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Awareness and Practices among the Selected Senior High School


Students in Imposing the First Aid in San Isidro National High School

A Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of Senior High School Department in


San Isidro National High School.

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Subject Practical Research

Melody C. Rosales

March 20
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Chapter I

The Problem and Its Setting

Introduction

First aid is applied to injured or ill persons in any health threatening


settings in order to save life, prevent degradation of the situation or contribute
to a treatment process before professional medical care is available. It is a
quick, temporary and simple step with minimal or no medical equipment that
is done outside the hospital in order to save someone's life or at least relive
pain and prevent condition from worsening. At some point in an academicals
curriculum students are taught how to handle emergencies by handling an
emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident.

According to St. Andrew’s First Aid(2012) “77% of people lack the


knowledge and confidence to administer basic First Aid". If an accident
happens in the workplace, you cannot be a helpless witness, since simply
standing by can potentially worsens the situation. This is why it is important to
have at least a basic knowledge of first aid. It affords students with the ability
to provide help during various emergency situations. If someone ingests
hazardous substances, or suffers health-related issues like a heart attack, or if
a natural disaster occurs, a person knowledgeable in first aid becomes more
than just another bystander. Instead, they become an invaluable support not
only to victims, but also to professional emergency responders and medical
practitioners.
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At any moment, you or someone around you could experience an injury or


illness. Using basic first aid, you may be able to stop a minor mishap from
getting worse Hepler(2018). In the case of a serious medical emergency, you
may even save a life. That’s why it’s so important to learn basic first aid skills.
To build on the information you learn here, considering taking a first aid
course. Many organizations offer first aid training, including the American Red
Cross and St. John Ambulance.

Background of the Study

School children spend most of their life time in school where they may
have different forms of minor accidents, which have impact on their present
and future state of health. Because of their developmental and behavioral
properties including unawareness of hazards and being active as well as
physical properties including narrower airways, smaller body mass children
are exposed to injuries and carry a higher risk. Usu- ally, children have minor
bruises but at times, they may face major injuries resulting in fractures,
bleeding, fainting thus, first aid like medical management is
importance.Accidents and injuries are part of daily events and many of these
injuries are initially treated by untrained personnel due to lack of health care
providers on the accident site.

San Isidro National High School is a secondary school that located at


Brgy. San Isidro Ilaya, General Luna, Quezon. The learning institute that is
said is consisting of Junior High School and Senior High School Department.
Being aware in imposing a first aid also benefits the individuals themselves.
Whether the emergency affects themselves directly, or involves people they
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live and work with, First Aid stems the severity of an emergency in a given
time and place. Accidents will always happen. Because of this, properly-
trained individuals and the right first aid equipment help ensure better safety
for everyone.

Without the proper First Aid, a simple injury could turn into something
much more severe. Many fatalities resulting from accidents and emergency
situations result from lack of immediate medical treatment. First aid doesn’t
just facilitate recovery. It helps save lives.

Statement of the problem

This study aims to determine the awareness and practices of Senior High
School students in imposing a First Aid in San Isidro National High School.
More specifically it will answer the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:


1.1 Sex
1.2 Year Level

2. Asses student knowledge in imposing a first aid in terms of:

2.1 Awareness
2.2 Practices
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Research Paradigm

INPUT PROCESS
Awareness and Gathering of data Output
Practices of through browsing in A training program
Selected San Isidro the internet, reading
Senior High School books and other
Students in references that is
Imposing a First related in the topic.
Aid
.

Figure1. Input-Process-Output Diagram to present the Awareness and


Practices of Selected Senior High School Students in Imposing a First Aid
in San Isidro National High School.

The input frame includes the Awareness and Practices of Selected San
Isidro Senior High School Students in Imposing a First Aid.

The Process frame includes the Gathering of data through browsing in the
internet, reading books and other references that is related in the topic.

The Output frame includes a training program.


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Conceptual Framework

Female medical students are lacked on the knowledge and to the


main concept and technique of First Aid (Knowledge and Attitude of First
aid Skills among Health Science students at Taibah University [2016] ). In
the study entitled "Study of Knowledge and Attitudes to First Aid Among
School Children of Daiwala Block, Dehradun" (2017). It concluded that
there were no large-scale studies of first aid, basic life support knowledge
and skills within Indian communities. Like in this study "The Awareness
and Practices of Selected Senior High School Students in Imposing tge
First Aid in San Isidro National High School. It also determine the
awareness and the practices of students and identify their level of
knowledge in imposing First Aid. It will also gather data through
observation, questionnaire and browsing in the internet and books. A
training program will be the output of this study to orient the students about
First Aid.

Significance of the study

The result of the study will be significance to the following:

Students. This study will help them to improve their awareness in imposing
the First Aid. They can easily apply their knowledge about First Aid whenever
they encounter a situation where they need to do it by themselves.

Teachers. This study will give them knowledge in how the First Aid properly
applies.
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Future Admin Researcher. This study would provide additional information on


their prior knowledge about their topic. Through this study, they can gather
new ideas and it will also serve as their source if they will conduct a study
similar from this.

Assumptions and Hypothesis

The study is conducted based on the following assumptions:

1. That the males are the one who are much aware and practiced in
imposing the First Aid.

2. That the Grade 12 students are more aware and practice in imposing the
First Aid.

Scope and Delamitation of the study

This study was conducted in order to measure the awareness and


practices of Senior High School students in imposing the First Aid in San
Isidro National High School. The result of this study only limits the level of
awareness and practices of Senior High School students of San Isidro
National High School. The study will conducted only in the entire San Isidro
National High School and its students from grade 11 to 12.
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Definition of terms

 Awareness – Concern about and well-informed interest in a particular


situation or development.
(https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=Dictionary)
 Practices- The actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method,
as opposed to theories relating to it.
(https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=Dictionary)
 First Aid- It is a help given to a sick or injured person until full medical
treatment is available. (https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-
d&q=Dictionary)
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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Study

Awareness in imposing the first Aid in a particular situation can saves lives.
Having a sufficient knowledge about it can help the individuals to response to
the people who will need their help. Recently, the Department of Health
implement a seminar to the students and also to the workplaces.

Related Literature

Locale Literature

In the article entitled “Standard first aid, basic life support training
conducted”, the Hospital Operations Department (HOD) of the province of
Negros Occidental in cooperation with the Department of Health Region
(DOH)-Western Visayas, Provincial Health Office–Health Emergency
Management Staff (PHO-HEMS), and Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction
Management Team conducted a Standard First Aid Training. Training on
Basic Life Support. Both trainings focused on building the emergency
response capability of health personnel specifically, ambulance drivers and
nurses from the 11 province-owned hospitals.

The Standard First Aid training aims to provide ambulance staff the
knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable them to provide effective first
aid interventions during emergencies and disaster while the Basic Life
Support training is intended to avert preventable morbidities, mortalities, other
health effects secondary to emergencies and disasters.
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According to HOD head Leonardo Eusebio, the said training is essential


for ambulance drivers and crew. “It is necessary for the enhancement of skills
for Emergency Preparedness and Response of Hospitals”.

In the article “Philippine Red Cross Conducts Free First Aid Training on
World First Aid Day” (2015). The Philippine Red Cross (PRC) with the support
from the American Red Cross (AmCross) and SM Mall of Asia, conducted a
free lecture on first aid and basic life support. It’s aimed to raise global
awareness on the importance of basic first aid skills which can save lives in
emergency situations.

With theme, “First Aid for Domestic Accidents,” the PRC demonstrated a
lecture on First Aid and Basic Life Support-Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
(BLS-CPR) to increase awareness of the possible dangers in a domestic
environment, to prepare every member of the family for unexpected incidents,
and to teach them basic first aid measures in case of emergency situations.

It also introduced a more convenient way to learn basic first aid through
the mobile application called First Aid PH. This application offers instant
access to information about first aid and instructional videos on handling
common emergency situations, even when they are offline.

Foreign Literature

In this article entitled “First Aid Awareness and Training is the Key”(2018).
World First Aid Day, an important day to acknowledge the role of first aid
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awareness, training and practical application in making a real difference to


people’s lives. A common misconception is ‘it won’t happen to me’. The truth is
that thousands of Australians get injured and hospitalised every year due to
unforeseen events. Despite nine in 10 Australians having witnessed at least one
incident requiring medical attention, such as heart attack or anaphylaxis, St John
research indicates 22 per cent of Australians are not confident to provide first aid.
This is due to the fact that 43 per cent of Australians have never completed any
type of first aid training, an alarmingly high figure.

By increasing the number of trained first aiders across Australia, the


number of preventable deaths in homes, workplaces and public spaces is likely to
decline. You cannot put a price on a life saved, a fact that makes first aid training
a small investment every Australian should make. Research shows skills and
ability to perform CPR declines steadily over 12 months, to the point that after 12
months the technique would not be sufficient to perform CPR effectively in real
life. Taking immediate action and applying the appropriate techniques, while
waiting for professional help, can considerably reduce deaths and injuries, and
the impact of disasters and everyday emergencies. First aid training provides
more than the knowledge and skills to effectively respond – it also provides the
confidence to act when needed. While first aid is something most people are
capable of performing, it often takes a degree of confidence for someone to step
forward at the critical moment when others around them may be panicking.

In the article entitled “First Aid Awareness events in 8 countries”(2016). .


First aid is an important common denominator in the activities of all. All of them
are convinced that first aid can and should be taught early on, not only in their
own youth organisations but also in schools
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From 8 countries used the events to draw attention to the fact that first aid is easy
to learn, yet potentially life-saving. There was one event each in Austria,
Hungary, Latvia, Poland and Slovakia. The Samaritans from Italy, Lithuania and
Romania even employed several of their branches and thus held multiple events
in their countries.

The exact concept for the events was once again left up to the
organisations, which again showed a broad and creative variety – from public
dance performances to social experiments on the willingness to act in an
emergency. To show that the European Samaritans are united in the cause to
advance first aid knowledge, they once again held a brief video call at the height
of their events. This, way the international colleagues and volunteers were able to
all stand together in spreading their message, even though the events were up to
2000 kilometres apart.

The said literatures focus on the awareness of individuals. They conducted


seminars so that the individuals become aware in when there are unexpected
situations. Some of the participants in the said seminars and training program
already encountered accidents particularly the road accidents. That is this study
suggest to conduct a training program for the students of San Isidro National
High School, to become aware.

Related Studies

In the study conducted in Saudi Arabia, entitled “Knowledge and Attitude


of First Aid Skills among Health Science Students at Taibah University”
(2016).This study showed the inadequate knowledge about first aid and
lacked the main concept and technique of first aid among the female medical
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students. The efficiency of the awareness education program was indicated


by the improvement in dealing with various emergency situations in post-
awareness assessment. First aid training program should be added in the
curriculum of the health science students at Taibah University to improve the
knowledge and basic skills about first aid.

In the study entitled “Awareness, Attitudes and Practices of School


Teachers and the Facilities Available at Schools With respect To
Administration of First Aid in Royal New Zealand College of General
Practitioners”(2015).Circumstances requiring medical attention are common
at schools. Teachers are often the first individuals to witness and handle
situations requiring first aid and medical emergencies. This study aims to
determine awareness, attitudes and practices of school teachers and the
facilities available at schools with respect to administration of first aid.
Teachers’ confidence level in administering first aid was significantly
associated with prior training in first aid. First aid kits were available in only
five of the nine schools surveyed. The current competency level among
teachers in Mangalore to administer first aid is inadequate. Measures need to
be taken at schools to ensure initiation of first aid training followed by periodic
training for teachers in first aid.

In the study entitled “Study of knowledge and attitudes to first aid among
school children of Doiwalablock, Dehradun “(2017).First-aid (FA) is the
providing of initial care for an illness or injury, by a non-expert but trained
person, till medical treatment can be accessed. Aim of the study is to impart
knowledge in first aid among students to build a safe and healthier
community. The objectives of the study were to assess the basic knowledge
and understanding of it among the school children, to find out their attitude
and to provide appropriate education regarding first aid.
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The study findings highlighted that the first aid knowledge, attitudes and
practices (KAP) among school students in public school of Doiwala, Dehradun
was insufficient. Considering these results, there is need of having first aid
training program in school curriculum with special teacher and period in
school assigned for it.

Further, these courses should be updated with latest developments and


improvements. There were no large- scale studies of first aid, basic life
support knowledge and skills within Indian communities.

In the study entitled” Impact of training program regarding first aid


knowledge and practices among preparatory schools’ teachers at Assiut
City”(2017). Teachers and children spend considerable time together within
the school environment. Schools are places where one can find a noticeable
risk of traumatic injuries. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of training
program regarding first aid knowledge and practices among preparatory
schools’ teachers. there was improvement of knowledge and practices
regarding first aid measure among preparatory schools’ teachers after
application of the training program at
Assiut City.

As the studies stated, it also aims to find the awareness of the students
and teachers in imposing the First Aid. It also aims to determine the practices
of the students within the area.
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Chapter III

Research Methodology

In this study, research methodology and procedures are presented in


order to answer the problems. This includes research design, research locale
population, and sampling,instruments of the study, data gathering procedure,
research instrument, and data analysis procedure.

Research Design

The researcher will use the descriptive method of research. This method is
suitable for determining the awareness and practices of selected Senior High
School students in San Isidro National High School.

Research Locale

This study will be conducted at selected Senior High School students in


San Isidro National High School General Luna, Quezon.The said school is
located at Brgy. San Isidro National High School. The Senior High School
students number is 220.
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Population and Sampling

The respondents of this study will be Senior High School students in San
Isidro National High School. The Simple Sampling method will be used in this
study. There will be 100 total of respondents (50 in Grade11 and 50 in Grade 12).
The researcher will use a questionnaire to determine the awareness and
practices of Senior High School students.

Research Instrument

The researcher formulates a questionnaire to gather data, where the


answers to the questions were in the form a hierarchy of intensity of the response
or set of categories. The questionnaire is based on the statement of the problems
and objectives.

Data gathering procedure

The researchers gathered information from the respondents. The primary


source will be an SHS Teacher in San Isidro National High School, General Luna,
Quezon. The research instrument that will be used in the study will be a
questionnaire that will be based upon the answer of the respondents.
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Statistical Treatment of Data

For valid and reliable interpretation of data, the following statistical tools
and methods will use. After gathering the data from the respondents, the data will
be subject to computation and analysis. To compute the frequency counts of the
profile the percentage formula will use. The formula for simple percentage is:

𝑓
𝑃= 𝑥 100
𝑁

P= Percentage
F= Frequency
N= Total Number of Respondents
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alhejaili S.A & Alsubhi A.S. (2016).Journal of General Practice. Retrieve


from: www.omicsonline.org

Google Dictionary.Retrieve from: www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-


d&q=Dictionary

Jayanti S.,Ravleen K.B.,Ruchi J., & Deepshikha.(2017)Kandpal1International


Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. Retrieve from:
http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173348

Mail(2018).Retrieve from: www.busseltonmail.com.

Nitin J.,Thanneermalai N.,Saifuddin Z.,Abhishek V.N., Lavina B., &Aathiya


M.S. Research Gate(2015).Retrieve from: www.researchgate.net
Philippine Information Agency (2017).Retrieve from:
www.pia.gov.ph/news/articles/1000267:

SunStar Bacolod(2018) Retrieve from:


https://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/1754741

St. Andrews First Aid.(2012) Retrieve from: https://www.firstaid.org.uk

Wardenga P.(2016) “First Aid Awareness events in 8 countries”. Retrieve


from:www.samaritan-international.eu
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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: The Problem and Its Setting

Introduction ......................... 1
Background of the Study ......................... 2
Statement of the Problem ........................... 2
Research Paradigm .............................. 3
Conceptual Framework .............................. 4
Significance of the Study .............................. 4
Assumptions and Hypothesis ............................... 4
Scope and Delimitation .............................. 5
Definiton of Terms ............................... 5

CHAPTER 2: Review in Related Literature and Study

Related Literature .............................. 6


Locale Literature .............................. 7
Foreign Literature .............................. 8
Related Study .............................. 10

CHAPTER 3: Research Methodology

Research Design .................................


11
Research Locale .................................
11
Population and Sampling .................................
11
Research Instrumemt .................................
12
Data Gathering Procedure .................................
12
Statistical Treatment of Data .................................. 12

BIBLIOGRAPHY