the satisfaction of the tribunal.
103. Proof in Civil Cases – refers to the proof produced by a preponderance or strength of evidence.
104. Proof in Criminal Cases - refers to the proof produced by evidence beyond a reasonable doubt.
105. Proportion – individual characteristics in relative proportion of letters or proportion of a part of a letter or
relative height of one letter can be found in different writings. Proportion in letters is one of the hidden
features of writing. It is unknown even to the writer.
106. Redial letters - letters between the initial and terminal letters.
107. Retouching - a partial over writing of a signature.
108. Retouching Patching – stroke that goes back to repair a defective portion of writing.
109. Retrace or Retracing – a stroke that goes back over another writing stroke.
110. Requested standard - a specimen of a person’s writing of handwriting executed upon request.
111. Ratio – the relation between the tall and short letters is referred to as the ration of the writing.
112. Rhythm - is the harmonious recurrence of stress or impulse or motion of the hand. It is the balanced quality of
movements of the harmonious recurrence of stress or impulse.
113. Rubric or Embellishment – refers to additional unnecessary strokes not necessary to legibility of
letterforms or writings but incorporated in writing for decorative or ornamental purposes.
114. Questioned Document – refers to the origin of its contents on the circumstances of the story regarding its
production that could arouse serious suspicion as to its genuiness. A document upon which some issued has
been raises under security.
115. Safety paper - a paper which has been treated in such a way to minimize the chance of forgery by ensure,
mechanical or chemical.
116. Sequence of cross lines - the determination of what line has been write first between two intersecting lines.
117. Shading – is the widening of the ink strokes with increase pressure on the paper surface.
118. Shadowgraph - a writing instrument that makes detection of pen-lefts, hesitate and patching.
119. Shading - the widening of the ink stroke w/c may be due to added pressure on a flexible pen point or to the use
of other written instrument.
120. Skills - proficiencies in the art of writing, usually described to manual dexterity and legibility in hand writing.
121. Slant - the angle or inclination of the axis of letters relative to the baseline.
122. Staff – backspace of a letter.
123. Standard - a condensed & impact set of authentic specimen which if proven and adequate would contain a true
cross section of material from known source.
124. Steel rule - the instrument that which useful for certain other classes of document measurement especially for
general testing purposes.
125. Stereoscopic microscope - is best suited for questioned document examination because it gives a three
dimensional image.
126. Signature – refers to customary signatures of a person.
127. Significant parts of signatures – refers to the last stroke of words, separate capital letters and flying start.
128. Signature verifier – refers to a person who specialized in the verification of signature to determine the validity
and originality of document.
129. Simulated forgery - refers to the act of simulation, copying or imitation of a genuine signature of writing.
130. Size – size as writing characteristics is somewhat divergent under varying condition and may have but
little significance when applied to only one example, or to as small quality of writing like a signature
unless the divergence is very pronounced.
131. Space- Filler or Terminal spur – an upward horizontal or downward final stroke usually seen in small
132. Specimen of writing - is said to be written by a particular person if all its identifying elements are a part of his
133. Spur – refers to short, horizontal beginning strokes.
134. Spurious Signature – refers to an evidential document described as fraudulent signature.
135. Spurious or simple forgery - fraudulent signature in which no apparent attempt to stimulate or imitate a
genuine signature.
136. Sympathetic ink - is also called as invisible ink.
137. Terminal Strokes and Initial Strokes – when a letter, word or name (signature) is completed in a free, natural
writing, the pen is usually raised from the paper while in motion with a “flying finish” (or what is also
referred to as “vanishing”, “tapering” or “flourishing” terminal strokes) and with may writers, the motion
of the pen also slightly precedes the putting of the pen on the paper at the beginning with a “flying start”
so that the strokes at the beginning and end of words gradually diminish or taper to a “vanishing point”.
138. Toner - a chemical which produces the image in photocopies will react chemically with the plastic envelope used
in preserving evidentiary documents.
139. Traced forgery - fraudulent signature which was executed by actually following the outline of a genuine
signature with the writing instrument.
140. Tremor - a writing weakness portrayed by irregular and shaky strokes. It means “deviations from uniform strokes
due to lack of smoothness perfectly apparent even without magnification”.
141. Ultra-violet photography - the utilized of ultra-violet rays indoor photography to restore writings which have
been erased chemically or mechanically or in the detection of substitution over writing secret writings.
142. Variation - are normal or usual deviations formed in repeated specimen of any individuals’ handwriting.
143. Whirl – the upward strokes usually on letters that have long loops.
144. Writing – is the result of a very complicated series of acts, being as a whole a combination of certain forms,
which are the very visible result of mental and muscular habits, acquired by long, continued, painstaking effort.
145. Writing skill – it is the relative degree of ability of a writer’s proficiency.

Pioneers in Questioned Documents Examination

1. Albert Sherman Osborn - father of scientific examination of “Questioned Document”.
2. Albert D. Osborn - third President of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners.
3. B.J. Vreeland Haring and J. Howard Haring - the father and son Haring of New York were the word
famous handwriting experts who testified on Charles A. Lindberg Jr. Kidnapping case.
4. J. Newton Baker- a Consultative Expert in Disputed document, and in 1955 he authored the book, “Law of
Disputed and forged documents.”
5. James V. P. Conway was an Examiner of Questioned Documents of San Francisco, California Postal
Inspector in charge San Francisco Identification Laboratory U.S. Postal Inspection Service and authored
“Evidential Documents” which was published in Springfield, Illinois, USA in 1959.
6. Hans Scheickert (1876-1944)- a Doctor of Law and Director of the identification Bureau of the Police
Department of Berlin until 1928. He was a Criminology Professor at the University of Berlin in 1920 and a
well-known handwriting expert.
7. Dr. Wilson R. Harrison was the Director of the British Government’s Office Home Office Forensic Science
Society of Questioned Document Examiners. He authored the book “Suspect Document Examiners Their
Scientific Examination,” first published in London in 1958.

World’s Cases on Disputed Document

1. John Magnuson case: Date 1922; Location: Marshfield, Misconsin; Significance: From just a few scraps of
bomb-damaged paper, investigator gleaned enough evidence to capture the Yule Bomb Killer.
2. Arthur Perry case: Date: 1937; Location: New York City; Significance: So many factors were combined in
this case that it has come to be regarded as an American detection classic.
3. Hitler Diaries case: Date: 1981; Location: Hamburg, West Germany; Significance: History’s greatest
publishing fraud was first legitimized and then exposed by scientific analysis.
4. Graham Backhouse case: Date 1984; Location: Horton, England; Significance: This case provides an
example of the interdependence of forensic discipline that helps to solve so many cases.

Empirical characterization
1. Prototypical Documents: Letters, memos, legal forms, Instruction manual
2. Documents of Record: Newspapers and magazines
3. Books: Text book, Novels, Recipe books, Encyclopedia, Comic books
4. Canonical Documents: The Bible,Iliad and Odyssey,Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Quran, Code of
Hammurabi,Tao Te Ching
5. Transactional Documents: Cheque, Contracts, Prescription, Receipt, Form (document), Postage Stamp
6. Functional Documents: PDF files, PostScript files, XML files, Email
7. Non-Prototypical Documents: Post-it notes, Fortune cookie strips, Maps, Paintings, milk cartons, cereal
8. Non-Classical Digital Documents: Web Page, Weblog, Wiki
9. Boundary Examples: The plaque on the Pioneer 11 spacecraft, designed by astronomer Carl Sagan, and
using information assumed to be universal is an extreme example of a document that is intended to
communicate with aliens.

Social Aspects of Documents

1. Social Value
2. Manifestation of authority
3. Conventional
4. Manifestation of economic labor
5. Manifestation of business processes
6. Instruments of Governance and Law
7. Analytical philosophical character
8. Role in Religion
9. Cultural Significance
10. Metaphoric Significance

Functional Characteristics
1. Manifest nature
2. Contextuality and Situatedness
3. Evolvability
4. Renderability
5. Affordances

Classical Roles and Workflows in Document Production

1. An author selects the content to be communicated and performs the initial organization and recording of the
content. A document in this state is often called a manuscript.
2. A reviewer reads the content and evaluates it with respect to the intended audience. Reviewers often
recommend only the best documents to be published. Documented reviews are frequently published as
guidelines for document consumers as well.
3. An editor helps to organize and express the content so that the meaning is clear and understandable, and
follows the conventions of the symbolic representation such as spelling and grammar.
4. A publisher orchestrates the process of producing a document, often decides whether a document is worth
the effort of publishing (usually an economic decision), and collects and disseminates the profits from sales
of a produced document.
5. A printer formats the document into a comfortable form such as a bound book. Printing can be a very
complex and elaborate process, including
1) pagination - function performed by an individual who takes on the tasks of organizing text, fonts,
images, headings, footnotes, chapters and sections to accommodate the physical constraints of a
printed page aesthetically.
2) pre-press -- function performed by print shops in preparing paper documents for production.
3) imposition - organizing desired pages on a larger media such that when folded and trimmed the
pages will be upright and in order.
4) printing - marking paper with ink or toner
5) folding pages into sections
6) binding pages together and covering
7) trimming
8) packaging
6. A distributor manages inventory and physical distribution of printed documents to retailers.
7. A retailer manages a local inventory and sales to consumers, and often is familiar with the content and can
make appropriate recommendations.
8. A librarian organizes, tracks borrowing of, and archives documents.

Document Life Cycle Management Technology

1. Physical preservation
2. Storage
3. Cultural Preservation
4. Bibliometrics
5. Digital Content Management
6. Digital-Physical Interaction Management
7. Destruction
8. Security
9. Transportation

The Document Economy

1. Document Authoring Technology
2. Education
3. Electronic Document Management
4. Physical Document Management
5. Media
6. Print equipment
7. Document Services
8. Retail Production
9. Publishing
10. Document Transportation

Future of Documents
1. Blurring of the notion of document boundary
2. Increasing structure and openness
3. Dynamic nature
4. Paper and electronic are reconciling
5. Hybrid automated/human authorship
6. Prosumer workflows
7. Customizability
8. Long Tail Economics
9. Blurring of Documents and Interfaces
10. Fluidity and Dynamic Microstructure

Rules of Universally Accepted Principles of Handwriting

1. Like things must be compared.
2. Determine whether the standards are sufficient or adequate. As a rule, seven (7) or more standards being
used in comparison can sustain the examination.
3. Determine whether the dates of standards are proximate within the dates of the questioned signature.
4. Consider the conditions under which the questioned signature was executed.
5. Determine the writing instruments and paper used.
Scope of document examination
1. Handwriting (cursive / printing) and Signatures
2. Typewriters, Photocopiers, Laser printers, Fax machines
3. Chequewriters, Rubber stamps, Price markers, Label makers
4. Printing Processes
5. Ink, Pencil, Paper
6. Alterations, additions, erasures, obliterations
7. Indentations
8. Sequence of Strokes
9. Physical Matching

A person who desires to enter a career of forensic document examination must possess certain traits and
1) First and foremost, excellent eyesight is required in order to see fine details that are otherwise
2) The aspirant must also pass a form blindness test in order to ensure that the aspirant does not suffer from
the condition of being unable to tell apart two similarly-appearing, yet different, items.
3) A bachelor of science degree is also typically required, for it gives the aspirant a scientific background with
which to approach the work in an objective manner, as well as bestowing necessary biological, physical, and
chemical knowledge sometimes called upon.
4) Additional desirable skills would include knowledge of paper, ink, printing processes, or handwriting.

There are three possible methods of instruction for an aspiring document examiner:
1. Self-education is the way in which the pioneers of the field began, as there was no other method of
instruction. Unfortunately, there is a very real danger that the student will follow a stray path, with no
direction to steer him or her back on course.
2. Apprenticeship has become the widespread manner in which almost all examiners are now taught. In fact,
this is the method that is required for proper certification and membership to an established organization.
3. College and/or university programs are very limited at this time. In part, this is due to the relatively limited
demand for forensic document examiners. It also relates to the need for extensive practical experience;
particularly with respect to handwriting examination. It would be very difficult to include this degree of
practical experience in a normal academic program.

There are three stages in the process of examination. In brief, they are:
1. The questioned and the known items are analyzed and broken down to directly perceptible characteristics.
2. The characteristics of the questioned item are then compared against the known standard.
3. Evaluation of the similarities and differences of the compared properties determines which ones are valuable
for a conclusion. This depends on the uniqueness and frequency of occurrence in the items.

Common tools of the trade

1. Excellent Eyesight
2. Handlens/Loupe
3. Stereomicroscope
4. Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA)
5. Video Spectral Comparator (VSC)
 Ibn al-Haytham (also known as Alhacen or Alhazen), the "father of optics", was the first to reconcile both
schools of thought in his influential Book of Optics (1021).
 Leonardo DaVinci,1452-1519, was the first to recognize the special optical qualities of the eye.
 Roger Bacon described the properties of magnifying glass in 13th-century England, followed by the
development of eyeglasses in 13th-century Italy.
 Hans Janssen and his son Zacharias Janssen are often said to have invented the first compound
microscope in 1590, but this was a declaration made by Zacharias Janssen himself during the mid 1600s.
 The date is unlikely, as it has been shown that Zacharias Janssen actually was born around 1590. Another
favorite for the title of 'inventor of the microscope' was Galileo Galilei.
 Christiaan Huygens, another Dutchman, developed a simple 2-lens ocular system in the late 1600s that was
achromatically corrected, and therefore a huge step forward in microscope development. The Huygens ocular
is still being produced to this day, but suffers from a small field size, and other minor problems.
 Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) is credited with bringing the microscope to the attention of biologists,
even though simple magnifying lenses were already being produced in the 1500s.
Professional Organizations
1. American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) - USA
2. American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) - USA
3. Australasian Society of Forensic Document Examiners (ASFDE) - Australia/Asia
4. Canadian Society of Forensic Science (CSFS) - Canada
5. Southwestern Association of Forensic Document Examiners (SWAFDE) - Sourthwest USA
6. Southeastern Association of Forensic Document Examiners (SAFDE) - Southeast USA
7. Forensic Science Society (FSS) - United Kingdom
8. International Association for Identification (IAI)
9. Gesellschaft für Forensische Schriftuntersuchung (GFS) - Frankfurt (Germany)

ABFDE Certification
A document examiner may be certified by the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners, Inc.
(ABFDE), which was formed in 1977 with a grant from the U.S. Department of Justice. The ABFDE is the body that
carries out certification of document examiners – there is no federal licensing involved. The court recognized the
Board as reputable in the case of U.S. v. Buck, 1987, in denying a motion that claimed that handwriting comparisons
were unreliable.

An applicant for certification must meet the following requirements:

1. they must be of good moral character, high integrity and good repute; and possess high ethical and
professional standing
2. the program is limited to permanent residents of the USA, Canada and Mexico
3. must possess a bachelor degree (or higher) from an accredited academic institution, or equivalent
4. must successfully have completed a full-time training program of at least 2 years duration in a forensic
laboratory recognized by the Board
5. must provide three references from forensic document examiners certified or recognized by the Board
6. must be actively engaged in the practice of forensic document examination must demonstrate a record of
appropriate professional activity in forensic document examination

Related Areas of Questioned Document Examination

Historically, QDE has been somewhat of an inclusive profession, even to the point where so-called pseudo-
experts (in palmistry and fortune-telling) were sometimes welcome, and even today, it suffers from a bit of identity
crisis in that at least eight (8) different, or related, areas can be identified:
1. Questioned Document Examiners -- A document examiner analyzes any questioned document and is
capable of more than just questions of authorship limited only by their access to laboratory equipment.
2. Historical Dating -- These is work involving the verification of age and worth of a document or object,
sometimes done by a document examiner, and can get as complicated as Carbon-14 dating.
3. Fraud Investigators -- This is work that often overlaps with that of the document examiner and focuses on
the money trail and criminal intent
4. Paper & Ink Specialists -- These are public or private experts who date, type, source, and/or catalogue
various types of paper, watermarks, ink, printing/copy/fax machines, computer cartridges, etc., using
chemical methods
5. Forgery Specialists -- These are public or private experts who analyze altered, obliterated, changed, or
doctored documents and photos using infrared lighting, expensive spectrography equipment, or digital
enhancement techniques
6. Handwriting Analysts -- These are usually psychology experts who assess personality traits from
handwriting samples, also called graphologists or graphoanalysts; Forensic stylistics refers to the same
purpose but by looking at semantics, spelling, word choice, syntax, and phraseology.
7. Typewriting Analysts -- These are experts on the origin, make, and model used in typewritten material
8. Computer Crime Investigators -- This is an emerging group that relates to QDE through some common
investigative and testimonial procedures.

Under the Philippine law, the following are the four (4) kinds of document:
1. Commercial Document - refers to any instrument executed in accordance with the Code of Commerce or
any Mercantile, containing disposition of commercial rights or obligations.
2. Official Document - refers to any instrument issued by the Government or its agents or its officers having
the authority to do so and the officers, which in accordance with their creation, they are authorized to issue.
The officers must issue the document in the performance of their duties.
3. Public Document - refers to any instrument notarized by notary public or competent public official with
solemnities required by law. (Cacnio vs. Baens, 5 Phil. 742).
4. Private Document - refers to every deed or instrument executed by a private person without the
intervention of notary public or of any other person legally authorized, by which documents, some disposition
or agreement is proved evidenced or set forth. (US vs. Orera, 11 Phil. 596).

Classification of Questioned Documents

Documents are questioned, disputed, and attached on many grounds and for various reasons but the great
majority of questioned papers are included in the handwriting classes:
1. Document with questioned signature.
2. Document containing alleged fraudulent alteration. refers to alterations of words, part of a word, figure or
part of figure either by mechanical or chemical erasures.
3. Holographic document questioned or disputed. holographic document is a document completely written,
prepared and signed by the person himself without the assistance of any person himself without the
assistance of any person even a lawyer.
4. Document questioned as to its date or age. refers to date of the document was executed, date of the
ink…. The specific date of the ink cannot be determine thru chemical analysis.
5. Document attacked on the questioned as to the material used in their production. refers to the kind or
types of writing material, paper, ink and pencil or graphic.
6. Document questioned on the question typewriting.
a) With a view of ascertaining their source.
b) With a view to determining their date.
c) With a view of determining whether or not they contain fraudulent alterations or substituted pages.
A typewriter characteristic refers to the following:
a) PICA. Characterized by 10 letters per inch.
b) ELITE. Characterized by 12 letters per inch.
c) TELETYPE. Characterized by 6 letters per inch.
d) SPECIAL TYPEWRITER. Characterized by 14 to 16 letters per inch.
7. Document or writing investigated because it is alleged that may identify some person through
a) Anonymous letter and disputed letters
b) Superscriptions, registrations, and miscellaneous writings.
8. Genuine documents erroneously or fraudulently attacked.

Types of instrument used in questioned documents

1. Filar-Micrometer – this device is used in many instances for making accurate measurements and
comparisons. A filar micrometer is a device used in astronomical telescopes for precision measurements.
The word filar derives from Latin filum, a thread. It refers to the fine threads or wires used in the device.
2. Stereoscopic Microscope – this style of instrument permits the middle or any part of a large surface to be
examined which otherwise might be impossible or the small stage of the ordinary microscope.
3. Camera- Lucida – is sometimes useful but not often. It serves to refute the contention that the notched
edges, or microscopic serrations, on pen strokes identity a particular writer. The camera lucida was patented
in 1807 by William Hyde Wollaston.
4. Comparison Microscope – this instrument is originally designed by the author for the utilization of the
Lovibond Tintometer Glasses in recording ink colors. Osborn had designed a comparison microscope which
was later manufactured by Bausch & Lomb.

Special Types of Instruments Used in Questioned Document Examination

1. Ordinary hand magnifies or simple microscope –is used alone or as adjusts of the compound
microscope are often of great assistance and should always be provided in a court in query regarding a
document. When delicate color value are under examination it is desirable to use glasses in which the
chromatic observation has been corrected.
2. Finely graduated measures –is especially useful in typewriter inquiries where it is necessary to prove
certain identities and differences.
3. Steel rule – is useful for certain other classes of document measurement especially for general testing
4. Micrometer caliper - is useful for paper comparisons. With this instrument very accurate thickness
measurement can be made and it often is possible to assort papers that are actually different by the
thickness rest alone.
5. Special micrometer caliper – made by brown and sharp from a designed by the author, which carries two
parallel knife-edge jaws neither of which rotates. The instrument measures within it field with great accuracy
and especially in certain critical comparison of typewriting as well as the impression.
6. Typewriting Testing Plate – is useful instruments cover all measurements a typewriting expert line spacing
and by their use alone the typewriting of various machine can be accurately identified or differentiated as
well as for the measurements of pen strokes, printed letters, or typewritten characters.
7. Metric Questioned Document Measure - is useful in which the metrical system of measurement. It must
always be interpreted as a certain part of an inch or it gives no clear idea of length.
8. Handwriting Test Plate – is useful especially in small size and in larger form treating of slant in writing a
special ruled protractor designed for the easy and accurate measuring of the slant of writing.
9. Typewriting Protractor – is useful protractor of a different form is illustrated here in small size and in larger
size in the chapter on typewriting and is designed to show the exact abnormal slant of certain letters in
10. Uniform Ruled Square on Glass – is lettered and numbers on glass can be placed over an alleged forgery
and a model from which it was traced or over two alleged tracing from the same original, to show suspicious
identities that may exist or in the small size, may be used to compare two enlarged typewritten letters.

11. Typewriting Test Plate on Glass for alignment and line and line spacing Test – a useful instrument for
typewriting examinations, consist of a glass carrying accurately graduated fine line squares, ten to the inch,
the spacing of ordinary type writing. This glass can be placed over the typewriting to disclose and illustrate
abnormal horizontal or vertical alignment, which is another of the significant individual peculiarities of
12. Curvemeter – is the instrument on glass was devised for the measurements of curves and turns and
connections in handwriting and typewriting.
13. Proportion Test Plate – is the instrument on glass for measuring and recording in photographic form
variations in proportions of long and short letters in handwriting.
14. Angle measure – is the instrument was devised for the purpose of measuring angles in handwriting and
15. Transmitted Light Table – is the appliance frequently useful in questioned document inquiries is the glass
topped table, with light under neath, designed for all kinds of transmitted light examinations.


The responsibilities of the investigator in the collection, protection, handling, submission for examination, and
chain of custody of questioned documents are as follows:
1. To collect, protect, identify, and preserve the questioned document, or if the original best evidence document
is not available, a certified, professionally photographed copy thereof
2. To collect and to e able to prove the origin of adequate comparison standards (specimen writings or
exemplars) to be used by the document examiner as standards of comparisons in determining authorship of
the document
3. To submit both the questioned document(s) and the comparison specimens or exemplars of the document
examiner at the selected forensic laboratory
4. To use the prudent cure in the collection, handling, shipping, and preservation of such documents and their
chain of custody


The following criteria should be kept in mind when obtaining, handling, and shipping questioned documents to the
document examiner. All documentary evidence should be:
1. Legally obtained
2. Completely described, identified, and dated in the investigator’s notes
3. Carefully labeled, initialed, and dated for future identification
4. Handled properly according to due care procedures (see below)
5. Cautiously wrapped with the adequate protection for shipment
6. Accounted for at all stages by maintaining the chain of custody
7. Submitted to the examiner with the specific instructions and sufficient standards of comparison


An investigator or his agency often has to exercise judgment as to the need for an expert’s examination of a
document in question in order to detect signs of tampering, alteration, or forgery.
The following signs indicate reasons a document should be submitted to a forensic laboratory:
1. Abrasions or chemical pen or pencil erasures
2. Alterations or substitutions
3. Disguised or unnatural writings with change in letter formation
4. Use of different colored inks
5. Charred, mutilated, or torn pages
6. Pencil or carbon marks along the writing lines of the signature, indicating possible transfer or tracing
7. Questions raised by client, claimant, or other person relative to the document’s authenticity
8. Question as to the genuineness of the signature
9. Suspicious signs of inconsistency or disruption of continuity of content. If it is the multipaged document, do all
the connected pages of the document show continuous language without any break in the content theme? Are
all dates, events, names, streets, or any other precise data referred to within the document consistent with
each other and with known facts?
10. Suspicious appearance or unusual form. Is there any identification of an attempted change of contents? If it is
a typewritten document, does it appear that the same ribbon and same typewriter was used throughout its
creation? If it is a handwritten document, is there more than one style of handwriting in evidence, or were
different colored inks or different types of writing instrument used? Does the total writing show uniformity, or
are there definite composition differences? Are there any indentations on the document created by handwritten
or typewritten comment on some paper that was placed over the paper of the document?

Transmitting document

The objective of transmittal is to see that the document reaches its destination without damage. Clear
identification and safe transit are the prime requirements ineffective transmittal. The following should be submitted to
the examiner:
1. The original document in dispute or questioned, if it at all possible.
2. Complete photographs of the document taken by qualified and competent photographer if it is not possible
to obtain the original document. The photograph must show (a) all delicate features and characteristics of
the writing, and (b) all details of the condition of the document. Photostat copies record only black and white
and tend to mess delicate features of pen or pencil strokes. They should be used only as a last resort when
no better instrument of visualization is available.
3. Known writings or documents can be used as standards of comparison. The examiner must have definitive
information relative to genuine signatures and writings. All relevant information pertaining to them should e
4. All pertinent investigative information regarding the questioned document and the condition of the alleged

Letter of transmittal

The transmittal letter should contain precise information for the document examiner:
1. Identification of the document. It may be wise to list all documentary evidence obtained if there are other
documents pertinent to the case beside the one submitted for examination. The letter should clearly
distinguish between questioned and known documents.
2. Exact nature of the examination to be performed. The type of document, its condition, and the reasons for it
being questioned will indicate specific problems with which the examiner will be expected to deal. It may be
suspected forgery, possible alterations, obliterations, need for handwriting identification, or any of many
related examinations.
3. Whether or not the examiner is to examine the document for latent fingerprints. Fingerprints may not be an
issue; however, they often are if determination of the document issue is a primary issue.
4. How sample writings were obtained for standards of comparison, the name and address of the person from
who obtained, and a copy of the writer’s signed acknowledgement.
5. Other information pertinent to the examination the investigator may have obtain relative to the questioned
document that might prove helpful to the examiner should be enclosed. This should be confined to factual
data and not express the investigator’s opinions.

Eight (8) Principles of Identification

The following principles involved in handwriting identification:

1. No two writers write exactly alike.
2. The Physical writing condition and position of the person including his writing instrument may affect the
handwriting characteristics but they do not confine all its identity elements.
3. A writer cannot exceed his maximum writing ability or skill without serious effort and training over a period of
4. The combination of handwriting characteristics including those derived from form and writing movements are
essential elements of identification.
5. Individuality in handwriting can only be determined through comparison examination with the standard
written or prepared under comparable conditions.
6. Similarity does not mean identity.
7. Complete identity means forgery.
8. a) A writing was written by one person when there is a sufficient number of identical writing habits and
identical primary controlling characteristics and in addition, the absence of divergent characteristics.
b) A writing was not written by one person when there is a sufficient number of divergent writing
characteristics and the absence of identical primary controlling characteristics.

Two Groups of Characteristics

1. Common Class or style Characteristics - are those which conform to the general type acquired when
learning to write time and place. It is the style taught to the child in school or by the parents. Not all
characteristics encountered in document examination are peculiar to a single person or thing, but rather
common to all group.
2. Individual or Personal Characteristics - are those introduced into the handwriting consciously or
unconsciously by the writer? They are highly personal or peculiar and are unlikely to occur in other

Two Kinds of Standard Documents

A. Collected or Procured - Those which are obtained from files of document executed in the persons day to
day business, official, social or personal activities. Collected standards are known (genuine) handwritings of
an individual, such as signature and endorsements on cancelled checks, legal papers letters, commercial,
official, public and private documents, and other handwriting such as letters, memoranda, etc. written in the
course of daily life, both business and socials.

B. Requested or Prepared - Those which are given or made upon the request of an investigator for purpose of
making comparative examination with the request writing. Request standards are signature or other
handwritings (or hand printings) written by an individual upon request for the purpose of comparison with
other handwriting, or for specimen purposes. In most instances, collected standards are preferable to
request standards, though both types should be submitted if available. Standards should be collected from a
period dated within a year of the date questioned document, with some written within weeks or days of the
questioned writing.

Disputed Document
Suggests that there is an argument or controversy over the document and strictly speaking this is its true
meaning. In this text, as well as through prior usage, disputed document and questioned document are employed
interchangeably to signify a document under special scrutiny

1. Basic Points that should be Considered in Obtaining Standards

a. Collected Standards

1. Amount of Writing Standards

There is no hard rule as to the fixed number of standards which may be considered sufficient or adequate,
although experience shows that at least seven (7) standards usually constitute sufficient amount of standards
but still, 10 is better than 7, 15 is better than 10, In short the more the better.
2. Similarity of the subject Matter
As a rule only like things are to be compared meaning standards should always be congruent to the nature of
the questioned or disputed materials.
3. Relative dates of the standards with the questioned matter
Standards for comparison should relatively contemporary in dates. Those documents executed two years
before or after the date of the questioned document are best. Contemporary as used in questioned document
refers to documents that are executed within five (5) years prior to the questioned document.
4. Kinds of writing instrument and paper used
Writing instrument and paper might influence the quality of writing. Therefore as much as possible utilize or
look for standards those are prepared using the same instrument and paper as the questioned.
5. Writing Conditions
Conditions both of the writer and the relative position under which questioned writing was executed should be
taken into consideration although this is somewhat a difficult task for it is seldom or worst is so available
standards written under similar condition as in questioned.
b. Requested Standards
1. Dictate to the writer and never allow a suspect to see the questioned document.
2. Text must be carefully selected – do not dictate the questioned document exactly all its contents.
3. Dictation must be at least 3.
4. Writing instrument and paper should be similar.
5. Dictation must be interrupted at interval so that the suspect will feel relax and write his own natural writing.
6. Normal writing condition should be arranged so that the writer feels to write the dictation.

c. Typewriting Standard
1. If the typewriting ribbon is obviously new, remove it to the laboratory with the typewriting exemplars
prepared from another ribbon. (the text of the material in question may still be discernible on the ribbon).
2. Use of about the same size as the questioned materials, type out a full word copy of the message in
question, typographical errors, using as nearly as possible the same degree of touch as that used in typing
the questioned materials.
3. After placing the typewriter in a stencil position or each character on the keyboard by typing through carbon
paper which has been inserted carbon side down over a piece of white bond paper.
4. Make certain that each specimen contain the make, model and serial number of the typewriter from which it
was produced as well as the date and initials of the offices.
5. Typewriter specimen should be taken from suspect typewriter(s). It is usually not necessary to forward the
typewriter to the laboratory it complete known exemplars are obtained.
6. If possible, after a typewritten exemplars is obtained from a suspect typewriter, the investigator insure that
the typewritten documents the laboratory experts is in position to find valuable assistance to the solution and
subsequent prosecution of many cases.

Handwriting Characteristics of Illiterates:

1. They seldom follow any rule or baseline although at the beginning a position above the baseline is
taken which continues in an ascending or descending course. Baseline is the ruled or imaginary line
upon which the writing rests.
2. The tendency of the writing is to be raised involuntary in the last letters of the word made by the
extension of the fingers while the hand is being held in a fixed position.
3. The loop letters are often slanted too much because the upstrokes are made too long or nearly
4. Very unlikely to produce facsimile signatures in size, arrangement and proportion of parts.
5. The writing is not rhythmic, but made up of disconnected unskilled movement impulses which are
not likely to be related in an exactly identified way.
6. Tremor or involuntary trembling is seen due to inability to control the pen in motion because of not
being familiar with and self-conscious to the process of writing.
7. Formation and angle of letters are irregular and definitely show lack of knowledge of size and
8. Same speed is utilized from beginning to end and seldom is the pen raised to get a new adjustment.
9. Illiterate pencil-writing is usually produced with much pressure and may show the habit of wetting
the pencil lead frequently.
10. In anonymous writing, illiteracy is indicated by faulty arrangement of words, lines, paragraphs and
11. Combination of script forms and Roman capitals, or pen or pencil printing, containing freak forms,
abbreviations or punctuation marks are individual creations.

Handwriting Characteristics of Old Aged Persons:

1. Due to lack of muscular control, the handwriting will not usually show fine lines continuously but the
strokes are mostly rough and made with considerable pressure.
2. With the presence of tremor, the changes of direction are numerous and omission of parts of letters
or strokes are common.
3. The concluding parts are often made with a nervous haste and carelessness and they may be much
4. Even with much tremor, the handwriting will usually show free connecting and terminal strokes
made by the momentum of the hand.
5. Often shows very uneven alignment and may disregard entirely a line near which they are written.
6. Usually shows an unusual and erratic departure from its intended movement, particularly in the
downward strokes.
7. There is a loss of individual departure from its intended movement, particularly in the downward
8. There is a loss of individual rhythm as indicated by malformation and irregularity of speed in the
writing of small letters.

Disguised Writing

Disguised writing is the deliberate attempt on the part of the writer to alter his writing habit by

endeavoring to invent a new writing style or by imitating the writing of another person.

Physical Methods of Disguising Handwriting:

1. By changing the direction of the slant. The forger may employ a backhand slant, instead of the usual
forehead slant.
2. By increasing or decreasing the speed in writing.
3. By deliberate carelessness that will produce inferior style of writing.
4. By making the letters unusually large or small.
5. The forger may use the left hand instead of the right hand.
6. Hand printing may be substituted for script.

Characteristics of Disguised Writing:

1. Inconsistent slant
2. Inconsistent letter formation
3. Change of capital letters
4. Lack of free-flowing movement
5. Lack of rhythm
6. Unnatural starts and stops
7. Irregular spacing
8. Writing with unaccustomed hand

Protection of Documents Integrity

Serious curtailment of certain technical examinations are caused by improper or careless handling of
disputed documents. This condition most frequently is brought about ignorance of the consequence of mishandling.
The simple act of repeatedly removing and replacing the letter in its envelope can cause a noticeable deterioration.
1. Keep the documents unfolded in protected envelope.
2. Take disputed papers to Document Examiners Laboratory at the First Opportunity.
3. If storage is necessary, keep in dry away from excessive heat and string light.
1. Do not handle disputed papers excessively or carry them in a pocket for a long time.
2. Do not mark disputed documents (by pointing/ writing/ with any writing instrument or dividers.)
3. Do not mutilate or damage by repeated refolding, creasing, cutting, tearing or punching for filing purposes.
4. Do not allow any one except qualified specialist to make chemical or other tests, do not treat or dusty for
latent fingerprints before consulting a document examiner.
Identification of Handwriting
Every handwriting can be identified with its author provided it contains the writing habits, the individualities
and characteristics of its author inadequate kind and number, and provided further that such writing is subjected to
adequate evaluation and comparison with adequate exemplars of the handwriting of its author. No handwriting
susceptible of the identification if it is not truly representatives of its author. Neither can it be identified of its
individualities remain unrecognized.
As man is identified by his date of birth, height, weight, eyes, hair, complexion, walk, talk, scars, mannerism,
intelligence, occupation, skills, parents, associates, and other personal characteristics, so is his handwriting identified
positively, partially, or not all proportion to such recognizable characteristics rendering it distinct from other

Scientific Process in the Examination of Handwriting

1. Analysis (or Recognition) of characteristics - this process involves the observation, measurement
and/ or determination or properties or characteristics.
2. Comparison of Characteristics - This process entails the actual comparison of the properties or
characteristics of an unknown item determined through analysis with familiar or recorded
characteristics of known items.
3. Evaluation of characteristics - This refers to the process of correct interpretation of characteristics
will each have a certain value of identification determined by their like hood of occurrence. The
weight or significance of each characteristics. Examination, therefore, involves the recognition,
comparison and correct interpretation of all the characteristics of the handwriting.

Handwriting Formation

1. Arcaded
2. Garlanded
3. Angular

Recognition of Handwriting Characteristics

Writing Characteristics Commonly Involved in the Examination of Handwriting:

1. Form – This refers to the shape or design of the individual letters.

2. Slope or Slant – It is an angle or inclination of the axis of letters relative to the baseline.
3. Size – Size as writing characteristics is somewhat divergent under varying condition and may have
but little significance when applied to only one example, or to as small quality of writing like a
signature unless the divergence is very pronounced.
4. Proportion – Individual characteristics in relative proportion of letters or proportion of a part of a
letter or relative height of one letter can be found in different writings. Proportion in letters is one of
the hidden features of writing. It is unknown even to the writer.
5. Ratio – The relation between the tall and short letters is referred to as the ration of the writing.
6. Connecting Strokes – This refers to the strokes of links that connects a letter.
7. Terminal Strokes and Initial Strokes – When a letter, word or name (signature) is completed in a free,
natural writing, the pen is usually raised from the paper while in motion with a “flying finish” (or
what is also referred to as “vanishing”, “tapering” or “flourishing” terminal strokes) and with many
writers, the motion of the pen also slightly precedes the putting of the pen on the paper at the
beginning with a “flying start” so that the strokes at the beginning and end of words gradually
diminish or taper to a “vanishing point”.
8. Pen – Lift – It is an interruption in a stroke caused by removing the pen from the paper. Pen-lift or
disconnection between letters and letter combinations are maybe due to lack of movement control.
9. Hiatus – Is a gap between strokes due to speed in writing and defective writing instruments.
10. Lateral Spacing – is considered as common characteristics when it conforms to the ordinary copy-
book form.
11. Shading – It is the widening of the ink strokes with increase pressure on the paper surface.
12. Line Quality – Refers to the visible record in the written stroke of the basic movement and manner of
holding the writing instrument.
13. Alignment – Is relation of the parts of the whole line of writing or line of individual letters in words or
signature to the baseline.
14. Rhythm – It is the balanced quality of movements of the harmonious recurrence of stress or
15. Writing skill – it is the relative degree of ability of a writer’s proficiency.
16. Pen Pressure – It is the average force in which the pen makes contact with the paper or the usual
force involved in writing.
17. Tremor – means “deviations from uniform strokes due to lack of smoothness perfectly apparent even
without magnification”.
18. Natural Variation – Due to lack of machine-like precision of the human hand; is caused by external
factors, such as the writing instrument and the writing position; influences by physical and mental
condition such as fatigue, intoxication, illness, nervousness and the age of the writer; due to the
quality of the writing prepared in the course of time, variation in genuine signature appears in
superficial parts and does not apply to the whole process of writing.
19. Rubric or Embellishment – This refers to additional unnecessary strokes not necessary to legibility of
letterforms or writings but incorporated in writing for decorative or ornamental purposes.


Useful Suggestions Regarding Handwriting Standards of Comparisons

1. Types of Handwriting “Standard”

A. Collected
Collected standards are known (genuine) handwritings of an individual, such as signature and endorsements on
cancelled checks, legal papers letters, commercial, official, public and private documents, and other handwriting such
as letters, memoranda, etc. written in the course of daily life, both business and socials.

B. Requested
Request standards are signature or other handwritings (or hand printings) written by an individual upon request for
the purpose of comparison with other handwriting, or for specimen purposes. In most instances, collected standards
are preferable to request standards, though both types should be submitted if available. Standards should be
collected from a period dated within a year of the date questioned document, with some written within weeks or days
of the questioned writing.

Types of Standards desirable for comparison use in the two most common types of Questioned Documents
A. When a signature on check note, will, letter, etc. is in question:
1. Submit collected and requested standard signatures from both victim and suspect five to twenty signatures,
depending upon individual case.
B. When anonymous or writings other than signatures are in question:
1. Submit collected standard writings of general nature from both victim and suspect as much standard writings
as possible to obtain within reason.
2. Submit requested standard of the questioned text written (or printed) at least three writing by the suspect
and, in some instances, by the victim.
Suggested procedure for taking request handwriting standard in all types of questioned document problems:

1. Have the subject seated in a natural position at table or desk having smooth writing surface.
2. Furnish the subject with paper and writing instrument similar to those used in questioned writing, like; paper
should be of the same size, and ruled or unruled as questioned document; if questioned document is ink
written furnish subject with pen and ink, etc.
3. Never permit subject to see any writing on questioned document.
4. Dictate material to be written (or printed, if questioned material is hand printed): give no assistance in
spelling or arrangement of page. Dictate at rate of speed, which will produce the subject natural writing
habits. Too slow dictation will enable the subject to attempt disguise and rapid dictation will not produce
normal writing.
5. Remove each specimen upon completion by subject number in consequence, date, time and identify by
initiating each, and request subject to sign each specimen.
6. Observe all writing done by subject and indicate any attempt at disguise, as well as whether subject appears
to be normally right or left handed, etc.

Special procedure for taking request handwriting standards where check forgery is Charge or Suspected
A. Furnish subject with blank checks similar to the questioned checks.
B. Dictate the entries to be made on specimen checks as follows:
a. Date same as shown on questioned check
b. Payee -do-
c. Amount -do-
d. Signature -do-
e. Endorsement -do-
f. Any other handwriting shown on questioned check
C. Give subject help or suggestions in completing specimen checks.
A. The laboratory should be informed of the ages apparent health and physical conditions of the subject at the
time standards are written.
B. Do not fold, staple, or pin documents, handle questioned documents with care.
C. Indicate in the sample handwriting the time, place, date, signature of writer as well as witness of the

Sources of Signatures Written in the Course of Daily Affairs

1. Cancelled checks
2. Signature cards for saving, checking, and charge accounts and safe-deposit boxes.
3. Signed receipts for telegrams, special delivery or registered letters, express and store packages, etc.
4. Business and personal letters
5. Credit applications and cards
6. Signature on sales slips, on job order slips, requisition slips and purchase slips.
7. Leases, mortgages, agreements, bills of sale, contracts, deeds, notes stock certificates and transfers, and
other legal or business documents.
8. Court records and affidavits, such as naturalization papers, bankruptcy proceeding, divorce papers,
probated wills and estate files, powers of attorney, etc.
9. Passport, marriage application, license and affidavits.
10. Driver automobile chauffeur, and other types of license applications.
11. Application for gas, electricity, water and telephone services.
12. Loan applications and receipts.
13. Tax returns or affidavit.
14. Insurance and employment application.
15. Records from currency exchanges, checks-cashing agencies and pawnshops.
16. Time sheets, payrolls, pay receipts, and personal forms.
17. Barangay registration, petitions.
18. Relief, unemployment, and old-age compensation records.
19. Signatures for certain drug purchases hotel registration.
20. Church, club and professional society record.
21. Veteran records.
22. Fingerprints records.
23. School or University class records.
24. Application for clearance from the CFI, the Municipal & City Courts, City Fiscal Office, Police stations, Phil.
Constabulary and the NBI, and other governmental and private offices.
25. Applications for firearms permits or licenses.
26. Applications for commission and enlistment in the AFP and foreign Armed Forces Offices.
27. Applications for export and import and dollar allocations.
28. ID cards.
29. Applications for right like water rights copyright, patents franchises, etc.
30. Applications for Civil Service Examination, Board and Bar Examinations.
31. Applications for scholarship.
32. Residence Certificates, Class A &B Reservist Data Sheet.

PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING COLLECTED STANDARD: Specimen Written in the Course of Daily Affairs
A. Signature Investigations
1. Obtain at least 15 to 20 genuine signatures.
2. Procedure ink signature for comparison with questioned ink specimens pencil standards for comparison with
questioned pencil specimens.
3. Secure when available, genuine signatures used for different purpose as the questioned (i.e., if a check
signature is questioned, best standards are given signatures on correspondence important legal documents
receipts, etc.)
4. Supplement standards with signatures used for different purpose. (i.e.: in check investigations supplement
standard check signatures with signatures on correspondence important legal documents receipts, etc.)
5. Produce standard signatures of approximately the same date as the disputed (preferably within the years of
the questioned).
6. Secure, whenever possible, some signature written on forms or papers of the same size as questioned
1. Do not rely on only one or two standard signatures.
2. Do not depend entirely upon other types of writing specimens.
3. Do not rely exclusively upon signatures used for every different purpose than the questioned.
4. Do not submit pencil signatures for comparison with questioned ink writing or only ink signatures for
comparison with questioned pencil specimens.
5. Do not use signatures written during extreme illness or intoxication, except for comparison with specimens
executed under similar conditions.
6. Do not depend or recently written signatures for comparison with specimens written 20 or 30 years ago.
7. Do not collect only the recommended minimum number of signatures if more specimens are available.


1. Produce at least 4 or 5 pages of handwriting or hand printing.
2. If questioned writing is in ink, secure ink standards; if in pencil, submit pencil standards.
3. Produce some specimens written prior to the date of the questioned writing, and all within a few years
4. Whenever possible, obtain specimens on paper of similar size, shape, and ruling as that on which the
questioned writing appears.
5. Conditions permitting, secure writing with phrasing, wording subject matter, etc.
6. When questioned writing has been executed under unusual writing conditions secure, if possible, some
specimens which were executed under similar conditions.
1. Do not depend on but a few lines of writing.
2. Do not rely on only signature standards.
3. Do not submit only pencil standards for comparison with questioned ink writing or vice versa.
4. Do not depend entirely on writing which is known to have been executed under abnormal conditions for
purposes of comparison with questioned writing executed under normal conditions. (Consider, e.g.: effects
of illness, intoxications, haste, and carelessness.)
5. Do not use present day/ writing exclusively for comparison with questioned specimens written a number of
years ago.
6. Do not submit only a minimum amount of writing if additional specimen is available.


Purposes at the Request of the Investigating Officer
A. Signature Investigations
1. Obtain at least 25 to 30 specimen signatures.
2. Have writer make out specimen checks or receipts in performance to furnishing signatures alone.
3. If questioned signatures are in ink, have suspect write with pen; if in pencil, with pencil.
4. Require suspect to write each signature on separate sheet of paper.
5. Provide paper or forms of the same size, shape, composition, and ruling as the questioned documents.
6. Whenever possible, take a portion of the standards on different ways; always interrupt preparation of
standards once or twice for rest periods. Provide normal writing conditions. (i.e. writer seated at desk or
table). If questioned writing is known to have been executed under unusual conditions obtain some
standards under similar conditions. (i.e.: writing produced while standing with paper resting in the palm of
the land)
What is Signature?

Signature, a person's name, usually in his or her own handwriting. In law, signatures are put at the end of a
legal instrument to show that it is valid. The most common and readily accepted form is the person's own handwriting,
but a signature may be printed, stamped, or typewritten. Illiterate persons often draw an “X” or other symbol, attested
by the signature of a witness.

Signature Information
1. Signature as legal attestation
Acknowledgment - in U.S. law, the act of avowing before a proper officer or a court that one has executed a legal
instrument, and of obtaining a certificate that admits the instrument as evidence in a legal proceeding without further
proof of its genuineness.
Affidavit - in law, voluntary written statement sworn before an officer qualified to administer an oath.
Will (law), in law, disposition by an individual of his or her property, intended to take effect after death.
A written will - must be signed at the end; a testator unable to write may make an X, and such a mark is considered
a valid signature
Witnesses - are also necessary to ensure the legal validity of certain documents and ceremonies.
Deed - in law, written instrument that transfers an interest in real estate.
Statute - written law enacted by a legislature, which may take the form of either an act or a resolution, as opposed to
unwritten, or common, law, which is usually determined by custom or court decisions.
Summons - in law, a formal document stating that a person (defendant) is notified to appear in court and answer a
complaint or charge brought against him or her by another party (plaintiff). Unless a specific statutory provision
permits a summons to be signed by the plaintiff's attorney, it usually must be signed by the clerk of the court in which
the action is brought. The following form is an example of a summons.
Treaty- in international law, written agreement concluded by two or more sovereign nations or by a nation and an
international organization, such as the European Union.

2. Stage of life where signature is binding

Age of Consent - in law, the age when persons are considered to be fully bound by their words and deeds.

3. Transfer by endorsement
Bill of Exchange - unconditional order in writing, signed and addressed by one person (the drawer) to another (the
drawee), requiring the drawee to pay on demand, or at a determinable or fixed future date, a specified sum of money
to a third person (the payee).
Negotiable Instruments - in law, contracts in writing that are transferable by endorsement or by delivery and to
which the holder takes title free from any defenses or objections to their validity that might have been good against
the transferor.
Promissory Note - in the law of negotiable instruments, written instrument containing an unconditional promise by a
party, called the maker, who signs the instrument, to pay to another, called the payee, a definite sum of money either
on demand or at a specified or ascertainable future date.

4. Attestation by a notary and notarized documents

Acknowledgment - in U.S. law, the act of avowing before a proper officer or a court that one has executed a legal
instrument, and of obtaining a certificate that admits the instrument as evidence in a legal proceeding without further
proof of its genuineness.
Affidavit - in law, voluntary written statement sworn before an officer qualified to administer an oath. Both the person
making the affidavit (that is, swearing to the truth of the facts contained in the document) and the witnessing officer (a
judge, a commissioner of deeds, or a notary public) are usually required to sign the document.
Deposition - the testimony of a witness or of a party taken outside of court and reduced to writing.
Power of Attorney - in law, written document, certified by a notary public, designating a person or party as an agent
empowered to act for another person (principal) in a legal capacity.

5. Forging of signatures
Art Forgery - the intent to deceive, usually for financial gain, by proffering an art object as representing something
other than what it is.
Detecting Forgeries - By use of special illumination such as ultraviolet black light, infrared photography, and X-ray
radiographs, inconsistencies and changes in paintings may be detected.
Forgery- in criminal law, fraudulent altering of a written document or seal, with the intent of injuring the interests of
another person or of fraudulently obtaining governmental revenue.
6. Study and analysis of handwriting
Graphology - study and analysis of handwriting to assess the writer's traits or personality.
7. Signatures required to place names or issues on an election ballot
Ballot - in modern usage, a sheet of paper used in voting, usually in an electoral system that allows the voter to make
choices secretly.

8. Substitutes for signatures

Printing - name used for several processes by which words, pictures, or designs are reproduced on paper, fabrics,
metal, or other suitable materials.
Ancient Techniques- The application of signet stones is possibly the earliest known form of printing. Used in ancient
times in Babylonia and elsewhere, apparently both as substitutes for signatures and as

Origin of Signature
A signature (from Latin signare, "sign") is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized) depiction of someone's
name (or some other identifying mark) that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and will. It acts as a
seal. The writer of a signature is a signatory. Like a handwritten signature, a signature work describes the work as
readily identifying its creator.

Function and types of signatures

The traditional function of a signature is evidential: it is to give evidence of:
1. the provenance of the document (identity)
2. the intention (will) of an individual with regard to that document

Two Significant Parts of Signature

1. Last stokes of words

2. Separate Capital letters
FORGERY is committed by any person who, with intent to defraud signs the name of another

person, or of a fictitious person, knowing that he has no authority to do so; or falsely, alters, forges or

counterfeits any check, draft, due-bill for the payment of money or property, or counterfeits of forges the seal

or handwriting of another knowing defraud any person.

Forgery of Signature

A forge signature is the signature of another person or of a fictitious person written by another who

has no authority to do so, with intent to defraud. Forgery may be produced under many processes ranging

from the mere writing of the name without any attempt to resemble the genuine model, signature, to the more

complicated process of tracing or simulation to produce a close resemblance or facsimile if the genuine


Categories of Forgery:

1. Simple Forgery
2. Simulated Forgery
3. Traced Forgery

Simple Forgery (Spurious Signature)

In this type of forgery, the forger who is confronted with the absence of a model signature will not

attempt to produce a facsimile of the genuine signature but instead signs the name in his own handwriting or
in modified or disguised handwriting, and then devises ways and means of passing the document for profit

before the obvious fraud is detected. This is commonly used in “fictitious persons” cases and invariability

by the check forms, completes and endorses the same with fictitious signature in order to make them as


Simulated Forgery (Copied Signature)

It is the act of simulation, or copying in imitation of a genuine signature or writing as to resemble the

model. The forger avails himself of a model signature which he places before him in order to copy the same.

Often the forger under takes some practices before proceeding to do his work of simulation or imitation.

In some instances, where the forger could not avail of a genuine signature as a model, he merely

relies from memory his recollections of the pattern of the signature which he may have virtue of long

association with the signature.

Traced Forgery

This is the result of an attempt to transfer to a fraudulent document an exact facsimile of a genuine

signature or writing by some tracing process. It is any fraudulent signature which was executed by actually

following the outline of a genuine signature with any sharp pointed instrument.

Kinds of Traced Forgery

1. Carbon process (Carbon Outline) as the name denotes is that type whereby the forgery interleaves a
carbon paper between the genuine signature (top sheet) and the document intended to be forged
(bottom sheet). The outline of the model or genuine signature is traced with a dry pen or any sharp
pointed instrument with considerable pressure to make a carbon outline signature by the forger.
Others will improve on the same by tracing the carbon outline with suitable ink strokes before
passing it as genuine.

2. Indentation Process is that type indentation or canal like outlines of the genuine signature is
produced on the fraudulent document (bottom sheet be tracing the outline of the genuine signature
(top sheet) with considerable pressure with any sharp pointed instrument. The indented outline on
the fraudulent document is then directly inked in and in some instances, first retracted with pencil
very lightly before it is finally.
An indentation can mean two things:
1) To make notches in something or form deep recesses in a coastline for instance.
2) To place text farther to the right to separate it from surrounding text. The first meaning is also applied in
hardness measurement as in indentation hardness. For an example of the second meaning, this is an
indentation of one space.

3. Transmitting light or projection process is that kind whereby the fraudulent document is placed
immediately above the genuine document (signature) and with strong light directed through the two
superimpose sheet of paper from under, with transparent glass used as writing surface, the outline
which is seen thru the upper sheet is then traced with any suitable writing instrument.

Indications of Forgery

1. Hesitations and pen stops at unusual places

2. Abrupt changes of directions of lines or strokes, showing uncertainty of movement
3. Concealed joining
4. Blunt initial and terminal strokes
5. Misplaced shadings
6. Lack of variation in pen pressure (similar pressure throughout)
7. Defective line quality
8. Careful patching or retouching
9. Tremors (fraudulent)
10. Presence of carbon, pencil or indentations along the lines of strokes

11. Unnatural pen-lifts

Indications of Genuineness

1. Free flowing movement indicating freedom of writing

2. Intermediate strokes where pen comes off the paper but not stopped showing continuity of motion
3. Ink failure
4. Flying starts and vanishing finishes
5. Abbreviated, distorted, illegible forms
6. Genuine retouching
7. Skillful shading
8. Natural variations
9. Good line quality


1. Counterfeiting seal of the government, forging signature or stamp of the Chief Executive (161)
2. Using forged signature or counterfeit seal or stamp (162)
3. Making and importing and uttering false coins (163)
4. Mutilation of coins, importation and uttering of mutilated coins (164)
5. Selling of false or mutilated coins (165)
6. Forging treasury or bank notes or other documents payable to the bearer, importing and uttering such false
or forged notes and documents (166)
7. Counterfeiting, importing and uttering instruments not payable to the bearer (167)
8. Illegal possession and use of forged treasury or bank notes and other instruments of credit (168)
9. Falsification of legislative documents (170)
10. Falsification by public officer, employee or notary (171)
11. Falsification by private individuals and use of falsified documents (172)
12. Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone messages and use of said falsified messages
13. False medical certificates, certificates of merit or service (174)
14. Using false certificates (175)
15. Manufacturing and possession of instruments or implements for falsification (176)
16. Usurpation of authority and official functions (177)
17. Using fictitious name and concealing true name (178)
18. Illegal use of uniform or insignia (179)
19. False testimony against a defendant (180)
20. False testimony favorable to the defendant (181)
21. False testimony in civil cases (182)
22. Perjury (183)
23. Offering false testimony in evidence (184)



Bryan Donkin - The English engineer who was the first patented steel pen point in 1803.
Juan de Yciar - The 16th-century Spanish calligrapher mentions brass pens for very large writing in his 1548 writing
manual, but the use of metal pens did not become widespread until the early part of the 19th century.
William Joseph Gillot, William Mitchell, and James Stephen Perry - The leading 19th-century English pen
Lewis Waterman - a New York insurance agent, patented the first practical fountain pen containing its own ink
reservoir in 1884.
Georg and Ladislao Biro - Hungarian brothers who invented a practical ballpoint pen.
Yukio Horie (1962) – Invented the first practical fiber-tip pen in Japan.
John J. Loud- Granted the first patent for a ball point pen No. 392,046, October 30, 1888
Van Vechten Riesburg – He patented another ball point pen device in 1916.
Milton Reynolds - He introduced the first ball point pen to replace the then common "fountain pen" in 1945.

Nicholas Jacques Conté - In 1795, French chemist received a patent for the modern process for making pencil
leads by mixing powdered graphite and clay, forming sticks, and hardening them in a furnace.
William H. Maurice - He advertised the "India rubber," evidently intended for use as a pencil eraser a Philadelphia,
PA, stationer, in 1847.
Samuel Kraus – Awarded the Patent No. 316,374 on April 21, 1895, describes a method of making slate pencils
using ground talc or soapstone mixed with ground potter's clay.
William Monroe - a Massachusetts cabinetmaker, invented a machine that cut and grooved wood slats precisely
enough to make pencils.
Joseph Dixon - the American inventor developed the method of cuffing single cedar cylinders in half to receive the
core and then gluing them back together.
Eberhard Faber (1861), An American manufacturer , the first pencil-making factory in the United States was built in
New York City.
Hymen Lipman (1858) – Patented the first attaching an eraser to the end of a pencil.

Tien-Lcheu (2697 B.C.) –A Chinese philosopher and inventor of ink

Henry Mill - British inventor who made first recorded attempt to produce a writing machine in 1714.
William Austin Burt - American inventor, the next patent issued for a typewriter in 1829.
Charles Grover Thurber (1843) – American inventor who made first machine to use the method of spacing.
Xavier Progin - French inventor for a machine that embodied for the first time one of the principles employed in
modern typewriters: the use for each letter or symbol of separate typebars, actuated by separate lever keys in 1833.
Father Francisco João de Azevedo - a Brazilian priest, made his own typewriter in 1861 with poor materials, such
as wood and knives.
Austrian Peter Mitterhofer - created a typewriter in 1864, but it was never produced commercially. Mitterhofer
continued to improve his original model and created five different enhanced typewriters until 1868.
Rev. Rasmus Malling-Hansen of Denmark (1865) - invented the Hansen Writing Ball, which went into commercial
production in 1870 and was the first commercially sold typewriter.
Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and Samuel W. Soule (1867) - invented another typewriter. The patent (US
79,265) was sold for $12,000 to Densmore and Yost, who made an agreement with E. Remington and Sons (then
famous as a manufacturer of sewing machines) to commercialize what was known as the Sholes and Glidden Type-
Writer. Remington started production of their first typewriter on March 1, 1873, in Ilion, New York. Another early
typewriter manufacturer was Underwood.
Thomas Edison (1870) – invented the electric typewriters, the basic groundwork for the electric typewriter.
Barbara Blackburn (2005) - is the fastest English language typist in the world,

The Principal Typewriting Questioned

1. Whether an evidential typewriting was accomplished on a suspected typewriter.

2. Whether an evidential typewriting, prepared a known typewriter was actually typewritten on its
purported date.

Type face detects in typewriter

1. Permanent defects – actual breaks on worn-off series, cut on shanks.

2. Transitory defects – dirty impression from “clogged or dirty: type faces, and incomplete impressions
to poor condition or worn-out ribbon.

How to get/obtain Exemplars of Typewriting

1. If the ribbon is new, remove it from the typewriter an send the typewriter with the ribbon to the
laboratory for examination.
2. Use paper of the same size as the questioned materials and type out a full word-for-word copy of the
message in questioned.
3. After placing the typewriter in a stencil position, obtain sample of each character by typing through
carbon paper.
4. Make certain that each specimen contain and makes model and serial number of the typewriter
including the dates, initial of the examiners, and who get the said specimen.
5. If possible, after a typewritten exemplar is obtained from a suspected typewriter, the investigator
should ensure that the typewriter is kept on its current conditioned.

Techniques in the Examination of Questioned Documents

1. Microscopic Examination - Stereoscopic examination with flow and high power objectives is used to
detect retouching, patching and unnatural pen-lift in signature analysis. With proper angle and
intensity or illumination, it aids in the decipherment of erasures, some minute manipulations not
perfectly pictured to the unaided eye and sequence of entries done by different writing instruments.
2. Transmitted light Examination – Documents are subjected to this type of examination to determine the
presence of erasures, matching of serration and some other types alterations.
3. Oblique or Side Light Examination – Decipherment of faded handwriting “determination of outline in
traced forgery embossed impression, etc. are subjected to this type examination.
4. Photographic Examination – This type of examination is very essential in every document
examination. Actual observations recorded in the photographs.
5. Ultra Violet Examination – This type of examination done in darkened room after the lamp has been
warmed up in order to give a maximum output of the ultra violet light exposures to the ultra violet
light should be to the minimum duration in order to avoid fading of some writing ink and typewriter
ribbon. The exposure of a document to ultra violet light is useful when it consists of several pages
and substitution is being suspected.

What is Money?

Money, any medium of exchange that is widely accepted in payment for goods and services and in
settlement of debts. Money also serves as a standard of value for measuring the relative worth of different goods and
services. The number of units of money required to buy a commodity is the price of the commodity. The monetary
unit chosen as a measure of value need not, however, be used widely, or even at all, as a medium of exchange.
During the colonial period in America, for example, Spanish currency was an important medium of exchange, while
the British pound served as the standard of value.
The Central Bank Notes and Coins

Study the workmanship of each denomination of known genuine Central Bank notes and coins. Take

note of and FAMILIARIZE yourself with the various characteristics of the following features:


1. Distinctive feel 6. Lacework design

2. Portrait 7. Serial Number
3. Watermarks 8. Vignette
4. Metallic threads 9. Clearness of print
5. Colored fibers 10. Coins
11. Color of each Denomination


1. Even flow of metallic grains

2. High relief of letters and numeral;
3. Regularity of readings and beadings
EXAMINE each note being received and closely observe the following:


GENUINE – The finger will readily feel the main prints on the front and black on fairly new notes. This is due

to the measurable thickness of the in deposited on the paper which gives an embossed effects.

COUNTERFIET – Generally smooth. The fingers will hardly feel the prints of the front and black even on new

notes. This is brought about by offset printing the most common process employed by counterfeiters. Photo-

counterfeits (reduced by a straight photographic copying) generally fell “Slimy”. The “Prints are more stains

on the coating of the sensitized paper, which is glossy.

GENUINE – Appears life-like. The eyes “sparkle”. The tiny dots and lines forming the details on the face, hair,

etc. are clear, sharp and well-defined. Each portrait stands out noticeable along the shoulders. The eyes hair

is multi-colored fine pattern of lines in varying lifeless. Tones and shades interlacing are intricately printed in

such a way that the contrast or shifting of colors creates the impression of life and vividness to the notes.

COUNTERFIET – Appears “dead”. The face and / or fore head are often unnaturally white or pale due to

absence of most of the tails. It appears blurred, Dull, smudges and poorly printed. The eyes do not sparkle.

The concentric line depicting the often merged into solid printed areas. The background often blend with the

portrait and are usually “scratchy” .The lines are think with one genuine notes are extremely difficult to

duplicate and as a result counterfeit notes are usually off-colors and not of the right shade or tone.


GENUINE – The watermarks underneath the security lacework on the right hand side of the note is the same

as the colored portrait. This design is placed by means of a dandy roll during the manufacture of the paper.

Consequently, sharp details of the outline or the light and shadow effect are discernible when viewed with

the aid of a transmitted light. The relief of the feature can be felt by running the finger on the design.

COUNTERFIET – This is imitated by printing white ink of dry block on the finishing paper. Sometimes was or

other only medium is stamped to give transparency to the portioned where the design appears or a printed

outline is placed on the merely a paper cutout is placed inside. As a result, course or harsh and occasional

irregular lines and sometimes opaque areas are very obvious.


GENUINE – This is a special threat placed vertically on the paper during manufacture. On the surface of the

paper where this thread located are patterns on short vertical lines.

COUNTERFIET – Faked by means of printing on the back of the note, on the inner side of the paper, insertion

of twine thread or by simply folding the note vertically where the thread appears on the genuine bill.


GENUINE – The fibers are scattered at random on both surface and can be ready picked off by means of any

pointed instrument.

COUNTERFIET – Simulated by printed line cannot be picked off, but can be easily erased with ordinary

rubber or by agitating with wet fingers.


GENUINE – The geometric pattern which looks like a delicate lacework along the boarder on both surface,

emblazing the portrait, value panel and vignette and under the legend ANG BAGONG LIPUNAN, are multi-

colored and composed of sharp lines which are continuous and traceable even at the joins.

COUNTERFIET – These geometric patterns are often blurred, blurred, rough on the edges and blotched on

the joint. Its continuity could not be traced. The color appears fade.


GENUINE – The prefix letter (s) and numbers (six of them except on replacement note) are clearly printed.

They have peculiar style and are uniform in size and thickness. Spacing of the numbers is uniform and

alignment is even.

COUNTERFIET – The letter (s) and numbers are poorly printed. They are of usually different style. Most often,

they are not evenly spaced and are poorly aligned, either too big or to small thin, and in certain cares shaded

on the curves.


GENUINE – The line and dots composing the vignette are fine, distinct and sharp. The varying color tone

gives a “bold look” to the picture that makes it stand out” of the paper.

COUNTERFIET – Usually dull and poorly printed. It appears dirty. The lines are comparatively thicker with

rough edges. There is no variation in color tone so that picture appears flat.


GENUINE – The registry of the different printed features is perfect. The lines are very clean and sharp. There

are no “burns” clinging to the sides.

COUNTERFIET – In general, a spurious note exhibits a “second hand” logo. It is dirty due to the sputtering of

ink on the interior area. Over inked areas are visible instantly. The shading and ornamentations of the letters

and finger are thick and usually merged.

GENUINE – Genuine coins show an even flow of metallic grains. The details of the profile, the seal of the

Republic of the Philippines, lettering and numerals are of high relief, so that it can be readily felt distinctly by

running the fingers on these features. The beading are regular and the readings are deep and even.

COUNTERFIET – Most counterfeit coins feel greasy and appear surrounding the genuine coin appear

irregular and elongated depressions, and are not sharp and prominent as in the genuine. The letters rings

and numeral are low and worn out due to lack of sharpness of details. The reading are uneven and show

signs of filling. Most counterfeit coins feel greasy and appear slim. The beading composed of tiny round dots

surrounding the genuine coin appear irregular and elongated depression and are not sharp and prominent as

in the genuine. The letters rings and numerals are low and worn out due to reading are uneven and show

signs of filing.


Genuine notes have polychrome background with one predominant color for each denomination. You

should know the portrait on each bill.

P 1, 000.00 Blue Jose Abad Santos, Josefa Escoda, Vicente Lim

P 500.00 Yellow Benigno Aguino

P 200.00 Green Diosdado Macapagal

P 100.00 Mauve Manuel Roxas

P 50.00 Red Sergio Osmenia

P 20.00 Orange Manuel Quezon

P 10.00 Brown Apolinario Mabini


Genuine coins show an even flow of metallic grains. The details of the profile, the seal of the

Republic of the Philippines, lettering and numerals are of high relief, so that it can be readily felt distinctly by

running the fingers on these features. The heading is regular and the readings are deep and even.
 LETTER P - is the symbol for PESO with two horizontal strikethrough lines. It is sometimes shown as a P
with just one strikethrough line or just a P with no strikethrough lines at all since there are problems with font

 The ISO 4217 - code for the Philippine peso is PHP.

 The Philippine Peso - commonly called piso (Filipino) or peso (English and Spanish) is the currency of the
Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 sentimo (English and Spanish: centavos).

 Republic Act No. 265 - created the Central Bank of the Philippines (CBP, now the Bangko Sentral ng
Pilipinas) on January 3, 1949, in which was vested the power of administering the banking & credit system
of the country.

 On May 1, 1852, the first commercial bank of the Philippines, El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel 2A
issuing the following denominations initially 10, 25, 50 and 200 pesos fuertes (strong pesos). They were
used until 1896.

Higher denominations

The Central Bank of the Philippines issued only 300,000 pieces of this 216mmx133mm 2,000 Philippine
piso centennial commemorative legal tender banknote. The obverse side features President Joseph Estrada taking
his oath of office on June 30, 1998 in the historic Barasoain Church, the seat of the first democratic republic in Asia
shown in the background as well as the scroll of the Malolos Constitution and the seal of the BSP (Bangko Sentral ng
Pilipinas). The reverse side depicts the re-enactment of the declaration of Philippine Independence at the Aguinaldo
Shrine in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1998 by President Fidel V. Ramos and also features the Philippine Centennial
Commission logo. The security features of the note include a 3-dimensional cylinder mold-made portrait watermark of
the two presidents and the years 1898-1998, iridescent band, color-shift windowed security thread, latent image and
perfect see-through register. The 100,000-piso centennial note, measuring 8.5"x14", is accredited by the Guinness
Book of World Records as the world's largest legal tender note in terms of size. It was issued in very limited quantity
during the celebration of the centennial of Philippine independence in 1998

If you Suspect a Counterfeit Note

1. Do not return it to the passer.

2. Delay the passer by some excuse, if possible, without risking harm.
3. Observe and record the passer’s appearance and that of his/her companion/s.
4. Note the license plate number and make of the passer’s car.
5. Place the note in a protective envelope.

Pertinent Laws and Regulations to Protect and maintain the Integrity of the Currency

1. Article 163, Revised Penal Code (RPC). Making and importing and uttering (issuing or circulating) false
2. Article 166, Revised Penal Code (RPC). Forging treasury or bank notes or other documents payable to
bearer; importing, and uttering (issuing or circulating) such false or forged notes and documents.
3. Article 168, Revised Penal Code (RPC). Illegal possession and use of false treasury or bank notes and
other instruments of credit.
4. Article 176, Revised Penal Code (RPC). Manufacturing and possession of instruments or implements for
5. PD 247 – Defacement, mutilation, tearing, burning or destruction of Central Bank (BSP) notes and coins.
6. Chapter II, Circular 61, Series of 1995. Reproduction and/or use of facsimiles of legal tender Philippine
currency notes.
7. Chapter III, Circular 61, Series of 1995. Reproduction and/or use of facsimiles of legal tender Philippine
currency coins.

Paul Revere – he made the first plates for this "Continental Currency."
Federal Reserve Seal

Prior to Series 1996, each Federal Reserve Note bears a regional seal at the left of the portrait. This seal,
printed in black, bears the name of the issuing Federal Reserve Bank and the letter designating the Federal Reserve
district in which that bank is located.
On notes of the 1950 series and later, the black Federal Reserve regional seal is smaller than earlier
designs and is surrounded by sharp points. Starting with the 1996 series Federal Reserve notes, a new universal seal
represents the entire Federal Reserve system. A letter and number below the upper left serial number identifies the
issuing Federal Reserve Bank.

Federal Reserve Bank Letter Number

Boston A 1
New York City B 2
Philadelphia C 3
Cleveland D 4
Richmond E 5
Atlanta F 6
Chicago G 7
St. Louis H 8
Minneapolis I 9
Kansas City, MO J 10
Dallas K 11
San Francisco L 12

It's the Law

Manufacturing counterfeit United States currency or altering genuine currency to increase its value is a
violation of Title 18, Section 471 of the United States Code and is punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to 15
years, or both. Possession of counterfeit United States obligations with fraudulent intent is a violation of Title 18,
Section 472 of the United States Code and is punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to 15 years, or both.
Anyone who manufactures a counterfeit U.S. coin in any denomination above five cents is subject to the same
penalties as all other counterfeiters. Anyone who alters a genuine coin to increase its numismatic value is in violation
of Title 18, Section 331 of the United States Code, which is punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to five years,
or both. Forging, altering, or trafficking in United States Government checks, bonds or other obligations is a violation
of Title 18, Section 510 of the United States Code and is punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to 10 years, or
both. Printed reproductions, including photographs of paper currency, checks, bonds, postage stamps, revenue
stamps, and securities of the United States and foreign governments (except under the conditions previously listed)
are violations of Title 18, Section 474 of the United States Code. Violations are punishable by a fine or imprisonment
for up to 15 years, or both.

What is Photography?

Photography is the art or process of producing image of objects by the action of light on sensitive surface
with the aid of images forming device known as camera process involve therein.

What is the origin of word photography?

Photography, method of picture making developed in the early 19th century, based on principles of light,
optics, and chemistry. The word photography comes from Greek word PHOTO which means LIGHT and GRAPHY
which means – to DRAW.

General Classes in the Photography of Questioned Documents

Photography of questioned documents can be divided into two general classes:

1. Documents where it is obvious that an erasure or visible alteration has taken place, and
2. Document which appear satisfactory, but where forgery by alteration is suspected.

Generally, photographing of document is the vital importance in the establishment of proofs in questioned
document cases. A permanent record of it can be considered indispensable to a successful examination and
presentation of the case in court. To meet this requirement the document photographer should have a wide
photographic knowledge, training and experience. He should be aware of the fundamental operational capabilities
and limitation in the areas of:
1. Films
2. Lighting
3. Lighting Equipments
4. Type of Cameras Available for the specific purpose
5. Types of Lenses suited for the given cases
6. Supplemental equipment’s which will increase efficiency such as tripod, camera stand, filters, extension
tubes, cable release, lens hood, flood light, level, etc.

General Guide in the Correct Lighting for Erasures:

The correct lighting for deciphering erasures is determined by experiment. As a general guide these steps
should be tried:
1. Ordinary Lighting. Obviously, the first step is to look at the document by ordinary reflected light.
2. Side Lighting. Try lighting from various angles. An extremely oblique angle will often be found useful. If
some particular light and viewing angle make the erasure visible, duplicate setup for the camera.
3. Transmitted Light. Look at the document with the light coming through it. Turn the document over and
4. Magnification. Examine the paper with a magnifier, such as a hand glass or a low-power binocular
microscope. Magnifications up to about 10x are most useful.
5. Polarized Light. Light the document with polarized light, using a Kodak Pola-Light, for example, Examine it
through a Kodak Pola-Screen.
6. Filters. Look at the document through various filters-either separate filters or the viewing filters in the Kodak
Master Photoguide.

Chemical Methods
An erasure can be brought up with iodine fuming. Iodine fuming is a general procedure includes:
1. Reveals the presence and extent of an erasure;
2. Restores some of the writing, and
3. Delineates any area that had previously been wet.

Different Methods in Document Photography

1. Transmitted Light Photography – used in the examination of watermarks and furnishes a method of
determining the identity or the difference in paper by showing arrangement of the fibers and the markings of the
wire gauze and dandy-roll. Photograph by transmitted light will also clearly the uneven distribution of ink in
interrupted strokes and the presence of the added ink in retouched strokes.
2. Photomicrography – the process of obtaining photographs of magnified images of small subject is known as
photomicrography. It has a wide application in many fields where the minutes scrutiny of an object is necessary
and a court exhibit of a magnified image is needed.

a) Low-Power Photomicrography – also called macrophotography or photomicrography, normally carried on

by simply using a short focal length lens on a camera with a long extension tube or below.

b) High-Power Photomicrography – ordinary requires the use of a lensless camera attached to a compound
microscope. The image produced by the lens system of the microscope simply is projected upon the film in the

3. Ultra-Violet Photography – in the radiant energy spectrum between the x-ray band and the visible light band
and adjoining the latter at its violet end is a band of rays known as ultraviolet. Photographs made by using
ultraviolet rays as the light source sometimes reveal physical or chemical differences in subjects that are
undetectable by any type of photography.

a) Straight Ultraviolet Photography – is a method of taking a picture in which a camera is used to record the
difference in a subject reflection, transmission or absorption of ultraviolet rays in much the same manner as in
light photography.

b) Ultraviolet Luminescence Photography – is the process of taking a picture of a subject that is emitting or
giving out invisible radiations in the long wave ultraviolet region (3500A to 4000) while it is being irradiated by
external short wave ultraviolet rays (2500 to 3500A)
c) Ultraviolet Fluorescence Photography – basically, fluorescence photography is almost as simply as many
other kinds of visible light photography. All black and white films and all color films can be used, and generally
speaking color is better than black and white for fluorescence photography. High speed Ektachrome is good
Panchromatic film in black and white. The filter most often used is the Wratten 2B in color and K2 (yellow) OR g
(orange) filters in black and white works.

4. Infra-Red Photography – define as taking a picture with infrared rays by means of a camera loaded with film
sensitive to infrared radiations. However, infrared pictures often, are produced without a camera and they are
also taken sometimes with films that are not sensitive to infrared radiations.

a) Straight Infra-red Photography – “straight” to mean exhibiting no deviation from what is accepted as usual
or normal photograph undertaken using infrared film in an ordinary camera with an infrared filter over the
camera lens or any light source. (Wratten 87 or A & F Filters)

b) Indirect Infrared Photography – it is possible to take infrared pictures indirectly that are very similar to
those obtained by the straight techniques using infrared film. One method uses a device called an image
converter. The image is transformed into a visible light image on the fluorescent screen of the converter can be
observed visually and photographed with any camera loaded with fast Panchromatic film; it is not necessary to
use infrared film.

5. Infrared Luminescence Photography – luminescence is the process of taking picture of a subject that is
emitting or giving out invisible radiations in the long wavelength extending into infrared region.

6. Digital Photography – digital photography is defined by storing images on computer memory or floppy disc
instead of film, digital cameras bypass film processing by displaying images immediately when connected to
computer. As digital photography phenomenon gains momentum, the number of digital camera manufactures
has increased. This category of digital camera would include the Apple, Quicktake, Casio, Chinon and Kodak.

Digital Camera – contain computed chips that store visual images. By marrying the camera and computer, images
can be viewed, edited, or added to documents. Transferring the images frees up the camera’s memory allowing an
endless supply of digital film.
CCD Camera – Charged Coupling Device (CCD) chips capture an image in an array of a fixed number of pixels. The
chip is charged with electricity, light strikes the array, and the brightness of each pixel is recorded by software.

Difference between Conventional and Digital Photography

EXPOSURE ----------------- CAPTURE
PROCESS ------------------- MANAGE
PRINT ------------------------ OUTPUT

Advantage of Digital Computer Photography

1. Immediately Available Images
2. No Darkroom and Chemical Needed
3. Quality, Good Enough to Very Good
4. Images Can Be Transmitted
5. Option Depend On Your Camera
6. Color Balances, Saturation, Contrast Easily Changed
7. Limited Options
8. Costly, Needs Computer and Printer
9. Requires Computer Expertise

Requirements in the Preparation of Photographic Illustration

1. The number and dates of standards signatures to be photographed in connection with disputed document or
the disputed signature.
2. The degree of greatest enlargement of the disputed, document or of the disputed signature, and of the
accompanying standard writings that are to be enlarged.
3. The classification, or group comparison, of words, or parts of extended writing or portions of signatures or
other writing.
4. The disability of transmitted light photograph of disputed documents or writing with similar photograph of a
standard writing similar in kind.
5. In traced forgery cases the photographing of disputed signature with the model from which it was traced if
model is found, and the printing of photograph of forged signature and model signature or separate
transparent films, or oiled, paper and also photographing those signature under ruled squares slightly
enlarged to show suspicious identity by this method as well as by the use of the transparent films or print.
6. Possible use of stereoscopic illustrations showing retouching, overwriting mark of nib points, line crossing,
erasures, overwriting, over folds in paper, or any third dimension characteristic.
7. The size of photographs to be used, whether 8x12, or 11 x 14 and also whether they are to be arranged in
loose-leaf album form or separately in fortfolio.
8. The use of large bromide enlargements.

Importance of Photography for Court Presentation

1. The writing in questioned can be accurately enlarged so that every quality and characteristics of it can be
clearly and properly interpreted whether the facts so shown point to genuineness or to forgery.
2. To provide any number of accurate reproductions of writing in questioned, thus affording unlimited
opportunity for study, comparison and investigation by any number of examiners, which would not be
possible by using the original document in questioned.
3. Photographic duplicate, and especially enlargements, also enable court and jury to understand and weight
the technical testimony given by an expert regarding their finding.
4. Photographs can be cut apart as may be desirable and the various parts classified for comparison.
5. Photographs are also useful in showing delicate discoloration’s due to chemical erasures or other fraudulent
changes otherwise might be overlook, denied or misinterpreted.

Steps in the Preparation for Trial

1. Original notes obtained from client interviews
2. Investigation reports
3. Written discovery
4. Depositions
5. Medical records
6. Information from experts