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TU SC IA U N IV ER SITY

Sciences and technologies for Agriculture, Forestry,


Nature and Energy Department

CONGRESS

“Environmental technologies for drinking water quality, industrial


wastewater and solid waste and biogas technology”

O R G A N I C WA S T E L E G I S L AT I O N
in the European Union and Italy

Auditorium Principal UNALM – LIMA


8 - 16 april 2014

Giovanni Battista Ferrarese


Agronomist and landscaper 1
As resources placed on the market are bound, sooner or later, to become waste and any
productive activity generates some form of waste

MEASURES TO PUT WASTE BACK IN THE ECONOMIC CYCLE


A R E N EC ES S A RY

Taking sustainable use of resources forward:


A Thematic Strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste
COM(2005) 666 final
‘WA S T E ’
any substance or object which the holder

Discards Intends to discard Is required to discard

Directive 2008/98 /EC on waste


Waste and byproduct
COM (2007) 59

The use intended is not WASTE


lawful

The material was not WASTE


deliberately produced

The material use is not WASTE


certain

The material is not ready for WASTE


any use

The material production is


not an intergated part of
WASTE
the production process
Municipal waste generation
(kg per capita, year 2012)

800.00

700.00

600.00

500.00

400.00

300.00

200.00

100.00

0.00

[EUROSTAT, modified]
Waste generation by countries and waste category
EU 2010
(kg inhabitant)

500 0

450 0
400 0

350 0

300 0
250 0

200 0

150 0
100 0

50 0

0
UE 27

EE FI BE LU IE NL PT DK UK EL SE BG RO AT LI PL DE NO IT LT FR SI ES SK CZ HU CY RS MT MK HR LV

Hosehold and similar wastes Recyclable wastes Combustion wastes

Animal and vegetables wastes Other wastes


Municipal waste generated by country
(1995, 2002 and 2009, kg per capita)

[EUROSTAT, modified]
Waste treatment
UNSORTED COLLECTION SEPARATE COLLECTION

• First step of recycling cycle


• Landfilling • Diverts easily biodegradable waste from
• Mechanical-biological treatment landfills
(techniques to produce a more stable • Enhances the calorific value of the
input to landfills or a product with remaining wastes
improved combustion properties) • Generates a cleaner bio-waste fraction that
allows to produce high quality compost and
facilitates biogas production.
Bio-waste treatment
LANDFILLING INCINERATION BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT

• Most used in EU • Energetic use • High value end product


• Lowest cost option • The bio waste reduce the (closed nutrient cycle)
(apparently and …only in a incineration efficacy of the
very short time) ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
other waste (humidity) • Opportunity to produce
• GHG emissions • No CO2 emission (carbon
• Drainage liquid renewable fuels (biogas
neutral) and biomethane)
• Nearby areas disturbs • No possible use of
• Larger plot occupied • High energetic output
nutrients and loss of
• Irreversible resources organic material
and land loss • Noxious emissions
• Dross disposal as
dangerous waste
Treatment comparison

Biological Treatment
INCINERATION COMPOSTING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

Comparison of bio-waste management options

• The amount of energy that can be recovered


• The source of the energy which is replaced by the recovered energy
• The amount, quality and use of the recycled compost and the products which are replaced
by using compost (e.g. chemical fertilizer)
• The emission profile of biological treatment plants
Waste treatment
EUROPEAN UNION
100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %
60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %
0%
EU 27 DE AT NL SE DK BE LU FR IT FI UK ES PT IE SI HU EE OL MT EL CZ SK CY LV LT HR RO BG
Landfill Incineration Recycling Composting [EUROSTAT modified]

• Countries relying heavily on incineration of waste diverted from landfills, accompanied by a high level of
material recovery and often advanced strategies promoting biological treatment of waste;
• Countries with high material recovery rates but relatively little incineration, with some of the highest
composting rates in the EU
• Countries relying on landfills, where diversion of waste from landfills remains a major challenge due to
lack of alternatives
European Union
Municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted in the EU-27
1995 to 2009
160

140 Directive 1999/31/EC on Landfill


Member States have to reduce by
120 2016 landfilled biodegradable waste
to 35% of 1995 levels
100

80

60

40

20

0
Landfill Incineration Recycling Composting
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

[EUROSTAT modified]
European legislation on waste

Measures to protect the environment and human health by preventing or reducing the
adverse impacts of the generation and management of waste and by reducing overall
impacts of resource use and improving the efficiency of such use

Green Paper of the EC (2008) on the management of bio-waste


• explores options for the further management of bio-waste

Directive 2008/98/EC on waste


• Waste hierarchy
• Encourage the separate collection of
bio-waste with a view to the composting and digestion of bio-waste
European Union
Green Paper of the EC on the management of bio-waste
com (2008 811 def)

Aims to improve the management of bio-waste

FOOD OR KITCHEN WASTE FROM


BIODEGRADABLE GARDEN WASTE FROM FOOD
HOUSEHOLDS, RESTAURANTS,
OR PARK WASTE PROCESSING PLANTS
CATERERS OR RETAIL PREMISES

Makes a distinction between bio-waste and biodegradable waste in the respect that bio-waste
does not include paper
With a view to preparing a future possibilities of improving the management of this waste, the
Green Paper sets out the different types of management in existence, their use by Member States,
their impact on the environment, health, employment and the economy as well as the current
legal instruments governing these types of management.
European Union
Directive on waste
(2008/98/EC)

WASTE HIERARCHY
Priority order in waste prevention and management legislation and politic
Energy from biomasses
Kyoto protocol (Council Decision 2002/358/EC approval on behalf of the EU)

signed and ratified


signed, ratification pending
signed ratification declined
no position

The Kyoto Protocol, which follows the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change, is one of the chief instruments for tackling climate change. It contains the undertakings
entered into by the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of certain greenhouse
gases which are responsible for global warming
The Kyoto Protocol tackles emissions of six greenhouse gases:
• carbon dioxide (CO2); • hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs);
• methane (CH4); • perfluorocarbons (PFCs);
• nitrous oxide (N2O); • sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
Energy from biomasses
Kyoto protocol
Council Decision 2002/358/EC approval on behalf of the European Community
entered into force on 16 February 2005

It represents an important step forward in the effort to tackle global warming as it


includes binding, quantified objectives for limiting and reducing greenhouse gases

The industrialized countries undertake collectively to reduce their greenhouse gas


emissions, to reduce the total emissions by at least 5 % below 1990 levels, during the
period 2008 to 2012

The Protocol suggests various means of attaining these objectives


• stepping up or introducing national
national policies
policies to reduce emissions (greater energy efficiency, promotion
of sustainable forms of agriculture, development of renewable energy sources, etc.)

• cooperation
cooperation with
with the
the other Contracting Parties (exchanges of experience or information, coordination
of national policies through emission permits, joint implementation and a clean development
mechanism)
European Union

Directive on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport
(2003/30/EC)  repealed by Directive 2009/28/EC

ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN EU

• The transport sector accounts for more than 30 % of final energy


consumption in the Community and is expanding, a trend which is 13%
bound to increase, along with carbon dioxide emissions and this 34%
expansion will be greater in percentage terms in the candidate
countries following their accession to the European Union. [WHEREAS 4] 27%

• The Commission Green Paper ‘Towards a European strategy for the


security of energy supply’ sets the objective of 20 % substitution of
24%
conventional fuels by alternative fuels in the road transport sector by 2%
the year 2020. [WHEREAS 17] TRANSPORT SERVICES
HOUSEHOLD AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY
European Union
Directive on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport
(2003/30/EC)

The Directive requires the Member States to introduce legislation and take the necessary
measures to ensure that biofuels (liquid or gaseous fuels used for transport and produced from
biodegradable
biomass, i.e. biodegradable wasteand
waste andresidue
residue from, for
forexample,
example,agriculture andand
agriculture forestry
forestry)
account for a minimum proportion of diesel or petrol sold on their territory.

The different types of biofuels are as follows:


.…
biogas: a fuel gas produced by the fermentation of organic matter (biomass and/or from the
biodegradable fraction of waste) by bacterial populations in the absence of oxygen that can be purified
to natural gas quality, to be used as biofuel, or woodgas;
….
It is a question of reducing conventional emissions and the ultimate goal is to reduce dependency on
the use of oil-based fuels, which is a significant cause for concern for the European Union (EU) in
terms of the environment and security of supply.

THE DIRECTIVE PROVIDED A STIMULUS TO THE RURAL ECONOMY THROUGH THE CREATION OF NEW
SOURCES OF INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT
European Union

Communication “20 20 by 2020 - Europe's climate change opportunity”


COM (2008) 30
+
Communication on “Energy efficiency: delivering the 20% target”
COM(2008) 772 final

Key targets were set by the European Council in the EU by 2020 :

• Saving of 20% of the Union's primary energy consumption

• A reduction of at least 20% in greenhouse gases (GHG)

• A 20% share of renewable energies in EU energy consumption


European Union
Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
(2009/28/EC)
This Directive establishes a common framework for the production and promotion of energy from
renewable sources in order to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to promote cleaner transport. It
encourages energy efficiency, energy consumption from renewable sources, the improvement of energy
supply and the economic stimulation of this sector.

National action plans The share of energy


are defined, as are from renewable sources
procedures for the use in the transport sector
of biofuels must amount to at least
10 % of final energy
consumption in the
sector by 2020
European Union
Directive 2009/28/EC
Each Member State has a target calculated according to the share of energy from renewable
sources in its gross final consumption for 2020
Share of energy from renewable sources in gross Target for share of energy from renewable sources in
final consumption of energy in 2005 gross final consumption of energy in 2020

5,2 % 17 %
Production (Twh)

Energy
production from
renewable and
fossil sources

Fossil
Renewable
European Union
Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
(2009/28/EC)

• Member States can “exchange” an amount of energy from renewable sources using a
statistical transfer, and set
set up joint
joint projects
projects concerning the production of electricity
and heating from renewable sources

• Each Member State must be able to guarantee


guarantee the
the origin of
of electricity
electricity, heating and
cooling produced from renewable energy sources.

• Member States should build


build the necessary infrastructures
infrastructures for energy from renewable
sources in the transport sector. To this end, they should:
• ensure that operators guarantee the transport and distribution of electricity from
renewable sources;
• provide for priority access for this type of energy

• Biofuels and bioliquids should not


not be produced using raw materials from land with
high biodiversity value or with high carbon stock
European Union

Directive concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas
2009/73/EC

The European Commission considered necessary to redefine the rules and measures applying to
the market in natural gas in order to guarantee fair competition and appropriate consumer
protection.

This Directive aims at introducing common rules for the transmission, distribution, supply and
storage of natural gas.

It concerns mainly natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), biogas and gas from biomass.
European Union

Directive concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas
2009/73/EC

Member States should take concrete measures to assist the


thewider
wideruse
useofofbiogas
biogasand
andgas
gasfrom
frombiomass,
biomass
the producers of which should be granted non-discriminatory access to the gas system

Member States should ensure that, taking into account the necessary quality requirements, biogas and
grantednon-discriminatory
gas from biomass or other types of gas are granted non-discriminatory access
access to the
to the gasgas system
system,
provided such access is permanently compatible with the relevant technical rules and safety standards.

Those rules and standards should ensure that those gases can technically
technicallyand
andsafely
safely be injected into,
and transported through the natural gas system and should also address their chemical characteristics.
ITALY

Decree on incentive of biomethane injected into the natural gas grid


Ministry of Economic Development in concert with the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea and the
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry
05 december 2013

Achievement of 10 % of energy from renewable sources in the transport on final energy


consumption in the sector by 2020
(Dir. 2009/28/EC)

Decrease in foreign Gas import (actually 90%), that has no guarantee on procurement and
price stability

High level of diffusion of methane for domestic use (cooking and heating) due to the
Natural gas grid crossing all over Italy
European Union’s gas pipeline network

Present network
Planned pipelines

[source: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.7348v1.pdf].
Biogas plant in Italy
2000-2012
1200

994
1000

800

600 521

400
294
205
200 150
97 120
56 63 72 69 86
50
0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Methane cars in the EU
Austria 5000
Belgium 300
Bulgaria 25300
Czech Republic 1600
Finland 800
France 12500
Germany 85000
Greece 600
Hungary 600
Ireland 100
Italy 700000
Latvia 300
Netherlands 2800
Poland 2100
Portugal 400
Spain 2600
Slovakia 2000
Sweden 23200
United Kingdom 500
ITALY
LINKS

Decree of Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry on obligation to release for consumption in
the national territory of a minimum proportion of biofuels
in concert with the Ministry of Economic development and the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea
n. 110 of 29 april 2008

Biofuels’s mandatory quantity per year to input in consumption compared to the


previous year’s gasoline or diesel oil consumption

Bio = Q% x Bt -1

Bio => mandatory minimum biofuel quantity per year, to input in consumption
Q% => mandatory minimum biofuel’s percentage to input
Bt -1 => previous year’s gasoline or diesel oil consumption, used as reference
ITALY
LINKS

Legislative Decree of the Republic President on the promotion of energy from renewable sources
n. 28 of 29 March 2011

BIOMETHANE
gas produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic matter; its characteristics and operating conditions
correspond to the ones of natural gas and it is suitable for injection into the natural gas grid

BIOGAS PLANT
6
1. Waste Management
2. Biogas Production
5 3. Biogas Upgrading
4. Biomethane Production
3 4 5. Grid Injection
6. Energy Production

1
2
ITALY
LINKS

Legislative Decree of the Republic President on the promotion of energy from renewable sources
n. 28 of 29 March 2011

The Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas (Aeeg), the independent body which
regulates, controls and monitors the electricity and gas markets in Italy:
[art. 20]

• Determine the chemical and physical standards of biomethane (quality, odorisation,


pressure) required for injection
• Promote the use of biomethane avoiding safety or technical problems
• Determine technical standards to connect biomethane plant to the natural gas grid
ITALY
LINKS

Legislative Decree of the Republic President on the promotion of energy from renewable sources
n. 28 of 29 March 2011

• Biomethane injected is incentivated through specified


specified inducements
inducements and through
“certificates of release” (a certificate attests the release of a quantity of biofuels
amounted to 10 Gcal) [art 22]

• The inducements are aimed to promote the efficient


efficientuse
use of waste
waste and
andbyproducts
byproducts,
biogas from manure, or agriculture, food processing, agro-industrial, farming and
forestry and crops dedicated non-food ... [art 24]

• The biomethane has to come from waste and byproducts, produced or transformed in
the EU, that have no
no other
other possible
possible productive
productive or
or commercial
commercial use.
use [art 33]
ITALY
Decree on incentive of biomethane injected into the natural gas grid
Ministry of Economic Development in concert with the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea and the
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, 05 december 2013

The gas producer can connect directly to the national natural gas grid or
can carry biomethane, by special truck, to a insertion gate or to a qualified
gas station
ITALY
Decree on incentive of biomethane injected into the natural gas grid
Ministry of Economic Development in concert with the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea and the
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, 05 december 2013

THE INCENTIVES:

Biomethane delivered to Biomethane injected in the Biomethane used in high


Vehicular Methane gas natural gas grid and in the efficiency cogeneration
stations transport network plants
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR ATTENTION

Giovanni Battista Ferrarese


Agronomist and landscaper

Mail: gbferrarese@alice.it