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Prepared by

Mr Chatchawan Chalermwattanachai

Mr.

**Email : Chatchawan.c@egat.c
**

Chatchawan.c@egat.co.th Tel : 02

02--436-

436-1342

1342

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

Why do we calculate sag and tension ?

**Sag and tension are calculated to have three basic principles :
**

¾ Safety

Sf

¾ Reliability

¾ Economy

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

**Influence on Sag and Tension
**

¾ Conductor behavior •Weight of conductor

• Creep

¾ Additional Loads

¾ Change in Temperature

¾ Short circuit Force

¾ Span Length

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

¾ Conductor behavior

Ü Weight of conductor

Ü Creep

¾ Additional Loads

Ü Iced or snow

Ü Wind

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

¾ Change

g in Temperature

p

Ü Ambient

Ü Load flow

Ü Fault current

¾ Short circuit force

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT )

Conductor stringing type ¾ Level Span Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

¾ Inclined Span Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Parabola method This method is used for span length less than 500 metres Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Calculation Method The calculation has two methods that comprises 1. Catenary method This method is used for span length more than 500 metres 2.

F body Free b d di diagram off LLevell span y-axis T A T Ty B D=Sag L Tx H O x-axis x1 x2 wc S Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

SS.The shape of the conductor that is strung on support (A and B) is a function of the conductor weight per unit length .wc . the horizontal component of tension H. sag D. and the conductor sag. D Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . tension. H the span length length.

X2 = Distance along X-axis (X-Y Coordinate) [m] S = Span length [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Which : w = Conductor weight per unit length [kg/m] T = Conductor C d t ttension i [kg] [k ] H = Horizontal component of tension [kg] L = Actual conductor length [m] D = Conductor sag [m] X1.

Catenary Method Parabola Method H⎛ wS ⎞ D= wS 2 = Sag D = ⎜ cosh −1⎟ = Sag w⎝ 2H ⎠ 8H 2H wS ⎛ (wS )2 ⎞ L= sinh L = S ⎜⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎟ w 2H ⎝ 24H ⎠ wS ⎛ (wS )2 ⎞ T = H cosh = H + wD T = H ⎜⎜1 + ⎟ = H + wD 2H 2 ⎟ ⎝ 8H ⎠ Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Free body diagram of Inclined span Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Whichh : Whi y1 = Short support height [m] y2 = Tall support height [m] x1 = Distance between short support pp and lowest ppoint of conductor [m] x2 = Distance between tall support and lowest point of conductor [m] h = Height difference between conductor support [m] L1 = Actual conductor length of x1 side [m] L2 = Actual conductor length of x2 side [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

S = x1 + x2 Catenary method h = y2 − y1 Parabola method ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ S Hh wc x12 S H x1 = − sinh −1 ⎜ h ⎟ x1 = − y1 = 2 wc ⎜ 2H wc S⎟ 2 wc S 2H ⎜ w sinh ⎟ ⎝ c 2H ⎠ S Hh wc x22 ⎛ ⎞ x2 = + y2 = ⎜ ⎟ 2 wc S 2H S H −1 ⎜ h ⎟ x2 = + sinh 2 wc ⎜ 2H wc S ⎟ ⎜ w sinh 2 H ⎟ ⎛ (wc S )2 h2 ⎞ ⎝ c ⎠ L = S⎜⎜1+ 2 + 2 ⎟⎟ H⎛ wc x1 ⎞ ⎝ 24H 2S ⎠ y1 = ⎜ cosh − 1⎟ ⎝ wc H ⎠ H⎛ wc x2 ⎞ Sag at mid span y2 = ⎜ cosh − 1⎟ wc ⎝ H ⎠ wc S 3 H⎛ wx wx ⎞ L= ⎜ sinh c 1 + sinh c 2 ⎟ wc ⎝ H H ⎠ 8T S 2 + h2 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Effect of Tension Tension Stress = Conductor tension to cross section area ratio T = A [kg/mm2] Strain = Elongation to original length ratio δ Strain = ε = L δ Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Stress St T TL E= = A = Strain Δ L L A Δ L TL Δ Lt = AE Th elongate Then l t conductor d t llength th which hi h iis ddue tto tension t i isi Δ Lt = TL AE Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

if the metal is held under stress for a long period of time. permanent deformation will occur. Metal that is stressed below the yield point will normally return to its original shape and size when unloaded because of its elasticity.Creep Creepp is the pplastic deformation that occurs in metal at stresses below its yield strength. Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . This deformation is in addition to the expectedd increase i in i llengthh resulting l i ffrom the h stress-strain i characteristics h i i of the metal. However.

In case of high temperature and/or an increase of power flow. the temperature of conductor will be lower causing the shrinking of the conductor and less sag.In case of low temperature and/or an decrease of power flow. the temperature off conductor d will ill bbe hi higher h causing i the h elongation l i off the h conductor and more sag. The elongation of the conductor which is due to temperature Δ L th = α L Δ t Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . .Effect of Temperature .

Conductor Elongation Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

The following procedure can be used to calculate the insulator effect effect. the h suspension i iinsulators l can hhave an appreciable effect on span sags. which is added to the conductor sag for the total bus sag. Effect of suspension insulator F short For h spans. suchh as substation b i strain i bbuses. Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

T ⎡⎛ X ⎞ ⎤ CI = DBC = C I ⎢⎜⎜ cosh BC ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ wi ⎣⎝ CI ⎠ ⎦ Cc = T ⎛X ⎞ l AC = l AB + C I sinh ⎜⎜ BC ⎟⎟ wc ⎝ CI ⎠ CI ⎛ S ⎞ ⎛l ⎞ X BC = X BD ⎜ Assume X BD = − l AB ⎟ X AC = C I sinh −1 ⎜⎜ AC ⎟⎟ Cc ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ CI ⎠ ⎡⎛ X AC ⎞ ⎤ ⎜ DAC = C I ⎢⎜ cosh ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ⎣⎝ CI ⎠ ⎦ DI = DAC − DBC D = DI + Dc Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Whi h : Which CI = Insulator catenary constant [m] Cc = Conductor catenary constant [m] X AC = Horizontal distance from insulator support point to center of insulator catenary [m] X BC = Horizontal distance from connection point of insulator string and conductor to center of insulator catenary [m] X BD = Horizontal distance from connection ppoint of insulator string and conductor to center of conductor catenary [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

= Length LAB L th off iinsulator l t string t i [[m]] L = Arc length from insulator support point to center of AC insulator catenary [m] D = Total bus sag D = Sag from insulator support point to center of insulator AC catenary [m] DBC = Sag from connection point of insulator string and conductor to center of insulator catenaryy [[m]] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

DI = Insulator sag [m] Dc = Conductor sag [m] T = Horizontal conductor tension [m] wi = Insulator string weight [N/m] wc = Conductor weight [N/m] S = Span length [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

0047 x Aero x V 2 x Dc Give : wp = Wind force [kg/m] Dc = Overall diameter of conductor [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Effect Eff off Wi Windd LLoadd The effect Th ff t off wind i d pressure on conductor d t iis tto iincrease th the ttransverse wind load. It can be calculated by w p = 0.

8 mm = 1.1 for 12.Aero.8 mm V = Wind speed [km/hr] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .0 for D c 〈 12. = Aerodynamic Factor = 1.2 for D c ≥ 15.5 ≤ D c 〈 15.5 mm = 1.

Effect of iced or snow If ice loading has to be considered in the design it is usual to consider that this is of a uniform radial thickness with a density of 900 kg / m 3 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

87 x10 r (Dc + r ) 3 Which : wi = Iced weight [kg/m] r = Radial ice thickness [m] Dc = Conductor diameter [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . wi = 2.

ice loading and conductor weight.Total conductor pressure The total conductor pressure consist of wind pressure. It can be calculated according to w= (wc + wi ) 2 +w +k2 p Which : w = Total conductor pressure [kg/m] wc = Conductor weight [kg/m] wi = Iced weight [kg/m] w p = Wind ppressure [[kg/m] g ] k = NESC constant Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Tension Calculated ⎡⎛ C w L ⎞ 2 ⎤ 0 = T 2 3 + ⎢ ⎜⎜ 1 1 ⎟⎟ − T 1 + C 2 (t 2 − t 1 )⎥ T 22 − (C 1 w 2 L )2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ T 1 ⎠ ⎥⎦ Where C1 = AE w p1 = 0.0047 xAeroxV12 x Dc 24 C2 = αAE w p 2 = 0.0047 xAeroxV22 x Dc w1 = (wc + wi1 )2 + w2p1 + k w2 = (wc + wi 2 )2 + w2p 2 + k Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Which : T1 = Initial conductor tension at t1 [kg/m] T2 = Final i l conductor d tension i at t2 [kg/m] [k / ] A = Cross section area conductor [mm2] E = Final Modulus Elasticity of Conductor [kg/mm2] α = Coefficient of linear expansion [/oC] t1 = Initial temperature [oC] t2 = New temperature [oC] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Dc = Conductor diameter [m] wc = Conductor weight [kg/m] wp1 = Wind pressure on conductor at temperature t1 [kg/m] wp2 = Wind Wi d pressure on conductor d t att temperature t t t2 [kg/m] [k / ] w1 = Total pressure on conductor at temperature t1 [kg/m] w2 = Total pressure on conductor at temperature t2 [kg/m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

16oC. upon installation.Tension Limits The NESC recommends limits on the tension of conductors based on a percentage of their Rated Breaking Strength (RBS). – Tmax < 60% RBS @ NESC Loading. – Tfinal < 25% RBS. RBS unload l d after f maximum i lloading. Initial. di 16oC. – Tinitial < 35% RBS. C Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . The designer g will consider this event. Effect of Short Circuit (Fault) If fault current flowed in conductor. it will be swing that may be flashover.

Conductor Swing under fault current flow in conductor Sag Conductor Phase to Phase Fault Three Phase Fault Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Short circuit force can be calculated according to below equation.75 2π D S g Which Fsc = Short circuit force [kg/m] μ = 4π x 10 0 −7 Isc = Symmetrical S i l ffaultl current (RMS) [kA] D = Distance between stringing point conductor [m] S = Span Length [m] Li = Insulator length [m] g = Reach of conductor [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . μ0 I sc2 S − 2 Li 1 Fsc = 0.

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . The cascade fault cannot occurred when sag allowable shall be less than maximum sag.What is the cascade fault? fault? One place have fault and this cause will be occurred to follow fault in the another. This event is called cascade fault.

(Fsc )2 + (nwc )2 Dalw = R Fsc Which Salw = Sagg allowable [m] R = Reach [m] Fsc = Short circuit force [kg/m] n = The number of conductor per phase wc = Conductor weight [kg] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .The sag allowable can be calculated according to below equation.

The reach can be calculated according to below equation. D − Dc − Da − Ds R= 2 Which R = Reach [m] D = Distance between stringing point conductor [m] Dc = Conductor diameter [m] Da = Minimum phase to phase clearance [m] Ds = Spacer distance [m] Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

D Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

D D Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Reach Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

The cascade fault cannot occur when Dmax ≤ Dalw Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

009144 m E 7700 6200 7000 19300 kg/mm2 α 1. 1 1 1 1.524 2.5 kg/m2 Aero.04 0.Line characteristics Data 477 795 1272 3/8 OHG Unit A 280.49 677.02772 0.80E-05 2.15E-05 o per C V 52.5 52.99 423.02181 0.5 52.406 kg/m Dc 0.07E-05 1.71 51.07 mm2 Wc 0.5 52.03391 0.13E-05 2.978 1.2 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .Example p The single per phase conductors 477 MCM ACSR (HAWK) are strung on structure that span length has 45 meter and assumption fault current 8 kA flow in this conductor.

145 2 = 1 .9 9 x 7 7 0 0 C1 = = = 3 0 0 . 50 x 0 .2 5 1 5 24 24 w p 1 = AeroxP w1 xD c = 1 x 52 . 5058 kg k /m C 2 = α A E = 1. 02181 = 1 .9 4 5 2 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) . ⎡⎛ C w S ⎞ 2 ⎤ T 23 + ⎢ ⎜⎜ 1 1 ⎟⎟ − T 1 + C 2 (t 2 − t 1 )⎥ T 22 − (C 1 w 2 S )2 = 0 ⎢⎣ ⎝ T 1 ⎠ ⎥⎦ AE 2 8 0 . 145 kg / m w1 = w c2 + w 2p 1 = 0 .9 9 x 7 7 0 0 = 3 8 .8 x 1 0 − 5 x 2 8 0 . 978 2 + 1 .

978 2 + 0 2 = 0 .2515 x 0 .2515 x 1. 02181 = 0 kg / m w2 = w c2 + w 2p 2 = 0 .503 kg wS 2 0.5058 x 45 ⎞ 2 ⎤ T + ⎢⎜ 3 ⎟ − 750 + 38 .906 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .945m 8T65 8 x 261.9452 65 − 6 ⎥ T652 − ( 300 . 978 kg / m give T 1 = T6 and T 2 = T 65 Then ⎡⎛ 300 .978 x 45) 2 = 0 ( ) ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎦ 65 750 T65 = 261 .978x 452 Maximum Sag Sag = = = 0.906 kg T27 = 383 . w p 2 = AeroxP w2 xD c = 1 x 0 x 0 .

8160 m 2 2 (F ) + (nw ) 2 2 0.3462 R= = = 0 .02181 − 1 .58m Fsc 0.75 = 0.945 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand ( EGAT ) .326 kg / m 2π 3 9.81 D − Dc − D a − D s 3 − 0 .8160 ( 0.326) 2 + ( 1x 0.978) 2 S alw = R sc c = = 2.326 S alw 2 .58 not cascade fault Δ= = = 2 . 4πx10 −7 (8 x10 3 ) 1 2 Fsc = 0.73 > 1 S max 0 .

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