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Prepared by Mr. Mr Chatchawan Chalermwattanachai

Email : Chatchawan.c@egat.co.th Chatchawan.c@egat.c

Tel : 02-436-1342 02-436-1342

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

**Why do we calculate sag and tension ?
**

Sag and tension are calculated to have three basic principles : Safety Sf Reliability Economy

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

**Influence on Sag and Tension
**

Conductor behavior Additional Loads Change in Temperature Short circuit Force Span Length

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

•Weight of conductor • Creep

Conductor behavior

Weight of conductor Creep

Additional Loads

Iced or snow Wind

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

Change in Temperature g p

Ambient Load flow Fault current

Short circuit force

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

Conductor stringing type Level Span Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Inclined Span Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Catenary method This method is used for span length more than 500 metres 2. Parabola method This method is used for span length less than 500 metres Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Calculation Method The calculation has two methods that comprises 1.

Free b d diagram of L l span F body di f Level A D=Sag H L Tx x-axis O wc y-axis Ty T T B x1 x2 S Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

length. D. sag D Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .The shape of the conductor that is strung on support (A and B) is a function of the conductor weight per unit length . S.wc . the span length S and the conductor sag. H tension H. the horizontal component of tension.

Which : w = Conductor weight per unit length [kg/m] T = C d t ttension [k ] Conductor i [kg] H = Horizontal component of tension [kg] L = Actual conductor length [m] D = Conductor sag [m] X1.X2 = Distance along X-axis (X-Y Coordinate) [m] S = Span length [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Catenary Method H⎛ wS ⎞ −1⎟ = Sag D = ⎜ cosh w⎝ 2H ⎠ 2H wS sinh L= w 2H wS = H + wD T = H cosh 2H Parabola Method wS 2 D= = Sag 8H ⎛ (wS )2 ⎞ ⎟ L = S ⎜1 + ⎜ 24H 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ (wS )2 ⎞ ⎟ = H + wD T = H ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ 8H ⎠ ⎝ Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Free body diagram of Inclined span Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Which Whi h : y1 = Short support height [m] y2 = Tall support height [m] pp point x1 = Distance between short support and lowest p of conductor [m] x2 = Distance between tall support and lowest point of conductor [m] h = Height difference between conductor support [m] L1 = Actual conductor length of x1 side [m] L2 = Actual conductor length of x2 side [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

⎛ ⎜ S H h −1 ⎜ x1 = − sinh ⎜ 2H wS 2 wc sinh c ⎜ w 2H ⎝ c ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ S H h −1 ⎜ ⎟ x2 = + sinh ⎜ 2H wc S ⎟ 2 wc ⎜ w sinh 2 H ⎟ ⎝ c ⎠ Catenary method S = x1 + x2 h = y2 − y1 Parabola method S Hh x1 = − 2 wc S S Hh x2 = + 2 wc S wc x12 y1 = 2H 2 wc x2 y2 = 2H wx ⎛ ⎞ cosh c 1 − 1⎟ ⎜ H ⎝ ⎠ wx H⎛ ⎞ y2 = cosh c 2 − 1⎟ ⎜ H wc ⎝ ⎠ y1 = H wc L= wx wx ⎞ H⎛ ⎜ sinh c 1 + sinh c 2 ⎟ wc ⎝ H H ⎠ ⎛ (wc S )2 h2 ⎞ ⎟ L = S⎜1+ ⎜ 24H 2 + 2S 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Sag at mid span wc S 3 8T S 2 + h2 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Effect of Tension Tension Stress = Conductor tension to cross section area ratio T = A [kg/mm2] Strain = Elongation to original length ratio Strain = ε = δ L δ Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

T Stress St A = TL E= = Strain Δ L L A Δ L TL Δ Lt = AE Then l t d t Th elongate conductor llength which iis d tto ttension iis th hi h due i TL Δ Lt = AE Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

if the metal is held under stress for a long period of time.Creep Creep is the p p plastic deformation that occurs in metal at stresses below its yield strength. Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . Metal that is stressed below the yield point will normally return to its original shape and size when unloaded because of its elasticity. permanent deformation will occur. However. This deformation is in addition to the expected increase in llength resulting f the stress-strain characteristics di i h l i from h i h i i of the metal.

the temperature of conductor will b hi h causing the elongation of the f d ill be higher i h l i f h conductor and more sag.Effect of Temperature . the temperature of conductor will be lower causing the shrinking of the conductor and less sag.In case of low temperature and/or an decrease of power flow. .In case of high temperature and/or an increase of power flow. The elongation of the conductor which is due to temperature Δ L th = α L Δ t Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Conductor Elongation Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

the conductor sag for the total bus sag. The following procedure can be used to calculate the insulator effect which is added to effect. h i l have appreciable effect on span sags. Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Effect of suspension insulator For h F short spans. such as substation strain b the suspension iinsulators can h an h b i i buses.

CI = Cc = T wi T wc CI S ⎛ ⎞ X BD ⎜ Assume X BD = − l AB ⎟ Cc 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡⎛ X DBC = C I ⎢⎜ cosh BC ⎜ CI ⎣⎝ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛X l AC = l AB + C I sinh ⎜ BC ⎜ C ⎝ I ⎛l X AC = C I sinh −1 ⎜ AC ⎜C ⎝ I ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ X BC = ⎡⎛ X ⎜ cosh AC DAC = C I ⎢⎜ CI ⎣⎝ DI = DAC − DBC D = DI + Dc ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎦ Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Which Whi h : CI Cc X AC X BC X BD = Insulator catenary constant [m] = Conductor catenary constant [m] = Horizontal distance from insulator support point to center of insulator catenary [m] = Horizontal distance from connection point of insulator string and conductor to center of insulator catenary [m] = Horizontal distance from connection point of insulator p string and conductor to center of conductor catenary [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

= Length of iinsulator string [ ] L th f l t t i [m] L = Arc length from insulator support point to center of insulator catenary [m] D = Total bus sag D = Sag from insulator support point to center of insulator catenary [m] DBC = Sag from connection point of insulator string and conductor to center of insulator catenary [ ] y [m] LAB AC AC Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

DI = Dc = T = wi = wc = S = Insulator sag [m] Conductor sag [m] Horizontal conductor tension [m] Insulator string weight [N/m] Conductor weight [N/m] Span length [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Effect of Wi d L d Eff f Wind Load The ff f i d Th effectt of wind pressure on conductor iis tto iincrease th ttransverse d t the wind load.0047 x Aero x V 2 x Dc wp = Wind force [kg/m] Dc = Overall diameter of conductor [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . It can be calculated by Give : w p = 0.

0 for D c 〈 12.1 for 12.2 for D c ≥ 15. = Aerodynamic Factor = 1.5 ≤ D c 〈 15.8 mm = 1.5 mm = 1.Aero.8 mm V = Wind speed [km/hr] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Effect of iced or snow If ice loading has to be considered in the design it is usual to consider that this is of a uniform radial thickness with a density of 900 kg / m 3 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

wi = 2.87 x10 r (Dc + r ) 3 Which : r = Radial ice thickness [m] Dc = Conductor diameter [m] wi = Iced weight [kg/m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Total conductor pressure The total conductor pressure consist of wind pressure. It can be calculated according to Which : w= (wc + wi ) 2 +w +k 2 p w = Total conductor pressure [kg/m] wc = Conductor weight [kg/m] wi = Iced weight [kg/m] w p = Wind pressure [ g ] p [kg/m] k = NESC constant Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . ice loading and conductor weight.

0047 xAeroxV22 x Dc w1 = w2 = (wc + wi1 )2 + w21 + k p (wc + wi 2 )2 + w2 2 + k p Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .0047 xAeroxV12 x Dc w p 2 = 0.Tension Calculated 0 = T 3 2 ⎡⎛ C w L + ⎢⎜ 1 1 ⎜ T ⎢⎝ 1 ⎣ ⎤ ⎞ ⎟ − T 1 + C 2 (t 2 − t 1 )⎥ T 22 − (C 1 w 2 L )2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ 2 Where AE C1 = 24 C2 = αAE w p1 = 0.

Which : = Initial conductor tension at t1 [kg/m] = Finall conductor tension at t2 [k / ] i d i [kg/m] = Cross section area conductor [mm2] = Final Modulus Elasticity of Conductor [kg/mm2] α = Coefficient of linear expansion [/oC] t1 = Initial temperature [oC] t2 = New temperature [oC] T1 T2 A E Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Dc wc wp1 wp2 w1 w2 = Conductor diameter [m] = Conductor weight [kg/m] = Wind pressure on conductor at temperature t1 [kg/m] = Wi d pressure on conductor att ttemperature t2 [k / ] Wind d t t [kg/m] = Total pressure on conductor at temperature t1 [kg/m] = Total pressure on conductor at temperature t2 [kg/m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

16oC. – Tmax < 60% RBS @ NESC Loading. 16oC RBS l d f i di C.Tension Limits The NESC recommends limits on the tension of conductors based on a percentage of their Rated Breaking Strength (RBS). upon installation. unload after maximum lloading. – Tinitial < 35% RBS. Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . Initial. – Tfinal < 25% RBS.

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

The designer will consider this event.Effect of Short Circuit (Fault) If fault current flowed in conductor. it will be swing that may be flashover. g Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Conductor Swing under fault current flow in conductor Sag Conductor Phase to Phase Fault Three Phase Fault Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Which Fsc = Short circuit force [kg/m] μ = 4π x 10 Isc = S Symmetricall f l current (RMS) [kA] i fault D = Distance between stringing point conductor [m] S = Span Length [m] Li = Insulator length [m] g = Reach of conductor [m] −7 0 2 μ0 I sc S − 2 Li 1 0.75 Fsc = 2π D S g Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Short circuit force can be calculated according to below equation.

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .What is the cascade fault? fault? One place have fault and this cause will be occurred to follow fault in the another. This event is called cascade fault. The cascade fault cannot occurred when sag allowable shall be less than maximum sag.

Dalw = R (Fsc )2 + (nwc )2 Fsc Which Salw R Fsc n = Sag allowable [m] g = Reach [m] = Short circuit force [kg/m] = The number of conductor per phase wc = Conductor weight [kg] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .The sag allowable can be calculated according to below equation.

The reach can be calculated according to below equation. R= D − Dc − Da − Ds 2 Which R = Reach [m] D = Distance between stringing point conductor [m] Dc = Conductor diameter [m] Da = Minimum phase to phase clearance [m] Ds = Spacer distance [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

D Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

D D Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Reach Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

The cascade fault cannot occur when Dmax ≤ Dalw Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

02181 7700 52.009144 α V Aero.5 1 1272 677. 1.80E-05 2.Line characteristics Data A Wc Dc E 477 280.07 0.5 1 795 423.04 7000 52.978 0.07E-05 1.524 0.406 19300 52.49 1.5 1.2 Unit mm2 kg/m m kg/mm2 per C kg/m2 o 0.71 2.5 1 3/8 OHG 51.99 0.13E-05 2.15E-05 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .03391 0.02772 6200 52.

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Example p The single per phase conductors 477 MCM ACSR (HAWK) are strung on structure that span length has 45 meter and assumption fault current 8 kA flow in this conductor.

T 23 ⎡⎛ C w S + ⎢⎜ 1 1 ⎜ ⎢ ⎝ T1 ⎣ C1 = 2 ⎤ ⎞ ⎟ − T 1 + C 2 (t 2 − t 1 )⎥ T 22 − (C 1 w 2 S ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ )2 = 0 AE = 24 2 8 0 . 145 kg / m w1 = w c2 + w 2 1 = p 0 . 50 x 0 .9 4 5 2 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . 978 2 + 1 .2 5 1 5 24 w p 1 = AeroxP w1 xD c = 1 x 52 . 145 2 = 1 . 02181 = 1 . 5058 k / m kg C 2 = α A E = 1.9 9 x 7 7 0 0 = 3 0 0 .8 x 1 0 − 5 x 2 8 0 .9 9 x 7 7 0 0 = 3 8 .

978 2 + 0 2 = 0 .906 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .2515 x 0 .503 kg Maximum Sag wS 2 0.w p 2 = AeroxP w2 xD c = 1 x 0 x 0 .978 x 45) 2 = 0 ⎟ − 750 + 38 .978x 452 Sag = = = 0.2515 x 1.945m 8T65 8 x 261. 02181 = 0 kg / m w2 = w c2 + w 2 2 = p = T 65 0 .9452 T + ⎢⎜ ⎠ 750 ⎣⎝ ⎦ T65 = 261 .5058 x 45 ⎞ 2 ⎤ 2 ( 65 − 6 ) ⎥T65 − ( 300 . 978 kg / m give T Then 3 65 1 = T6 and T 2 ⎡⎛ 300 .906 kg T27 = 383 .

(8 x10 3 ) 1 4πx10 −7 Fsc = 0.58m 0.75 = 0.02181 − 1 .58 = = 2 .978) 2 = = 2.326 kg / m 2π 3 9.326) 2 + ( 1x 0.3462 = = 0 .81 2 R= D − Dc − D a − D s 3 − 0 .8160 m 2 2 S alw = R Δ= (F ) + (nw ) 2 sc c 2 Fsc 0.945 not cascade fault Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .326 S alw 2 .73 > 1 S max 0 .8160 ( 0.

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