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MATHEMATICS

MINIMUM LEVEL MATERIAL


for

CLASS – XII

Project Guided By
Honourable Shri E. Krishna Murthy
Principal, KV Gachibowli

Prepared by
M. S. KUMARSWAMY, TGT(MATHS)
M. Sc. Gold Medallist (Elect.), B. Ed.
Kendriya Vidyalaya gachibowli
DEDICATED
TO
MY FATHER

LATE SHRI. M. S. MALLAYYA


INDEX

S. NO. CONTENT PAGE NO.


1 Relations and Functions
Page 1 – 12
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Relations and Functions
Page 13 – 20
Board Important Questions & Answers
2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Page 21 – 24
Important Concepts & Formulae
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Page 25 – 34
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Page 35 – 41
Board Important Questions & Answers
3 Matrices
Page 42 – 58
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Matrices
Page 59 – 63
Board Important Questions & Answers
4 Determinants
Page 64 – 90
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Determinants
Page 91 – 100
Board Important Questions & Answers
5 Continuity and Differentiability
Page 101 – 116
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Continuity and Differentiability
Page 117 – 119
Board Important Questions
6 Vector Algebra
Page 120 – 128
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Vector Algebra
Page 129 – 134
Board Important Questions & Answers
7 Linear Programming
Page 135 – 149
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Linear Programming
Page 150 – 161
Board Important Questions & Answers
8 Probability
Page 162 – 186
NCERT Important Questions & Answers
Probability
Page 187 – 196
Board Important Questions & Answers
9. Other Chapters
Page 197 – 202
NCERT Most Important Questions
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 1 -
CHAPTER – 1: RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

1. Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b) : a ≤ b2 } is neither
reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.
Ans:
We have R = {(a,b) :a ≤ b2 } , where a, b  R
2
1 1
For reflexivity, we observe that    is not true.
2 2
1 1
So, R is not reflexive as  ,  R
2 2
For symmetry, we observe that − 1 ≤ 32 but 3 > (−1)2
 (−1, 3)  R but (3, −1) R.
So, R is not symmetric.
For transitivity, we observe that2 ≤ (−3 )2 and −3 ≤ (1)2 but 2 > (1)2
 (2, − 3)  R and (−3,1)  R but (2, 1) R. So, R is not transitive.
Hence, R is neither reflexive, nor symmetric and nor transitive.

2. Prove that the relation R in R defined by R = {(a, b): a ≤ b3} is neither reflexive nor symmetric
nor transitive.
Ans:
Given that R = {(a, b): a ≤ b3}
3
1 1 1 1 1
It is observed that  ,   R as    
2 2 2 2 8
So, R is not reflexive.
Now, (1, 2) (as 1< 23=8)
But (2, 1) R (as 23 > 1)
So, R is not symmetric.
3 3
 3 3 6 3 3 6
We have  3,  ,  ,   R as 3    and   
 2 2 5 2 2 5
3
 6 6
But  3,   R as 3   
 5 5
Therefore, R is not transitive.
Hence, R is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.

3. Show that the relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} given by R = {(a, b) : |a – b| is even}, is an
equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of {1, 3, 5} are related to each other and all the
elements of {2, 4} are related to each other. But no element of {1, 3, 5} is related to any element
of 2, 4}.
Ans:
Given that A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and R = {(a, b) : |a – b| is even}
It is clear that for any element a ∈A, we have (which is even).
∴R is reflexive.
Let (a, b) ∈ R.
⇒ |a – b| is even
⇒(a – b) is even
⇒– (a – b) is even
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⇒(b – a) is even
⇒ |b – a| is even
⇒(b, a) ∈ R
∴R is symmetric.
Now, let (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R.
⇒ |a – b| is even and |b – c| is even
⇒ (a – b) is even and (b – c) is even
⇒ (a – c) = (a – b) + (b – c) is even (Since, sum of two even integers is even)
⇒ |a – c| is even
⇒ (a, c) ∈ R
∴R is transitive.
Hence, R is an equivalence relation.
Now, all elements of the set {1, 2, 3} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are
odd. Thus, the modulus of the difference between any two elements will be even.
Similarly, all elements of the set {2, 4} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are
even.
Also, no element of the subset {1, 3, 5} can be related to any element of {2, 4} as all elements of {1,
3, 5} are odd and all elements of {2, 4} are even. Thus, the modulus of the difference between the
two elements (from each of these two subsets) will not be even.
4. Show that each of the relation R in the set A  {x  Z : 0  x  12} , given by R = {(a, b): |a – b| is
a multiple of 4} is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all elements related to 1.
Ans:
A  {x  Z : 0  x  12}  {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9,10,11,12} and
R = {(a, b): |a – b| is a multiple of 4}
For any element a ∈A, we have (a, a) ∈ R ⇒ |a – a| = 0 is a multiple of 4.
∴R is reflexive.
Now, let (a, b) ∈ R ⇒|a – b| is a multiple of 4.
⇒|–(a – b)| is a multiple of 4
⇒|b – a| is a multiple of 4.
⇒ (b, a) ∈ R
∴R is symmetric.
Now, let (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R.
⇒|a – b| is a multiple of 4 and |b – c| is a multiple of 4.
⇒(a – b) is a multiple of 4 and (b – c) is a multiple of 4.
⇒(a – b + b – c) is a multiple of 4
⇒(a – c) is a multiple of 4
⇒|a – c| is a multiple of 4
⇒ (a, c) ∈R
∴ R is transitive.
Hence, R is an equivalence relation.
The set of elements related to 1 is {1, 5, 9} since
|1 – 1| = 0 is a multiple of 4
|5 – 1| = 4 is a multiple of 4
|9 – 1| = 8 is a multiple of 4

 x2
5. Let A = R − {3} and B = R − {1} . Prove that the function f : A→ B defined by f(x) =   is f
 x 3 
one-one and onto ? Justify your answer.
Ans:

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 x2
Here, A = R − { 3), B = R − {1} and f : A→ B is defined as f(x) =  
 x 3 
Let x, y ∈A such that f(x) = f(y)
x2 y2
   ( x  2)( y  3)  ( y  2)( x  3)
x3 y 3
 xy  3x  2 y  6  xy  3 y  2 x  6
 3 x  2 y  3 y  2 x
 3x  2 x  3 y  2 y  x  y

Therefore, f is one- one. Let y ∈B = R −{1} . Then, y ≠ 1


The function f is onto if there exists x ∈ A such that f(x) = y.
Now, f(x) = y
x2
  y  x  2  xy  3 y
x3
 x (1  y )  3 y  2
2  3y
x  A [ y  1]
1 y
2  3y
Thus, for any y ∈B, there exists  A such that
1 y
 2  3y 
2
 2  3 y   1  y  2  3y  2  2 y  y
f    y
 1  y   2  3 y   3 2  3 y  3  3 y 1
 1 y 
 
Therefore, f is onto. Hence, function f is one-one and onto.

4x  3 2 2
6. If f ( x )  , x  , show that (fof)(x) = x, for all x  . What is the inverse of f?
6x  4 3 3
Ans:
4x  3 2
Given that f ( x )  ,x 
6x  4 3
 4x  3 
Then ( fof )( x)  f ( f ( x ))  f  
 6x  4 
 4x  3 
4 3
 6 x  4  16 x  12  18 x  12 34 x
   x
 4x  3  24 x  18  24 x  16 34
6 4
 6x  4 
2
Therefore (fof)(x) = x, for all x 
3
Hence, the given function f is invertible and the inverse of f is itself.
x
7. Show that f :[−1,1]→ R, given by f ( x )  , x  2 , is one-one. Find the inverse of the
x2
function f :[−1,1]→ Range f .
Ans:
x
Given that f :[−1,1]→ R, given by f ( x )  , x  2 ,
x2
Let f(x) = f(y)

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x y
   xy  2 x  xy  2 y
x2 y2
 2x  2 y  x  y
Therefore, f is a one-one function.
x 2y
Let y   x  xy  2 y  x 
x2 1 y
So, for every y except 1 in the range there exists x in the domain such that f(x) = y. Hence, function f
is onto.
Therefore, f :[−1,1] → Range f is one-one and onto and therefore, the inverse of the function f
:[−1,1]→ Range f exists.
Let y be an arbitrary element of range f.
Since, f :[−1,1]→ Range f is onto, we have y = f(x) for some x  [1,1]
x 2y
y  x  xy  2 y  x  , y 1
x2 1 y
2y
Now, let us define g: Range f→[−1,1] as g ( y )  , y 1
1 y
 x 
2 
 x   x  2   2x  2x  x
( gof )( x)  g ( f ( x))  g   
 x  2  1  x  x  2  x 2
 x2
 
 2y 
 1 y 
 2y     2y 2y
and ( fog )( y )  f ( g ( y ))  f    y
 1 y   2 y   2 2 y  2  2 y 2
 1 y 
 
Therefore, gof = fog = IR, Therefore, f –1 = g
2y
Therefore, f 1 ( y )  , y 1
1 y

8. Consider f : R→ R given by f (x) = 4x + 3. Show that f is invertible. Find the inverse of f .


Ans:
Here, f :R→R is given by f(x) = 4x + 3
Let x,y  R, such that f(x) = f(y)
 4x + 3 = 4y + 3
 4x = 4y  x = y
Therefore, f is a one-one function.
Let y = 4x + 3
 y 3
 There exist, x     R, y  R
 4 
 y 3
Therefore, for any y  R , there exist x     R such that
 4 
 y 3  y 3
f ( x)  f    4 3 y
 4   4 
Therefore, f is onto function.
Thus, f is one-one and onto and therefore, f−1 exists.
x3
Let us define g : R → R by g ( x) 
4
(4 x  3)  3
Now, ( gof )( x)  g ( f ( x ))  g (4 x  3)  x
4
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 y 3  y 3
and ( fog )( y )  f ( g ( y ))  f    4 3 y
 4   4 
Therefore, gof = fog = IR
y 3
Hence, f is invertible and the inverse of f is given by f 1 ( y )  g ( y ) 
4

9. Consider f : R+ →[4, ∞) given by f (x) = x2 + 4. Show that f is invertible with the inverse f −1 of
given by f −1y = y  4 , where R+ is the set of all non-negative real numbers.
Ans: Here, function f : R+ →[4,∞] is given as f(x) = x2 + 4
Let x,y  R+ , such that f(x) = f(y)
 x2 + 4 = y2 + 4  x2 = y2
 x = y [as x = y  R+ ]
Therefore, f is a one-one function.
For y  [4,∞), let y = x2 + 4
 x2 = y − 4≥ 0 [as y ≥ 4]
 x = y4 ≥ 0
Therefore, for any y  R+ , There exists x = y  4  R+ such that
f(x) = f( y  4 ) = ( y  4 )2 + 4 = y − 4 + 4 = y
Therefore, f is onto. Thus, f is one-one and onto and therefore, f −1 exists.
Let us define g : [4,∞)→R+ by g(y) = y  4
Now, gof(x) = g(f(x)) = g(x2 + 4) = ( x 2  4)  4  x 2  x
2
and fog(y) = f(g(y)) = f( y  4 ) =  y4   4  ( y  4)  4  y
Therefore, gof  I R and fog  I[4, )
Hence, f is invertible and the inverse of f if given by f 1 ( y )  g ( y )  y 4

10. Consider f : R+ → [−5, ∞) given by f (x) = 9x2 + 6x − 5. Show that f is invertible with
 y  6 1 
f 1 ( y )    .
 3
 
Ans:
Here, function f : R+ →[−5,∞) is given as f(x) = 9x2 + 6x − 5.
Let y be any arbitrary element of [−5,∞).
Let y = 9x2 + 6x − 5
 y = (3x + 1)2 − 1 − 5 = (3x + 1)2 − 6
 (3x + 1)2 = y + 6
 (3x + 1)2 = y  6 [as y ≥ − 5  y + 6 ≥ 0]
y  6 1
 x
3
Therefore, f is onto, thereby range f = [−5,∞).
y  6 1
Let us define g : [−5,∞)→ R+ as g ( y ) 
3
Now, (gof)(x) = g(f(x)) = g(9x + 6x − 5) = g((3x + 1)2 − 6)
2

(3 x  1)2  6  6  1 3 x  1  1
  x
3 3
2
 y  6  1    y  6 1  
and (fog)(y) = f(g(y))  f    3    1  6
 3  3
     
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2
  y6  6  y66  y
Therefore, gof  I R and fog  I [ 5, )
y  6 1
Hence, f is invertible and the inverse of f if given by f 1 ( y )  g ( y ) 
3
11. Let * be the binary operation on N given by a* b = LCM of a and b.
(i) Find 5*7 , 20*16 (ii) Is * commutative?
(iii) Is * associative? (iv) Find the identity of * in N
(v) Which elements of N are invertible for the operation *?
Ans:
The binary operation on N is defined as a*b = LCM of a and b.
(i) We have 5 *7 = LCM of 5 and 7 = 35 and 20*16 = LCM of 20 and 16 = 80

(ii) It is known that LCM of a and b = LCM of b and a for a, b  N.


Therefore, a*b = b*a. Thus, the operation * is commutative.

(iii) For a, b, c  N, we have


(a*b) *c = (LCM of a and b) *c = LCM of a, b, and c
a* (b*c) = a * (LCM of b and c) = LCM of a, b, and c
Therefore, (a*b) *c = a* (b*c). Thus, the operation is associative.

(iv) It is known that LCM of a and 1 = a = LCM of 1 and a, a  N.


a*1 = a = 1*a, a  N
Thus, 1 is the identity of * in N.

(v) An element a in N is invertible with respect to the operation *, if there exists an element b in N
such that a*b = e = b*a.
Here, e = 1. This means that
LCM of a and b = 1 = LCM of b and a
This case is possible only when a and b are equal to 1.
Thus, 1 is the only invertible element of N with respect to the operation *.

12. Let * be the binary operation on N defined by a*b =HCF of a and b. Is * commutative? Is *
associative? Does there exist identity for this binary operation on N?
Ans:
The binary operation * on N is defined as a*b = HCF of a and b.
It is known that HCF of a and b = HCF of b and a for a,b  N.
Therefore, a*b = b*a. Thus, the operation is commutative.
For a,b,c  N , we have (a*b)*c = (HCF of a and b)*c = HCF of a,b and c
a*(b*c) = a*(HCF of b and c) = HCF of a,b, and c
Therefore, (a*b)*c = a*(b*c)
Thus, the operation * is associative.
Now, an element e  N will be the identity for the operation if a*e = a = e*a,  a  N.
But this relation is not true for any a  N.
Thus, the operation * does not have identity in N.

13. Let * be a binary operation on the set Q of rational number as follows :


(i) a*b = a − b (ii) a*b = a2 + b2 (iii) a*b = a + ab
ab
(iv) a*b = (a − b)2 (v) a*b = (vi) a*b = ab2
4
Find which of the binary operation are commutative and which are associative?
Ans:
(i) On Q, the operation * is defined as a*b = a − b.
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It can be observed that for 2,3,4  Q, we have 2*3 = 2 − 3 = −1 and 3*2 = 3 − 2 = 1
 2*3 ≠ 3*2
Thus, the operation is not commutative.
It can also be observed that
(2*3)*4 = (−1)*4 = −1 − 4 = − 5
and 2*(3*4) = 2*(−1) = 2 − (−1) = 3
2*(3*4) ≠ 2* (3*4)
Thus, the operation * is not associative.

(ii) On Q, the operation * is defined as a*b = a2 + b2.


For a,b  Q, we have
a*b = a2 + b2 = b2 + a2 = b*a
Therefore, a*b = b*a
Thus, the operation * is commutative.
It can be observed that
(1* 2)* 3 = (12 + 22) * 3 (1 + 4) * 4 = 5 * 4 = 52 + 42 = 41
and 1*(2* 3) = 1* (22 + 32) = 1 * (4 + 9) = 1*13 = 12 + 132 = 170
 (1*2)* 3 ≠ 1*(2*3) where 1,2, 3  Q
Thus, the operation * is not associative.

(iii) On Q, the operation is defined as a*b = a + ab


It can be observed that
1*2 = 1 + 1 × 2 = 1 + 2 = 3, 2*1 = 2 + 2 × 1 = 2 + 2 = 4
 1*2 ≠ 2*1 where 1, 2  Q
Thus, the operation * is not commutative.
It can also be observed that
(1*2)*3 = (1 + 1 × 2)*3 = 3*3 = 3 + 3 × 3 = 3 + 9 = 12
and 1*(2* 3) = 1*(2 + 2 × 3) = 1*8 = 1 + 1 × 8 = 9
 (1*2)* 3 ≠ 1*(2*3) where 1,2, 3  Q
Thus, the operation * is not associative.

(iv) On Q, the operation * is defined by a*b = (a − b)2.


For a,b  Q, we have a*b = (a − b)2 and b*a = (b − a)2 = [−(a − b)]2 = (a − b)2
Therefore, a*b = b*a
Thus, the operation * is commutative. It can be observed that
(1* 2) * 3 = (1 – 2)2 * 3 = ( 1) * 3 = (1 – 3)2 = 4
and 1 * (2 *3) = 1 * (2 – 3)2 = 1 * (1) = (1 – 1)2 = 0
 (1*2)* 3 ≠ 1*(2* 3) where 1,2, 3  Q
Thus, the operation * is not associative.

ab
(v) On Q, the operation * is defined as a*b =
4
ab ba
For a,b  Q, we have a * b = = =b*a
4 4
Therefore, a*b = b*a
Thus, the operation * is commutative.
ab bc
ab .c abc bc a. abc
For a,b,c  Q, we have a*(b*c )= *c  4  and a*(b*c) = a *  4 
4 4 16 4 4 16
Therefore, (a*b)*c = a*(b*c). Thus, the operation * is associative.

(vi) On Q, the operation is defined as a*b = ab2


It can be observed that for 23  Q

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2 * 3 = 2 x 32 = 18 and 3*2 = 3 x 22 = 12
Hence, 2*3 ≠ 3*2
Thus, the operation is not commutative.
It can also be observed that for 1,2,3  Q
(1*2)*3 = (1. 22 )*3 = 4 *3 = 4.32 = 36
and 1*(2* 3) = 1*(2. 32) = 1 *18 =1.182 = 324
 (1*2)*3 ≠ 1*(2*3)
Thus, the operation * is not associative.
Hence, the operations defined in parts (ii), (iv), (v) are commutative and the operation defined in part
(v) is associative.

14. Show that none of the operation given in the above question has identity.
Ans:
An element e  Q will be the identity element for the operation if
a*e = a = e*a, a  Q
(i) a*b = a − b
If a*e = a,a ≠ 0  a −e = a, a ≠ 0  e = 0
Also, e*a = a  e − a = a  e = 2a
 e = 0 = 2a,a ≠ 0
But the identiry is unique. Hence this operation has no identity.

(ii) a*b = a2 + b2
If a*e = a, then a2 + e2 = a
For a = −2, (−2)2 + e2 = 4 + e2 ≠ −2
Hence, there is no identity element.

(iii) a*b = a + ab
If a*e = a  a + ae = a  ae = 0  e = 0,a ≠ 0
a
Also if e*a = a  e + ea = a  e  ,a 1
1 a
a
e  0  ,a  0
1 a
But the identity is unique. Hence this operation has no identify.

(iv) a*b = (a − b)2


If a*e = a, then (a − e)2 = a. A square is always positive, so for
a = −2,(−2 − e)2 ≠ − 2
Hence, there is no identity element.

(v) a*b = ab /4
If a*e = a, then ae /4 = a. Hence, e = 4 is the identity element.
 a*4 =4 *a =4a/4 = a

(vi) a*b = ab2


If a*e =a then ae2 = a  e2 = 1  e = ± 1
But identity is unique. Hence this operation has no identity.
Therefore only part (v) has an identity element.

x
15. Show that the function f :R→ {x  R : −1 < x <1} defined by f( x) = , x  R is one-one and
1 | x |
onto function.
Ans:

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x
It is given that f :R→ {x  R : −1 < x <1} defined by f( x) = ,xR
1 | x |
x y
Suppose, f(x) = f(y), where x, y  R  
1 | x | 1 | y |
It can be observed that if x is positive and y is negative, then we have
x y
  2 xy  x  y
1  x 1 y
Since, x is positive and y is negative, then x > y  x − y > 0
But, 2xy is negative. Then, 2xy ≠ x − y.
Thus, the case of x being positive and y being negative can be ruled out.
Under a similar argument, x being negative and y being positive can also be ruled out. Therefore, x
and y have to be either positive or negative.
x y
When x and y are both positive, we have f ( x)  f ( y )    x  xy  y  xy  x  y
1 x 1 y
x y
When x and y are both negative, we have f ( x)  f ( y )    x  xy  y  xy  x  y
1 x 1 y
Therefore, f is one-one. Now, let y  R such that −1 < y < 1.
y
If y is negative, then there exists x   R such that
1 y
 y  y
 
 y   1 y  1 y y
f ( x)  f     y
1 y  1 y   y  1 y  y
1  
1 y  1 y 
y
If y is positive, then there exists x   R such that
1 y
 y  y
 
 y   1 y  1 y y
f ( x)  f     y
1 y  1 y  y  1 y  y
1  
1 y  1 y 
Therefore, f is onto. Hence, f is one-one and onto.

16. Show that the function f :R → R given by f (x) = x3 is injective.


Ans:
Here, f :R→R is given as f(x) = x3.
Suppose, f(x) = f(y),where x,y  R  x3 = y3 …(i)
Now, we need to show that x = y
Suppose, x ≠ y, their cubes will also not be equal.
x3 ≠ y3
However, this will be a contradiction to Eq. i).
Therefore, x = y. Hence, f is injective.

 a  b, ifa  b  6
17. Define a binary operation * on the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} as a * b   . Show
a  b  6, ifa  b  6
that zero is the identity for this operation and each element a ≠ 0 of the set is invertible with (6
−a) being the inverse of a.
Ans:
Let X = {0,1,2, 3,4, 5}

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 a  b, ifa  b  6
The operation * on X is defined as a * b  
a  b  6, ifa  b  6

An element e  X is the identity element for the operation *, if


a*e = a = e*a  a  X
For a  X, we observed that
a*0 = a + 0 = a [ a  X  a + 0 < 6]
0*a = 0 + a = a [ a  X  0 + a < 6]
 a*0 = a = 0*a  a  X

Thus, 0 is the identity element for the given operation *.


An element a  X is invertible, if there exists b  X such that a*b = 0 = b*a
 a  b  0  b  a, ifa  b  6
i.e. 
a  b  6  0  b  a  6, ifa  b  6
i.e., a = −b or b = 6 − a
But X = {0,1,2, 3,4,5} and a, b  X
Then, a ≠ −b
Therefore, b = 6 − a is the inverse of a, a  X.
Hence, the inverse of an element a  X, a ≠ 0 is (6 − a) i.e., a–1 = 6 – a.

18. Show that the relation R in the set Z of integers given by R = {(a, b) : 2 divides a – b} is an
equivalence relation.
Ans:
R is reflexive, as 2 divides (a – a) for all a  Z.
Further, if (a, b)  R, then 2 divides a – b.
Therefore, 2 divides b – a.
Hence, (b, a)  R, which shows that R is symmetric.
Similarly, if (a, b)  R and (b, c)  R, then a – b and b – c are divisible by 2.
Now, a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) is even.
So, (a – c) is divisible by 2. This shows that R is transitive.
Thus, R is an equivalence relation in Z.

19. Show that if f : A → B and g : B → C are one-one, then gof : A → C is also one-one.
Ans:
Suppose gof (x1) = gof (x2)
 g (f (x1)) = g(f (x2))
 f (x1) = f (x2), as g is one-one
 x1 = x2, as f is one-one
Hence, gof is one-one.

20. Determine which of the following binary operations on the set N are associative and which are
ab
commutative. (a) a * b = 1 a, b  N (b) a * b = a, b  N
2
Ans:
(a) Clearly, by definition a * b = b * a = 1 a, b  N .
Also (a * b) * c = (1 * c) =1 and a * (b * c) = a * (1) = 1, a, b, c  N .
Hence R is both associative and commutative.
ab ba
(b) a * b    b * a , shows that * is commutative. Further,
2 2

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 ab 
   c a  b  2c
 a b   2 
( a * b) * c   *c  
 2  2 4
bc
a  
bc   2   2a  b  c  a  b  2c in general.
But a * (b * c )  a *   
 2  2 4 4
Hence, * is not associative.
7  3 3x  4 3 7 
21. Show that if f : R     R    is defined by f ( x )  and g : R     R    is
5 5 5x  7 5 5
7x  4 3 7 
defined by g ( x )  , then fog = IA and gof = IB, where, A  R    , B  R    ; IA(x) = x,
5x  3 5 5
 x  A, IB(x) = x,  x  B are called identity functions on sets A and B, respectively.
Ans:
 3x  4 
7 4
 3x  4   5 x  7  21x  28  20 x  28 41x
We have gof ( x)  g      x
 5 x  7  5  3x  4   3 15 x  20  15 x  21 41
 5x  7 
 

 7x  4 
3 4
 7x  4   5 x  3  21x  12  20 x  12 41x
Similarly, fog ( x )  f      x
 5 x  3  5  7 x  4   7 35 x  20  35  21 41
 5x  3 
 
Thus, gof (x) = x,  x  B and fog (x) = x,  x  A, which implies that gof = IB and fog = IA.

22. Let f : N →R be a function defined as f (x) = 4x2 + 12x + 15. Show that f : N→ S, where, S is the
range of f, is invertible. Find the inverse of f.
Ans:
Let y be an arbitrary element of range f. Then y = 4x2 + 12x + 15, for some x in N, which implies that
y 6 3
y = (2x + 3)2 + 6. This gives x  , as y ≥ 6.
2
y 6 3
Let us define g : S → N by g ( y ) 
2

Now gof (x) = g(f (x)) = g(4x2 + 12x + 15) = g ((2x + 3)2 + 6)
(2 x  3)2  6  6  3 (2 x  3  3)
  x
2 2
2
 y  6  3    y  6  3   
and fog ( y )  f  
   2    3   6 
 2   2  
      
2 2
  
y 6 33  6   y6  6 y66  y
Hence, gof = IN and fog =IS. This implies that f is invertible with f –1 = g.

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CHAPTER – 1: RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions & Answers)

1. If f(x) = x + 7 and g(x) = x – 7, x∈R, find ( fog) (7)


Ans:
Given f(x) = x + 7 and g(x) = x – 7, x∈R
fog(x) = f(g(x)) = g(x) + 7 = (x – 7) + 7 = x
 (fog) (7) = 7.

3x  2
2. If f(x) is an invertible function, find the inverse of f (x) =
5
Ans:
3x  2
Given f ( x ) 
5
3x  2
Let y 
5
5y  2
 3x  2  5 y  x 
3
5x  2
 f 1 ( x ) 
3
3. Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R as relation in T given by R = {(T1, T2) :T1
 T2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation.
Ans:
(i) Reflexive
R is reflexive if T1 R T1
Since T1  T1
 R is reflexive.
(ii) Symmetric
R is symmetric if T1 R T2  T2 R T1
Since T1  T2  T2  T1
 R is symmetric.
(iii) Transitive
R is transitive if T1 R T2 and T2 R T3  T1 R T3
Since T1  T2 and T2  T3  T1  T3
 R is transitive
From (i), (ii) and (iii), we get R is an equivalence relation.

4. If the binary operation * on the set of integers Z, is defined by a *b = a + 3b2 , then find the
value of 2 * 4.
Ans:
Given a *b = a + 3b2 a, b  z
 2*4 = 2 + 3 x 42 = 2 + 48 = 50

5. Let * be a binary operation on N given by a * b = HCF (a, b) a, b  N. Write the value of 22 * 4.


Ans:
Given a * b = HCF (a, b), a, b  N
 22 * 4 = HCF (22, 4) = 2

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 n 1
 2 , if n is odd
6. Let f : N  N be defined by f (n)   for all n  N . Find whether the
 n , if n is even
 2
function f is bijective.
Ans:
 n 1
 2 , if n is odd
Given that f : N  N be defined by f (n)   for all n  N .
 n , if n is even
 2
Let x, y  N and let they are odd then
x 1 y 1
f ( x)  f ( y )   x y
2 2
If x, y  N are both even then also
x y
f ( x)  f ( y )    x  y
2 2
If x, y  N are such that x is even and y is odd then
x 1 y
f ( x)  and f ( y ) 
2 2
Thus, x  y for f(x) = f(y)
Let x = 6 and y = 5
6 5 1
We get f (6)   3, f (5)  3
2 2
 f(x) = f(y) but x  y ...(i)
So, f (x) is not one-one.
Hence, f (x) is not bijective.

7. If the binary operation *, defined on Q, is defined as a * b = 2a + b – ab, for all a, b  Q, find


the value of 3 * 4 .
Ans:
Given binary operation is a*b = 2a + b – ab
 3* 4 = 2  3 + 4 – 3  4
 3* 4 = –2

| x  1|
8. What is the range of the function f ( x )  ?
( x  1)
Ans:
| x  1|
We have given f ( x ) 
( x  1)
 ( x  1), if x  1  0 or x  1
| x  1| 
 ( x  1), if x  1  0 or x  1
( x  1)
(i) For x > 1, f ( x)  1
( x  1)

( x  1)
(ii) For x < 1, f ( x )   1
( x  1)
| x  1|
 Range of f ( x )  is {–1 , 1}.
( x  1)

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9. Let Z be the set of all integers and R be the relation on Z defined as R = {(a, b) ; a, b  Z, and
(a – b) is divisible by 5.} Prove that R is an equivalence relation.
Ans:
We have provided R = {(a, b) : a, b  Z, and(a – b) is divisible by 5}
(i) As (a – a) = 0 is divisible by 5.
 (a, a)  R  a  R
Hence, R is reflexive.

(ii) Let (a, b)  R


 (a – b) is divisible by 5.
 – (b – a) is divisible by 5.
 (b – a) is divisible by 5.
 (b, a)  R
Hence, R is symmetric.

(iii) Let (a, b)  R and (b, c)  Z


Then, (a – b) is divisible by 5 and (b – c) is divisible by 5.
(a – b) + (b – c) is divisible by 5.
(a – c) is divisible by 5.
 (a, c)  R
 R is transitive.
Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

3ab
10. Let * be a binary operation on Q defined by a * b  . Show that * is commutative as well as
5
associative. Also find its identity element, if it exists.
Ans:
For commutativity, condition that should be fulfilled is a * b = b * a
3ab 3ba
Consider a * b    b*a
5 5
a*b=b*a
Hence, * is commutative.
For associativity, condition is (a * b) * c = a * (b * c)
 3ab  9ab
Consider (a * b) * c   *c 
 5  25
 3bc  9ab
and a *(b * c )  a *  
 5  25
Hence, (a * b) * c = a * (b * c)
 * is associative.
Let e  Q be the identity element,
Then a * e = e * a = a
3ae 3ea 5
  ae
5 5 3

11. If f : R R be defined by f(x) = (3 – x3)1/ 3 , then find fof(x).


Ans:
If f : R R be defined by f(x) = (3 – x3)1/3 then ( fof) x = f( f(x)) = f [(3 – x3)1/3]
= [3 – {(3 – x3)1/3}3]1/3 = [3 – (3 – x3)]1/3 = (x3)1/3 = x

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12. Let A = N ´ N and * be a binary operation on A defined by (a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d). Show
that * is commutative and associative. Also, find the identity element for * on A, if any.
Ans:
Given A = N  N
* is a binary operation on A defined by
(a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)
(i) Commutativity: Let (a, b), (c, d)  N  N
Then (a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d) = (c + a, d + b)
( a, b, c, d  N, a + c = c + a and b + d = d + c)
= (c, d) * b
Hence, (a, b) * (c, d) = (c, d) * (a, b)
 * is commutative.
(ii) Associativity: let (a, b), (b, c), (c, d)
Then [(a, b) * (c, d)] * (e, f) = (a + c, b + d) * (e, f) = ((a + c) + e, (b + d) + f)
= {a + (c + e), b + (d + f)] ( set N is associative)
= (a, b) * (c + e, d + f) = (a, b) * {(c, d) * (e, f)}
Hence, [(a, b) * (c, d)] * (e, f) = (a, b) * {(c, d) * (e, f)}
 * is associative.
(iii) Let (x, y) be identity element for  on A,
Then (a, b) * (x, y) = (a, b)
 (a + x, b + y) = (a, b)
 a + x = a, b + y = b
 x = 0, y = 0
But (0, 0)  A
For *, there is no identity element.

13. If f : R R and g : R R are given by f(x) = sin x and g(x) = 5x2, find gof(x).
Ans:
Given f : R R and g : R R defined by f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 5x2
 gof(x) = g [f(x)] = g (sin x) = 5 (sin x)2 = 5 sin2x

14. Consider the binary operation* on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined by a * b = min. {a, b}. Write the
operation table of the operation *.
Ans:
Required operation table of the operation * is given as
* 1 2 3 4 5
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2 2
3 1 2 3 3 3
4 1 2 3 4 4
5 1 2 3 4 5

15. If f : R R is defined by f(x) = 3x + 2, define f[f(x)].


Ans:
f (f (x)) = f (3x + 2)
=3. (3x + 2) + 2 = 9x + 6 + 2
= 9x + 8

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16. Write fog, if f : R R and g : R R are given by f(x) = 8x3 and g(x) = x1/3 .
Ans:
fog (x) = f (g(x))
= f (x1/3)
= 8(x1/3)3
= 8x

17. Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7} and let f = {(1, 4), (2,5), (3, 6)} be a function from A to B. State
whether f is one-one or not.
Ans:
f is one-one because
f(1) = 4 ; f(2) = 5 ; f(3) = 6
No two elements of A have same f image.

18. Let f : R R be defined as f(x) =10x +7. Find the function g : R R such that gof = fog =IR.
Ans:
 gof = fog = IR
 fog = IR
 fog(x) = I (x)
 f (g(x)) = x [ I(x) = x being identity function]
 10(g(x)) + 7 = x [ f(x) = 10x + 7]
x7
 g ( x) 
10
x7
i.e., g : R R is a function defined as g ( x ) 
10

 x2
19. Let A = R – {3} and B = R – {1}. Consider the function f : A B defined by f ( x )   .
 x 3 
Show that f is one-one and onto and hence find f –1.
Ans:
Let x1, x2  A.
x  2 x2  2
Now, f(x1) = f(x2)  1 
x1  3 x2  3
 ( x1  2)( x2  3)  ( x1  3)( x2  2)
 x1 x2  3 x1  2 x2  6  x1 x2  2 x1  3x2  6
 3 x1  2 x2  2 x1  3 x2
  x1   x2  x1  x2
Hence f is one-one function.
For Onto
x2
Let y   xy  3 y  x  2
x 3
 xy  x  3 y  2  x( y  1)  3 y  2
3y  2
x ----- (i )
y 1

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From above it is obvious that  y except 1, i.e., y  B  R  {1} x  A
Hence f is onto function.
Thus f is one-one onto function.
3y  2
It f –1 is inverse function of f then f 1 ( y )  [from (i)]
y 1

20. The binary operation * : R × R R is defined as a * b = 2a + b. Find (2 * 3) * 4


Ans:
(2 * 3) * 4 = (2 × 2 +3) * 4
=7*4
= 2 × 7 + 4 = 18
 x  1, if x is odd
21. Show that f : N  N, given by f ( x)   is both one-one and onto.
 x  1, if x is even
Ans:
For one-one
Case I : When x1, x2 are odd natural number.
 f(x1) = f(x2)  x1+1 = x2 +1  x1 , x2  N
 x1 = x2
i.e., f is one-one.

Case II : When x1, x2 are even natural number


f(x1) = f(x2)  x1 – 1 = x2 – 1
 x1 = x2
i.e., f is one-one.

Case III : When x1 is odd and x2 is even natural number


f(x1) = f(x2)  x1+1 = x2 – 1
 x2 – x1 = 2 which is never possible as the difference of odd and even number is always odd
number.
Hence in this case f (x1)  f(x2)
i.e., f is one-one.

Case IV: When x1 is even and x2 is odd natural number


Similar as case III, We can prove f is one-one
For onto:
f(x) = x +1 if x is odd
= x – 1 if x is even
 For every even number ‘y’ of codomain odd number y - 1 in domain and for every odd number
y of codomain even number y +1 in Domain.
i.e. f is onto function.
Hence f is one-one onto function.

22. Consider the binary operations * : R × R  R and o : R × R  R defined as a * b =| a – b| and


aob = a for all a, b  R. Show that ‘*’ is commutative but not associative, ‘o’ is associative but
not commutative.
Ans:
For operation ‘*’
‘*’ : R ´ R R such that
a*b = |a – b| a, b  R
Commutativity
a*b = |a – b| = |b – a| = b * a
i.e., ‘*’ is commutative

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Associativity
 a, b, c  R
(a * b) * c = |a – b| * c = ||a – b| – c|
a * (b * c) = a * |b – c| = |a – |b – c||
But ||a – b| – c|  |a – |b – c||
 (a*b)* c  a*( b * c) " a, b, c  R
 * is not associative.
Hence, ‘*’ is commutative but not associative.

For Operation ‘o’


o : R × R  R such that aob = a
Commutativity  a, b  R
aob = a and boa = b
 a  b  aob  boa
 ‘o’ is not commutative.
Associativity: " a, b, c  R
(aob) oc = aoc = a
ao(boc) = aob = a
 (aob) oc = ao (boc)
 ‘o’ is associative
Hence ‘o’ is not commutative but associative.

23. If the binary operation * on the set Z of integers is defined by a * b = a + b – 5, then write the
identity element for the operation * in Z.
Ans:
Let e  Z be required identity
 a* e = a  a  Z
a + e – 5 = a
e = a – a + 5
e = 5
3ab
24. If the binary operation * on set R of real numbers is defined as a*b = , write the identity
7
element in R for *.
Ans:
Let e  R be identity element.
 a * e = a  a R
3ae 7a
 ae
7 3a
7
e
3

25. Prove that the relation R in the set A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9} given by R = {(a, b) : |a – b| , is divisible by
2}, is an equivalence relation. Find all elements related to the element 6.
Ans:
Here R is a relation defined as R = {(a, b) : |a – b| is divisible by 2}
Reflexivity
Here (a, a)  R as |a – a| = 0 = 0 divisible by 2 i.e., R is reflexive.
Symmetry
Let (a, b)  R
(a, b)  R  |a – b| is divisible by 2
 a – b = ± 2m  b – a =  2m
 |b – a| is divisible by 2  (b, a)  R

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Hence R is symmetric
Transitivity Let (a, b), (b, c)  R
Now, (a, b), (b, c)  R  |a – b|, |b – c| are divisible by 2
 a – b = ±2m and b – c = ±2n
 a – b + b – c = ± 2(m + n)
 (a – c) = ± 2k [ k = m + n]
 (a – c) = 2k
 (a – c) is divisible by 2  (a, c)  R.
Hence R is transitive.
Therefore, R is an equivalence relation.
The elements related to 6 are 6, 8.

ab
26. Let * be a binary operation, on the set of all non-zero real numbers, given by a * b  for all
5
a, b  R  {0} . Find the value of x, given that 2 * (x * 5) = 10.
Ans:
Given 2 * (x * 5) = 10
x5
 2*  10  2* x  10
5
2 x 10  5
  10  x   x  25
5 5

27. Let A = {1, 2, 3, …, 9} and R be the relation in A × A defined by (a, b) R (c, d) if a + d = b + c for
(a, b), (c, d) in A × A. Prove that R is an equivalence relation. Also obtain the equivalence class
[(2, 5)].
Ans:
Given, R is a relation in A × A defined by (a, b)R(c, d)  a + d = b + c
(i) Reflexivity: a, b  A
Q a + b = b + a  (a, b)R(a, b)
So, R in reflexive.
(ii) Symmetry: Let (a, b) R (c, d)
Q (a, b)R(c, d)  a + d = b + c
 b + c = d + a [Q a, b, c, d  N and N is commutative under addition[
c + b = d + a
 (c, d)R(a, b)
So, R is symmetric.
(iii) Transitivity: Let (a, b)R(c, d) and (c, d)R(e, f)
Now, (a, b)R(c, d) and (c, d)R(e, f)  a + d = b + c and c + f = d + e
a + d + c + f = b + c + d + e
a + f = b + e
 (a, b)R(e, f).
R is transitive.
Hence, R is an equivalence relation.
2nd Part: Equivalence class: [(2, 5)] = {(a, b)  A  A: (a, b)R(2, 5)}
= {(a, b)  A  A: a + 5 = b + 2}
= {(a, b)  A  A: b – a = 3}
= {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6), (4, 7), (5, 8), (6, 9)}

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Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 21 -
CHAPTER – 2: INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

QUICK REVISION (Important Concepts & Formulae)

Inverse Trigonometrical Functions


A function f : A  B is invertible if it is a bijection. The inverse of f is denoted by f –1 and is defined as
f –1(y) = x  f (x) = y.

Clearly, domain of f –1 = range of f and range of f –1 = domain of f.




The inverse of sine function is defined as sin–1x =   sinq = x, where   [–  /2,  /2] and

x  [–1, 1].


Thus, sin –1 x has infinitely many values for given x  [–1, 1]


There is one value among these values which lies in the interval [–/2,  /2]. This value is called the
principal value.

Domain and Range of Inverse Trigonometrical Functions

Properties of Inverse Trigonometrical Functions


 
sin–1(sin) =  and sin(sin–1x) = x, provided that 1  x  1 and    

2 2

cos–1(cos) =  and cos (cos–1 x) = x, provided that 1  x  1 and 0    




 
tan–1(tan) =  and tan(tan–1 x) = x, provided that   x   and    

2 2

cot –1(cot) =  and cot(cot –1 x) = x, provided that –  < x <  and 0 <  < .


sec –1(sec) =  and sec(sec –1 x) = x




cosec –1(cosec) =  and cosec(cosec–1 x) = x,




1 1

sin 1 x  cos ec 1 or cos ec 1 x  sin 1
x x

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1 1

cos 1 x  s ec 1 or s ec 1 x  cos 1
x x

1 1

tan 1 x  cot 1 or cot 1 x  tan 1
x x

x 1  x2 1 1

sin 1 x  cos 1 1  x 2  tan 1  cot 1  sec1  cos ec 1
1  x2 x 1  x2 x

1  x2 x 1 1

cos1 x  sin 1 1  x 2  tan 1  cot 1  cos ec 1  s ec 1
x 1  x2 1  x2 x

2
x 1 1 1 1  x
 1
tan x  sin 1
 cos 1
 cot 1 1 2
 sec 1  x  cos ec
1  x2 1  x2 x x



sin 1 x  cos 1 x  , where  1  x  1
2



tan 1 x  cot 1 x  , where    x  
2



sec 1 x  cos ec 1 x  , where x  1 or x  1
2

 x y 

tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1   , if xy  1
 1  xy 

 x y 

tan 1 x  tan 1 y    tan 1   , if xy  1
 1  xy 

 x y 

tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1  
 1  xy 

  
sin 1 x  sin 1 y  sin 1 x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1

  
sin 1 x  sin 1 y  sin 1 x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1

  
sin 1 x  sin 1 y    sin 1 x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1

  
sin 1 x  sin 1 y    sin 1 x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1

  
cos1 x  cos1 y  cos 1 xy  1  x 2 1  y 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1

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  
cos1 x  cos1 y  cos1 xy  1  x 2 1  y 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1

  
cos1 x  cos1 y    cos 1 xy  1  x 2 1  y 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1

  
cos1 x  cos1 y    cos 1 xy  1  x 2 1  y 2 , if x, y  0, x 2  y 2  1


sin 1 ( x )   sin 1 x, cos 1 ( x )    cos1 x


tan 1 ( x)   tan 1 x, cot 1 ( x)    cot 1 x

 
2sin 1 x  sin 1 2 x 1  x 2 ,  
2cos 1 x  cos 1 2 x 2  1 
2
 2x   2x  1  1  x 

2 tan 1 x  tan 1  2 
 sin 1  2   cos  2 
1 x   1 x   1 x 

3sin 1 x  sin 1  3 x  4 x 3  , 3cos 1 x  cos 1  4 x 3  3 x 




 3x  x3 
 1
3 tan x  tan  1
2 
 1  3x 

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 24 -


CHAPTER – 2: INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

 1  1
1. Find the values of tan 1 (1)  cos 1     sin 1   
 2  2
Ans:
    
Let tan 1 1  x  tan x  1  tan  x  where x    , 
4 4  2 2

 tan 1 1 
4
 1  1    2
Let cos1     y  cos y     cos  cos      cos  cos(   )   cos  
 2 2 3  3 3
2
 y where y   0,  
3
 1 1       
Let sin 1     z  sin z     sin  sin     z   where z   , 
 2 2 6  6 6  2 2
 1 
 sin 1     
 2 6
 1  1  2 
 tan 1 1  cos 1     sin 1     x  y  z   
 2  2 4 3 6
3  8  2 9 3
  
12 12 4
 1 1
2. Prove that 3sin 1 x  sin 1 (3x  4 x3 ), x    , 
 2 2
Ans:
Let sin 1 x    x  sin  , then
We know that sin 3  3sin   4sin 3 
 3  sin 1 (3sin   4sin 3  )  sin 1 (3 x  4 x 3 )
 3sin 1 x  sin 1 (3 x  4 x 3 )
2 7 1
3. Prove that tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
11 24 2
Ans:
2 7 1
Given tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
11 24 2
 2 7 
1 2 1 7
 11  24    x  y 
LHS  tan  tan 1
 tan    tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1  
11 24 2 7   1  x. y  
 1 . 
 11 24 
 48  77   125   125 
      125 1
 tan 1  264   tan 1  264   tan 1  264   tan 1  tan 1  RHS
 1  14   264  14   250  250 2
 264   264   264 

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1 1 31
4. Prove that 2 tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
2 7 17
Ans:
1 1 31
Given 2 tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
2 7 17
 1 
 2 
1 1 1 1 1  2   tan 1 1  1  2 x  
 2 tan x  tan 
1
LHS  2 tan  tan  tan 2 2 
2 7  1  7   1 x  
 1   
 2 
1 1 4 1
= tan 1  tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
1 7 3 7
1
4
 4 1 
     x  y 
 tan 1  3 7   tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1  
1 4 . 1    1  x. y  
 3 7
 28  3   31 
    31
 tan 1  21   tan 1  21   tan 1  RHS
4 17 17
 1   
 21  21
 
1  x2 1
5. Simplify : tan 1 ,x  0
x
Ans:
Let x = tan θ, then θ = tan–1x ………………… (i)
1  x2 1 1  tan 2   1 sec 2   1
tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
2 tan  tan 
 1   1  cos  
 1   
sec   1
 tan 1  tan 1  cos    tan 1  cos  
tan   sin    sin  
 cos    cos  
     
2sin 2  1  cos   2sin 2
 1  cos    2  2 
 tan 1    tan 1    
 sin      and sin   2sin  cos  
 2sin cos 
 2 2  2 2 
  
 sin 
 tan 1  2  tan 1 tan     1 tan 1 x [using (i)]
 cos 
 2 2 2
 2
1
6. Simplify : tan 1 ,| x | 1
x2 1
Ans:
Let x = sec θ, then θ = sec–1x ………………… (i)
1 1 1
tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
2 2
x 1 sec   1 tan 2 
1       
 tan 1  tan 1 (cot  )  tan 1  tan      tan      cot  
tan   2   2  

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 
     sec 1 x [using (i)]
2 2
 cos x  sin x 
7. Simplify : tan 1  ,0  x  
 cos x  sin x 
Ans:
 cos x sin x 
 
1  cos x  sin x 
tan   tan 1 cos x cos x 
  
 cos x  sin x   cos x  sin x 
 cos x cos x 
(inside the bracket divide numerator and denominator by cos x)
 1  tan x  1       1  tan x 
 tan 1    tan  tan   x    tan   x   
 1  tan x   4   4  1  tan x 

 x
4
2
1 2x 1 1  y 
8. Simplify : tan sin 1  cos  ,| x | 1, y  0 and xy  1
2 1  x2 1 y2 
Ans:
2
1 2x 1 1  y 
tan sin 1  cos  ,| x | 1, y  0 and xy  1
2 1  x2 1 y2 
2
 1 2 x 1 1  y 
 2 tan 1
x  sin and 2 tan 1
y  cos 
 1  x2 1 y2 
1 1 
 tan  (2 tan 1 x  2 tan 1 y )   tan  .2(tan 1 x  tan 1 y )   tan(tan 1 x  tan 1 y )
2 2 
  x  y   1  x  y 

 tan  tan 1   tan x  tan y  tan 
1 1
 
  1  x. y     1  x. y  
x y

1  x. y
x 1 x 1 
9. If tan 1  tan 1  , find the value of x.
x2 x2 4
Ans:
x 1 x 1 
Given that tan 1  tan 1 
x2 x2 4
 x 1 x  1 
    
x2 x2    1  x  y 
 tan 1   tan x  tan y  tan 
1 1
 
 1   x  1  x  1   4   1  x. y  
  x  2  x  2  
   
 ( x  1)( x  2)  ( x  1)( x  2) 
 
 tan 1  ( x  2)( x  2) 
 2
 x 1   4
 1  2  
  x 4 
 ( x 2  2 x  x  2)  ( x 2  2 x  x  2) 
 
  x 2
 4   tan 
 2 2
 x  4  x 1   4
  2  
  x 4  
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 27 -
 2 x2  4  2 2 2 1
   1  2 x  4  3  2 x  1  x 
 3  2
1
x
2
 7 
10. Find the value of cos1  cos .
 6 
Ans:
 7  1   5   5
cos 1  cos   cos  cos  2    where,  [0,  ]
 6    6  6
 7  1   5   5
 cos 1  cos   cos  cos     cos(2   )  cos  
 6    6  6

12 3 56
11. Prove that cos 1  sin 1  sin 1
13 5 65
Ans:
12 3 56
Given cos 1  sin 1  sin 1
13 5 65
12 12
Let cos 1  x  cos x 
13 13
2
2  12  25 5
 sin x  1  cos x  1     
 13  169 13
5
 x  sin 1
13
12 3 5 3
LHS  cos 1  sin 1  sin 1  sin 1
13 5 13 5
5 2 2 
3 3 5
 sin 1 
 13
1    1   
5 5  13     
 sin 1 x  sin 1 y  sin 1 x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2 


 5 16 3 144  1  5 4 3 12 
 sin 1     sin     
 13 25 5 169   13 5 5 13 
 20 36  56
 sin 1     sin 1  RHS
 65 65  65
63 5 3
12. Prove that tan 1  sin 1  cos 1
16 13 5
Ans:
5 3
RHS  sin 1  cos 1
13 5
5 5
Let sin 1  x  sin x 
13 13
2
2 5 144 12
 cos x  1  sin x  1     
 13  169 13
5
sin x 13 5 5
 tan x     x  tan 1
cos x 12 12 12
13

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 28 -


3 3
Let cos 1  y  cos y 
5 5
2
2 3 16 4
 sin y  1  cos y  1     
5 25 5
4
sin x 5 4 4
 tan y     y  tan 1
cos x 3 3 3
5
63
then the equation becomes tan 1  x y
16
63 5 4
 tan 1  tan 1  tan 1
16 12 3
 5 4 
     x  y 
5 4
RHS  tan 1  tan 1  tan 1  12 3   tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1  
12 3  1 5 . 4    1  x. y  
 12 3 
 15  48   63 
     63 
 tan 1  36   tan 1  36   tan 1    LHS
 1  20   16   16 
 36   36 
1 1 1 1 
13. Prove that tan 1  tan 1  tan 1  tan 1 
5 7 3 8 4
Ans:
 1 1  1 1
LHS =  tan 1  tan 1    tan 1  tan 1 
 5 7  3 8
 1 1   1 1 
        x  y 
 tan 1  5 7  + tan 1  3 8   tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1  
 1 1 . 1   1 1 . 1    1  x. y  
 5 7  3 8
 75   83   12   11 
       
 tan 1  35   tan 1  24   tan 1  35   tan 1  24 
 1 1   1
1
  30  
23

 35   24   35   24 
 12   11   6  11 
 tan 1    tan 1    tan 1    tan 1  
 34   23   17   23 
 6 11   138  187   325 
       
 tan 1  17 23   tan 1  391   tan 1  391   tan 1 1   RHS
6
 1 .  11  1 66   325  4
 17 23   391   391 
 1  sin x  1  sin x  x  
14. Prove that cot 1    , x   0, 
 1  sin x  1  sin x  2  4
Ans:
 1  sin x  1  sin x  x  
Given cot 1    , x   0, 
 1  sin x  1  sin x  2  4
 1  sin x  1  sin x 
LHS  cot 1  
 1  sin x  1  sin x 
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 29 -
 1  sin x  1  sin x 1  sin x  1  sin x 
 cot 1    (by rationalizing the denominator)
 1  sin x  1  sin x 1  sin x  1  sin x 
2
 
1 
 cot 
 1  sin x  1  sin x    cot 1  1  sin x  1  sin x  2 1  sin x 
2

2 2 
 
  
 1  sin x  1  sin x 
    1  sin x  1  sin x 
 2  2cos x  1  2(1  cos x)  1  1  cos x 
 cot 1    cot    cot  
 sin x   2sin x   sin x 
 x 
 2 cos 2
 cot 1  2   x
1  cos x  2cos 2 and sin x  2sin cos 
x x
x x  
 2sin cos   2 2 2
 2 2
 x
 cos 
 cot 1  2  cot 1  cot x   x  RHS
x 


2 2
 sin 
 2
 1 x  1 x   1
15. Prove that tan 1     cos x
1

 1 x  1 x  4 2
Ans:
Let x = cosy  y  cos 1 x
 y y
 1  cos y  1  cos y   2 cos  2sin 
LHS  tan 1   tan 1  2 2
 1  cos y  1  cos y  y y
   2cos  2sin 
 2 2
 2 y y
1  cos y  2 cos and 1  cos y  2sin 2 
 2 2
 y y  y
 cos  sin   1  tan 
 tan 1  2 2  tan 1 2  tan 1 tan    y     1 cos 1 x
y y   y  
 cos  sin   1  tan  4 2 4 2
 2 2  2
   1  tan x 
 tan   x   
 4  1  tan x 
1 x 1
16. Solve for x: tan 1  tan 1 x, ( x  0)
1 x 2
Ans:
1 x 1
Given tan 1  tan 1 x, ( x  0)
1 x 2
1 x
 2 tan 1  tan 1 x
1 x
  1 x  
 2  
1   1 x     2 x 
 tan 2
 tan 1 x  2 tan 1 x  tan 1  2 
  1 x     1  x 
1   
  1 x  

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 30 -


  1 x  
 2  
 tan 1  1 x    tan 1 x
 (1  x) 2  (1  x )2 
 (1  x) 2 
 
 2(1  x)(1  x ) 
 tan 1  2 2 
 tan 1 x
 (1  x)  (1  x ) 
1  2(1  x 2 ) 
 tan  2 2 
 tan 1 x
 1  2x  x 1  2x  x 
 2(1  x 2 )  2
1  1  x 
 tan 1    tan 1
x  tan 
1
  tan x
 4 x   2 x 
2
1 x 1 1
  x  1  x 2  2 x 2  1  3x 2  x 2   x  
2x 3 3
 1 
 x  0 given, so we do not take x   
 3
1
x
3
17. Solve for x: 2 tan 1 (cos x)  tan 1 (2cos ecx )
Ans:
Given 2 tan 1 (cos x)  tan 1 (2cos ecx )
 2cos x    2x 
 tan 1  2
1
  tan (2cos ecx)  2 tan 1 x  tan 1  2 
 1  cos x    1  x 
 2cos x  1  2 
 tan 1  2   tan  
 sin x   sin x 
2 cos x 2 cos x
 2
  1
sin x sin x sin x
 
 cot x  1  cot x  cot  x 
4 4

18. Solve for x: sin 1 (1  x)  2sin 1 x 
2
Ans:

Given sin 1 (1  x)  2sin 1 x 
2

 2sin 1 x   sin 1 (1  x )  2sin 1 x  cos 1 (1  x)
2
 
 sin (1  x)  cos (1  x )  2 
1 1

 
 cos 2sin 1 x  1  x
 cos  2sin x   1  x
1
 cos( x)  cos x 
 1  2sin  sin x   1  x
2 1
 cos 2 x  1  2sin 2 x 
2
 1  2 sin  sin x    1  x
1

 1  2 x 2  1  x  2 x2  x  0
 x (2 x  1)  0  x  0 or 2 x  1  0

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 31 -


1
 x  0 or x 
2
1
But x  does not satisfy the given equation, so x = 0.
2
 x  x y 
19. Simplify: tan 1    tan 1  
 y  x y 
Ans:
x 
 1 
 x  x y  1  x  y
Given tan 1    tan 1  1
 = tan    tan  x 
 y  x  y   y   
 y 1
 
 x  x   1  x  y 

 tan 1     tan 1    tan 1 1  tan x  tan y  tan 
1 1

 y   y    1  x. y  

 tan 1 1 
4

 cos x   
20. Express tan 1   ,   x  in the simplest form.
 1  sin x  2 2
Ans:
 cos x   
Given tan 1  ,   x 
 1  sin x  2 2

 x x  x x
 2 x 2 x  cos  sin   cos  sin  
 cos  sin   
2 2  2 2
 tan 1  2 2
  tan 1   2
x x x x   x x 
 cos 2  sin 2  2 cos sin   cos  sin 
 2 2 2 2  
  2 2 
 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x x x
1  cos x  cos  sin ,sin  cos  1 and sin x  2sin cos 
 2 2 2 2 2 2
 x x  x
 cos  sin   1  tan 
 tan 1  2 2  tan 1  2  tan 1 tan    x     x
x x x  
 4 2 4 2
 cos  sin   1  tan 
 2 2  2

1
21. Simplify : cot 1 ,| x | 1
x2  1
Ans:
Let x = sec θ, then θ = sec–1x ………………… (i)
1 1 1
cot 1  cot 1  cot 1
x2  1 sec 2   1 tan 2 
1
 cot 1  cot 1 (cot  )    sec 1 x
tan 

3 8 84
22. Prove that sin 1  sin 1  cos 1
5 17 85
Ans:

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 32 -


3 8
Let sin 1  x and sin 1  y
5 17
3 8
Therefore sin x  and sin y 
5 17
2
3 9 4
Now, cos x  1  sin 2 x  1     1  
5 25 5
2
 8 64 15
and cos y  1  sin 2 y  1     1  
 17  289 17
4 15 3 8 60 24 84
We have cos( x  y )  cos x cos y  sin x sin y       
5 17 5 17 85 85 85
84
 x  y  cos 1
85
3 8 84
 sin 1  sin 1  cos 1
5 17 85
12 4 63
23. Prove that sin 1  cos 1  tan 1 
13 5 16
Ans:
12 4 63
Let sin 1  x , cos 1  y and tan 1 z
13 5 16
12 4 63
Then sin x  , cos y  and tan z 
13 5 16
2
 12  144 5
Now, cos x  1  sin 2 x  1     1  
 13  169 13
2
 4 16 3
and sin y  1  cos 2 y  1     1  
5 25 5
12 3
sin x 13 12 sin y 5 3
 tan x    and tan y   
cos x 5 5 cos y 4 4
13 5
12 3 48  15 63

tan x  tan y 63
tan( x  y )   5 4  20  20     tan z
1  tan x.tan y 1  12 . 3 1  36 
16 16
5 4 20 20
 tan( x  y )   tan z  tan( z )  tan(  z )
 x y  z
 x y z 
12 4 63
 sin 1  cos 1  tan 1 
13 5 16

 a cos x  b sin x  a
24. Simplify: tan 1   , if tan x  1
 b cos x  a sin x  b
Ans:
 a cos x  b sin x 
 a cos x  b sin x   b cos x 
tan 1  1
  tan  b cos x  a sin x 
 b cos x  a sin x   
 b cos x 

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 33 -


 a 
  tan x 
a a
 tan 1  b   tan 1  tan 1 (tan x )  tan 1  x
 1  a tan x  b b
 b 

25. Solve: tan 1 2 x  tan 1 3 x 
4
Ans:

Given tan 1 2 x  tan 1 3 x 
4
 2 x  3x    1  x  y 

 tan 1   tan x  tan y  tan 
1 1
 
 1  2 x.3 x  4   1  x. y  
 5x   5x 
 tan 1  2 
  2
 tan  1
 1 6x  4 1 6x 4
2
 6 x  5 x  1  0  (6 x  1)( x  1)  0
1
 x  or x  1
6
Since x = – 1 does not satisfy the equation, as the L.H.S. of the equation becomes negative,
1
x  is the only solution of the given equation.
6

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 34 -


CHAPTER – 2: INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions & Answers)

  1 
1. Evaluate : sin   sin 1    
3  2 
Ans:
  1      
sin   sin 1      sin      
3  2   3  6 
   
 sin     sin  1
3 6 2

2. Write the value of cot (tan–1a + cot–1a).


Ans:
  
 
cot tan 1 a  cot 1 a  cot   cot 1 a  cot 1 a   cot  0
2  2
 7 
3. Find the principal values of cos1  cos .
 6 
Ans:
 7  1    
cos 1  cos   cos  cos     
 6    6 
   3  5
 cos1   cos   cos1       
 6  2  6 6

 3 
4. Find the principal values of tan 1  tan 
 4 
Ans:
 3  1    
tan 1  tan   tan  tan     
 4    4 
  
 tan 1   tan   tan 1 (1)  
 4 4
 1 a  1 a  2b
5. Prove that: tan   cos 1   tan   cos 1  
4 2 b 4 2 b a
Ans:
 1 a  1 a
LHS  tan   cos 1   tan   cos 1 
4 2 b 4 2 b
 1 a  1 a
tan  tan  cos 1  tan  tan  cos1 
4 2 b 4 2 b
 
 1 a  1 a
1  tan tan  cos1  1  tan tan  cos 1 
4 2 b 4 2 b
1 a 1 a
1  tan  cos 1  1  tan  cos1 
 2 b
 2 b
1 a 1 a
1  tan  cos 1  1  tan  cos 1 
2 b 2 b
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 35 -
2 2
 1 1 a    1 1 a  
1  tan  2 cos b    1  tan  2 cos b  
    

 21 1 a  
1  tan  2 cos b  
  
1 a  21 1 a  
2  2 tan 2  cos 1  2  1  tan  cos 
2 b 2 b  
  
1 a 1 a
1  tan 2  cos 1  1  tan 2  cos 1 
2 b 2 b
2 2 2 2b
    = RHS
1 1 a   1 a  a a
cos 2  cos  cos  cos 
2 b  b b
8
6. Solve: tan 1  x  1  tan 1  x  1  tan 1
31
Ans:
8
tan 1  x  1  tan 1  x  1  tan 1
31
 ( x  1)  ( x  1)  1 8
 tan 1    tan
 1  ( x  1).( x  1)  31
 2x  1 8  2x  8
 tan 1  2   tan  tan 1  2 
 tan 1
 1  ( x  1)  31  2 x  31
2x 8
 2
  62 x  16  8 x 2  8 x 2  62 x  16  0
2 x 31
2
 4 x  31x  8  0  (4 x  1)( x  8)  0
1
 x  and x  8
4
As x = –8 does not satisfy the equation
1
Hence x  is only solution.
4
4 5 16 
7. Prove that sin 1  sin 1  sin 1 
5 13 65 2
Ans:
4 5 16 
sin 1  sin 1  sin 1 
5 13 65 2
4 5  16 16
 sin 1  sin 1   sin 1  cos 1
5 13 2 65 65
4 5
Let sin 1  x and sin 1  y
5 13
4 5
Therefore sin x  and sin y 
5 13
2
2 4 16 3
Now, cos x  1  sin x  1     1  
5 25 5
2
2 5 25 12
and cos y  1  sin y  1     1  
 13  144 13
3 12 4 5 36 20 16
We have cos( x  y )  cos x cos y  sin x sin y       
5 13 5 13 65 65 65

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 36 -


16
 x  y  cos 1
65
4 5 16
 sin 1  sin 1  cos 1
5 13 65
1 2 1 3
8. Prove that tan 1  tan 1  cos 1
4 9 2 5
Ans:
1 2
LHS  tan 1  tan 1
4 9
 1 2   98   17 
         x  y 
 tan 1  4 9   tan 1  36   tan 1  36    tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1  
1 1 . 2   1 2   34    1  x. y  
 4 9  36   36 
17 1 1 1
 tan 1  tan 1   2 tan 1 
34 2 2 2
2
 1   1
 1     1   2

1 2 1 1  1  x 
 cos 1    2   cos 1  4   2 tan 1
x  cos  2 
2  1  2 1   1  x 
 1     1 
 2   4
3
1   1 3
 cos 1  4   cos 1  RHS
2 5
  2 5
4
 x2  1   2 x  2
9. Solve for x: cos 1  2   tan 1  2  
 x 1   x 1  3
Ans:
 x2  1   2 x  2
cos 1  2   tan 1  2  
 x 1   x 1  3
 (1  x 2 )  1  2 x  2
 cos 1  2   tan   2 

 1 x   1 x  3
 1  x2   2 x  2
   cos 1  2 
 tan 1  2 

 1 x  1 x  3
2 2
   2 tan 1 x  2 tan 1 x     4 tan 1 x 
3 3
2  
   4 tan 1 x  4 tan 1 x   tan 1 x 
3 3 12
 
tan  tan
        4 6
 tan 1 x      x  tan    
4 6  4 6  1  tan .tan 

4 6
1
1
x 3  3 1
1 3 1
1
3

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 37 -


3 1 3 1 3  1  2 3 4  2 3
x     2 3
3 1 3 1 3 1 2
1  1 x 
10. Prove that tan 1 x  cos1   , x  (0,1)
2 1 x 
Ans:
1
LHS  tan 1 x  2 tan 1 x
2
 
 1 x 2 
1 1 
    1  1  x
2

 2 tan x  cos 
1
 cos  2  2 
2
 
 1 x 
 
  1 x 

1  1 x 
 cos 1    RHS
2  1 x 

9 9 1  1  9 1  2 2 
11. Prove that  sin    sin  
8 4 3 4  3 
Ans:
9 9 1 1 9   1 9 1
LHS   sin    sin 1   cos 1
8 4 3 4 2 3 4 3
1 1
Let cos 1  x  cos x   sin x  1  cos 2 x
3 3
2
1 1 8 2 2
 sin x  1     1   
 3 9 9 3
2 2 1 1
2 2 
 x  sin 1    cos  sin 1  
 3  3  3 
9 1 9 2 2
 cos 1  sin 1    RHS
4 3 4  3 

12. Find the principal value of tan 1 3  sec 1 (2)


Ans:
tan 1 3  sec 1 (2)
   
 tan 1  tan   sec 1   sec 
 3  3
       2 
  sec1  sec        sec 1  sec 
3   3  3  3 
 2 
  
3 3 3
 3 3 6
13. Prove that : cos  sin 1  cot 1  
 5 2  5 13
Ans:
3 3
Let sin 1  x and cot 1  y
5 2
3 3
Then sin x  and cot y 
5 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 38 -


2
2 3 9 16 4
Now cos x  1  sin x  1     1   
5 25 25 5
1 1 1 1 2
and sin y     
1  cot 2 y  3
2
9 13 13
1   1
 2 4 4
3
 cos y 
13
4 3 3 2
LHS  cos( x  y )  cos x cos y  sin x sin y    
5 13 5 13
12 6 6
    RHS
5 13 5 13 5 13

 1
Write the value of tan  2 tan 1 
 5
Ans:
1 1 x x 1
Let 2 tan 1  x  tan 1   tan 
5 5 2 2 5
x 1
2 tan 2
 1 2  5  2  25  5
tan  2 tan 1   tan x  2
 5 x 1 5 24 12
1  tan 2 1 
2  
5
2
1 2x 1 1  y 
14. Find the value of the following: tan sin 1  cos  ,| x | 1, y  0 and xy  1
2 1  x2 1 y2 
Ans:
Let x  tan  and y  tan     tan 1 x,   tan 1 y
2
1  1 2 x 1 1  y 
tan sin  cos 
2 1  x2 1 y2 
2
1 2 tan  1 1  tan  
 tan sin 1  cos 
2 1  tan 2  1  tan 2  
1  2 tan  1  tan 2  
 tan sin (sin 2 )  cos (cos 2 )   sin 2 
 1 1
 and cos 2   
2  1  tan 2  1  tan 2  
1 tan   tan  x y
 tan  2  2   tan      
2 1  tan  . tan  1  xy

  3 
15. Write the value of tan 1  2sin  2 cos1 
  2  
Ans:
  3 
tan 1  2sin  2 cos1 
  2  

         3
 tan 1  2sin  2    tan 1  2sin     tan 1  2  
  6    3   2 

 tan 1 3 
3
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1 3 4 7
16. Prove that tan  sin 1  
2 4 3
Ans:
3 3
Let sin 1    sin  
4 4

2 tan
2 3  2 tan  
  sin 2 
1  tan 2
 4  1  tan 2  
2
   
 3  3tan 2  8 tan  3 tan 2  8 tan  3  0
2 2 2 2
 8  64  36 8  28
 tan  
2 6 6
 8 2 7  4 7
 tan   tan 
2 6 2 3
1 3 4 7
 tan  sin 1  
2 4 3

x
17. If y  cot 1  
cos x  tan 1  
cos x , then prove that sin y  tan 2
2
Ans:
y  cot 1  
cos x  tan 1  cos x 

 y
2
 tan 1  cos x   tan  cos x   2  2 tan 
1 1
cos x 
2
  1  cos x   1  1  x 

 y   cos 1   2 tan x  cos 
1
 2 

2  1  cos x    1  x 
 1  cos x 
 y  sin 1  
 1  cos x 
x
2sin 2
1  cos x 2  tan 2 x
 sin y  
1  cos x 2 cos 2 x 2
2
 1 
18. If sin  sin 1  cos 1 x   1 , then find the value of x.
 5 
Ans:
 1  1
sin  sin 1  cos 1 x   1  sin 1  cos 1 x  sin 1 1
 5  5
1  1 
 sin 1  cos 1 x   sin 1   cos 1 x  sin 1 x
5 2 5 2
1
x
5
1 5 2 1 
19. Prove that 2 tan 1  sec 1  2 tan 1 
5 7 8 4
Ans:
1 5 2 1
LHS  2 tan 1  sec 1  2 tan 1
5 7 8
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 40 -
1 1 5 2  1 1 5 2
 2 tan 1  2 tan 1  sec 1  2  tan 1  tan 1   sec 1
5 8 7  5 8 7
 1 1  2
1
 58  1
5 2 
 2 tan    tan    1
1 1 . 1   7 
 5 8
 85 
  50
 2 tan 1  40   tan 1 1
1 1  49
 40 
 13 
  1  13  1
 2 tan 1  40   tan 1  2 tan 1    tan 1
 39  49  39  7
 40 
 1 
 2  
1  1  1 1 1   3    tan 1 1   2 x 
 2 tan    tan  tan 2  2 tan 1 x  tan 1  2 
3 7  1  7   1  x 
 1   
  3 
 2  2
  1   1 2 9 1
 tan 1  3   tan 1  tan 1  3   tan 1  tan 1     tan 1
 1 1  7 8 7 3 8 7
 9 9
 3 1 
1 3 1 1
 47    x  y 
 tan  tan  tan 1
   tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1  
4 7  1 3 . 1    1  x. y  
 4 7
 21  4   25 
    
 tan 1  28   tan 1  28   tan 1 1 
 1 3   25  4
 28   28 


20. If tan 1 x  tan 1 y  then write the value of x + y + xy.
4
Ans:

tan 1 x  tan 1 y 
4
 x y   x y 
 tan 1     tan  1
 1  x. y  4 1  x. y 4
 x  y  1  xy  x  y  xy  1

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Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 42 -
CHAPTER – 3: MATRICES
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 03 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

1. If a matrix has 18 elements, what are the possible orders it can have? What, if it has 5
elements?
Ans:
Since, a matrix containing 18 elements can have any one of the following orders :
1 × 18, 18 × 1, 2 × 9, 9 × 2, 3 × 6,6 × 3
Similarly, a matrix containing 5 elements can have order 1 × 5 or 5 × 1.

2. Construct a 3 × 4 matrix, whose elements are given by:


1
(i) aij = |−3i + j| (ii) aij = 2i − j
2
Ans:
(i) The order of given matrix is 3 × 4, so the required matrix is
 a11 a12 a13 a14 
1
A   a21 a22 a23 a24  , where aij = |−3i + j|
2
 a31 a32 a33 a34  34
Putting the values in place of i and j, we will find all the elements of matrix A.
1 1 1 1
a11  | 3  1| 1, a12  | 3  2 | , a13  | 3  3 | 0
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 5 1
a14  | 3  4 | , a21  | 6  1| , a22  | 6  2 | 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 3 1 1
a23  | 6  3 | , a24  | 6  4 | 1, a31  | 9  1| 4
2 2 2 2
1 7 1 1 5
a32  | 9  2 | , a33  | 9  3 | 3, a34  | 9  4 |
2 2 2 2 2
 1 1
1 2 0 2
 
 5 3
Hence, the required matrix is A  2 1
2 2 
 
4 7 3 5
 2 2  34

 a11 a12 a13 a14 


(ii) Here, A   a21 a22 a23 a24  ,where aij = 2i – j
 a31 a32 a33 a34  34
a11 = 2 − 1 = 1, a12 = 2 − 2 = 0,
a13 = 2 − 3 = − 1, a14 = 2 − 4 = − 2,
a21 = 4 − 1 = 3, a22 = 4 − 2 = 2,
a23 = 4 − 3 = 1, a24 = 4 − 4 = 0
a31 = 6 − 1 = 5, a32 = 6 − 2 = 4,
a33 = 6 − 3 = 3 and a34 = 6 − 4 = 2

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1 0 1 2 
Hence, the required matrix is A  3 2 1 0 
5 4 3 2  34

 a  b 2a  c   1 5 
3. Find the value of a, b, c and d from the equation:   
 2a  b 3c  d   0 13
Ans:
 a  b 2a  c   1 5 
Given that   
 2a  b 3c  d   0 13
By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are
equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
a−b=−1 …(i)
2a − b = 0 …(ii)
2a + c = 5 …(iii)
and 3c + d = 13 …(iv)
Subtracting Eq.(i) from Eq.(ii), we get a = 1
Putting a = 1 in Eq. (i) and Eq. (iii), we get
1 − b = − 1 and 2 + c = 5
 b = 2 and c = 3
Substituting c = 3 in Eq. (iv), we obtain
3 × 3 + d = 13  d = 13 − 9 = 4
Hence, a = 1,b = 2, c = 3 and d = 4.
 5 2 3 6 
4. Find X and Y, if X + Y =   and X – Y =  .
0 9  0 1
Ans:
5 2   3 6 
(X Y )  (X Y )    
0 9   0 1
8 8 1 8 8
 2X    X 
0 8 2 0 8
 4 4
X  
0 4
5 2 3 6 
Now,( X  Y )  ( X  Y )    
 0 9   0 1
 2 4  1  2 4 
 2Y    X  
 0 10  2  0 10 
 1 2 
Y   
0 5 

5. Find the values of x and y from the following equation:


x 5   3 4   7 6 
2   
 7 y  3 1 2  15 14 
Ans:
x 5   3 4   7 6 
2   
 7 y  3 1 2  15 14 
2 x 10  3 4  7 6 
   
14 2 y  6  1 2  15 14 
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2 x  3 6  7 6
 
 15 2 y  4 15 14 
or 2x + 3 = 7 and 2y – 4 = 14
or 2x = 7 – 3 and 2y = 18
4 18
or x = and y =
2 2
i.e. x = 2 and y = 9.
 0 1 3 5
6. Find AB, if A    and B   .
0 2  0 0
Ans:
0 1  3 5  0 0 
We have AB     
0 2   0 0  0 0 
Thus, if the product of two matrices is a zero matrix, it is not necessary that one of the matrices is a
zero matrix.

 1 2 3
7. If A   3 2 1  , then show that A3 – 23A – 40 I = O
 4 2 1 
Ans:
 1 2 3  1 2 3 19 4 8 
A  A. A   3 2 1  3 2 1    1 12 8 
2

 4 2 1  4 2 1  14 6 15


 1 2 3 19 4 8   63 46 69 
So, A  A.A   3 2 1  1
3 2
12 8    69 6 23
 4 2 1 14 6 15 92 46 63
 63 46 69  1 2 3 1 0 0 
Now, A  23 A  40 I  69 6
3
23  23 3 2 1  40 0 1 0 
  
92 46 63  4 2 1  0 0 1 
 63 46 69   23 46 69  40 0 0 
  69 6 23   69 46 23   0 40 0 
    
 92 46 63  92 46 23  0 0 40 
 63  23  40 46  46  0 69  69  0 
  69  69  0 6  46  40 23  23  0 
 92  92  0 46  46  0 63  23  40 
0 0 0
  0 0 0   0
 0 0 0 

 2  1 10 
8. If x    y      , find the values of x and y.
 3 1  5
Ans:
 2  1 10   2 x  y  10
x  y        
 3 1  5  3x  y   5 

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By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are
equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
2x − y = 10 …(i)
and 3x + y = 5 …(ii)
Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
5x = 15  x = 3
Substituting x = 3 in Eq. (i), we get
2 × 3 − y = 10  y = 6 − 10 = −4

x y   x 6  4 x  y
9. Given 3      , find the values of x, y, z and w.
 z w   1 2 w  z  w 3 
Ans:
By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are
equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
3x = x + 4  2x = 4  x = 2
6 x
and 3y = 6 + x + y  2y = 6 + x  y=
2
Putting the value of x, we get
62 8
y  4
2 2
Now, 3z = −1 + z + w, 2z = −1 + w
1  w
z …(i)
2
Now, 3w = 2w + 3  w = 3
Putting the value of w in Eq. (i), we get
1  3 2
z  1
2 2
Hence, the values of x, y, z and w are 2, 4, 1 and 3.
cos x  sin x 0 
10. If F ( x )   sin x cos x 0  , show that F(x) F(y) = F(x + y).
 0 0 1 
Ans:
 cos x  sin x 0   cos y  sin y 0 
LHS  F ( x) F ( y )   sin x cos x 0   sin y cos y 0 
 0 0 1   0 0 1 
 cos x cos y  sin x sin y  sin y cos x  sin x cos y 0
 sin x cos y  cos x sin y  sin x sin y  cos x cos y 0
 0 0 1 
 cos( x  y )  sin( x  y ) 0 
  sin( x  y ) cos( x  y ) 0   F ( x  y )  RHS
 0 0 1 
2 0 1
11. Find A – 5A + 6I, if A   2 1 3
2

 1 1 0 
Ans:

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 46 -


 2 0 1   2 0 1   5 1 2 
A  A. A   2 1 3   2 1 3    9 2 5 
2

 1 1 0   1 1 0   0 1 2
 5 1 2   2 0 1  1 0 0
 A  5 A  6 I  9 2 5   5  2 1 3   6 0 1 0
2    
0 1 2   1 1 0  0 0 1 
 5 1 2  10 0 5   6 0 0 
  9 2 5   10 5 15   0 6 0 
 0 1 2   5 5 0   0 0 6 
 5  10  6 1  0  0 2  5  0   1 1 3 
 9  10  0 2  5  6 5  15  0    1 1 10 
 0  5  0 1  5  0 2  0  6  5 4 4 
1 0 2
12. If A   0 2 1  , prove that A3 – 6A2 + 7A + 2I = 0
 2 0 3 
Ans:
1 0 2   1 0 2  5 0 8
A  A. A   0
2
2 1   0 2 1    2 4
5 
 2 0 3   2 0 3  8 013
5 0 8  1 0 2  21 0 34 
A  A . A   2
3 2
4 5   0 2 1   12
8 23
8 0 13  2 0 3 340 55
 21 0 34 5 0 8  1 0 2 1 0 0 
 A  6 A  7 A  2 I  12 8 23  6  2 4 5   7  0 2
3 2     1   2 0 1 0 

34 0 55 8 0 13  2 0 3  0 0 1 
 21 0 34 30 0 48  7 0 14   2 0 0 
 12 8 23  12 24 30    0 14 7   0 2 0 
34 0 55  48 0 78 14 0 21 0 0 2
 21  30  7  2 0  0  0  0 34  48  14  0   0 0 0
  12  12  0  0 8  24  14  2 23  30  7  0    0 0
 0   O
34  48  14  0 0  0  0  0 55  78  21  2  0 0 0 

 3 2  1 0
13. If A    and I  0  , find k so that A2 = kA – 2I
 4 2   1
Ans:
Given than A2 = kA – 2I
 3 2   3 2  3 2  1 0
    k  2
 4 2   4 2  4 2  0 1 
 9  8 6  4   3k 2k   2 0
  
12  8 8  4   4k 2k   0 2 

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 47 -


1 2  3k  2 2 k 
  
 4 4   4k 2k  2

By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are
equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
3k − 2 = 1  k = 1
−2k = −2  k = 1
4k = 4  k = 1
−4 = −2k − 2  k = 1
Hence, k = 1
 
 0  tan 
2 and I is the identity matrix of order 2, show that
14. If A   
 tan  0 
 2 
 cos   sin  
I + A = (I – A)  
 sin  cos  
Ans:
0  x  
Let A    where x  tan
x 0  2
 
1  tan 2 2 2 tan
Now, cos   2  1  x and cos   2  2x
2
 1 x  1  x2
1  tan 2 1  tan 2
2 2
 cos   sin  
RHS  ( I  A)  
 sin  cos  
1  x2 2x 

 1 0  0  x   1  x 2 
1  x2 
     
 0 1   x 0    2 x 1  x2 
1  x 2 1  x 2 
1  x 2 2x   1  x2  2x2 2 x  x (1  x 2 ) 

 1 x  1  x 2  
1  x2   1  x2 1  x2

    
x 1  2 x 1  x 2    x (1  x 2 )  2 x 2x2 1 x2 
1  x 2 1  x 2   1  x2 1  x2 
 1  x2 2 x  x  x 3    x  x3    x(1  x 2 ) 
   1   1 
1  x2 1  x2 1  x2   1  x2   1 x
    
  x  x3  2 x 1  x2   x3  x   x( x 2  1)  x 1
 1  x 2   1  x 2 1   1  x 2 1 
1  x2
1 0   0  x   1 x 
LHS       RHS
0 1   x 0    x 1 

 2 2 4 
15. Express the matrix B   1 3 4  as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric
 1 2 3
matrix.
Ans:

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 48 -


 2 2 4   2 1 1 

B   1 3 4   B '   2 3 2 

 1 2 3  4 4 3
 2 3 3 
 4 3 3  2 2
1 1 
Let P  ( B  B ')   3 6 2    3 3 1 
2 2  2 
 3 2 6   3
1 3 
 2 
 2 3 3 
 2 2
Now P '   3 3 1 P
 2 
 3 1 3 
 2 
1
Thus P  ( B  B ') is a symmetric matrix.
2
 0 1 5 
 0 1 5  2 2
1 1  
Also, let Q  ( B  B ')   1 0 6   1 0 3 
2 2  2 
 5 6 0   5
3 0 
 2 
 0 1 5 
 2 2
Now Q '   1 0 3   Q
 2 
 5 3 0 
 2 
1
Thus Q  ( B  B ') is a skew symmetric matrix.
2
 2 3 3   0 1 5 
 2 2  2 2   2 2 4 
Now, P  Q   3 3 1 1 0 3    1 3 4   B
 2   2 
 3  1 2 3
 2 1 3   5 3 0  
  2 
Thus, B is represented as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix.

16. Express the following matrices as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix:
 6 2 2  3 3 1
3 5       1 5
(i )   ( ii )   2 3 1  (iii )  2  2 1  (iv )  1 2 
1 1  2 1 3   4 5 2   

Ans:
(i)
3 5 
Let A    , then A  P  Q
1 1
1 1
where, P  ( A  A ') and Q  ( A  A ')
2 2
1 1  3 5  3 1   1  6 6  3 3 
Now, P  ( A  A ')      
2 2  1 1 5 1  2  6 2  3 1
3 3  3 3 
P'    P
3 1 3 1
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 49 -
1
Thus P  ( A  A ') is a symmetric matrix.
2
1 1  3 5  3 1   1  0 4   0 2
Now, Q  ( A  A ')      
2 2  1 1 5 1  2  4 0   2 0 
 0 2 
Q '     Q
2 0 
1
Thus Q  ( A  A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.
2
Representing A as the sum of P and Q,
3 3   0 2  3 5 
PQ     A
3 1  2 0  1 1
(ii)
 6 2 2 
Let A   2 3 1 , then A  P  Q
 2 1 3 
1 1
where, P  ( A  A ') and Q  ( A  A ')
2 2
  6 2 2   6 2 2   12 4 4   6 2 2 
1 1  1
Now, P  ( A  A ')    2 3 1   2 3 1    4 6 2    2 3 1
  
2 2  2  4 2 6   2 1 3 
  2 1 3   2 1 3      
 6 2 2   6 2 2 
 P '   2 3 1   2 3 1  P
 2 1 3   2 1 3 
1
Thus P  ( A  A ') is a symmetric matrix.
2
  6 2 2   6 2 2   0 0 0   0 0 0 
1 1  1
Now, Q  ( A  A ')    2 3 1   2 3 1   0 0 0    0 0 0 
  
2 2  2 0 0 0   0 0 0 
  2 1 3   2 1 3      
0 0 0
 Q '   0 0 0   Q
 0 0 0 
1
Thus Q  ( A  A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.
2
Representing A as the sum of P and Q,
 6 2 2  0 0 0  6 2 2 
P  Q   2 3 1  0 0 0   2 3 1  A
 2 1 3  0 0 0  2 1 3 
(iii)
 3 3 1
Let A   2 2 1  , then A  P  Q
 4 5 2 
1 1
where, P  ( A  A ') and Q  ( A  A ')
2 2
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 50 -
 3 1 5 
  3 3 1  3 2 4   6 1 5  2 2
1 1     1 
Now, P  ( A  A ')    2 2 1    3 2 5    1 4 4   1 2 2 
2 2 2  2 

  4 5 2   1 1 2    5 4 4   5
2 2 
 2 
 3 1 5   3 1 5 
 2 2  2 2
P'   1 2 2    1 2 2   P
 2   2 
 5 2 2    5 2 2 
 2   2 
1
Thus P  ( A  A ') is a symmetric matrix.
2
 0 5 3 
 3 3 1  3 2 4    0 5 3  2 2
1 1      1  
Now, Q  ( A  A ')    2 2 1    3 2 5    5 0 6    5 0 2
2 2 2  2 
  4 5 2   1 1 2    3 6 0   3
2 0 
 2 
 0 5 3 
 2 2
Q '   5 0 2   Q
 2 
3 0 
 2 2 
1
Thus Q  ( A  A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.
2
Representing A as the sum of P and Q,
 3 1 5   0 5 3 
 2 2  2 2   3 3 1
PQ   1 2 2   5  0 2    2 2 1   A
 2   2 
  4 5 2 
 5 2 2  3 2 0  
 2   2 
(iv)
 1 5
Let A    , then A  P  Q
 1 2 
1 1
where, P  ( A  A ') and Q  ( A  A ')
2 2
1 
1  1 5  1 1  1  2 4   1 2 
Now, P  ( A  A ')      
2 2   1 2 5 2   2  4 4   2 2 
1 2 1 2
P'    P
2 2 2 2
1
Thus P  ( A  A ') is a symmetric matrix.
2
1 1   1 5  1 1  1  0 6  0 3
Now, Q  ( A  A ')      
2 2   1 2  5 2   2  6 0  3 0
0 3
Q '     Q
3 0 
1
Thus Q  ( A  A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.
2
Representing A as the sum of P and Q,
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 51 -
 1 2  0 3   1 5 
PQ     A
 2 2  3 0   1 2 
 cos   sin  
17. If A =   and A + A′ = I, find the value of α .
 sin  cos  
Ans:
 cos   sin    cos  sin  
A   A 
 sin  cos     sin  cos  
Now, A  A '  I
cos   sin    cos  sin   1 0 
   
 sin  cos     sin  cos   0 1 
 2cos  0  1 0
 
 0 2 cos    0 1 
Comparing the corresponding elements of the above matrices, we have
1  
2cos   1  cos    cos   
2 3 3
0 1 2
18. Obtain the inverse of the following matrix using elementary operations: A  1 2 3 
 3 1 1 
Ans:
 0 1 2  1 0 0 
  
Write A = I A, i.e., 1 2 3  0 1 0 A

   
 3 1 1   0 0 1 
1 2 3 0 1 0
 0 1 2   1 0 0  A (applying R1↔ R2)
 3 1 1   0 0 1 
1 2 3  0 1 0
 0 1 2   1 0 0  A (applying R3 → R3 – 3R1)
0 5 8  0 3 1 
1 0 1  2 1 0
 0 1 2    1 0 0  A (applying R1 → R1 – 2R2)
0 5 8  0 3 1 
1 0 1  2 1 0
 0 1 2    1 0 0  A (applying R3 → R3 + 5R2)
0 0 2   5 3 1 
 
1 0 1  2 1 0
  1
 0 1 2    1 0 0 A (applying R3 → R3)
2
0 0 1   5 3 1
 
2 2 2

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 1 1 1
1 0 0   2 2 2
 
 0 1 2    1 0 0  A (applying R1 → R1 + R3)
0 0 1   5 3 1
 
2 2 2
 1 1 1
1 0 0   2 2 2
   
 0 1 0    4 3 1 A (applying R2 → R2 – 2R3)
0 0 1   5 3 1 
 
2 2 2
 1 1 1 
2 2 2
1  
 A   4 3 1
 5 3 1 
 
2 2 2

 6 3
19. Using elementary transformations, find the inverse of   , if it exists.
 2 1 

Ans:
 6 3
Let A   
 2 1 
We know that A = IA
 6 3 1 0 
  A
 2 1   0 1 
 1   1 
1 0  1 
 
2  6  A  Using R1  R1 
     6 
 2 1   0 1
1 
 1   0
1 6
 2   A  Using R2  R2  2 R1 
  1
0 0   1
3 
Now, in the above equation, we can see all the elements are zero in the second row of the matrix on
the LHS. Therefore, A−1 does not exist.
Note Suppose A = IA, after applying the elementary transformation, if any row or column of a
matrix on LHS is zero, then A−1 does not exist.
20. Show that the matrix B′ AB is symmetric or skew-symmetric according as A is symmetric or
skew-symmetric.
Ans:
We suppose that A is a symmetric matrix, then A′ = A
Consider (B′ AB)′ ={B′ (AB)}′ = (AB)′ (B′ )′ [ (AB)′ = B ′ A′ ]
= B′ A′ (B) [ (B′ )′ = B]
= B′ (A′ B) = B′ (AB) [ A′ = A]
 (B′ AB)′ = B′ AB
which shows that B′ AB is a symmetric matrix.
Now, we suppose that A is a skew-symmetric matrix.
Then, A′ = − A
Consider (B′ AB)′ = [B′ (AB)]′ = (AB)′ (B′ )′ [ (AB)′ = B′ A′ and (A′ )′ = A]
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 53 -
= (B′ A′ )B = B′ (−A)B= − B′ AB [ A′ = − A]
 (B′ AB)′ = − B′ AB
which shows that B′ AB is a skew-symmetric matrix.

21. If A and B are symmetric matrices, prove that AB − BA is a skew-symmetric matrix.


Ans:
Here, A and Bare symmetric matrices, then A′ = A and B′ = B
Now, (AB − BA)′ = (AB)′ − (BA)′ ( (A − B)′ = A′ − B′ and (AB)′ = B′ A′ )
= B ′ A′ − A′ B ′ = BA − AB ( B′ = Band A′ = A)
= −(AB − BA)
 (AB − BA)′ = −(AB − BA)
Thus, (AB − BA) is a skew-symmetric matrix.

 2 3 3 
22. Using elementary transformations, find the inverse of  2 2 3 , if it exists.
 3 2 2
Ans:
 2 3 3 
Let A   2 2 3  . We know that A = IA
 3 2 2 
2 3 3   1 0 0 
  2 2 3    0 1 0  A
 3 2 2   0 0 1 
1 1 4  1 1 1
  2 2 3    0 1 0  A (Using R1 → R1 + R2 – R3)
 3 2 2   0 0 1 
1 1 4   1 1 1
 0 0 5    2 1 2  A (Using R2 → R2 − 2R1 and R3 → R3 − 3R1)
0 5 10   3 3 4 
1 1 4   1 1 1
 0 5 10    3 3 4  A (Using R2  R3)
0 0 5   2 1 2 
 
1 1 1 
1 1 4  
3 3 4  1 1
 0 1 2    A (Using R2 →  R2 and R3 →  R3 )
5 5 5 5 5
0 0 1  
2 1 2 
 
5 5 5
 3 1 3
 5 
1 1 0  5 5

1 1
 0 1 0   0 A (Using R2 → R2 – 2R3 and R1 → R1 – 4R3 )
5 5 
0 0 1   
2 1 2 
 5 5 5 

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 2 3
 0
1 0 0  5 5

1 1
 0 1 0   0 A (Using R1 → R1 – R2)
5 5 
0 0 1   
 2 1 2 
 5 5 5 
 2 3
5 0
5  2 0 3 
 
1 1 1
 A 
1
0    1 1 0 
5 5  5
   2 1 2 
 2 1 2 
 5 5 5 

 3 4  1  2n 4n 
23. If A    , then prove that An   , where n is any positive integer.
1 1  n 1  2n 
Ans:
We are required to prove that for all n  N
1  2n 4n 
P ( n)  
 n 1  2n 
1  2(1) 4(1)  3 4 
Let n = 1, then P(1)    ........(i )
 1 1  2(1)  1 1
which is true for n = 1.
Let the result be true for n = k.
1  2k 4k 
P ( k )  Ak   ........(ii )
 k 1  2k 
Let n = k + 1
1  2(k  1) 4(k  1)   2k  3 4k  4 
P(k  1)  Ak 1   
 k 1 1  2(k  1)   k  1 2k  1 
1  2k 4k  3 4 
Now, LHS  Ak 1  Ak A1  
 k 1  2k  1 1
 (1  2k ).3  (4k ).1 (1  2k ).(4)  (4k )(1) 

 k .3  (1  2k ).1 k .(4)  (1  2k )(1) 
3  2k 4  4k  1  2(k  1) 4(k  1) 
  
 k  1 1  2k   k  1 1  2(k  1) 
Therefore, the result is true for n = k + 1whenever it is true for n = k. So, by principle of
mathematical induction, it is true for all n  N.

1 2 0  0
24. For what values of x : 1 2 1  2 0 1   2   O ?
 1 0 2   x 
Ans:
1 2 0  0
1 2 1  2 0 1   2  O
 1 0 2   x 

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 040 
Since Matrix multiplication is associative, therefore 1 2 1  0  0  x   O
 0  0  2 x 
4
 1 2 1  x   O
 2 x 
  4  2 x  2 x  O   4  4 x  O
 4  4 x  0  4 x  4  x  1

 3 1
25. If A    , show that A2 – 5A + 7I = 0.
 1 2 
Ans:
 3 1
Given that A   
 1 2 
 3 1   3 1   8 5
A2  A. A     
 1 2   1 2   5 3
 8 5  3 1  1 0
 A2  5 A  7 I    5  7 
 5 3  1 2  0 1
 8 5 15 5   7 0 
   
 5 3  5 10   0 7 
 8  15  7 5  5  0  0 0 
  O
 5  5  0 3  10  7  0 0 
1 0 2   x 
26. Find x, if  x 5 1  0 2 1   4   O ?
 2 0 3   1 
Ans:
1 0 2   x 
Given that  x 5 1  0 2 1   4   O
 2 0 3   1 
 x02 
Since Matrix multiplication is associative, therefore  x 5 1  0  8  1   O
 2 x  0  3
 x2 
  x 5 1  9   O
 2 x  3
  x ( x  2)  (5).9  (1)(2 x  3)  O
  x 2  48  O  x 2  48  0  x 2  48
 x   48  4 3
1 2 3   7 8 3 
27. Find the matrix X so that X  
 4 5 6  2 4 6 
Ans:

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1 2 3   7 8 3 
Given that X  
 4 5 6  2 4 6 
The matrix given on the RHS of the equation is a 2 × 3matrix and the one given on the LHS of the
equation is as a 2 × 3 matrix. Therefore, X has to be a 2 × 2 matrix.
a c 
Now, let X   
b d 
 a  4c 2a  5c 3a  6c   7 8 3 
b  4d 2b  5d 3b  6d    2 4 6 
  
Equating the corresponding elements of the two matrices, we have
a + 4c = − 7, 2a + 5c = −8, 3a + 6c = −9
b + 4d = 2, 2b + 5d = 4, 3b + 6d = 6
Now, a + 4c = − 7  a = − 7 − 4c
2a + 5c = −8  −14 − 8c + 5c = −8
 −3c = 6  c = −2
 a = − 7 − 4(−2) = − 7 + 8 = 1
Now, b + 4d = 2  b = 2 − 4d and 2b + 5d = 4  4 − 8d + 5d = 4
 −3d = 0  d = 0
 b = 2 − 4(0) = 2
Thus, a = 1, b = 2, c = − 2, d = 0
 1 2 
Hence, the required matrix X is  
2 0 
 cos  sin    cos n sin n 
28. If A    , then prove that An   ,n N
  sin  cos     sin n cos n 
Ans:
We shall prove the result by using principle of mathematical induction.
 cos  sin    cos n sin n 
We have P(n) : If A    , then An   ,n N
  sin 
cos     sin n cos n 
 cos  sin  
Let n = 1, then P(1)  A1   
  sin  cos  
Therefore, the result is true for n = 1.
Let the result be true for n = k. So
 cos k sin k 
P ( k )  Ak  
  sin k cos k 
Now, we prove that the result holds for n = k +1
 cos(k  1) sin(k  1) 
i.e. P (k  1)  Ak 1   
  sin(k  1) cos(k  1) 
 cos k sin k   cos  sin  
Now, P (k  1)  Ak 1  Ak . A    
  sin k cos k    sin  cos  
 cos  cos k  sin  sin k cos  sin k  sin  cos k 
 
  sin  cos k  cos sin k  sin  sin k  cos  cos k 
 cos(k   ) sin(k   )   cos(k  1) sin(k  1) 
   
  sin(k   ) cos(k   )    sin(k  1) cos(k  1) 
Therefore, the result is true for n = k + 1. Thus by principle of mathematical induction, we have
 cos n sin n 
An   ,n N
  sin n cos n 

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 2 1 5 2  2 5
29. Let A    ,B    ,C    . Find a matrix D such that CD – AB = O.
3 4  7 4   3 8
Ans:
Since A, B, C are all square matrices of order 2, and CD – AB is well defined, D must be a square
matrix of order 2.
a b   2 5  a b   2 1  5 2 
Let D    , then CD  AB  0      O
c d   3 8  c d   3 4  7 4 
 2a  5c 2b  5d   3 0  0 0
   
 3a  8c 3b  8d   43 22  0 0
 2a  5c  3 2b  5d   0 0 
  
3a  8c  43 3b  8d  22   0 0 
By equality of matrices, we get
2a + 5c – 3 = 0 ... (1)
3a + 8c – 43 = 0 ... (2)
2b + 5d = 0 ... (3)
and 3b + 8d – 22 = 0 ... (4)
Solving (1) and (2), we get a = –191, c = 77. Solving (3) and (4), we get b = – 110, d = 44.
 a b   191 110
Therefore D   
 c d   77 44 

1 2 
30. By using elementary operations, find the inverse of the matrix A   
 2 1
Ans:
In order to use elementary row operations we may write A = IA.
 1 2  1 0 1 2   1 0 
 2 1  0 1  A, then  0 5   2 1  A (applying R2 → R2 – 2R1)
       
1 0
1 2   1
  2 1  A (applying R2 →  R2)
0 1   5
5 5
1 2
 1 0  5 5
  A (applying R1 → R1 – 2R2)
0 1   2 1 
 5 5 
1 2
5 5
Thus A–1 =  
2 1 
 5 5 

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CHAPTER – 3: MATRICES
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 03 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions & Answers)

1. Use elementary column operation C2 C2 – 2C1 in the matrix equation


 4 2  1 2   2 0 
 3 3   0 3  1 1 
    
Ans:
 4 2  1 2   2 0 
Given that    
 3 3  0 3  1 1 
Applying C2 C2 – 2C1, we get
 4 6  1 2   2 4
 3 3  0 3   1 1
    

 a  4 3b   2a  2 b  2 
2. If   write the value of a – 2b.
 8 6   8 a  8b 
Ans:
 a  4 3b   2a  2 b  2 
Give that  
 8 6   8 a  8b 
On equating, we get
a + 4 = 2a + 2, 3b = b + 2, a – 8b = – 6
 a = 2, b = 1
Now the value of a – 2b = 2 – (2  1) = 2 - 2 = 0

3. If A is a square matrix such that A2 = A, then write the value of 7A – (I + A)3 , where I is an
identity matrix.
Ans:
7A – (I + A)3 = 7A - {I3 + 3I2A + 3I.A2 + A3}
= 7A – {I + 3A + 3A + A2A} [ I3 = I2 = I , A2 = A]
= 7A – {I + 6A + A2} = 7A – {I + 6A + A}
= 7A – {I + 7A} = 7A – I – 7A = –I

 x  y z   1 4 
4. If    , find the value of x + y.
 2 x  y w  0 5 
Ans:
 x  y z   1 4 
Given that   
 2 x  y w  0 5 
Equating, we get
x - y = -1 … (i)
2x - y = 0 …(ii)
z = 4, w = 5
(ii) – (i)  2x – y – x + y = 0 + 1
 x = 1 and y = 2
 x + y = 2 + 1 = 3.

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 1 0
5. Solve the following matrix equation for x :  x 1  O
 2 0
Ans:
 1 0
Given that  x 1  O
 2 0
  x  2 0   0 0
x – 2 = 0
x = 2

3 4  1 y   7 0 
6. If 2     , find (x – y).
5 x  0 1  10 5 
Ans:
3 4  1 y   7 0 
Given that 2    
5 x  0 1  10 5 
 6 8  1 y   7 0 
   
10 2 x  0 1  10 5 
 7 8  y   7 0
  
10 2 x  1 10 5
Equating we get 8 + y = 0 and 2x + 1 = 5
 y = –8 and x = 2
 x – y = 2 + 8 = 10
 0 1 2 
7. For what value of x, is the matrix A   1 0 3  a skew-symmetric matrix?
 x 3 0 
Ans:
A will be skew symmetric matrix if
A = – A'
 0 1 2   0 1 x   0 1  x 
  1 0 3     1 0 3  1 0
  3 
 x 3 0   2 3 0   2 3 0 
Equating, we get x = 2

 1 1 2
8. If matrix A    and A = kA, then write the value of k.
 1 1 
Ans:
Given A2 = kA
 1 1  1 1  1 1
    k 
 1 1   1 1   1 1 
 2 2   1 1
  k 
 2 2   1 1 
 1 1  1 1
 2  k 
 1 1   1 1 
k = 2

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 a  b 2a  c   1 5 
9. Find the value of a if   
 2a  b 3c  d   0 13
Ans:
 a  b 2a  c   1 5 
Given that   
 2a  b 3c  d   0 13
Equating the corresponding elements we get.
a – b = – 1…(i)
2a + c = 5 …(ii)
2a – b = 0 …(iii)
3c + d =13 …(iv)
From (iii) 2a = b
b
a
2
b
Putting in (i) we get  b  1
2
b
   1  b  2
2
 a =1
(ii) c =5 - 2 1 =5 - 2 = 3
(iv) d =13 – 3  (3) =13 – 9 = 4
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, d = 4

 9 1 4  1 2 1
10. If    A  , then find the matrix A.
 2 1 3  0 4 9 
Ans:
 9 1 4  1 2 1
Given that    A 
 2 1 3  0 4 9 
 9 1 4  1 2 1
 A   
 2 1 3  0 4 9 
 8 3 5 
 A  
 2 3 6 

11. If A is a square matrix such that A2 = A, then write the value of (I + A)2 – 3A.
Ans:
(I + A)2 – 3A = I2 + A2 + 2A – 3A
= I2 + A2 - A
= I2 + A - A [  A2 = A]
= I2 = I . I = I
 2  1 10 
12. If x    y      , write the value of x.
 3 1  5
Ans:
 2  1 10 
Given that x    y     
 3 1  5
 2 x    y  10 
    
3x   y   5 
 2 x  y  10
  
 3x  y   5 

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Equating the corresponding elements we get.
2x – y = 10 ...(i)
3x + y = 5 ...(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii), we get 2x – y + 3x + y = 10 + 5
 5x = 15  x = 3.

x 5   3 4   7 6 
13. Find the value of x + y from the following equation: 2   
7 y  3 1 2  15 14 
Ans:
x 5   3 4   7 6 
Given that 2    
 7 y  3 1 2  15 14 
2 x 10  3 4  7 6 
   
14 2 y  6  1 2  15 14 
2 x  3 6  7 6
 
 15 2 y  4 15 14 
Equating the corresponding element we get
2x + 3 = 7 and 2y – 4 = 14
7 3 14  4
x and y 
2 2
 x = 2 and y = 9
 x + y = 2 + 9 = 11
 3 4
 1 2 1 
14. If AT   1 2  and B   T T
 , then find A – B .
 1 2 3
 0 1 
Ans:
 1 1 
 1 2 1 
Given that B     B   2 2 
T

 1 2 3  1 3 
 3 4   1 1   4 3 
Now, A  B   1 2    2 2    3 0 
T T

 0 1   1 3   1 2 

 2 3  1 3  4 6 
15. If     , write the value of x
 5 7   2 4   9 x 
Ans:
 2 3  1 3  4 6 
Given that    
 5 7   2 4   9 x 
 2  6 6  12   4 6 
  
5  14 15  28  9 x 
 4 6   4 6 
  
 9 13  9 x 
Equating the corresponding elements, we get
x = 13

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 cos  sin    sin   cos 
16. Simplify: cos     sin  
  sin  cos    cos  sin  
Ans:
 cos  sin    sin   cos 
cos     sin   
  sin  cos    cos  sin  
 cos 2  sin  cos    sin 2   sin  cos 
    
  sin  cos  cos 2   sin  cos sin 2  
cos 2   sin 2  0  1 0
 2 2 
 
 0 cos   sin    0 1 

 x  y  z  9 
17. Write the values of x – y + z from the following equation:  x  z    5 
 y  z   7 
Ans:
By definition of equality of matrices, we have
x + y + z = 9 ... (i)
x + z =5 .... (ii)
y + z =7 ... (iii)
(i) – (ii)  x + y + z – x – z = 9 – 5
 y = 4 ... (iv)
(ii) – (iv)  x – y + z = 5 – 4
 x – y + z =1

 y  2 x 5  7 5
18. If   , then find the value of y.
 x 3  2 3
Ans:
 y  2 x 5  7 5
Given that  
 x 3  2 3
By definition of equality of matrices, we have
y + 2x = 7
- x = -2  x = 2
 y + 2(2) = 7  y = 3

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CHAPTER – 4: DETERMINANTS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

x 2 6 2
1. If  , then find the value of x.
18 x 18 6
Ans:
x 2 6 2
Given that 
18 x 18 6
On expanding both determinants, we get
x × x − 18 × 2 = 6 × 6 − 18 × 2  x2 − 36 = 36 − 36
 x2 − 36 = 0  x2 = 36
x = ± 6

a ab abc
2. Prove that 2a 3a  2b 4a  3b  2c  a3
3a 6a  3b 10a  6b  3c
Ans:
Applying operations R2 → R2 – 2R1 and R3 → R3 – 3R1 to the given determinant Δ, we have
a ab abc
 0 a 2a  b
0 3a 7a  3b
Now applying R3 → R3 – 3R2 , we get
a ab abc
 0 a 2a  b
0 0 a
Expanding along C1, we obtain
a 2a  b
a  0  0  a (a 2  0)  a(a 2 )  a 3
0 a
bc a a
3. Prove that b ca b  4abc
c c ab
Ans:
bc a a
Let   b ca b
c c a b
Applying R1 → R1 – R2 – R3 to Δ, we get
0 2c 2b
 b ca b
c c a b
Expanding along R1, we obtain
ca b b b b ca
0  (2c )  (2b)
c ab c ab c c
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= 2 c (a b + b2 – bc) – 2 b (b c – c2 – ac)
= 2 abc + 2 cb2 – 2 bc2 – 2 b2c + 2 bc2 + 2abc
= 4 abc

x x2 1  x3
4. If x, y, z are different and   y y 2 1  y 3  0 then show that 1 + xyz = 0
z z2 1  z3
Ans:
x x 2 1  x3
We have   y y2 1  y3
z z2 1 z3
Now, we know that If some or all elements of a row or column of a determinant are expressed as
sum of two (or more) terms, then the determinant can be expressed as sum of two (or more)
determinants.
x x 2 1 x x 2 x3
  y y 2 1  y y 2 y 3
z z 2 1 z z 2 z3
1 x x2 1 x x2
 (1)2 1 y y 2  xyz 1 y y2 (Using C3↔C2 and then C1 ↔ C2)
1 z z2 1 z z2
1 x x2
 (1  xyz ) 1 y y2
1 z z2
1 x x2
 (1  xyz ) 0 yx y 2  x2 (Using R2→R2–R1 and R3 → R3–R1)
2 2
0 zx z x
Taking out common factor (y – x) from R2 and (z – x) from R3, we get
1 x x2
  (1  xyz )( y  x)( z  x) 0 1 y  x
0 1 zx
= (1 + xyz) (y – x) (z – x) (z – y) (on expanding along C1)
Since Δ = 0 and x, y, z are all different, i.e., x – y ≠ 0, y – z ≠ 0, z – x ≠ 0, we get
1 + xyz = 0
1 a 1 1
 1 1 1
5. Show that 1 1  b 1  abc  1      abc  bc  ca  ab
 a b c
1 1 1 c
Ans:
1 a 1 1
LHS  1 1  b 1
1 1 1 c
Taking out factors a,b,c common from R1, R2 and R3, we get

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1 1 1
1
a a a
1 1 1
  abc 1
b b b
1 1 1
1
c c c
Applying R1→ R1 + R2 + R3, we have
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1   1   1  
a b c a b c a b c
1 1 1
  abc 1
b b b
1 1 1
1
c c c

Now applying C2 → C2 – C1, C3 → C3 – C1, we get

1 0 0
 1 1 1 1
  abc  1     1 0
 a b c b
1
0 1
c
 1 1 1
   abc 1     1(1  0)
 a b c
 1 1 1
 abc 1      abc  bc  ca  ab = RHS
 a b c
6. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
bc qr y  z a p x
ca r p z x  2 b q y
ab pq x  y c r z
Ans:
bc qr y z
LHS  c  a r  p zx
a b pq x y
bc ca ab
 qr r p pq (interchange row and column)
yz zx x y
bc ca 2c
 q  r r  p 2r [usingC3 → C3 − (C1 + C2)]
y  z z  x 2 z
bc ca c
 (2) q  r r  p r (taking ‘–2’ common from C3)
yz zx z

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b a c
 (2) q p r (using C1 → C1 – C3 and C2 → C2 − C3)
y x z
a b c
2 p q r (using
x y z
C1 ↔ C2)
a p x
 2 b q y  RHS (interchange row and column)
c r z
7. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
 a 2 ab ac
ba b 2 bc  4a 2b 2c 2
ca cb c 2
Ans:
a 2 ab ac a b c
2
LHS  ba b bc  abc a b c [taking out factors a from R1, b from R2 and c from
ca cb c 2 a b c
R3]
1 1 1
 (abc)(abc) 1 1 1 (taking out factors a from C1, b from C2 and c from C3)
1 1 1
0 0 2
2 2 2
 a b c 0 2 2 (using R1 → R1 + R2 and R2 → R2 − R3)
1 1 1
Expanding corresponding to first row R1, we get
0 2
 a 2b 2 c 2  2
1 1
 a 2b 2c 2  2(0  2)  4a 2b 2 c 2  RHS
8. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
1 a a2
1 b b 2  (a  b)(b  c)(c  a )
1 c c2
Ans:
1 a a2
LHS  1 b b 2
1 c c2
Applying R1  R1  R3 and R2  R2  R3 , we get
0 a  c a2  c2 0 a  c (a  c )(a  c )
2 2
 0 bc b c  0 bc (b  c )(b  c)
2
1 c c 1 c c2

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Taking common factors (a − c) and (b − c) from R1 and R2 respectively, we get
0 1 (a  c)
 (a  c )(b  c ) 0 1 (b  c )
1 c c2
Now, expanding corresponding to C1, we get
= (a − c) (b − c) (b + c − a − c) = (a − b) (b − c) (c − a) = RHS

9. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that


1 1 1
a b c  (a  b)(b  c )(c  a )(a  b  c )
a 3 b3 c3
Ans:
1 1 1
LHS  a b c
a3 b3 c3
Applying C1  C1  C2 and C2  C2  C3 , we get
0 0 1
 a b bc c
a 3  b3 b3  c3 c3
0 0 1
 ab bc c
(a  b)(a  ab  b ) (b  c)(b  bc  c ) c3
2 2 2 2

Taking common (a − b) from C1 and (b − c) from C2, we get


0 0 1
 (a  b)(b  c ) ab bc c
(a  ab  b ) (b  bc  c ) c3
22 2 2

Now, expanding along R1, we get


= (a − b) (b − c) [1 × (b2 + bc + c2) − 1 × (a2 + ab + b2 )]
= (a − b) (b − c) [b2 + bc + c2 − a2 − ab − b2 ]
= (a − b) (b − c) (bc − ab + c2 − a2 )
= (a − b) (b − c) [b(c − a) + (c − a) (c + a)]
= (a − b) (b − c) (c − a) (a + b + c)= RHS.

10. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
x x 2 yz
y y 2 zx  ( x  y )( y  z )( z  x)( xy  yz  zx)
z z 2 xy
Ans:
x x2 yz
2
LHS  y y zx
2
z z xy
Applying R1  xR1 , R2  yR2 and R3  zR3 , we have

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x2 x3 xyz
1 2 3
 y y xyz
xyz 2 3
z z xyz
x2 x3 1
xyz 2
 y y3 1 (take out xyz common from C3)
xyz 2 3
z z 1
x2 x3 1
2 2 3 3
 y x y x 0 (using R2  R2  R1 and R3  R3  R1 )
2 2 3 3
z x z x 0
Expanding corresponding to C3, we get
y 2  x 2 y 3  x3
1 2
z  x 2 z 3  x3
  ( y 2  x 2 )( z 3  x 3 )  ( z 2  x 2 )( y 3  x3 ) 
= (y + x) (y − x) (z − x) (z2 + x2 + xz) − (z + x) (z − x) (y − x) (y2 + x2 + xy)
= (y − x) (z − x) [(y + x) (z2 + x2 + xz) − (z + x) (y2 + x2 + xy)]
= (y − x)(z − x)[yz2 + yx2 + xyz + xz2 + x3 + x2z − zy2 − zx2 − xyz − xy2 − x3 − x2y]
= (y − x)(z − x)[yz2 − zy2 + xz2 − xy2 ]
= (y − x)(z − x)[yz(z − y) + x(z2 − y2 )]
= (y − x)(z − x)[yz(z − y) + x(z − y)(z + y)]
= (y − x) (z − x) [(z − y) (xy + yz + zx)]
= (x − y) (y − z) (z − x) (xy + yz + zx) = RHS.

11. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
x  4 2x 2x
2x x  4 2 x  (5 x  4)(4  x )2
2x 2x x  4
Ans:
x4 2x 2x
LHS  2 x x  4 2x
2x 2x x  4
5x  4 2x 2x
 5x  4 x  4 2 x (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )
5x  4 2 x x  4
1 2x 2x
 (5 x  4) 1 x  4 2 x [take out (5x + 4) common from C1].
1 2x x  4
1 2x 2x
 (5 x  4) 0  x  4 0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)
0 0 x  4
Expanding along C1, we get
= (5x + 4) {1(4 − x) (4 − x)}
 (5 x  4)(4  x) 2 = RHS.

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12. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
yk y y
y yk y  k 2 (3 y  k )
y y yk
Ans:
yk y y
LHS  y yk y
y y yk
3y  k y y
 3y  k yk y (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )
3y  k y yk
1 y y
 (3 y  k ) 1 y  k y [take out (5x + 4) common from C1].
1 y yk
1 y y
 (3 y  k ) 0 k 0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)
0 0 k
Expanding along C3, we get
 (3 y  k ) 1(k 2  0) 
 k 2 (3 y  k ) = RHS

13. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
a b c 2a 2a
2b bca 2b  (a  b  c)3
2c 2c c  a b
Ans:
a b c 2a 2a
LHS  2b bca 2b
2c 2c cab
abc a bc abc
 2b bca 2b (Using R1  R1  R2  R3 )
2c 2c c  a b
Take out (a + b + c) common from R1, we get
1 1 1
 (a  b  c) 2b b  c  a 2b
2c 2c c  a b
1 0 0
 (a  b  c) 2b b  c  a 0 (Using C 2  C 2  C1 and C3  C3  C1 )
2c 0 c  a b
Expanding along R1, we get
= (a + b + c) {1(− b − c − a) (− c − a − b)}
= (a + b + c) [− (b + c + a) × ( −) (c + a + b)]

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 (a  b  c )(a  b  c )(a  b  c )  (a  b  c )3 = RHS
14. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
x  y  2z x y
z y  z  2x y  2( x  y  z )3
z x z  x  2y
Ans:
x  y  2z x y
LHS  z y  z  2x y
z x z  x  2y
2( x  y  z ) x y
 2( x  y  z ) y  z  2x y (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )
2( x  y  z ) x z  x  2y
1 x y
 2( x  y  z ) 1 y  z  2 x y [take out 2(x + y + z) common from C1].
1 x z  x  2y
1 x y
 2( x  y  z ) 0 yzx 0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)
0 0 z x y
1 x y
 2( x  y  z )( x  y  z )( x  y  z ) 0 1 0
0 0 1
Expanding along R3, we get
 2( x  y  z )( x  y  z )( x  y  z ) 1(1  0) 
 2( x  y  z )( x  y  z )( x  y  z )  2( x  y  z ) 3 =RHS
1 x x2
2
15. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that x 2 1 
x  1  x3 
x x2 1
Ans:
1 x x2
LHS  x 2 1 x
2
x x 1
1  x  x2 x x2
 1  x  x2 1 x (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )
2 2
1 x  x x 1
1 x x2
 (1  x  x 2 ) 1 1 x [take out (1  x  x 2 ) common from C1].
1 x2 1
1 x x2
 (1  x  x 2 ) 0 1 x x  x2 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)
0 x 2  x 1  x2

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1 x x2
 (1  x  x 2 ) 0 1 x x (1  x )
0 x ( x  1) 1  x2
Take out (1 − x) common from R2 and same from R3, we get
1 x x2
 (1  x  x 2 )(1  x)(1  x ) 0 1 x
0 x 1 x
Expanding along C1, we get
1 x
 (1  x  x 2 )(1  x )(1  x)
x 1 x
 (1  x  x 2 )(1  x )(1  x)(1  x  x 2 )
2
   
 1  x 3 1  x3  1  x 3 = RHS 
16. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
1  a 2  b2 2ab 2b
2 2
2ab 1 a  b 2a  (1  a 2  b 2 )3
2b 2a 1  a 2  b2
Ans:
1  a 2  b2 2ab 2b
2 2
LHS  2ab 1 a  b 2a
2b 2 a 1  a 2  b2
1  a2  b2 0 2b
2 2
 0 1 a  b 2a (Using C1  C1  bC3 and C2  C2  aC3 )
2 2 2 2 2 2
b(1  a  b )  a (1  a  b ) 1  a  b
1 0 2b
 (1  a 2  b 2 )2 0 1 2a
b a 1  a 2  b 2
1 0 2b
2 2 2
 (1  a  b ) 0 1 2a ( R3  R3  bR1  aR2 )
0 0 1  a 2  b2
Expanding along R1, we get
 (1  a 2  b 2 )2 1(1  a 2  b 2 ) 
 (1  a 2  b 2 )3  RHS

17. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that
a 2  1 ab ac
ab b  1 bc  1  a 2  b 2  c 2
2

ca cb c2 1
Ans:
a2 1 ab ac
2
LHS  ab b 1 bc
ca cb c2 1

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Taking out common factors a, b and c from R1, R2 and R3 respectively, we get
1
a b c
a
1
 a b c
b
1
a b c
c
1
a b c
a
1 1
  0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)
a b
1 1
 0
a c

Multiply and divide C1 by a, C2 by b and C3 by c and then take common out from C1, C2 and C3
respectively, we get
a 2  1 b2 c 2 a 2  1 b2 c2
1
 abc  1 1 0  1 1 0
abc
1 0 1 1 0 1
Expanding along R3, we get
 1 ( c 2 )  1 1( a 2  1)  1(b 2 ) 
 1  a 2  b 2  c 2  RHS

18. Find values of k if area of triangle is 4 sq. units and vertices are
(i) (k, 0), (4, 0), (0, 2) (ii) (–2, 0), (0, 4), (0, k)
Ans:
k 0 1
1
(i) We have Area of triangle = 4 0 1  4
2
0 2 1
 | k(0 − 2) + 1(8 − 0)| = 8
 k(0 − 2) + 1(8 − 0) = ± 8
On taking positive sign − 2k + 8 = 8
 − 2k = 0
k = 0
On taking negative sign −2k + 8 = − 8
 − 2k = − 16
k = 8
 k =0, 8
2 0 1
1
(ii) We have Area of triangle = 0 4 1 4
2
0 k 1
 | − 2(4 − k) + 1(0 − 0)| = 8
 − 2(4 − k) + 1(0 − 0) = ± 8
 [− 8 + 2k] = ± 8
On taking positive sign, 2k − 8 = 8  2k = 16  k = 8
On taking negative sign, 2k − 8 = − 8  2k = 0  k = 0
 k =0, 8

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19. If area of triangle is 35 sq units with vertices (2, – 6), (5, 4) and (k, 4). Then find the value of k.
Ans:
2 6 1
1
We have Area of triangle = 5 4 1  35
2
k 4 1
 |2 (4 − 4) + 6(5 − k) + 1(20 − 4k)| = 70
 2 (4 − 4) + 6 (5 − k) + 1(20 − 4k) = ± 70
 30 − 6k + 20 − 4k = ± 70
On taking positive sign, − 10k + 50 = 70
 − 10k = 20  k = − 2
On taking negative sign, − 10k + 50 = − 70
 − 10k = − 120  k = 12
 k = 12, − 2
5 3 8
20. Using Cofactors of elements of second row, evaluate   2 0 1
1 2 3
Ans:
5 3 8
Given that   2 0 1
1 2 3
Cofactors of the elements of second row
3 8
A21  (1) 21   (9  16)  7
2 3
5 8
A22  (1) 2 2  (15  8)  7
1 3
5 3
and A23  (1)23  (10  3)  7
1 2
Now, expansion of Δ using cofactors of elements of second row is given by
  a21 A21  a22 A22  a23 A23
= 2 × 7 + 0 × 7 + 1(− 7) = 14 − 7 = 7

 3 1
21. If A =   , show that A2 – 5A + 7I = O. Hence find A–1.
 1 2 
Ans:
 3 1
Given that A =  
 1 2 
Now, A2 – 5A + 7I = O
 3 1   3 1   9  2 3  2   8 5
A2  A. A      
 1 2   1 2   3  2 1  4  5 3
 8 5  3 1  1 0
  5  7 
 5 3  1 2  0 1
 8 5 15 5   7 0 
   
 5 3  5 10   0 7 
 8  15  7 5  5  0  0 0 
  O
 5  5  0 3  10  3 0 0 
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 A2 – 5A + 7I = O
3 1
| A |  6 1  7  0 
1 2
 A−1 exists.
Now, A.A − 5A = − 7I
Multiplying by A−1 on both sides, we get
A.A (A−1) – 5A(A−1) = − 7I(A−1)
 AI − 5I = –7A−1 (using AA−1 = I and IA−1 = A−1)
1 1 1  5 0   3 1  
A 1   ( A  5 I )   5 I  A      
7 7 7  0 5   1 2  
1  2 1

7 1 3 
1  2 1
 A1  
7  1 3 
3 1 
22. For the matrix A =   , find the numbers a and b such that A2 + aA + bI = O.
1 2
Ans:
3 1 
Given that A =  
1 2
3 2  3 2  9  2 6  2  11 8
A2  A. A      
1 1  1 1   3  1 2  1   4 3
Now, A2  aA  bI  O
11 8 3 2  1 0
  a  b  O
 4 3 1 1  0 1
11 8 3a 2a  b 0 
    O
 4 3  a a   0 b 
11  3a  b 8  2a  0 0 
 
 4 a 3  a  b  0 0 
If two matrices are equal, then their corresponding elements are equal.
 11 + 3a + b = 0 …(i)
8 + 2a = 0 …(ii)
4 + a = 0 …(iii)
and 3 + a + b = 0 …(iv)
Solving Eqs. (iii) and (iv), we get 4 + a = 0
 a=−4
and 3 + a + b = 0
3 − 4 + b = 0  b = 1
Thus, a = − 4 and b = 1

1 1 1 
23. For the matrix A =  1 2 3 , Show that A3– 6A2 + 5A + 11 I = O. Hence, find A–1.
 2 1 3 
Ans:

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1 1 1
Given that A = 1 2 3

 2
1 3 
1 1 1   1 1 1  1  1  2 1  2  1 1  3  3   4 2 1 
2 
A  A. A   1 23  1 2 3  1  2  6 1  4  3 1  6  9    3 8 14 
     
 2 1 3   2 1 3   2  1  6 2  2  3 2  3  9   7 3 14 
4 2 1  1 1 1   4  2  2 4  4 1 463 
and A  A . A   3 8 14 1 2 3   3  8  28 3  16  14 3  24  42 
3 2     
 7 3 14   2 1 3   7  3  28 7  6  14 7  9  42 
 8 7 1 
  23 27 69

 32 13 58 
 A3  6 A2  5 A  11I
 8 7 1  4 2 1  1 1 1  1 0 0
  23 27 69   6  3 8 14   5 1 2 3  11 0
      1 0 
 32 13 58   7 3 14   2 1 3  0 0 1 
 8 7 1   24 12 6  5 5 5  11 0 0
  23 27 69    18 48 84   5 10 15    0
     11 0 
 32 13 58   42 18 84  10 5 15   0 0 11
 8  24  5  11 7  12  5  0 1 6  5  0 
  23  18  5  0 27  48  10  11 69  84  15  0 

32  42  10  0 13  18  5  0 58  84  15  11 
0 0 0
  0 0 0   O
 0 0 0 
1 1 1
| A | 1 2 3  1(6  3)  1(3  6)  1(1  4)  3  9  5  11  0
2 1 3
 A1 exist
Now, A3  6 A2  5 A  11I  O
 AA( AA1 )  6 A( AA1 )  5( AA1 )  11( IA1 )  O
 AAI  6 AI  5 I  11A1  O
 A2  6 A  5 I  11A1
1
 A 1   ( A 2  6 A  5 I )
11
1
 A 1  (  A 2  6 A  5 I )
11
  4 2 1  1 1 1  1 0 0  
1  
 A    3 8 14   6 1 2 3  5 0 1 0  
1   
11 
  7 3 14   2 1 3  0 0 1  

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  4 2 1   6 6 6  5 0 0  
1  
 A    3 8 14    6
1
12 18   0 5 0 
11 
  7 3 14  12 6 18  0 0 5 
 4  6  5 2  6  0 1  6  0 
1 
1
 A   3  6  0 8  12  5 14  18  0 
11
 7  12  0 3  6  0 14  18  5
 3 4 5 
1 
 A   9 1 4 
1

11
 5 3 1
24. Solve system of linear equations, using matrix method,
2x + y + z = 1
3
x – 2y – z =
2
3y – 5z = 9
Ans:
The given system can be written as AX = B, where
2 1 1  x 1 
A   2 4 2  , X   y  and B   3
   
 0 3 5   z  9 
2 1 1
| A | 2 4 2  2(20  6)  1( 10  0)  1(6  0)
0 3 5
= 52 + 10 + 6 = 68 ≠ 0
Thus, A is non-singular, Therefore, its inverse exists.
Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B.
Cofactors of A are
A11 = 20 + 6 = 26,
A12 = − (− 10 + 0) = 10,
A13 = 6 + 0 = 6
A21 = − (− 5 − 3) = 8,
A22 = − 10 − 0 = − 10,
A23 = − (6 − 0) = − 6
A31 = (− 2 + 4) = 2,
A32 = − (− 4 − 2) = 6,
A33 = − 8 − 2 = − 10
T
 26 10 6   26 8 2 
adj ( A)   8 10 6   10 10 6 
  
 2 6 10  6 6 10 
 26 8 2 
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)  10 10 6 
| A| 68 
 6 6 10 
x  26 8 2  1 
  1 
1
Now, X  A B   y   10 10 6   3
68 
 z   6 6 10  9 

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 
1
x  26  24  18  68   
1    1  34    1 
  y   10  30  54
68   68   2
 z   6  18  90   102   
3
 
2
1 3
Hence, x  1, y  and z 
2 2

25. Solve system of linear equations, using matrix method,


x–y+z=4
2x + y – 3z = 0
x+y+z=2
Ans:
The given system can be written as AX = B, where
 1 1 1  x 4
A   2 1 3 , X   y  and B   0 
   

 1 1 1   z   2 
1 1 1
Here,| A | 2 1 3 = 1(1 + 3) − (− 1) (2 + 3) + 1(2 − 1) = 4 + 5 + 1 = 10 ≠ 0
1 1 1
Thus, A is non-singular, Therefore, its inverse exists.
Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B.
Cofactors of A are
A11 = 1 + 3 = 4,
A12 = − (2 + 3) = − 5,
A13 = 2 − 1 = 1,
A21 = − (− 1 − 1) = 2,
A22 = 1 − 1 = 0,
A23 = − (1 + 1) = − 2,
A31 = 3 − 1 = 2,
A32 = − (− 3 − 2) = 5,
A33 = 1 + 2 = 3
T
4 5 1  4 2 2
adj ( A)   2 0 2    5
  0 5 
 2 5 3   1 2 3
4 2 2
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)   5 0 5 
| A| 10
 1 2 3 
x  4 2 2  4 
1 
Now, X  A B   y    5 0 5   0 
1  
10
 z   1 2 3  2 
x  16  0  4   20   2 
1  1 
  y    20  0  10   10    1
  
10 10
 z   4  0  6   10   1 
Hence, x = 2, y = − 1 and z = 1.

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26. Solve system of linear equations, using matrix method,
2x + 3y +3 z = 5
x – 2y + z = – 4
3x – y – 2z = 3
Ans:
The given system can be written as AX = B, where
2 3 3  x 5
A   1 2 1  , X   y  and B   4 
 3 1 2   z   3 
2 3 3
Here,| A | 1 2 1 = 2(4 + 1) − 3 (− 2 − 3) + 3 (− 1 + 6)
3 1 2
= 10 + 15 + 15 = 40 ≠ 0
Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists. Therefore, the given system is consistent
and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B
Cofactors of A are
A11 = 4 + 1 = 5,
A12 = − (− 2 − 3) = 5,
A13 = (− 1 + 6) = 5,
A21 = − (− 6 + 3) = 3,
A22 = (− 4 − 9) = − 13,
A23 = − (− 2 − 9) = 11,
A31 = 3 + 6 = 9,
A32 = − (2 − 3) = 1,
A33 = − 4 − 3 = − 7
T
5 5 5 5 3 9
adj ( A)   3 13 11   5 13 1 
  
9 1 7  5 11 7 
5 3 9
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)  5 13 1 
| A| 40 
5 11 7 
x 5 3 9  5 
  1 
1
Now, X  A B   y   5 13 1   4 
40 
 z  5 11 7   3 
x  25  12  27   40   1 
  1   1 
  y   25  52  3    80    2 
40 40
 z   25  44  21  40  1
Hence, x = 1, y = 2 and z = − 1.

27. Solve system of linear equations, using matrix method,


x – y + 2z = 7
3x + 4y – 5z = – 5
2x – y + 3z = 12
Ans:
The given system can be written as AX = B, where

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 1 1 2   x 7
A   3 4 5 , X   y  and B   5
   
 2 1 3   z  12 
1 1 2
Here,| A | 3 4 5 = 1(12 − 5) − (− 1) (9 + 10) + 2 (− 3 − 8)
2 1 3
= 7 + 19 − 22 = 4 ≠ 0
Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists.
Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B
Cofactors of A are
A11 = 12 − 5 = 7,
A12 = − (9 + 10) = − 19,
A13 = − 3 − 8 = − 11,
A21 = − (− 3 + 2) = 1,
A22 = 3 − 4 = − 1,
A23 = − (− 1 + 2) = − 1,
A31 = 5 − 8 = − 3,
A32 = − (− 5 − 6) = 11,
A33 = 4 + 3 = 7
T
 7 19 11  7 1 3
adj ( A)   1 1 1    19 1 11 
  
 3 11 7   11 1 7 
 7 13
1 1
A 1
(adjA)   19 1 11 
| A| 4
 11 1 7 
x  7 1 3  5 
  1
1
Now, X  A B   y    19 1 11   4 
4
 z   111 7   3 
x  49  5  36   8  2
  1  1   
  y    133  5  132    4   1 
4 4
 z   77  5  84  12   3 
Hence, x = 2, y = 1 and z = 3.
 2 3 5 
28. If A =  3 2 4  find A–1. Using A–1,Solve system of linear equations:
 1 1 2 
2x – 3y + 5z = 11
3x + 2y – 4z = – 5
x + y – 2z = – 3
Ans:
The given system can be written as AX = B, where
 2 3 5   x  11 
A   3 2 4  , X   y  and B   5
   
 1 1 2   z   3

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2 3 5
Here,| A | 3 2 4 = 2 (− 4 + 4) − (− 3) (−6 + 4) + 5 (3 − 2)
1 1 2
=0−6+5=−1≠0
Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists.
Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B
Cofactors of A are
A11 = − 4 + 4 = 0,
A12 = − (− 6 + 4) = 2,
A13 = 3 − 2 = 1,
A21 = − (6 − 5) = −1,
A22 = − 4 − 5 = − 9,
A23 = − (2 + 3) = − 5,
A31 = (12 − 10) = 2,
A32 = − (− 8 − 15) = 23,
A33 = 4 + 9 = 13
T
0 2 1 0 1 2 
adj ( A)   1 9 5   2
  9 23
 2 23 13   1 5 13 
 0 1 2   0 1 2 
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)  2 9 23   2 9 23
| A| 1 
 1 5 13   1 5 13
 x   0 1 2   11 
Now, X  A B   y    2 9 23  5
1

 z   1 5 13  3
 x   0  5  6  1 
  y    22  45  69    2 
 z   11  25  39   3 
Hence, x = 1, y = 2 and z = 3.

29. The cost of 4 kg onion, 3 kg wheat and 2 kg rice is Rs 60. The cost of 2 kg onion, 4 kg wheat
and 6 kg rice is Rs 90. The cost of 6 kg onion 2 kg wheat and 3 kg rice is Rs 70. Find cost of
each item per kg by matrix method.
Ans:
Let the prices (per kg) of onion, wheat and rice be Rs. x, Rs. y and Rs. z, respectively then
4x + 3y + 2z = 60, 2x + 4y + 6z = 90, 6x + 2y + 3z = 70
This system of equations can be written as AX = B, where
4 3 2  x 60 
A   2 4 6  , X   y  and B  90 
   
 6 2 3   z  70 
4 3 2
Here,| A | 2 4 6 = 4(12 − 12) − 3(6 − 36) + 2(4 − 24)
6 2 3
= 0 + 90 − 40 = 50 ≠ 0
Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists. Therefore, the given system is consistent and
has a unique solution given by X = A−1B
Cofactors of A are,
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A11 = 12 − 12 = 0,
A12 = − (6 − 36) = 30,
A13 = 4 − 24 = − 20,
A21 = − (9 − 4) = − 5,
A22 = 12 − 12 = 0,
A23 = − (8 − 18) = 10,
A31 = (18 − 8) = 10,
A32 = − (24 − 4) = − 20,
A33 = 16 − 6 = 10
T
 0 30 20   0 5 10 

adj ( A)   5 0 10    30
 0 20 
10 20 10   20 10 10 
 0 5 10 
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)  30 0 20
| A| 50 
 20 10 10 
x  0 5 10   60 
  1 
1
Now, X  A B   y    30 0 20   90 
50
 z   20 10 10   70 
x  0  450  700   250  5
  1   1 
  y   1800  0  1400    400   8 
50 50
 z   1200  900  700   400  8 
x = 5, y = 8 and z = 8.
Hence, price of onion per kg is Rs. 5, price of wheat per kg is Rs. 8 and that of rice per kg is Rs. 8.

a a2 bc 1 a2 a3
30. Without expanding the determinant, prove that b b 2 ca  1 b 2 b3
c c2 ab 1 c2 c3
Ans:
a a2 bc
2
LHS  b b ca
c c2 ab
Applying R1  aR1 , R2  bR2 and R3  cR3 , we get
a2 a3 abc
1 2 3
 b b abc
abc 2
c c3 abc
a2 a3 1
abc 2
 b b3 1 [Taking out factor abc from C3]
abc 2
c c3 1
1 a2 a3
 (1) 2 1 b 2 b3 (using C1 ↔ C3 and C2 ↔ C3 )
1 c2 c3

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1 a2 a3
 1 b2 b 3  RHS
1 c2 c3
bc ca ab
31. If a, b and c are real numbers, and   c  a a  b b  c  0 . Show that either a + b + c = 0 or
ab bc ca
a = b = c.
Ans:
bc ca a b
  ca ab bc
ab bc ca
2(a  b  c) c  a a  b
 2(a  b  c) a  b b  c (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )
2(a  b  c) b  c c  a
1 ca a b
 2(a  b  c) 1 a  b b  c [take out 2(a  b  c) common from C1].
1 bc ca
1 ca ab
 2(a  b  c) 0 b  c c  a (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)
0 b a c b
Expanding along C1, we get
bc ca
 2(a  b  c)
ba cb
 2(a  b  c)  (b  c)(c  b)  (c  a )(b  a ) 
 2(a  b  c) bc  b 2  c 2  bc  (bc  ac  ab  a 2 ) 
 2(a  b  c) bc  b 2  c 2  bc  bc  ac  ab  a 2 
 2(a  b  c)  ab  bc  ac  a 2  b 2  c 2 
It is given that Δ= 0,
2(a  b  c)  ab  bc  ac  a 2  b 2  c 2   0
 Either a  b  c  0 or ab  bc  ac  a 2  b 2  c 2  0
 ab  bc  ac  a 2  b 2  c 2  0
 2ab  2bc  2ac  2a 2  2b 2  2c 2  0
 2a 2  2b 2  2c 2  2ab  2bc  2ac  0
 a 2  b 2  2ab  b 2  c 2  2bc  c 2  a 2  2ac  0
 (a  b)2  (b  c) 2  (c  a )2  0
 (a  b)2  (b  c)2  (c  a )2  0 [since square of any real number is never negative]
 (a  b)  (b  c )  (c  a )  0
 a  b, b  c, c  a
abc

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a2 bc ac  c 2
32. Prove that a 2  ab b2 ac  4a 2b 2c 2
ab b 2 bc c2
Ans:
a2 bc ac  c 2
LHS  a 2  ab b2 ac
ab b 2 bc c2
Taking out a from C1, b from C2 and c from C3, we get
a b ac
 abc a  b b a
b bc c
0 c ac
 abc 2b b a [Using C1  C1+ C2 – C3]
2b b  c c
0 c ac
 abc 0 c ac [Using R2  R2 – R3]
2b b  c c
Expanding along C1,we get
= (abc) [ (2 b) { c(a − c) + c (a + c) } ]
= 2 (ab2c) (2ac) = 4 a2b2c2 = RHS.

 2  
33. Using properties of determinants, prove that   2     (   )(   )(   )(     )
 2 
Ans:
 2  
LHS    2   
 2  
 2    
   2     (using C3 → C3 + C1)
  2    
 2 1
 (     )   2 1 (Taking out (α + β + γ) common from C1)
 2 1
 2 1
2 2
 (     )       0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)
2 2
    0
Expanding along C3, we get
= (α + β + γ) [(β − α)(γ2 −α2 ) −(γ −α)(β2 − α2 )]
= (α + β + γ) [(β − α)(γ −α)(γ + α) −(γ − α)(β − α)(β + α)]
= (α + β + γ) (β − α)(γ −α)[γ + α −β − α]
= (α + β + γ) (β − α)(γ −α)(γ −β)
= (α + β + γ) (α − β)(β − γ)(γ −α) = RHS
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3a a  b a  c
34. Using properties of determinants, prove that b  a 3b b  c  3(a  b  c)(ab  bc  ca)
c  a c  b 3c
Ans:
3a a  b a  c
LHS  b  a 3b b  c
c  a c  b 3c
a  b  c a  b a  c
 abc 3b b  c (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3)
a  b  c c  b 3c
1 a  b a  c
 ( a  b  c) 1 3b b  c (Taking out (a + b + c) common from C1)
1 c  b 3c
Now applying R2 → R2 – R1, R3 → R3 – R1, we get
1 a  b a  c
 (a  b  c ) 0 2b  a a  b
0 ac 2c  a
Expanding along C1, we get
= (a + b + c)[(2b + a) (2c + a) − (a − b) (a − c)]
= (a + b + c)[4bc + 2ab + 2ac + a − a + ac + ba − bc] 2 2
= (a + b + c) (3ab + 3bc + 3ac) = 3(a + b + c)(ab + bc + ca) = RHS

35. Solve the system of equations:


2 3 10
  4
x y z
4 6 5
  1
x y z
6 9 20
  2
x y z
Ans:
1 1 1
Let  p,  q and  r , then the given equations become
x y z
2p + 3q + 10r = 4, 4p − 6q + 5r = 1, 6p + 9q − 20r = 2
This system can be written as AX = B, where
 2 3 10   p 4
A   4 6 5  , X   q  and B  1 
   
 6 9 20   r   2 
2 3 10
Here,| A | 4 6 5  2(120  45)  3( 80  30)  10(36  36)
6 9 20
= 150 + 330 + 720 = 1200 ≠ 0
Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists.
Therefore, the above system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B
Cofactors of A are
A11 = 120 − 45 = 75,

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A12 = − ( − 80 − 30) = 110,
A13 = (36 + 36) = 72,
A21 = − ( − 60 − 90) = 150,
A22 = ( − 40 − 60) = − 100,
A23 = − (18 − 18) = 0,
A31 = 15 + 60 = 75,
A32 = − (10 − 40) = 30,
A33 = − 12 − 12 = − 24
T
 75 110 72   75 150 75 
adj ( A)  150 100 0   110 100 30 
  
 75 30 24   72 0 24 
 75 150 75 
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)   110 100 30 
| A| 1200
 72 0 24 
x  75 150 75   4 
  1 
1
X  A B   y   110 100 30   1 
1200
 z   72 0 24   2 
1
 
x 300  150  150   600   2 
1  1  1
  y    440  100  60    400    
1200 1200  3
 z   288  0  48   240   
1
 5 
1 1 1
 p  ,q  ,r 
2 3 5
1 1 1 1 1 1
  ,  , 
x 2 y 3 z 5
 x = 2, y = 3 and z = 5.
x2 x  3 x  2a
36. If a, b, c, are in A.P, then find the determinant of x  3 x  4 x  2b
x4 x5 x  2c
Ans:
x2 x3 x  2a
Let A  x  3 x  4 x  2b
x4 x5 x  2c
x2 x3 x  2a
1
 0 0 2(2b  a  c) (using R2 → 2R2 − R1 − R3)
2
x4 x5 x  2c
But a,b, c are in AP. Using 2b = a + c, we get
x  2 x  3 x  2a
1
A 0 0 0  0 [Since, all elements of R2 are zero]
2
x  4 x  5 x  2c

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 2 3
37. Show that the matrix A    satisfies the equation A2 – 4A + I = O, where I is 2 × 2
1 2
identity matrix and O is 2 × 2 zero matrix. Using this equation, find A–1.
Ans:
2 3
Given that A   
1 2
 2 3   2 3  7 12 
A2  AA     
1 2  1 2   4 7 
 7 12  2 3 1 0
Hence, A2  4 A  I     4 1 2    0 1 
4 7     
 7 12   8 12   1 0   7  8  1 12  12  0 0 0
 
  
  
     O
 4 7   4 8  0 1   4  4  0 7  8  1   0 0 
Now, A2  4 A  I  O
 AA  4 A   I
 AA( A1 )  4 AA1   IA1 (Post multiplying by A–1 because |A| ≠ 0)
 A( AA1 )  4 I   A1
 AI  4 I   A1
1 0  2 3   4  2 0  3   2 3
 A1  4 I  A  4     
 0 1   1 2   0  1 4  2   1 2 
 2 3
 A1   
 1 2 
38. Solve the following system of equations by matrix method.
3x – 2y + 3z = 8
2x + y – z = 1
4x – 3y + 2z = 4
Ans:
The system of equation can be written as AX = B, where
 3 2 3  x 8 
A   2 1 1 , X   y  and B   1 
   
 4 3 2   z   4 
3 2 3
Here,| A | 2 1 1
4 3 2
= 3 (2 – 3) + 2(4 + 4) + 3 (– 6 – 4) = – 17 ≠ 0
Hence, A is nonsingular and so its inverse exists. Now
A11 = –1, A12 = – 8, A13 = –10
A21 = –5, A22 = – 6, A23 = 1
A31 = –1, A32 = 9, A33 = 7
T
 1 8 10   1 5 1
adj ( A)   5 6 1    8 6 9 
 
 1 9 7   10 1 7 
 1 5 1
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)    8 6 9 
| A| 17
 10 1 7 

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x  1 5 1 8 
1 
X  A B   y     8 6 9  1 
1  
17
 z   10 1 7   4 
x  17  1 
1 
  y     34    2 
 
17
 z   51  3 
Hence x = 1, y = 2 and z = 3.

( y  z)2 xy zx
2
39. Show that   xy ( x  z) yz  2 xyz ( x  y  z )3
xz yz ( x  y)2
Ans:
( y  z )2 xy zx
2
Given that   xy ( x  z) yz
xz yz ( x  y )2
Applying R1 →xR1, R2 → yR2 ,R3 → zR3 to Δ and dividing by xyz, we get
x( y  z ) 2 x2 y x2 z
1
 xy 2 y( x  z ) 2 y2 z
xyz
xz 2 yz 2 z ( x  y)2
Taking common factors x, y, z from C1, C2 and C3 respectively, we get
( y  z )2 x2 x2
xyz
 y2 ( x  z)2 y2
xyz
z2 z2 ( x  y )2
Applying C2 → C2– C1, C3 → C3– C1, we have
( y  z )2 x 2  ( y  z )2 x 2  ( y  z )2
 y2 ( x  z )2  y 2 0
z2 0 ( x  y )2  z 2
Taking common factor (x + y + z) from C2 and C3, we have
( y  z )2 x  ( y  z) x  ( y  z )
  ( x  y  z )2 y2 ( x  z)  y 0
z2 0 ( x  y)  z
Applying R1 → R1 – (R2 + R3), we have
2 yz 2 z 2 y
  ( x  y  z )2 y 2 x  y  z 0
2
z 0 x yz
1 1
Applying C2 → (C2 + C1) and C3 → C3 + C1, we get
y z

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2 yz 0 0
y2
  ( x  y  z )2 y 2 x z
z
2 z2
z x y
y
Finally expanding along R1, we have
Δ = (x + y + z)2 (2yz) [(x + z) (x + y) – yz] = (x + y + z)2 (2yz) (x2 + xy + xz)
= (x + y + z)3 (2xyz)

 1 1 2   2 0 1 
40. Use product  0 2 3  9 2 3 to solve the system of equations
 3 2 4   6 1 2 
x – y + 2z = 1
2y – 3z = 1
3x – 2y + 4z = 2
Ans:
 1 1 2   2 0 1 
Consider the product  0 2 3  9 2 3
 3 2 4   6 1 2 
 2  9  12 0  2  2 1  3  4   1 0 0 
  0  18  18 0  4  3 0  6  6    0 1 0 
 6  18  24 0  4  4 3  6  8   0 0 1 
1
1 1 2   2 0 1 
Hence,  0 2 3   9 2 3
 
 3 2 4   6 1 2 
Now, given system of equations can be written, in matrix form, as follows
 1 1 2   x   1 
 0 2 3  y    1 
    
 3 2 4   z   2 
1
 x  1 1 2   1   2 0 1   1 
  y   0 2 3  1    9 2 3  1 
    
 z   3 2 4   2  6 1 2   2 
 2  0  2  0 
  9  2  6   5 
 6  1  4   3
Hence x = 0, y = 5 and z = 3

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CHAPTER – 3: DETERMINANTS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions & Answers)

19. Let A be a square matrix of order 3 × 3. Write the value of |2A|, where |A| = 4.
Ans:
Since |2A| = 2n|A| where n is order of matrix A.
Here |A| = 4 and n = 3
 |2A| = 23 ×4 = 32

102 18 36
20. Write the value of the following determinant: 1 3 4
17 3 6
Ans:
102 18 36
Given that   1 3 4
17 3 6
Applying R1 R1 – 6R3
0 0 0
 1 3 4 0 (Since R1 is zero)
17 3 6
21. If A is a square matrix and |A| = 2, then write the value of | AA'| , where A' is the transpose of
matrix A.
Ans:
|AA|' = |A|. |A'| = |A|. |A|= |A|2 = 2 x 2 = 4.
[since, | AB|=|A|.|B| and| A|=| A'|, where A and B are square matrices.]

22. If A is a 3 × 3 matrix, |A|  0 and |3A| = k |A|, then write the value of k.
Ans:
Here, |3A| = k|A|
 33|A| = k|A| [ |kA| = kn|A| where n is order of A]
 27 |A| = k|A|
 k = 27

a  ib c  id
23. Evaluate:
c  id a  ib
Ans:
a  ib c  id
  (a  ib)(a  ib)  (c  id )(c  id )
c  id a  ib
 (a  ib)(a  ib)  (c  id )(c  id )
 a 2  i 2b 2  c 2  i 2 d 2
 a2  b2  c 2  d 2

x2 3
24. If  3 , find the value of x.
x5 4
Ans:
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x2 3
Given that 3
x5 4
 4x + 8 – 3x – 15 = 3
x – 7 = 3
 x = 10

5 3 8
25. If  = 2 0 1 , write the minor of the element a23.
1 2 3
Ans:
5 3
Minor of a23 = = 10 – 3 = 7.
1 2
cos150 sin150
26. Evaluate:
sin 750 cos 750
Ans:
Expanding the determinant, we get
cos 15° . cos 75° - sin 15° . sin 75°
= cos (15° + 75° ) = cos 90° = 0
[since cos (A + B) = cos A. cos B – sinA . sin B]
a ab a  2b
27. Using properties of determinants, prove the following: a  2b a a  b  9b 2 (a  b)
a  b a  2b a
Ans:
a ab a  2b
Let   a  2b a a b
ab a  2b a
Applying R1  R1 + R2 + R3 , we have
3(a  b) 3(a  b) 3(a  b)
  a  2b a ab
a b a  2b a
Taking out 3(a + b) from 1st row, we have
1 1 1
  3(a  b) a  2b a ab
a  b a  2b a
Applying C1 C1 – C2 and C2 C2 – C3
0 0 1
  3(a  b) 2b b a  b
b 2b a
Expanding along first row, we have
D = 3(a + b) [1. (4b2 – b2 )]
= 3 (a + b)  3b2 = 9b2 (a + b)

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2 3 4
28. Write the value of the determinant 5 6 8
6 x 9 x 12 x
Ans:
2 3 4
Given determinant |A|= 5 6 8
6 x 9 x 12 x
2 3 4
 3 x 5 6 8 = 0 ( R1 = R3)
2 3 4

29. Two schools P and Q want to award their selected students on the values of Tolerance,
Kindness and Leadership. The school P wants to award Rs. x each, Rs. y each and Rs. z each
for the three respective values to 3, 2 and 1 students respectively with a total award money of
Rs. 2,200. School Q wants to spend Rs. 3,100 to award its 4, 1 and 3 students on the respective
values (by giving the same award money to the three values as school P). If the total amount of
award for one prize on each value is Rs. 1,200, using matrices, find the award money for each
value. Apart from these three values, suggest one more value that should be considered for
award.
Ans:
According to question,
3x + 2y + z = 2200
4x + y + 3z = 3100
x + y + z = 1200
The above system of equation may be written in matrix form as AX = B
 3 2 1  x  2200 
A   4 1 3 , X   y  and B  3100 
   
 1 1 1  z  1200 
3 2 1
Here,| A | 4 1 3  3(1  3)  2(4  3)  1(4  1)  6  2  3  5  0
1 1 1
–1
 A exists.
Now, A11 = (1 – 3) = –2,
A12 = – (4 – 3) = –1,
A13 = (4 – 1) = 3,
A21 = – (2 – 1) = –1,
A22 = (3 – 1) = 2,
A23 = – (3 – 2) = –1
A31 = (6 – 1) = 5,
A32 = – (9 – 4) = –5,
A33 = (3 – 8) = –5
T
 2 1 3   2
1 5 
adj ( A)   1 2 1   1
  2 5 
 5 5 5  3
1 5 
 2 1
5  2 1 5
1 1  1
A 1
(adjA)  5   1 2 5 
1 2
| A| 5  5
 3 1
5  3 1 5 
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x  2 1 5  2200 
1
Now, X  A B   y    1 2 5   3100 
1  
5
 z   3 1 5  1200 
x  4400  3100  6000  1500  300 
1 1
  y    2200  6200  6000    2000    400 
  
5 5
 z   6600  3100  6000   2500  500 
 x = 300, y = 400, z = 500
i.e., Rs. 300 for tolerance, Rs. 400 for kindness and Rs. 500 for leadership are awarded.
One more value like punctuality, honesty etc may be awarded.

30. Using properties of determinants, prove that


Ans:
ax y z
LHS  x a y z
x y az
Applying C1 C1 + C2 + C3 , we get
a x y z y z
 a x y z a y z
a x y z y az
Apply R1 R1 – R2 , we get
1 y z
 (a  x  y  z ) 1 a  y z
1 y az
0 a 0
 (a  x  y  z ) 1 a  y z
1 y az
Expanding along R1, we get
= (a + x + y + z) {0 + a (a + z – z)} = a2(a + x + y + z) = RHS

31. 10 students were selected from a school on the basis of values for giving awards and were
divided into three groups. The first group comprises hard workers, the second group has
honest and law abiding students and the third group contains vigilant and obedient students.
Double the number of students of the first group added to the number in the second group
gives 13, while the combined strength of first and second group is four times that of the third
group. Using matrix method, find the number of students in each group. Apart from the
values, hard work, honesty and respect for law, vigilance and obedience, suggest one more
value, which in your opinion, the school should consider for awards.
Ans:
Let no. of students in Ist, 2nd and 3rd group to x, y, z respectively.
From the statement we have
x + y+ z = 10
2x + y =13
x + y – 4z = 0
The above system of linear equations may be written in matrix form as AX = B where
1 1 1  x 10 
A   2 1 0  , X   y  and B  13
   
 1 1 4   z   0 
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1 1 1
Here,| A | 2 1 0  1( 4  0)  1( 8  0)  1(2  1)  4  8  1  5  0
1 1 4
–1
 A exists.
Now, A11 = – 4 – 0 = –4
A12 = – (–8 – 0) = 8
A13 = 2 – 1 = 1
A21 = –(–4 – 1) = 5
A22 = –4 – 1 = –5
A23 = –(1 – 1) = 0
A31 = 0 – 1 = –1
A32 = –(0 – 2) = 2
A33 = 1 – 2 = –1
T
 4 8 1   4 5 1
adj ( A)   5 5 0    8 5
  2 
 1 2 1  1 0 1
 4 5 1
1 1
A 1
(adjA)   8 5 2 
| A| 5
 1 0 1
x  4 5 1 10 
  1
1
Now, X  A B   y    8 5 2  13
5
 z   1 0 1  0 
x  40  65  25  5 
  1  1   
  y    80  65   15    3 
5 5
 z   10  10   2 
 x = 5, y = 3, z = 2

32. The management committee of a residential colony decided to award some of its members (say
x) for honesty, some (say y) for helping others and some others (say z) for supervising the
workers to keep the colony neat and clean. The sum of all the awardees is 12. Three times the
sum of awardees for cooperation and supervision added to two times the number of awardees
for honesty is 33. If the sum of the number of awardees for honesty and supervision is twice the
number of awardees for helping others, using matrix method, find the number of awardees of
each category. Apart from these values, namely, honesty, cooperation and supervision, suggest
one more value which the management of the colony must include for awards.
Ans:
According to question
x + y + z = 12
2x + 3y + 3z = 33
x – 2y + z = 0
The above system of linear equation can be written in matrix form as AX = B where
 1 1 1 x 12 
A   2 3 3 , X   y  and B  33
   
 1 2 1  z   0 
1 1 1
Here,| A | 2 3 3
1 2 1
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= 1 (3 + 6) –1 (2–3) + 1 (– 4 –3) = 9 + 1 – 7 = 3
 A–1 exists.
A11 = 9, A12 = 1, A13 = –7
A21 = –3, A22 = 0, A23 = 3
A31 = 0, A32 = –1, A33 = 1
T
 9 1 7   9 3 0 
adj ( A)   3 0 3    1 0 1
 
 0 1 1   7 3 1 
 9 3 0 
1 1
A 1
(adjA)   1 0 1
| A| 3
 7 3 1 
x  9 3 0  12 
1
Now, X  A B   y    1 0 1 33
1  
3
 z   7 3 1   0 
x  108  99   9  3
  1  1   
  y   12  0  0   12    4 
3 3
 z   84  99  15  5 
 x = 3, y = 4, z = 5
No. of awards for honesty = 3
No. of awards for helping others = 4
No. of awards for supervising = 5.
The persons, who work in the field of health and hygiene should also be awarded.

33. Using properties of determinants, prove the following:


3x  x  y  x  z
x y 3y z  y  3( x  y  z )( xy  yz  zx)
xz yz 3z
Ans:
3x  x  y  x  z
LHS  x  y 3y zy
xz yz 3z
Applying C1  C1 + C2 + C3
x  y  z x  y x  z
 x y z 3y zy
x y z yz 3z
Taking out (x + y + z) along C1, we get
1 x  y x  z
 ( x  y  z) 1 3y z y
1 yz 3z
Applying R2  R2 – R1; R3  R3 – R1
1 x  y x  z
 ( x  y  z) 0 2 y  x x  y
0 x  z x  2z
Applying C2  C2 – C3

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1 y  z x  z
 ( x  y  z) 0 3y xy
0 3 z x  2 z
Expanding along I column, we get
D = (x + y + z)[(3y (x + 2z) + 3z (x – y)]
= 3(x + y + z)[xy + 2z + 2yz + xz – yz]
= 3(x + y + z)(xy + yz + zx) = R.H.S.

34. A school wants to award its students for the values of Honesty, Regularity and Hard work with
a total cash award of Rs. 6,000. Three times the award money for Hardwork added to that
given for honesty amounts to ` 11,000. The award money given for Honesty and Hardwork
together is double the one given for Regularity. Represent the above situation algebraically
and find the award money for each value, using matrix method. Apart from these values,
namely, Honesty, Regularity and Hardwork, suggest one more value which the school must
include for awards.
Ans:
Let x, y and z be the awarded money for honesty, Regularity and hardwork.
From the statement
x + y +z = 6000 …(i)
x + 3z =11000 …(ii)
x +z = 2y  x – 2y +z = 0 …(iii)
The above system of three equations may be written in matrix form as AX = B, where
1 1 1  x  6000 
A  1 0 3 , X   y  and B  11000 
0 2 1  z   0 
1 1 1
Here,| A | 1 0 3  1(0  6)  1(1  3)  1(2  0)  6  2  2  6  0
0 2 1
–1
Hence A exist
If Aij is co-factor of aij then
A11 = 0 + 6 = 6
A12 = – (1 – 3) = 2 ;
A13 = (–2 – 0) = –2
A21 = –(1 + 2) = –3
A22 = 0
A23 = (–2 – 1) = –3
A31 = 3 – 0 = 3
A32 = – (3 – 1) = – 2 ;
A33 = 0 – 1 = – 1
T
 6 2 2   6 3 3
adj ( A)   3 0 3    2 0
  2 
 3 2 1  2 3 1
 6 3 3 
1 1
A 1
(adjA)   2 0 2
| A| 6
 2 3 1
x  6 3 3   6000 
  1
1
Now, X  A B   y    2 0 2  11000 
6
 z   2 3 1  0 
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x  36000  33000  0   3000   500 
1 1
  y    12000  0  0   12000    2000 
  
6 6
 z   12000  33000  0   21000  3500 
 x =500, y = 2000, z = 3500
Except above three values, school must include discipline for award as discipline has great
importance in student’s life.

x  1 x  1 4 1
35. If  , then write the value of x.
x3 x2 1 3
Ans:
x  1 x  1 4 1
Given that 
x3 x2 1 3
 (x +1) (x + 2) – (x – 1)(x – 3) =12 +1
 x2 + 2x + x + 2 – x2 + 3x + x – 3 =13
 7x – 1 =13
 7x =14
x = 2

a a b a bc
36. Using properties of determinants, prove that 2a 3a  2b 4a  3b  2c  a 3
3a 6a  3b 10a  6b  3c
Ans:
a a b a bc
LHS  2a 3a  2b 4a  3b  2c
3a 6a  3b 10a  6b  3c
a a abc a b abc
 2a 3a 4a  3b  2c  2a 2b 4a  3b  2c
3a 6a 10a  6b  3c 3a 3b 10a  6b  3c
1 1 a bc 1 1 a bc
2
a 2 3 4a  3b  2c  ab 2 2 4a  3b  2c
3 6 10a  6b  3c 3 3 10a  6b  3c
1 1 a bc
2
a 2 3 4a  3b  2c  ab.0 [since C1 = C2 in second determinant]
3 6 10a  6b  3c
1 1 a bc
2
a 2 3 4a  3b  2c
3 6 10a  6b  3c
1 1 a 1 1 b 1 1 c
2
a 2 3 4a  2 3 3b  2 3 2c
3 6 10a 3 6 6b 3 6 3c
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
 a .a 2 3 4 b 2 3 3 c 2 3 2
3 6 10 3 6 6 3 6 3

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1 1 1
2
 a .a 2 3 4  b.0  c.0 [since C2 = C3 in second determinant and C1 = C3 in third
3 6 10
determinant]
1 1 1
 a3 2 3 4
3 6 10
Applying C2  C2 – C1 and C3 C3 – C1 we get
1 0 0
3
a 2 1 2
3 3 7
Expanding along R1 we get
= a3 .1(7 – 6) – 0 + 0
= a3 .

37. Using matrices, solve the following system of equations:


x – y + z = 4; 2x + y – 3z = 0; x + y + z = 2
Ans:
Given equations
x–y+z=4
2x + y – 3z = 0
x+y+z=2
We can write this system of equations as AX = B where
 1 1 1  x 4
A   2 1 3 , X   y  and B   0 
   
 1 1 1   z   2 
1 1 1
Here,| A | 2 1 3
1 1 1
= 1 (1 + 3) - (- 1) (2 + 3) + 1 (2 - 1) = 4 + 5 + 1 = 10
 A–1 exists.
A11 = 4, A12 = –5, A13 = 1
A21 = 2, A22 = 0, A23 = –2
A31 = 2, A32 = 5, A33 = 3
T
 4 5 1   4 2 2
adj ( A)   2 0 2    5 0 5 
 
 2 5 3   1 2 3 
 4 2 2
1 1 
A 1
(adjA)   5 0 5 
| A| 10
 1 2 3 
x  4 2 2  4 
1 
Now, X  A B   y    5 0 5   0 
 1
10
 z   1 2 3  2 

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x  16  0  4   20   2 
1  1 
  y    20  0  10   10    1
  
10 10
 z   4  0  6   10   1 
The required solution is
 x = 2, y = - 1, z = 1
 3 1 1   1 2 2 
38. If A =  15 6 5 and B =  1 3 0  , find (AB)–1.
–1  
 5 2 2   0 2 1 
Ans:
For B–1
1 2 2
| B | 1 3 0 = 1(3 – 0) – 2(–1 – 0) – 2(2 – 0 ) = 3 + 2 – 4 = 1  0
0 2 1
i.e., B is invertible matrix
 B–1 exist.
A11 = 3, A12 = 1, A13 = 2
A21 = 2, A22 = 1, A23 = 2
A31 = 6, A32 = 2, A33 = 5
T
 3 1 2 3 2 6
adj ( B)   2 1 2   1 1
  2 
 6 2 5   2 2 5 
3 2 6  3 2 6
1 1
B  1
(adjb)   1 1 2   1 1 2
|B| 1
 2 2 5   2 2 5 
Now (AB)–1 = B–1. A–1
 3 2 6  3 1 1 
 1 1 2   15 6 5
  
 2 2 5   5 2 2 
 9  30  30 3  12  12 3  10  12 
  3  15  10 1  6  4 1  5  4 
 6  30  25 2  12  10 2  10  10 
 9 3 5 
  2 1 0 
 1 0 2 

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 100 -


Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 101 -
CHAPTER – 5: CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

2 x  3, if x  2
1. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined by f ( x)   .
2 x  3, if x  2
Ans.
2 x  3, if x  2
Here, f ( x)   .
2 x  3, if x  2
lim lim
At x =2, LHL  
f ( x)  (2 x  3)
x2 x  2
Putting x = 2 − h has x → 2− when h → 0
lim lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  (2(2  h)  3)  (4  2h  3)  (7  2h)  7
x2 h0 h0 h0
lim lim
At x =2, RHL  
f ( x)  (2 x  3)
x2 x  2
Putting x = 2 + h as x → 2+ when h → 0
lim lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  (2(2  h)  3)  (4  2h  3)  (1  2h)  1
x2 h0 h0 h0
 LHL ≠ RHL. Thus, f(x) is discontinuous at x = 2.
| x |
 , if x0
2. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined by f ( x )   x
 0, if x0
| x |
 , if x  0
Ans. Here, f ( x )   x
 0, if x  0
lim lim | x |
LHL  
f ( x) 
x0 x  0 x
Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0− when h → 0
lim lim | 0  h | lim h
 
f ( x)    1
x0 h  0 0  h h  0 h
lim lim | x |
RHL  f ( x ) 
x  0 x  0 x
Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0+ ; h → 0
lim lim | 0  h | lim h
 f ( x )   1
x  0 h 0 0h h  0h
 LHL ≠ RHL. Thus, f(x) is discontinuous at x = 0.

 x 3  3, if x  2
3. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined by f ( x)   2
 x  1, if x  2
Ans.
For x < 2, f(x) = x3 − 3 and for x > 2, f(x) = x2 + 1 is a polynomial function, so f is continuous in the
above interval. Therefore, we have to check the continuity at x = 2.

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 102 -


lim lim
LHL  
f ( x)  
( x3  3)
x2 x2
Putting x = 2 − h has x → 2− when h → 0

lim lim lim


 
f ( x)  ((2  h)3  3)  (8  12h  6h 2  h3  3)
x2 h0 h0
lim
 (5  12h  6h 2  h3 )  5
h0
lim lim
RHL  
f ( x)  
( x 2  1)
x2 x2
Putting x = 2 + h as x → 2+ when h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  ((2  h) 2  1)  (4  4h  h 2  1)
x2 h0 h0
lim
 (5  4h  h 2 )  5
h0
Also, f(2) = (2) − 3 = 8 − 3 = 5 [since f(x) = x3 − 3]
3

 LHL = RHL =f(2) . Thus, f(x) is continuous at x = 2.


Hence, there is no point of discontinuity for this function f(x).
 ax  1, if x  3
4. Find the relationship between a and b so that the function f defined by f ( x)  
bx  3, if x  3
is continuous at x = 3.
Ans.
 ax  1, if x  3
Here, f ( x)  
bx  3, if x  3
lim lim
LHL  
f ( x)  (ax  1)
x3 x  3
Putting x = 3 − h has x → 3− when h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  (a(3  h)  1)  (3a  ah  1)  3a  1
x3 h0 h0
lim lim
RHL  
f ( x)  (bx  3)
x3 x  3
Putting x = 3 + h as x → 3+ when h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  (b(3  h)  3)  (3b  bh  3)  3b  3
x3 h0 h0
Also, f(3) =3 a +1 [since f(x) = ax + 1]
Since, f(x) is continuous at x = 3.
 LHL = RHL = f(3)
2
 3a  1  3b  3  3a  3b  2  a  b 
3
 ( x 2  2 x ), if x  0
5. For what value of  is the function defined by f ( x)   continuous at x =
 4 x  1, if x  0
0? What about continuity at x = 1?
Ans.
 ( x 2  2 x ), if x  0
Here, f ( x)  
 4 x  1, if x  0

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 103 -


lim lim
At x = 0, LHL  
f ( x)  
 ( x 2  2 x)
x0 x0

Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0 when h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  [(0  h) 2  2(0  h)]   (h 2  2h)  0
x0 h0 h0

lim lim
At x = 0, RHL  
f ( x)  (4 x  1)
x0 x  0
Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0+ ; h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  [4(0  h)  1]  (4h  1)  1
x0 h0 h0
 LHL ≠ RHL. Thus, f(x) is discontinuous at x = 0 for any value of  .

lim lim
At x = 1, LHL  
f ( x)  (4 x  1)
x 1 x  1
Putting x = 1 − h as x → 1− when h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  (4(1  h)  1)  (4  4h  1)  5
x 1 h0 h0
lim lim
At x = 1, RHL  
f ( x)  (4 x  1)
x 1 x  1
Putting x = 1 + h as x → 1+ ; h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  [4(1  h)  1]  (4  4h  1)  5
x 1 h0 h0
 LHL = RHL. Thus, f(x) is continuous at x = 1 for any value of  .
 sin x
 , if x  0
6. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f ( x )   x
 x  1, if x  0
 sin x
 , if x  0
Ans. Here, f ( x )   x
 x  1, if x  0
lim lim sin x
At x = 0, LHL  
f ( x) 
x0 x  0 x
Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0− when h → 0
lim lim sin(0  h) lim sin(h) lim  sin h lim sin h
 
f ( x)     1
x0 h 0 0h h  0 h h  0 h h0 h
lim lim sin x
At x = 0, RHL  
f ( x) 
x0 x  0 x
Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0+ ; h → 0
lim lim sin(0  h) lim sin h
 
f ( x)   1
x0 h 0 0h h0 h
Also, f(0) = 0 + 1 = 1
 LHL = RHL = f(0). Thus, f(x) is continuous at x = 0.
sin x
When x < 0, sin x and x both are continuous. Therefore, is also continuous.
x
When x > 0, f(x) = x + 1 is a polynomial. Therefore f is continuous.
Hence, there is no point of discontinuity for this function f(x).

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 104 -


 2 1
 x sin , if x  0
7. Determine if f defined by f ( x)   x is a continuous function?
 0, if x  0
Ans.
 2 1
 x sin , if x  0
Here, f ( x)   x
 0, if x  0
lim lim 2 1
At x = 0, LHL  
f ( x)  
x sin
x0 x0 x

Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0 when h → 0
lim lim 1 lim  2 1
 
f ( x)  (0  h)2 sin   h sin   0  sin 
x0 h0 0  h h  0 h
= 0 x value between –1 and 1 (since − 1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1, for all values of x  R)

lim lim 2 1
At x = 0, RHL  
f ( x)  
x sin
x0 x0 x
+
Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0 ; h → 0
lim lim 1 lim  2 1
 
f ( x)  (0  h)2 sin   h sin   0  sin 
x0 h0 0  h h  0 h
= 0 x value between –1 and 1 (since − 1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1, for all values of x  R)
 LHL = RHL = f(0). Thus, f(x) is continuous at x = 0.

 k cos x 
   2 x , if x  2
8. Find the values of k so that the function f f ( x)   is continuous at point
 3, if x  
 2

x
2
Ans.
 k cos x 
   2 x , if x  2
Here, f ( x)  
 3, if x  
 2
lim lim
k cos x
LHL   f ( x) 
 
   2x
x x
2 2

 
Putting x = − h as x → when h → 0
2 2
lim  
k cos   h 

lim 2   lim ksinh  k  lim sinh  k  1  k
 f ( x)  h  0

x   h  0 2h 2 h0 h 2 2
2   2  h
2 
  
Since f(x) is continuous at x  , therefore LHL = f  
2 2
  k
Also, f   = 3   3  k  6
2 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 105 -


 kx  1, if x  5
9. Find the values of k so that the function f f ( x)   is continuous at point x = 5.
3 x  5, if x  5
Ans.
 kx  1, if x  5
Here, f ( x)  
3 x  5, if x  5
lim lim
At x = 5, LHL  
f ( x)  (kx  1)
x5 x  5
Putting x = 5 − h has x → 5− when h → 0

lim lim lim


 
f ( x)  (k (5  h)  1)  (5k  kh  1)  5k  1
x5 h0 h0
lim lim
At x = 5, RHL  
f ( x)  (3 x  5)
x5 x  5
Putting x = 5 + h as x → 5+ ; h → 0

lim lim lim


 
f ( x)  (3(5  h)  5)  (10  3h)  10
x5 h0 h0
Also, f(5) = 5k + 1
Since f(x) is continuous at x = 5, therefore LHL = RHL = f(5)
9
 5k  1  10  5k  9  k 
5
 5, if x  2

10. Find the values of a and b such that the function defined by f ( x)  ax  b, if 2  x  10 is a
 21, if x  10

continuous function.
Ans.
 5, if x  2

Here, f ( x)  ax  b, if 2  x  10
 21, if x  10

lim lim
At x =2, LHL  
f ( x)  (5)  5
x2 x  2
lim lim
At x =2, RHL  
f ( x)  (ax  b)
x2 x  2
Putting x = 2 + h as x → 2+ when h → 0
lim lim lim
 
f ( x)  (a (2  h)  b)  (2a  ah  b)  2a  b
x2 h0 h0
Also, f(2) = 5
Since f(x) is continuous at x = 2, therefore LHL = RHL = f(2)
 2a  b  5 ----------------- (1)

lim lim
At x =10, LHL  
f ( x)  (ax  b)
x  10 x  10
Putting x = 10 − h has x → 10− when h → 0

lim lim lim


 f ( x )  ( a (10  h )  b )  (10a  ah  b)  10a  b
x  10 h0 h0

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 106 -


lim lim
At x =2, RHL  
f ( x)  (21)  21
x  10 x  10
Also, f(10) = 21
Since f(x) is continuous at x = 10, therefore LHL = RHL = f(10)
Since, f(x) is continuous at x = 10.
LHL = RHL = f(10)
 10a + b = 21 …………….…(2)
Subtracting Eq. (1) from Eq. (2), we get 8a =16  a =2
Put a =2 in Eq. (1), we get 2 ×2 + b = 5  b =1

11. Prove that the function f given by f (x) = | x – 1 |, x  R is not differentiable at x = 1.


Ans.
 x  1, if x  1  0
Given, f ( x) | x  1| 
 ( x  1), if x  1  0
We have to check the differentiability at x = 1
Here, f(1) = 1 − 1 = 0
lim f (1  h)  f (1) lim 1  (1  h)  0)
Lf ' (1)  
h0 h h0 h
lim h
  1
h  0 h
and
lim f (1  h)  f (1) lim (1  h)  1  0
Rf ' (1)  
h0 h h0 h
lim h
 1
h0 h
 Lf ' (1)  Rf ' (1).
Hence, f(x) is not differentiable at x = 1

dy  1  x2 
12. Find if y  cos 1  2 
,0  x 1
dx 1 x 
Ans.
Let x = tan     tan 1 x , then we have
 1  x2  2
1  1  tan  
y  cos 1  2 
 cos  2
1
  cos cos 2  2
 1  x   1  tan  
 y  2 tan 1 x
dy 1 2
  2 2

dx 1 x 1  x2
dy  1  x2 
13. Find if y  sin 1  2 
,0  x 1
dx 1 x 
Ans.
Let x = tan     tan 1 x , then we have
 1  x2  2
1  1  tan    
y  sin 1  2   sin  2
1 1
  sin cos 2  sin sin   2 
1 x   1  tan   2 
 
 y  2  y   2 tan 1 x
2 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 107 -


dy 1 2
  0  2 2

dx 1 x 1  x2

dy  2x 
14. Find if y  cos1  2 
, 1  x  1
dx 1 x 
Ans.
Let x = tan     tan 1 x , then we have
 2x   2 tan    
y  cos1  2 
 cos1  2
1 1
  cos sin 2  cos cos   2 
1 x   1  tan   2 
 
 y   2  y   2 tan 1 x
2 2
dy 1 2
  0  2 2

dx 1 x 1  x2

dy  1  1
15. Find if y  sec 1  2  , 0  x 
dx  2x 1  2
Ans.
Let x  cos     cos1 x , then we have
 1   1  1  1 
y  sec 1  2   sec1  2   sec 
1
  sec sec 2  2
 2x 1   2 cos   1   cos 2 
1 2
 y  2cos 1 x  2  
1  x2 1  x2

16. Differentiate sin (tan–1 e–x) with respect to x.


Ans.
Let y = sin (tan–1 e–x)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy d d
 sin(tan 1 e x )   cos(tan 1 e  x ) (tan 1 e  x )
dx dx dx
1 d
 cos(tan 1 e  x ) ( e x )
1  (e  x ) 2 dx
1 e  x cos(tan 1 e x )
 cos(tan 1 e  x ) (  e x
)  
1  e 2 x 1  e 2 x

17. Differentiate log (cos ex) with respect to x.


Ans.
Let y = log (cos ex)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy d 1 d
  log(cos e x )   x
(cos e x )
dx dx cos e dx
1 d
 x
( sin e x ) (e x )  ( tan e x ).e x  e x tan e x
cos e dx

18. Differentiate cos (log x + ex), x > 0 with respect to x.


Ans.
Let y = cos (log x + ex)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy d d
  cos(log x  e x )    sin(log x  e x ) (log x  e x )
dx dx dx
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 108 -
1   1  xe x 
  sin(log x  e x )   e x    sin(log x  e x )  
x   x 
(1  xe x ) sin(log x  e x )

x
dy
19. Find if yx + xy + xx = ab.
dx
Ans.
Given that yx + xy + xx = ab
Putting u = yx, v = xy and w = xx, we get u + v + w = ab
du dv dw
Therefore,   0 ------------------ (1)
dx dx dx
Now, u = yx. Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = x log y
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 du d d 1 dy
 x (log y )  log y ( x )  x .  log y.1
u dx dx dx y dx
du  x dy   x dy 
  u  log y   y x   log y  -------------------- (2)
dx  y dx   y dx 
y
Also v = x
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = y log x
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 dv d dy 1 dy
 y (log x)  log x  y  log x
v dx dx dx x dx
dv y dy  y dy 
  v   log x   x y   log x  ------------------ (3)
dx x dx  x dx 
Again w = xx
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log w = x log x.
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 dw d d 1
 x (log x )  log x ( x )  x  log x.1
w dx dx dx x
dw
  w 1  log x   x x 1  log x  -------------------- (4)
dx
From (1), (2), (3), (4), we have
 x dy  y dy 
yx   log y   x y   log x   x x 1  log x   0
 y dx  x dx 
dy
( x. y x 1  x y .log x)   x x 1  log x   y. x y 1  y x log y
dx
x y 1 x
dy   x 1  log x   y.x  y log y 
 
dx x. y x1  x y .log x

20. Differentiate xx – 2sin x with respect to x.


Ans.
Let y = xx – 2sin x
Let u = xx and v = 2sin x then we have y = u – v
dy du dv
Therefore,   -------------------- (1)
dx dx dx
Now, u = xx
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = x log x.
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 109 -


1 du d d 1
 x (log x)  log x ( x)  x  log x.1
u dx dx dx x
du
  u 1  log x   x x 1  log x  -------------------- (2)
dx
Again v = 2sinx
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = (sinx) log 2.
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 dv dv
 cos x(log 2)   v[cos x (log 2)]  2sin x [cos x(log 2)]
v dx dx
From (1), (2) and (3), we get
dy du dv
   x x 1  log x   2sin x [cos x(log 2)]
dx dx dx

21. Differentiate (log x)x + xlog x with respect to x.


Ans.
Let y = (log x)x + xlog x
Let u = (log x)x and v = xlog x then we have y = u + v
dy du dv
Therefore,   -------------------- (1)
dx dx dx
Now, u = (logx)x
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = xlog(logx).
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 du d d x 1
 x log(log x )  log(log x) ( x )    log(log x)
u dx dx dx log x x
du  1   1 
 u  log(log x )   (log x) x   log(log x)  ---------------------- (2)
dx  log x   log x 

Again v = xlogx
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = (logx) logx = (logx)2
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 dv d 1
 2log x (log x)  2 log x 
v dx dx x
dv  2 log x   2log x 
 v   x log x  ---------------------- (3)
dx  x   x 
From (1), (2) and (3)
dy  1   2log x 
 (log x ) x   log(log x)   x log x 
dx  log x   x 
dy
  (log x) x 1 1  log x log(log x)   2 x log x 1.log x
dx

22. Differentiate (sin x) x  sin 1 x with respect to x.


Ans.
Let y = (sin x) x  sin 1 x
Let u = (sin x) x , v = sin 1 x then we have y = u + v
dy du dv
Therefore,   -------------------- (1)
dx dx dx
Now, u = (sin x)x
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = xlog(sin x).
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
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1 du d d x
 x log(sin x)  log(sin x) ( x)   cos x  log(sin x)
u dx dx dx sin x
du
  u  x cot x  log(sin x)   (sin x) x  x cot x  log(sin x)  ------------- (2)
dx
Again v = sin 1 x
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
dv 1 d 1 1 1
 ( x)    ---------------- (3)
dx 2 dx 1  x 2 x 2 x  x2
1 x  
From (1), (2) and (3)
dy 1
 (sin x ) x  x cot x  log(sin x ) 
dx 2 x  x2

23. Differentiate xsin x + (sin x)cos x with respect to x.


Ans.
Let y = xsin x + (sin x)cos x
Let u = xsin x, v = (sin x)cos x then we have y = u + v
dy du dv
Therefore,   -------------------- (1)
dx dx dx
Now, u = xsinx
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = (sinx) logx.
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 du d d 1
 sin x log x  log x (sin x)  sin x  log x cos x
u dx dx dx x
du  sin x   sin x 
 u  log x cos x   x sin x   log x cos x  ---------------------- (2)
dx  x   x 
Again v = sinxcosx
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = (cosx) log(sinx)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 dv d d 1
 cosx log(sin x )  log(sin x) (cos x )  cos x  cos x  log(sin x)(  sin x)
v dx dx dx sin x
dv
  v  cot x cos x  sin x log(sin x)   sin x cos x cot x cos x  sin x log(sin x)  ----------- (3)
dx
From (1), (2) and (3)
dy  sin x 
 x sin x   log x cos x   sin x cos x  cot x cos x  sin x log(sin x )
dx  x 
dy
24. Find if x = a (θ + sin θ), y = a (1 – cos θ).
dx
Ans.
Given that x = a (θ + sin θ), y = a (1 – cos θ)
Differentiating w.r.t. θ, we get
dx dy
 a(1  cos  ),  a(sin  )
d d
dy   
2sin cos sin
dy d a (sin  ) sin  2 2  2  tan 
Therefore,    
dx dx a(1  cos  ) 1  cos    2
2 cos 2 cos
d 2 2
dy
25. Find if x = cos θ – cos 2θ, y = sin θ – sin 2θ
dx
Ans.
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Given that x = cos θ – cos 2θ, y = sin θ – sin 2θ
Differentiating w.r.t. θ, we get
dx
  sin   ( sin 2 )  2   sin   2sin 2
d
dy
 cos   (cos 2 )  2  cos   2cos 2
d
dy
dy d  sin   2sin 2
Therefore,  
dx dx cos   2cos 2
d

dy
26. Find if x = a (θ – sin θ), y = a (1 + cos θ)
dx
Ans.
Given that x = a (θ – sin θ), y = a (1 + cos θ)
Differentiating w.r.t. θ, we get
dx dy
 a(1  cos  ),  a(0  sin  )   a sin 
d d
dy   
2sin cos  cos
dy d a sin   sin  2 2  2   cot 
Therefore,    
dx dx a(1  cos  ) 1  cos   2
2sin 2 sin
d 2 2

1 1 dy y
27. If x  a sin t , y  a cos t
, show that 
dx x
Ans.
1 1
Given that x  a sin t , y  a cos t

Multiplying both we get,


1 1 1 1 1
t  cos1 t

xy  a sin t a cos t  a sin t .a cos t  a sin  a 2

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get


dy dy dy y
x  y 0 x  y  
dx dx dx x

d2y dy
28. If y = 3e2x + 2e3x, prove that 2
5  6y  0
dx dx
Ans.
Given that y = 3e2x + 2e3x
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy
 6e 2 x  63 x  6(e2 x  e3 x )
dx
Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
d2y
2
 6(2e 2 x  3e3 x )
dx
d2y dy
Now, 2
 5  6 y  6(2e 2 x  3e3 x )  5(6(e 2 x  e3 x ))  6(3e2 x  2e3 x )
dx dx
 12e  18e  30e 2 x  30e3 x  18e2 x  12e3 x  0
2x 3x

29. If y = 3 cos (log x) + 4 sin (log x), show that x2 y2 + xy1 + y = 0

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 112 -


Ans.
Given that y = 3 cos (log x) + 4 sin (log x)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy d d
 y1  3sin(log x) (log x)  4cos(log x) (log x)
dx dx dx
1 1 1
 3sin(log x)  4 cos(log x)   3sin(log x)  4 cos(log x) 
x x x
 xy1  3sin(log x )  4 cos(log x)
Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
d d
xy2  y1.1  3cos(log x) (log x)  4sin(log x) (log x)
dx dx
1 1 1 y
 3cos(log x )  4sin(log x )   3cos(log x)  4sin(log x)   
x x x x
2
 x y2  xy1   y
 x 2 y2  xy1  y  0
2
y d 2 y  dy 
30. If e (x + 1) = 1, show that  
dx 2  dx 
Ans.
Given that ey (x + 1) = 1
1
 ey 
x 1
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy 1 1 dy 1
ey  2
 
dx ( x  1) x  1 dx ( x  1) 2
dy 1
 
dx x 1
Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
2 2
d2y 1  1   dy 
2
 2
    
dx ( x  1)  x  1   dx 

31. If y = (tan–1 x)2, show that (x2 + 1)2 y2 + 2x (x2 + 1) y1 = 2


Ans.
Given that y = (tan–1 x)2
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy d 1
 2 tan 1 x (tan 1 x )  2 tan 1 x 
dx dx 1  x2
2 tan 1 x
 y1  2
 (1  x 2 ) y1  2 tan 1 x
1 x
Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
1
(1  x 2 ) y2  2 xy1  2   (1  x 2 )2 y2  2 x(1  x 2 ) y1  2
1  x2

32. Verify Rolle’s theorem for the function f (x) = x2 + 2x – 8, x  [– 4, 2].


Ans.
Given function is f(x) = x2 +2 x − 8, x  [ −4, 2] .
Since, a polynomial function is continuous and derivable on R, therefore
(i) f(x) is continuous on [− 4,2].
(ii) f(x) is derivable on (− 4,2).
Also, f(− 4) = (− 4)2 + 2 (− 4) − 8 = 0 (since f (x) = x2 + 2x − 8)
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and f(2) = 22 + 2 x 2 – 8 = 0  f(− 4) = f(2)
This means that all the conditions of Rolle's theorem are satisfied by f(x) in [− 4,2].
Therefore, it exists at least one real c  [ −4, 2] such that f′ (c) = 0.
d
Now, f (x) = x2 + 2x − 8  f ' ( x )  ( x 2  2 x  8)  2 x  2
dx
Putting f′ (c) = 0  2c + 2 = 0  c = − 1.
Thus, f′( −1) =0 and − 1  (− 4,2).
Hence, Rolle's theorem is verified with c = − 1.

33. Verify Mean Value Theorem, if f (x) = x2 – 4x – 3 in the interval [a, b], where a = 1 and b = 4.
Ans.
Here, f(x) = x2 − 4x − 3, x  [1, 4] which is a polynomial function, so it is continuous and derivable
at all x  R, therefore
(i) f(x) is continuous on [1, 4] (ii) f(x) is derivable on (1, 4).
Therefore, Conditions of Lagrange's theorem are satisfied on [1, 4].
Hence, there is atleast one real number. c  (1, 4) such that
d
Now, f '( x)  ( x 2  4 x  3)  2 x  4
dx
2
 f (4)  4  4(4)  3  16  16  3  3
and f (1)  1  4  3  6
f (4)  f (1) 3  (6) 3  6
 f ' ( c)    1
4 1 3 3
5
 2c  4  1  2c  1  4  5  c   (1, 4)
2
Hence Mean Value Theorem is verified.

34. Verify Mean Value Theorem, if f (x) = x3 – 5x2 – 3x in the interval [a, b], where a = 1 and b = 3.
Find all c  (1, 3) for which f ′(c) = 0.
Ans.
Given, f (x) = x3 – 5x2 – 3x, x  (1, 3), which is a polynomial function. Since, a polynomial function
is continuous and derivable at all
x  R, therefore
(i) f(x) is continuous on [1, 3]. (ii) f(x) is derivable on (1, 3).
Therefore, Condition of Lagrange's MVT are satisfied on [1, 3].
Hence, there exists aleast one real c  (1, 3) .
d
Now, f '( x)  ( x3  5 x 2  3 x)  3x 2  10 x  3
dx
 f (3)  (3)  5(3) 2  3(3)  27  45  9  27
3

and f (1)  1  5  3  7
f (3)  f (1) 27  (7) 27  7
 f ' ( c)     10
3 1 2 2
 3c 2  10c  3  10  3c 2  10c  3  10  0
 3c 2  10c  7  0
10  100  84 10  4 7 7
c   1, out of which  (1,3)
6 6 3 3
Hence Mean Value Theorem is verified.

dy 1
35. If x 1  y  y 1  x  0 , for , – 1 < x < 1, prove that 
dx (1  x )2
Ans.

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Given that x 1  y  y 1  x  0  x 1  y   y 1  x
Squaring both sides, we get
x 2 (1  y )  y 2 (1  x )  x2  y2  x2 y  y2 x  0
 ( x  y )( x  y )  xy ( x  y )  0  ( x  y )( x  y  xy )  0
 x  y  0 or x  y  xy  0
x
 y  x or y (1  x)   x  y  x or y 
1 x
But y =x does not satisfy the given equation
x
So, we consider, y 
1 x
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
d d
(1  x) ( x )  x (1  x )
dy d   x  dx dx (1  x )  x 1
   2
 2

dx dx  x  1  (1  x ) (1  x ) (1  x) 2

dy cos 2 (a  y )
36. If cos y = x cos (a + y), with cos a ≠ ± 1, prove that 
dx sin a
Ans.
cos y
Given that cos y = x cos (a + y)  x 
cos(a  y )
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. y, we get
dx d  cos y  cos(a  y )( sin y )  cos y[ sin(a  y )]
  
dy dy  cos(a  y )  cos 2 (a  y )
sin(a  y ) cos y  cos(a  y ) sin y sin(a  y  y ) sin a
 2
 2

cos (a  y ) cos (a  y ) cos 2 (a  y )
dy cos 2 (a  y )
 
dx sin a
d2y
37. If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t), find
dx 2
Ans.
Given that x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. t, we get
dx d  d d 
 a  cos t   t sin t  sin t (t )    a[ sin t  (t sin t  sin t )]  at cos t
dt  dt  dt dt  
dy d  d d 
and  a  sin t   t cos t  cos t (t )    a[cos t  (t sin t  cos t )]  at sin t
dt  dt  dt dt  
dy
dy dt at sin t
Now,    tan t
dx dx at cos t
dt
Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
d2y d 2 dt sec 2 t 1
2
 tan t  sec t    sec3 t
dx dx dx at cos t at

 sin x 
38. Differentiate tan 1   w.r.t. x
 1  cos x 
Ans.

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 x x
 2sin cos 
 sin x  2 2
Let y = tan 1    tan 
1

 1  cos x  2 x
 2 cos 
 2 
 x
 sin 
 tan 1  2  tan 1 (tan x )  x
x 2 2
 cos 
 2
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy 1

dx 2
 2 x 1 
39. Differentiate sin 1  x 
w.r.t. x
1 4 
Ans.
 2 x 1  x
1  2  2 
Let y = sin 1  x 
 sin  x 2 
1 4   1  (2 ) 
Let 2 x  tan     tan 1 2 x then we have
 2 tan  
y  sin 1  2
1
  sin (sin 2 )  2  2 tan 2
1 x

 1  tan  
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
dy 1 d x 2 x 2 x 1 log 2
 2 (2 )  2 log 2 
dx 1  (2 x )2 dx 1  4x 1  4x

40. Differentiate sin2 x w.r.t. ecos x.


Ans.
Let u = sin2 x and v = ecos x
Differentiating u and v w.r.t. x, we get
du d
 2sin x (sin x )  2sin x cos x
dx dx
dv d
and  ecos x (cos x )  ecos x ( sin x )  ( sin x)e cos x
dx dx
du
du dx 2sin x cos x 2 cos x
Now,   cos x
  cos x
dv dv ( sin x )e e
dx

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CHAPTER – 5: CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions)

1. For what value of k is the following function continuous at x = 2?


2 x  1 ; x  2

f ( x)   k ; x  2
3 x  1 ; x  2

 x4  2 x3  x 2
 ,x  0
2. Discuss the continuity of the following function at x = 0 : f ( x )   tan 1 x
 0 ,x  0

 3ax  b ; x  1

3. If the function f (x) given by f ( x)   11 ; x  1 is continuous at x =1, find the values of a and
5ax  2b ; x  1

b.
4. Find the relationship between ‘a’ and ’b’ so that the function ‘f’ defined by:
 ax  1, x  3
f ( x)   is continuous at x = 3 .
bx  3, x  3
5. Show that the function f(x) = |x – 3| , x  R , is continuous but not differentiable at x = 3.
 1  kx  1  kx
 , 1  x  0
6. Find the value of k, for which f ( x)   x is continuous at x = 0.
 2x  1
, 0  x 1
 x 1
kx  1, x  
7. Find the value of k so that the function f, defined by f ( x )   is continuous at x = .
 cos x, x  
8. Find the value of ‘a’ for which the function f defined as
 
 a sin 2 ( x  1), x  0
f ( x)   is continuous at x = 0.
 tan x  sin x
, x0
 x3
9. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined as follows :
 | x | 3 ; x  3

f ( x)  2 x ;  3  x  3
 6x  2 ; x  3

10. Show that the function f defined as follows, is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable:
3 x  2 ; 0  x  1

f ( x)   2 x 2 - x; 1  x  2
 5x  4 ; x  2

11. Verify Lagrange’s mean value theorem for the following function: f(x) = x2 + 2x + 3, for [4, 6].
sec x  1  
12. If f ( x )  , then f’(x). Also find f '   .
sec x  1 2
dy
13. Find ,if ( x 2  y 2 )2  xy .
dx
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 117 -
dy sin 2 (a  y )
14. If sin y = x sin(a + y), prove that 
dx sin a
dy
15. If (cos x)y = (sin y)x, find .
dx
sin 1 x d2y dy
16. If y  , then prove that (1  x 2 ) 2
 3x  y  0 .
1  x2 dx dx
d2y dy
17. If y = ex(sin x + cos x), then show that 2
 2  2y  0 .
dx dx
d2y
18. If x = a(cost + t sin t) and y = a(sin t - t cost), then find .
dx 2
 y dy x  y
19. If log( x 2  y 2 )  2 tan 1   , then show that 
x dx x  y
d2y dy
20. If y = a cos(log x) + b sin(log x), then show that x 2 2  x  y  0
dx dx
dy 1 y2
21. If 1  x 2  1  y 2  a( x  y ) , then show that 
dx 1  x2
dy
22. Find ,if y  sin 1  x 1  x  x 1  x 2 
dx  
dy
23. Find ,if y  (cos x ) x  (sin x )1/ x
dx
 1 x  1 x 
24. Differentiate the following with respect to x : tan 1  
 1  x  1 x 
 1  sin x  1  sin x  dy
25. If y  cot 1   , find
 1  sin x  1  sin x  dx
26. Differentiate the following function w.r.t. x : (x)cos x + (sin x)tan x
1 d2y dy
27. If y  e a sin x , 1  x  1 , then show that (1  x 2 ) 2  x  a 2 y  0
dx dx
 3x  4 1  x 2
dy
28. If y  cos 1   , find
 5  dx
 
d2y dy
29. If y = cosec-1 x, x > 1. then show that x( x 2  1) 2  (2 x 2  1) 0.
dx dx
 x dy d2y 
30. If y  log tan    then show that  sec x . Also find 2
at x  .
 4 2 dx dx 4
 1 x  1  x  2 
31. Differentiate the following function with respect to x: f ( x)  tan 1    tan  
 1 x   1  2x 
 t d2y
32. If x  a  cos t  log tan  , y  a (1  sin t ) , then find .
 2 dx 2
d2y
33. If x  a (  sin  ), y  a (1  cos  ) , then find .
dx 2
cos x x2 1
34. Differentiate x  2 w.r.t.x
x 1
dy log x
35. If x y  e x  y , then show that 
dx  log( xe) 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 118 -


1  d2y dy
36. If x  tan  log y  , then show that (1  x 2 ) 2  (2 x  a)  0.
a  dx dx
d x 2 a2  x 
37. Prove that  a  x 2
 sin 1    a 2  x 2
dx  2 2  a 
d2y dy
38. If y  log  x  x 2  1  then show that ( x 2  1) 2  x 0
  dx dx
d2y dy
39. If y  log  x  x 2  a 2  then show that ( x 2  a 2 ) 2  x 0
  dx dx
2
1 2 d y dy
40. If y  sin x , then show that (1  x ) 2  x  0.
dx dx
1
 1  x2 1 
41. Differentiate tan   w.r.t. x.
 x 
 
 d2x d2 y d2 y
42. If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t), 0  t  , find 2 , 2 , 2 .
2 dt dt dx
dy y
43. If x m y m  ( x  y ) m  n , then show that  .
dx x
dy 2 y
44. If x16 y 9  ( x 2  y )17 , then show that  .
dx x
 t d2y
45. If x  a sin t , y  a  cos t  log tan  , then find .
 2 dx 2
dy (1  log y )2
46. If y x  e y  x , then show that  .
dx log y
dy log x
47. If x y  e x  y , then show that 
dx (1  log x)2
 2 x 1.3x 
48. Differentiate the following with respect to x : sin 1  x 
 1  (36) 
d2y 
49. If x = a cos3 and y = a sin3, then find the value of 2
at   .
dx 6
2
dy sin (a  y )
50. If x sin (a + y) + sin a cos(a + y) = 0, prove that  .
dx sin a
d2y dy
51. If y = sin (log x), then prove that x 2 2  x  y  0 .
dx dx
52. Show that the function f(x) = 2x – |x| is continuous but not differentiable at x = 0.
 1  x2 
53. Differentiate tan 1 
 x 
 
 
 with respect to cos1 2 x 1  x 2 .

 1 x 1 
2
 2x 
54. Differentiate tan 1   with respect to sin 1  2 
.
 x  1 x 
 
2
x d 2 y 1  dy  y
55. If y  x , then show that     0
dx 2 y  dx  x

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Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 120 -
CHAPTER – 10: VECTOR ALGEBRA
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks
NCERT Important Questions & Answers

1. Find the unit vector in the direction of the sum of the vectors, a  2i  2 j  5k and

b  2i  j  3k
Ans:
  
The sum of the given vectors is a  b ( c, say )  4i  3 j  2k
 2 2 2
and | c | 4  3  (2)  29
Thus, the required unit vector is
1  1 4  3  2 
c   c  (4i  3 j  2k )  i j k
|c| 29 29 29 29

2. Show that the points are A(2i  j  k ), B (i  3 j  5k ), C (3i  4 j  4k ) the vertices of a right angled
triangle.
Ans:

We have AB  (1  2)i  (3  1) j  (5  1)k  i  2 j  6k

BC  (3  1)i  (4  3) j  (4  5)k  2i  j  k

and CA  (2  3)i  (1  4) j  (1  4)k  i  3 j  5k
  
Then | AB |2  41,| BC |2  6,| CA |2  35
  
| AB |2 | BC |2  | CA |2
Hence, the triangle is a right angled triangle.

3. Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the points A(1, 2, –3) and B(–1, –2, 1), directed
from A to B.
Ans:
The given points are A(1,2, − 3) and B(−1, −2,1).

Then AB  (1  1)i  (2  2) j  (1  (3))k  2i  4 j  4k

Now, | AB | 4  16  16  36  6
 1  1 1 2 2
 unit vector along AB =  AB  (2i  4 j  4k )   i  j  k
| AB | 6 3 3 3
1 2 2
Hence direction cosines are  ,  ,
3 3 3
4. Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q whose
position vectors are i  2 j  k and i  j  k respectively, in the ratio 2 : 1 (i) internally (ii)
externally
Ans:
The position vector of a point R divided the line segment joining two points P and Q in the ratio m: n
is given by
 
mb  na
Case I Internally 
mn
 
mb  na
Case II Externally 
mn
 
Position vectors of P and Q are given as OP  i  2 j  k , OQ  i  j  k
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(i) Position vector of R [dividing (PQ ) in the ratio 2 : 1 internally]
 
mOQ  nOP 2(i  j  k )  1(i  2 j  k ) i  4 j  k 1  4  1 
    i j k
mn 2 1 3 3 3 3
(i) Position vector of R [dividing (PQ ) in the ratio 2 : 1 externally]
 
mOQ  nOP 2(i  j  k )  1(i  2 j  k ) 3i  0 j  3k  
    3i  3k
mn 2 1 1

5. Find the position vector of the mid point of the vector joining the points P(2, 3, 4) and
Q(4, 1, –2).
Ans:
 
Position vectors of P and Q are given as OP  2i  3 j  4k , OQ  4i  j  2k
The position vector of the mid point of the vector joining the points P(2, 3, 4) and Q(4, 1, –2) is
given by
1   1  
Position Vector of the mid-point of (PQ) = OQ  OP  4i  j  2k  2i  3 j  4k
   
2 2
1  
 6i  4 j  2k  3i  2 j  k
 
2
 
6. Show that the points A, B and C with position vectors, a  3i  4 j  4k , b  2i  j  k and

c  i  3 j  5k respectively form the vertices of a right angled triangle.
Ans:
Position vectors of points A, B and C are respectively given as
  
a  3i  4 j  4k , b  2i  j  k and c  i  3 j  5k
  
Now, AB  b  a  2i  j  k  3i  4 j  4k  i  3 j  5k

| AB |2  1  9  25  35
  
BC  c  b  i  3 j  5k  2i  j  k  i  2 j  6k

| BC |2  1  4  36  41
  
CA  a  c  3i  4 j  4k  i  3 j  5k  2i  j  k

| CA |2  4  1  1  6
  
| BC |2 | AB |2  | CA |2
Hence it form the vertices of a right angled triangle.
 
7. Find angle ‘θ’ between the vectors a  i  j  k and b  i  j  k
Ans:  
The angle θ between two vectors a and b is given by

a.b
cos    
| a || b |

Now, a.b  (i  j  k ).(i  j  k )  1  1  1  1
1  1 
Therefore, we have cos      cos 1  
3  3 
     
8. If a  5i  j  3k and b  i  3 j  5k , then show that the vectors a  b and a  b are
perpendicular.
Ans:
We know that two nonzero vectors are perpendicular if their scalar product is zero.
 
Here, a  b  5i  j  3k  i  3 j  5k  6i  2 j  8k
 
and a  b  5i  j  3k  i  3 j  5k  4i  4 j  2k
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 122 -
   
Now, (a  b).(a  b)  (6i  2 j  8k ).(4i  4 j  2k )  24  8  16  0
   
Hence a  b and a  b are perpendicular.
      
9. Find | a  b | , if two vectors a and b are such that | a | 2 , | b | 3 and a.b = 4.
Ans:
We have
         
| a  b |2  (a  b).(a  b)  a.a  a.b  b.a  b.b
  
| a |2 2(a.b) | b |2  22  2(4)  32  4  8  9  5
 
| a  b | 5
10. Show that the points A(2i  3 j  5k ), B (i  2 j  3k ), C (7i  k ) are collinear.
Ans:
We have

AB  (1  2)i  (2  3) j  (3  5)k  3i  j  2k

BC  (7  1)i  (0  2) j  (1  3) k  6i  2 j  4k

CA  (7  2)i  (0  3) j  (1  5)k  9i  3 j  6k
  
Now, | AB |2  14,| BC |2  56,| CA |2  126
  
| AB | 14,| BC | 2 14,| CA | 3 14
  
| CA || AB |  | BC |
Hence the points A, B and C are collinear.
        
11. If a, b, c are unit vectors such that a  b  c  0 , find the value of a.b  b.c  c.a
Ans:
     
Given that | a | 1,| b | 1,| c | 1, a  b  c  0
        
(a  b  c) 2  (a  b  c ).(a  b  c)  0
         
 a.a  a.b  a.c  b.b  b.c  b.a  c.a  c.b  c.c  0
     
| a | 2  | b | 2  | c | 2 2(a.b  b.c  c.a )  0
  
 1  1  1  2( a.b  b.c  c.a)  0
  
 2(a.b  b.c  c.a )  3
      3
 a.b  b.c  c.a 
2

12. If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are (1, 2, 3), (–1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 2), respectively, then find
 ABC.
Ans:
We are given the points A(1, 2, 3), B(−1, 0, 0) and C(0, 1, 2). 

Also, it is given that  ABC is the angle between the vectors BA and BC

Now, BA  (i  2 j  3k )  (i  0 j  0k )  2i  2 j  3k

| BA | 4  4  9  17

and BC  (0i  j  2k )  (i  0 j  0k )  i  j  2k

| BC | 1  1  4  6
 
BA.BC  (2i  2 j  3k ).(i  j  2k )  2  2  6  10
 
BA.BC 10 10
cos      cos ABC  
| BA || BC | ( 17)( 6) 102

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 10 
 ABC  cos 1  
 102 

13. Show that the points A(1, 2, 7), B(2, 6, 3) and C(3, 10, –1) are collinear.
Ans:
The given points are A(1, 2, 7), B (2, 6, 3) and C(3, 10, −1).

AB  (2i  6 j  3k )  (i  2 j  7 k )  i  4 j  4k

| AB | 1  16  16  33

BC  (3i  10 j  k )  (2i  6 j  3k )  i  4 j  4k

| BC | 1  16  16  33

and AC  (3i  10 j  k )  (i  2 j  7 k )  2i  8 j  8k

| AC | 4  64  64  132  2 33
  
| AC || AB |  | BC |
Hence, the given points A, B and C are collinear.

14. Show that the vectors 2i  j  k , i  3 j  5k and 3i  4 j  4k form the vertices of a right angled
triangle.
Ans:
Let A= 2i  j  k B = i  3 j  5k and C = 3i  4 j  4k

AB  (i  3 j  5k )  (2i  j  k )  i  2 j  6k

| AB | 1  4  36  41

BC  (3i  4 j  4k )  (i  3 j  5k )  2i  j  k

| BC | 4  1  1  6

and AC  (3i  4 j  4k )  (2i  j  k )  i  3 j  5k

| AC | 1  9  25  35
  
| AB |2 | AC |2  | BC |2
Hence, ABC is a right angled triangle.
   
15. Find a unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors (a  b) and (a  b) , where
 
a  i  j  k , b  i  2 j  3k .
Ans:
   
We have a  b  2i  3 j  4k and a  b   j  2k
   
A vector which is perpendicular to both (a  b) and (a  b) is given by
i j k
    
(a  b)  (a  b)  2 3 4  2i  4 j  2k (  c, say )
0 1 2

Now, | c | 4  16  4  24  2 6
Therefore, the required unit vector is
1  1 1  2  2 
c   c  (2i  4 j  2k )  i j k
|c| 2 6 6 6 6
16. Find the area of a triangle having the points A(1, 1, 1), B(1, 2, 3) and C(2, 3, 1) as its vertices.
Ans:
 
We have AB  j  2k and AC  i  2 j .

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1  
The area of the given triangle is | AB  AC |
2
i j k
 
Now, AB  AC  0 1 2  4i  2 j  k
1 2 0
 
Therefore, | AB  AC | 16  4  1  21
1   1
Thus, the required area is | AB  AC | 21
2 2

17. Find the area of a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are given by the vectors a  3i  j  4k

and b  i  j  k .
Ans:    
The area of a parallelogram with a and b as its adjacent sides is given by | a  b |
i j k
 
Now, a  b  3 1 4  5i  j  4k
1 1 1
 
Therefore, | a  b | 25  1  16  42
and hence, the required area is 42 .

18. Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1, 1, 2), B(2, 3, 5) and C(1, 5, 5).
Ans:

AB  (2i  3 j  5k )  (i  j  2k )  i  2 j  3k

AC  (i  5 j  5k )  (i  j  2k )  4 j  3k
i j k
 
Now, AB  AC  1 2 3  6i  3 j  4k
0 4 3
 
| AB  AC | 36  9  16  61
1   61
Area of triangle ABC = | AB  AC | sq. units.
2 2
19. Find the area of the parallelogram whose adjacent sides are determined by the vectors
 
a  i  j  3k and b  2i  7 j  k .
Ans:
 
Adjacent sides of parallelogram are given by the vectors a  i  j  3k and b  2i  7 j  k .
i j k
 
Now, a  b  1 1 3  20i  5 j  5k
2 7 1
 
| a  b | 400  25  25  450  15 2
Hence, the area of the given parallelogram is 15 2 sq. units.
    2  
20. Let the vectors a and b be such that | a | 3 and | b | , then a  b is a unit vector, find the
  3
angle between a and b .
Ans:

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    2
Given that vectors a and b be such that | a | 3 and | b | .
   
3
Also, a  b is a unit vector  | a  b | 1
  2
| a | . | b | sin   1  3  sin   1
3
1 
 sin    
2 4
21. If i  j  k , 2i  5 j , 3i  2 j  3k and i  6 j  k are the position vectors of points A, B, C and D
respectively, then find the angle between AB and CD . Deduce that AB and CD are collinear.
Ans:
Note that if θ is the angle between AB and CD , then θ is also the angle between AB and CD .
Now AB = Position vector of B – Position vector of A
= (2i  5 j )  (i  j  k )  i  4 j  k

Therefore, | AB | 1  16  1  18  3 2
 
Similarly, CD  2i  8 j  2k | CD | 4  64  4  72  6 2
 
AB.CD 1(2)  4(8)  (1)(2)
Thus, cos       1
| AB || CD | (3 2)(6 2)
Since 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, it follows that θ = π. This shows that AB and CD are collinear.
     
22. Let a , b and c be three vectors such that | a | 3,| b | 4,| c | 5 and each one of them being
  
perpendicular to the sum of the other two, find | a  b  c | .
Ans:
Given that each one of them being perpendicular to the sum of the other two.
        
Therefore, a.(b  c )  0, b.(c  a)  0, c.(a  b)  0
           
Now, | a  b  c |2  (a  b  c )2  (a  b  c).(a  b  c )
            
 a.a  a.(b  c)  b.b  b.(c  a )  c.(a  b)  c.c
  
| a | 2  | b | 2  | c | 2
 9  16  25  50
  
Therefore, | a  b  c | 50  5 2

23. Find a vector of magnitude 5 units, and parallel to the resultant of the vectors a  2i  3 j  k

and b  i  2 j  k .
Ans:
 
Given vectors a  2i  3 j  k and b  i  2 j  k .
  
Let c be the resultant vector a and b then

c  (2i  3 j  k )  (i  2 j  k )  3i  j  0k

| c | 9  1  0  10
 1  1
 Unit vector in the direction of c = c   c  (3i  j )
|c| 10
 
Hence, the vector of magnitude 5 units and parallel to the resultant of vectors a and b is
1 3 10  10 
5c  5 (3i  j )   i j
10 2 2

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24. The two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 2i  4 j  5k and i  2 j  3k . Find the unit vector
parallel to its diagonal. Also, find its area.
Ans:
 
Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are given by a  2i  4 j  5k and b  i  2 j  3k
  
Then the diagonal of a parallelogram is given by c  a  b
  
 c  a  b  2i  4 j  5k  i  2 j  3k  3i  6 j  2k

| c | 9  36  4  49  7
1  1 3 6 2
Unit vector parallel to its diagonal = c   c  (3i  6 j  2k )  i  j  k
|c| 7 7 7 7
i j k
 
Now, a  b  2 4 5  22i  11j  0k
1 2 3
 
Then the area of a parallelogram = | a  b | 484  121  0  605  11 5 sq. units.
   
25. Let a  i  4 j  2k , b  3i  2 j  7 k and c  2i  j  4k . Find a vector d which is perpendicular
   
to both a and b and c.d  15 .
Ans:
   
The vector which is perpendicular to both a and b must be parallel to a  b .
i j k
 
Now, a  b  1 4 2  32i  j  14k
3 2 7
  
Let d   (a  b)   (32i  j  14k )
 
Also c.d  15  (2i  j  4k ). (32i  j  14k )  15
15 5
 64    56  15  9  15    
9 3
 5
 Required vector d  (32i  j  14k )
3
26. The scalar product of the vector i  j  k with a unit vector along the sum of vectors
2i  4 j  5k and  i  2 j  3k is equal to one. Find the value of λ.
  
Ans: Let a = i  j  k , b = 2i  4 j  5k and c =  i  2 j  3k
 
Now, b  c  2i  4 j  5k   i  2 j  3k  (2   )i  6 j  2k
 
| b  c | (2   )2  36  4  4   2  4  40   2  4  44
 
  bc (2   )i  6 j  2k
Unit vector along b  c is   
|bc|  2  4  44
The scalar product of i  j  k with this unit vector is 1.
 
b c (2   )i  6 j  2k
 (i  j  k ).    1  (i  j  k ). 1
|bc|  2  4  44
(2   )  6  2  6
 1 1
2 2
  4  44   4  44
   6   2  4  44  (  6)2   2  4  44
  2  12  36   2  4  44  8  8    1

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27. If with reference to the right handed system of mutually perpendicular unit vectors i, j and k ,
        
  3i  j ,   2i  j  3k , then express  in the form   1   2 , where 1 is parallel to  and  2 is

perpendicular to  
Ans:
  
Let 1   ,  is a scalar, i.e. 1  3i   j .
  
Now,  2    1  (2  3 )i  (1   ) j  3k
   
Now, since  2 is perpendicular to  , we should have    2 0. i.e.,
3(2  3 )  (1   )  0
 6  9  1    0  5  10  0
5 1
 10  5    
10 2
 3 1  1 3
Therefore, 1  i  j and  2  i  j  3k
2 2 2 2
  
28. If a , b and c are mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitudes, show that the vector
     
a  b  c is equally inclined to a , b and c .
Ans:   
Given that a , b and c are mutually perpendicular vectors.
  
 a.b  b.c  c.a  0
  
It is also given that | a || b || c |
     
Let vector a  b  c be inclined to a , b and c at angles andrespectively.
       
(a  b  c).a a.a  b.a  c.a | a |2 0  0
cos                
| a  b  c || a | | a  b  c || a | | a  b  c || a |
 2 
|a| |a|
        
| a  b  c || a | | a  b  c |
       
(a  b  c).b a.b  b.b  c.b 0 | b |2 0
cos                
| a  b  c || b | | a  b  c || a | | a  b  c || a |
 2 
|b| |b|
        
| a  b  c || a | | a  b  c |
       
(a  b  c).c a.c  b.c  c.c 0  0 | c |2
cos                
| a  b  c || c | | a  b  c || a | | a  b  c || a |
 
| c |2 |c|
        
| a  b  c || a | | a  b  c |
  
Now as | a || b || c | , therefore, cos = cos = cos
      
Hence, the vector a  b  c is equally inclined to a , b and c .

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CHAPTER – 10: VECTOR ALGEBRA
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions & Answers)

1. Write the projection of vector i  j  k along the vector j .


Ans:
(i  j  k ). j 0 1 0 1
Required projection    1
| j | 0 1 0 1

2. Find a vector in the direction of vector 2i  3 j  6k which has magnitude 21 units.
Ans:
 2i  3 j  6k   2i  3 j  6k 
Required vector  21   21 
 4  9  36   49
   
 2i  3 j  6k 
 21
   3(2i  3 j  6k )  6i  9 j  18k
 7 
        
3. Show that the vectors a  b , b  c and c  a are coplanar if a, b, c are coplanar.
Ans:
     
Let a, b, c are coplanar then we have  a b c   0
        
 a.(b  c )  b.(c  a )  c.(a  b)  0
           
Now,  a  b b  c c  a   (a  b).{(b  c)  (c  a)}
         
 (a  b).{b  c  b  a  c  c  c  a}
       
 (a  b).{b  c  b  a  c  a}
                 
 a.(b  c)  a.(b  a)  a.(c  a)  b.(b  c)  b.(b  a )  b.(c  a)
     
  a b c   0  0  0  0  b c a 
     
  a b c    a b c 
  
 2  a b c   2  0  0
  
Hence, a, b, c are coplanar
        
4. Show that the vectors a, b, c are coplanar if a  b , b  c and c  a are coplanar.
Ans:
    
Let a  b, b  c, c  a are coplanar
     
 (a  b).{(b  c )  (c  a )}  0
         
 (a  b).{b  c  b  a  c  c  c  a}  0
       
 (a  b).{b  c  b  a  c  a}  0
                 
 a.(b  c )  a.(b  a )  a.(c  a)  b.(b  c)  b.(b  a)  b.(c  a )  0
  
  a b c   0  0  0  0  0
  
  a b c   0
  
 a, b, c are coplanar

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
5. Write a unit vector in the direction of vector PQ , where P and Q are the points (1, 3, 0) and
(4, 5, 6) respectively.
Ans:

PQ  (4  1)i  (5  3) j  (6  0)k  3i  2 j  6k
3i  2 j  6k 3i  2 j  6k 3i  2 j  6k 3  2  6 
 Required unit vector =    i j k
9  4  36 49 7 7 7 7
6. Write the value of the following : i  ( j  k )  j  (k  i )  k  (i  j )
Ans:
i  ( j  k )  j  (k  i )  k  (i  j )

 i  j  i  k  j  k  j  i  k  i  k  j
 k  j  i  k  j  i  0

7. Find the value of 'p' for which the vectors 3i  2 j  9k and i  2 p j  3k are parallel.
Ans:
Since given two vectors are parallel.
3 2 9 3 2
    
1 2 p 3 1 2 p
1
 6 p  2  p  
3
     
8. Find a.(b  c) , if a  2i  j  3k , b  i  2 j  k and c  3i  j  2k .
Ans:
  
Given that a  2i  j  3k , b  i  2 j  k and c  3i  j  2k
2 1 3
  
 a.(b  c)  1 2 1  2(4  1)  1(2  3)  3(1  6)
3 1 2
 6  5  21  10
9. Show that the four points A, B, C and D with position vectors 4i  5 j  k ,  j  k ,3i  9 j  4k and
4(i  j  k ) are coplanar.
Ans:
Position vectors of A, B, C and D are
Position vector of A = 4i  5 j  k
Position vector of B =  j  k
Position vector of C = 3i  9 j  4k
Position vector of D = 4(i  j  k ) = 4i  4 j  4k
  
 AB  4i  6 j  2k , AC  i  4 j  3k , AD  8i  j  3k
4 6 2
  
Now, AB.( AC  AD)  1 4 3  4(12  3)  6(3  24)  2(1  32)
8 1 3
 60  126  66  0
  
 AB.( AC  AD )  0
  
Hence AB, AC and AD are coplanar i.e. A, B, C and D are coplanar.

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  
10. Find a vector a of magnitude 5 2 , making an angle of with x-axis., with y-axis and an
4 2
acute angle  with z-axis.
Ans:

Direction cosines of required vector a are
 1 
l  cos  , m  cos  0 and n  cos 
4 2 2
l  m  n  1
2 2 2

2
 1  2 2 1 1
   0  cos   1  cos   1  2  2
 2
1 1
 cos   n
2 2
 1   1 
 Unit vector in the direction of a  i 0 j  k
2 2
  1   1   
 a 5 2 i0j k   5i  5k
 2 2 
     
11. If a and b are perpendicular vectors, | a  b | = 13 and | a | = 5 find the value of | b |.
Ans:
 
Given | a  b | = 13
     
| a  b |2  169  (a  b).(a  b)  169
  
| a |2 2a.b  | b |2  169
    
| a |2  | b |2  169  a  b  a.b  0 
 
 2  2
| b |  169 | a |  169  25  144

| b | 12

12. Find the projection of the vector i  3 j  7k on the vector 2i  3 j  6k .
Ans:
 
Let a = i  3 j  7k and b = 2i  3 j  6k

  a.b (i  3 j  7 k ).(2i  3 j  6k )
Projection of the vector a on b =  
|b| | 2i  3 j  6k |
2  9  42 35 35
   5
4  9  36 49 7
   
13. If a and b are two unit vectors such that a  b is also a unit vector, then find the angle
 
between a and b .
Ans:  
Given that a  b is also a unit vector
 
 |ab | = 1
     
| a  b |2  (a  b).(a  b)
  
| a |2 2a.b  | b |2  12  1
  
 1  2a.b  1  1 | a | 1,| b | 1
 
  1   1
 2a.b  1  a.b   | a || b | cos   
2 2

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1 1 2
 1 1 cos     cos     cos   cos
2 2 3
2
 
3
  
14. Prove that, for any three vectors a, b, c
        
a  b b  c c  a  2 a b c
   
Ans:
           
 a  b b  c c  a   (a  b).{(b  c)  (c  a)}
 
         
 (a  b).{b  c  b  a  c  c  c  a}
       
 (a  b).{b  c  b  a  c  a}
                 
 a.(b  c)  a.(b  a)  a.(c  a)  b.(b  c)  b.(b  a )  b.(c  a)
     
  a b c   0  0  0  0  b c a 
     
  a b c    a b c 
  
 2  a b c 
        
15. Vectors a, b, c are such that a  b  c = 0 and | a | 3, | b | 5 and | c | 7 . Find the angle
 
between a and b .
Ans:
     
a  b  c  0  a  b  c
  
 ( a  b) 2  (  c ) 2
    
| (a  b).(a  b)  c.c
    
| a |2 2a.b  | b |2 | c |2  9  2a.b  25  49

 2a.b  49  25  9  15
  15   15
 a.b  | a || b | cos  
2 2
15 1 
 3  5  cos    cos    cos   cos
2 2 3

 
3
     
16. If a is a unit vector and ( x  a )( x  a )  24 , then write the value of | x |.
Ans:
   
Given that ( x  a )( x  a )  24
   
 x.x  x.a  a.x  a.a  24
   
| x |2  | a |2  24  x.a  a.x 
 
 2  2 
| x | 1  24 | x |  25 | x | 5
  
17. For any three vectors a, b and c , write the value of the following:
        
a  (b  c )  b  (c  a )  c  ( a  b )
Ans:
        
a  (b  c )  b  (c  a )  c  ( a  b )
           
 ab  ac  bc  ba  ca  cb
           
 ab  ac  bc  ab  ac bc  0

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18. The magnitude of the vector product of the vector i  j  k with a unit vector along the sum of
vectors 2i  4 j  5k and  i  2 j  3k is equal to 2 . Find the value of .
Ans:
  
Let a = i  j  k , b = 2i  4 j  5k and c =  i  2 j  3k
 
Now, b  c  2i  4 j  5k   i  2 j  3k  (2   )i  6 j  2k
 
| b  c | (2   )2  36  4  4   2  4  40   2  4  44
The vector product of i  j  k with this unit vector is 2 .
    
 bc a  (b  c)
 a    2     2
|bc| |bc|
i j k
  
Now, a  (b  c )  1 1 1  (2  6)i  (2  2   ) j  (6  2   ) k
2 6 2

 8i  (4   ) j  (4   ) k
  
a  (b  c ) 8i  (4   ) j  (4   )k
    2  2
|bc|  2  4  44
64  (4   )2  (4   ) 2
  2
 2  4  44
64  (4   )2  (4   ) 2 64  16   2  8  16   2  8 96  2 2
 2   2  2
 2  4  44  2  4  44  2  4  44
 96  2 2  2( 2  4  44)  96  2 2  2 2  8  88
 8  8    1
   
19. Find a unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors a  2b and 2a  b , where
 
a  3i  2 j  2k and b  i  2 j  2k .
Ans.
 
Given that a  3i  2 j  2k and b  i  2 j  2k
 
 a  2b  3i  2 j  2k  2(i  2 j  2k )
 3i  2 j  2k  2i  4 j  4k  5i  6 j  2k
 
and 2a  b  2(3i  2 j  2k )  i  2 j  2k
 6i  4 j  4k  i  2 j  2k  7i  6 j  2k
   
Now, perpendicular vector of a  2b and 2a  b
i j k
= 5 6 2  (12  12)i  (10  14) j  (30  42) k
7 6 2

 24i  24 j  12k  12(2i  2 j  k )


12(2i  2 j  k ) 2i  2 j  k
 Required unit vector =  
12 4  4  1 9
2i  2 j  k 2 2 1 
    i  j  k 
3 3 3 3 

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     
20. If a  i  j  7k and b  5i  j   k , then find the value of , so that a  b and a  b are
perpendicular vectors.
Ans:
 
Given that a  i  j  7k and b  5i  j   k
 
 a  b  i  j  7 k  5i  j   k  6i  2 j  (7   )k
 
and a  b  i  j  7k  5i  j   k  4i  (7   )k
   
Now, a  b and a  b are perpendicular vectors
   
 (a  b).(a  b)  0
 (6i  2 j  (7   )k ).(4i  (7   ) k  0
 24  0  (7   )(7   )  0
 24  49   2  0   2  25    5

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CHAPTER – 12: LINEAR PROGRAMMING
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

1. Determine graphically the minimum value of the objective function Z = – 50x + 20y subject to
the constraints:
2x – y ≥ – 5; 3x + y ≥ 3 ; 2x – 3y ≤ 12 ; x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0
Ans:
Given that Z = – 50x + 20y ... (1)
2x – y ≥ – 5 ... (2)
3x + y ≥ 3 ... (3)
2x – 3y ≤ 12 ... (4)
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 ... (5)

First of all, let us graph the feasible region of the system of inequalities (2) to (5). The feasible
region (shaded) is shown in the below figure. Observe that the feasible region is unbounded. We
now evaluate Z at the corner points.

From this table, we find that – 300 is the smallest value of Z at the corner point (6, 0).
We know that if the region would have been bounded, this smallest value of Z is the minimum value
of Z. But here we see that the feasible region is unbounded. Therefore, – 300 may or may not be the
minimum value of Z.

To decide this issue, we graph the inequality – 50x + 20y < – 300 (see Step 3(ii) of corner Point
Method.) i.e., – 5x + 2y < – 30 and check whether the resulting open half plane has points in
common with feasible region or not. If it has common points, then –300 will not be the minimum
value of Z. Otherwise, –300 will be the minimum value of Z.

As shown in the above figure, it has common points. Therefore, Z = –50 x + 20 y has no minimum
value subject to the given constraints.

2. Solve the following Linear Programming Problems graphically:


Maximise Z = 5x + 3y subject to 3x + 5y ≤ 15, 5x + 2y ≤ 10, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.
Ans:

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Our problem is to maximize Z = 5x + 3y …(i)
Subject to constraints 3x + 5y ≤ 15 …(ii)
5x + 2y ≤ 10 (iii)
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)
Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 5y = 15
Secondly, draw the graph of the line 5x + 2y = 10
20 45
On solving given equations 3x + 5y = 15 and 5x + 2y = 10, we get x = ,y=
19 19
 Feasible region is OABCO (see the below figure).

 20 45 
The corner points of the feasible region are O(0, 0), A(2, 0), B  ,  and C(0, 3) The values of Z
 19 19 
at these points are as follows:

235  20 45 
Therefore, the maximum value of Z is at the point B  ,  .
19  19 19 
3. Show that the minimum of Z occurs at more than two points.
Minimise and Maximise Z = x + 2y subject to x + 2y ≥ 100, 2x – y ≤ 0, 2x + y ≤ 200; x, y ≥ 0.
Ans:
Our problem is to minimize and maximize
Z = x + 2y …(i)
Subject to constraints are x + 2y ≥ 100 …(ii)
2x − y ≤ 0 …(iii)
2x + y ≤ 200 …(iv)
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x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(v)
Firstly, draw the graph of the line x + 2y = 100
Secondly, draw the graph of line 2x − y = 0
Thirdly, draw the graph of line 2x + y = 200
On solving equations 2x − y = 0 and x + 2y = 100, we get B(20, 40) and on solving the equations 2x
− y = 0 and 2x + y = 200, we get C(50, 100).
 Feasible region is ABCDA (see below figure)

The corner points of the feasible region are A(0, 50), B(20, 40), C(50, 100) and D(0, 200). The
values of Z at these points are as follows:

The maximum value of Z is 400 at D(0, 200) and the minimum value of Z is 100 at all the points
on the line segment joining A(0, 50) and B(20, 40).

4. A dietician wishes to mix two types of foods in such a way that vitamin contents of the mixture
contain atleast 8 units of vitamin A and 10 units of vitamin C. Food ‘I’ contains 2 units/kg of
vitamin A and 1 unit/kg of vitamin C. Food ‘II’ contains 1 unit/kg of vitamin A and 2 units/kg
of vitamin C. It costs Rs 50 per kg to purchase Food ‘I’ and Rs 70 per kg to purchase Food ‘II’.
Formulate this problem as a linear programming problem to minimise the cost of such a
mixture.
Ans:
Let the mixture contain x kg of Food ‘I’ and y kg of Food ‘II’. Clearly, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0. We make the
following table from the given data:

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Since the mixture must contain at least 8 units of vitamin A and 10 units of vitamin C, we have the
constraints:
2x + y ≥ 8
x + 2y ≥ 10
Total cost Z of purchasing x kg of food ‘I’ and y kg of Food ‘II’ is Z = 50x + 70y
Hence, the mathematical formulation of the problem is:
Minimise Z = 50x + 70y ... (1)
subject to the constraints:
2x + y ≥ 8 ... (2)
x + 2y ≥ 10 ... (3)
x, y ≥ 0 ... (4)
Let us graph the inequalities (2) to (4). The feasible region determined by the system is shown in the
below figure. Here again, observe that the feasible region is unbounded.

Let us evaluate Z at the corner points A(0,8), B(2,4) and C(10,0).


In the table, we find that smallest value of Z is 380 at the point (2,4). We know that the feasible
region is unbounded. Therefore, we have to draw the graph of the inequality 50x + 70y < 380 i.e., 5x
+ 7y < 38 to check whether the resulting open half plane has any point common with the feasible
region. From the above figure, we see that it has no points in common.
Thus, the minimum value of Z is 380 attained at the point (2, 4). Hence, the optimal mixing strategy
for the dietician would be to mix 2 kg of Food ‘I’ and 4 kg of Food ‘II’, and with this strategy, the
minimum cost of the mixture will be Rs 380.
5. Reshma wishes to mix two types of food P and Q in such a way that the vitamin contents of the
mixture contain at least 8 units of vitamin A and 11 units of vitamin B. Food P costs Rs 60/kg
and Food Q costs Rs 80/kg. Food P contains 3 units/kg of Vitamin A and 5 units / kg of
Vitamin B while food Q contains 4 units/kg of Vitamin A and 2 units/kg of vitamin B.
Determine the minimum cost of the mixture.
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Ans:
Let Reshma mixes x kg of food P and y kg of food Q.
Construct the following table:

The mixture must contain atleast 8 units of vitamin A and 11 units of Vitamin B. Total cost Z of
purchasing food is Z = 60x + 80y
The mathematical formulation of the given problem is
Minimize Z = 60x + 80y …(i)
Subject to the constraints 3x + 4y ≥ 8 …(ii)
5x + 2y ≥ 11 …(iii)
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)
Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 4y = 8
Secondly, draw the graph of the line 5x + 2y = 11
 1
On solving equations 3x + 4y = 8 and 5x + 2y = 11, we get B  2, 
 2
8   1  11 
The corner points of the feasible region are A  , 0  , B  2,  and C  0,  (see the below figure)
3   2  2

The values of Z at these points are as follows :

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As the feasible region is unbounded, therefore 160 may or may not be the minimum value of Z. For
this, we graph the inequality 60x + 80y < 160 or 3x + 4y < 8 and check whether the resulting half
plane has points in common with the feasible region or not. It can be seen that the feasible region has
no common point with 3x + 4y < 8 therefore, the minimum cost of the mixture will be Rs. 160 at the
8   1
line segment joining the points A  , 0  and B  2, 
3   2
6. A merchant plans to sell two types of personal computers – a desktop model and a portable
model that will cost Rs 25000 and Rs 40000 respectively. He estimates that the total monthly
demand of computers will not exceed 250 units. Determine the number of units of each type of
computers which the merchant should stock to get maximum profit if he does not want to
invest more than Rs 70 lakhs and if his profit on the desktop model is Rs 4500 and on portable
model is Rs 5000.
Ans:
Let the manufacturer produces x pedestal lamps and y wooden shades everyday. We construct the
following table :

The profit on a lamp is Rs. 5 and on the shades is Rs. 3.


Our problem is to maximize Z = 5x + 3y …(i)
Subject to the constraints 2x + y ≤ 12 …(ii) 3x + 2y ≤ 20 …(iii) x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)
Firstly, draw the graph of the line 2x + y = 12
Secondly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 2y = 20
On solving equations 2x + y = 12 and 3x + 2y = 20, we get B(4, 4).
 Feasible region is OABCO. (see below figure)

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The corner points of the feasible region are O(0, 0), A(6, 0), B(4, 4) and C(0, 10). The values of Z
at these points are as follows:

The maximum value of Z is Rs. 32 at B(4, 4).


Thus, the manufacturer should produce 4 pedestal lamps and 4 wooden shades to maximize his
profits.
7. A diet is to contain at least 80 units of vitamin A and 100 units of minerals. Two foods F1 and
F2 are available. Food F1 costs Rs 4 per unit food and F2 costs Rs 6 per unit. One unit of food
F1 contains 3 units of vitamin A and 4 units of minerals. One unit of food F2 contains 6 units of
vitamin A and 3 units of minerals. Formulate this as a linear programming problem. Find the
minimum cost for diet that consists of mixture of these two foods and also meets the minimal
nutritional requirements.
Ans:
Let the diet contains x unit of food F1 and y units of food F2. We construct the following table :

The cost of food F1 is Rs. 4 per unit and of food F2 is Rs. 6 per unit.
So, our problem is to minimize Z = 4x + 6y …(i)
Subject to constraints 3x + 6y ≥ 80 …(ii) 4x + 3y ≥ 100 …(iii) x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)
Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 6y = 80
Secondly, draw the graph of the line 4x + 3y = 100
 4
On solving the equations 3x + 6y = 80 and4x + 3y = 100, we get B  24, 
 3

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It can be seen that the feasible region is unbounded. (see the below figure)

 80   4  100 
The corner points of the feasible region are A  , 0  and B  24,  and C  0,  . The values
 3   3  3 
of Z at these points are as follows:

As the feasible is unbounded therefore, 104 may or may not be the minimum value of Z.
For this, we draw a graph of the inequality, 4x + 6y < 104 or 2x + 3y < 52 and check, whether the
resulting half plane has points in common with the feasible region or not.
It can be seen that the feasible region has no common point with 2x + 3y < 52
Therefore, the minimum cost of the mixture will be Rs. 104.
8. A dietician has to develop a special diet using two foods P and Q. Each packet (containing 30 g)
of food P contains 12 units of calcium, 4 units of iron, 6 units of cholesterol and 6 units of
vitamin A. Each packet of the same quantity of food Q contains 3 units of calcium, 20 units of
iron, 4 units of cholesterol and 3 units of vitamin A. The diet requires atleast 240 units of
calcium, atleast 460 units of iron and at most 300 units of cholesterol. How many packets of
each food should be used to minimise the amount of vitamin A in the diet? What is the
minimum amount of vitamin A?
Ans:
Let x and y be the number of packets of food P and Q respectively. Obviously
x ≥0, y ≥0. Mathematical formulation of the given problem is as follows:
Minimise Z = 6x + 3y (vitamin A)
subject to the constraints
12x + 3y ≥240 (constraint on calcium), i.e. 4x + y ≥80 ... (1)
4x + 20y ≥460 (constraint on iron), i.e. x + 5y ≥115 ... (2)
6x + 4y ≤300 (constraint on cholesterol), i.e. 3x + 2y ≤150 ... (3)
x ≥0, y ≥0 ... (4)

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Let us graph the inequalities (1) to (4).
The feasible region (shaded) determined by the constraints (1) to (4) is shown in below figure and
note that it is bounded. The coordinates of the corner points L, M and N are (2, 72), (15, 20) and (40,
15) respectively. Let us evaluate Z at these points:

From the table, we find that Z is minimum at the point (15, 20). Hence, the amount of vitamin A
under the constraints given in the problem will be minimum, if 15 packets of food P and 20 packets
of food Q are used in the special diet. The minimum amount of vitamin A will be 150 units.

9. A manufacturer has three machines I, II and III installed in his factory. Machines I and II are
capable of being operated for at most 12 hours whereas machine III must be operated for
atleast 5 hours a day. She produces only two items M and N each requiring the use of all the
three machines. The number of hours required for producing 1 unit of each of M and N on the
three machines are given in the following table:
Number of hours required on
Items machines
I II III
M 1 2 1
N 2 1 1.25
She makes a profit of Rs 600 and Rs 400 on items M and N respectively. How many of each
item should she produce so as to maximise her profit assuming that she can sell all the items
that she produced? What will be the maximum profit?
Ans:
Let x and y be the number of items M and N respectively.
Total profit on the production = Rs (600 x + 400 y)
Mathematical formulation of the given problem is as follows:
Maximise Z = 600 x + 400 y
subject to the constraints:
x + 2y ≤ 12 (constraint on Machine I) ... (1)
2x + y ≤ 12 (constraint on Machine II) ... (2)
5
x + y ≥ 5 (constraint on Machine III) ... (3)
4
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 ... (4)
Let us draw the graph of constraints (1) to (4). ABCDE is the feasible region (shaded) as shown in
below figure determined by the constraints (1) to (4). Observe that the feasible region is bounded,
coordinates of the corner points A, B, C, D and E are (5, 0) (6, 0), (4, 4), (0, 6) and (0, 4)
respectively. Let us evaluate Z = 600 x + 400 y at these corner points.

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We see that the point (4, 4) is giving the maximum value of Z. Hence, the manufacturer has to
produce 4 units of each item to get the maximum profit of Rs 4000.

10. There are two factories located one at place P and the other at place Q. From these locations, a
certain commodity is to be delivered to each of the three depots situated at A, B and C. The
weekly requirements of the depots are respectively 5, 5 and 4 units of the commodity while the
production capacity of the factories at P and Q are respectively 8 and 6 units. The cost of
transportation per unit is given below:
Cost (in Rs.)
From/To
A B C
P 160 100 150
Q 100 120 100

How many units should be transported from each factory to each depot in order that the
transportation cost is minimum. What will be the minimum transportation cost?
Ans:
Let x units and y units of the commodity be transported from the factory at P to the depots at A and B
respectively. Then (8 – x – y) units will be transported to depot at C

Hence, we have x ≥0, y ≥0 and 8 – x – y ≥0


i.e. x ≥0, y ≥0 and x + y ≤8

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Now, the weekly requirement of the depot at A is 5 units of the commodity. Since x units are
transported from the factory at P, the remaining (5 – x) units need to be transported from the factory
at Q. Obviously, 5 – x ≥0, i.e. x ≤5.
Similarly, (5 – y) and 6 – (5 – x + 5 – y) = x + y – 4 units are to be transported from the factory at Q
to the depots at B and C respectively.
Thus, 5 – y ≥0 , x + y – 4 ≥0
i.e. y ≤5 , x + y ≥4
Total transportation cost Z is given by
Z = 160 x + 100 y + 100 ( 5 – x) + 120 (5 – y) + 100 (x + y – 4) + 150 (8 – x – y)
= 10 (x – 7 y + 190)
Therefore, the problem reduces to
Minimise Z = 10 (x – 7y + 190)
subject to the constraints:
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 ... (1)
x + y ≤ 8 ... (2)
x ≤ 5 ... (3)
y ≤ 5 ... (4)
and x + y ≥ 4 ... (5)
The shaded region ABCDEF represented by the constraints (1) to (5) is the feasible region (see
below figure). Observe that the feasible region is bounded. The coordinates of the corner points of
the feasible region are (0, 4), (0, 5), (3, 5), (5, 3), (5, 0) and (4, 0).
Let us evaluate Z at these points.

From the table, we see that the minimum value of Z is 1550 at the point (0, 5).
Hence, the optimal transportation strategy will be to deliver 0, 5 and 3 units from the factory at P and
5, 0 and 1 units from the factory at Q to the depots at A, B and C respectively. Corresponding to this
strategy, the transportation cost would be minimum, i.e., Rs 1550.

11. A farmer mixes two brands P and Q of cattle feed. Brand P, costing Rs 250 per bag, contains 3
units of nutritional element A, 2.5 units of element B and 2 units of element C. Brand Q costing
Rs 200 per bag contains 1.5 units of nutritional element A, 11.25 units of element B, and 3 units
of element C. The minimum requirements of nutrients A, B and C are 18 units, 45 units and 24
units respectively. Determine the number of bags of each brand which should be mixed in
order to produce a mixture having a minimum cost per bag? What is the minimum cost of the
mixture per bag?
Ans:
Let the farmer mixes x bags of brand P and y bags of brand Q. We construct the following table:

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So, our problem is minimize Z = 250x + 200y …(i)
Subject to constraints 3x + 1.5y ≥ 18
 2x + y ≥ 12 …(ii)
2.5x + 11.25y ≥ 45
 2x + 9y ≥ 36 …(iii)
2x + 3y ≥ 24 …(iv)
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(v)
Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 1.5y = 18
Secondly, draw the graph of the line 2.5x + 11.25y = 45
Thirdly, draw the graph of the line 2x + 3y = 24

On solving equations 3x + 1.5y = 18 and 2x + 3y = 24, we get C(3, 6).


Similarly, on solving equations 2.5x + 11.25y = 45 and2x + 3y = 24, we get B(9, 2).
The corner points of the feasible region are A(18, 0), B(9, 2), C(3, 6) and D (0, 12). (See below
figure)

The values of Z at these points are as follows:

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As the feasible region is unbounded, therefore 1950 may or may not be the minimum value of Z.
For this, we draw a graph of the inequality 250x + 200y < 1950 or
5x + 4y < 39 and check, whether the resulting half plane has points in common with the feasible
region or not.
It can be seen that the feasible region has no common point with 5x + 4y < 39.
Therefore, the minimum value of Z is 1950 at C(3, 6).
Thus, 3 bags of brand P and 6 bags of brand Q should be used in the mixture to minimize the cost to
Rs. 1950.

12. A dietician wishes to mix together two kinds of food X and Y in such a way that the mixture
contains at least 10 units of vitamin A, 12 units of vitamin B and 8 units of vitamin C. The
vitamin contents of one kg food is given below:
Food Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C
X 1 2 3
Y 2 2 1
One kg of food X costs Rs 16 and one kg of food Y costs Rs 20. Find the least cost of the
mixture which will produce the required diet?
Ans:
Let the dietician mixes x kg of food X and y kg of food Y. We construct the following table:

So, our problem is to minimize Z = 16x + 20y …(i)


Subject to constraints x + 2y ≥ 10 …(ii)
2x + 2y ≥ 12  x + y ≥ 6 …(iii)
3x + y ≥ 8 …(iv)
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(v)
Firstly, draw the graph of the line x + 2y = 10
Secondly, draw the graph of the line line x + y = 6
Thirdly, draw the graph of the line 3x + y = 8
On solving equations x + y = 6 and x + 2y = 10, we get B(2, 4)
Similarly, solving the equations 3x + y = 8 and x + y = 6, we get C(1, 5).
The corner points of the feasible region are A(10, 0), B(2, 4), C(1, 5) and D(0, 8).

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The values of Z at these points are as follows:

As the feasible region is unbounded, therefore 112 may or may not be the minimum value of Z.
For this,we drawa graph of the inequality,16x + 20y < 112 or4x + 5y < 28 and check, whether the
resulting half plane has points in common with the feasible region or not.
It can be seen that the feasible region has no common point with 4x + 5y < 28.
Therefore, the minimum value of Z is 112 at B(2, 4).
Thus, the mixture should contain 2 kg of food X and 4 kg of food Y. The minimum cost of the
mixture is Rs. 112.

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CHAPTER – 12: LINEAR PROGRAMMING
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions & Answers)

1. A cottage industry manufactures pedestal lamps and wooden shades, each requiring the use of
a grinding/cutting machine and a sprayer. It takes 2 hours on the grinding/cutting machine
and 3 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a pedestal lamp. It takes 1 hour on the
grinding/cutting machine and 2 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a shade. On any day, the
sprayer is available for at the most 20 hours and the grinding/cutting machine for at the most
12 hours. The profit from the sale of a lamp is Rs. 25 and that from a shade is Rs. 15.
Assuming that the manufacturer can sell all the lamps and shades that he produces, how
should he schedule his daily production in order to maximise his profit. Formulate an LPP and
solve it graphically.
Ans:
Let the manufacturer produces x padestal lamps and y wooden shades; then time taken by x pedestal
lamps and y wooden shades on grinding/cutting machines = (2x + y) hours and time taken on the
sprayer = (3x + 2y) hours.
Since grinding/cutting machine is available for at the most 12 hours.
 2x + y  12
and sprayer is available for at most 20 hours. Thus, we have
 3x + 2y  20
Now profit on the sale of x lamps and y shades is,
Z = 25x + 15y.
So, our problem is to find x and y so as to
Maximise Z = 25x + 15y …(i)
Subject to the constraints:
3x + 2y  20 …(ii)
2x + y  12 …(iii)
x  0 …(iv)
y  0 …(v)
The feasible region (shaded) OABC determined by the linear inequalities (ii) to (v) is shown in the
figure. The feasible region is bounded.

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Let us evaluate the objective function at each corner point as shown below:

We find that maximum value of Z is Rs. 160 at B(4, 4). Hence, manufacturer should produce 4 lamps
and 4 shades to get maximum profit of Rs. 160.

2. A manufacturing company makes two types of teaching aids A and B of Mathematics for class
XII. Each type of A requires 9 labour hours of fabricating and 1 labour hour for finishing.
Each type of B requires 12 labour hours for fabricating and 3 labour hours for finishing. For
fabricating and finishing, the maximum labour hours available per week are 180 and 30
respectively. The company makes a profit of Rs. 80 on each piece of type A and Rs. 120 on each
piece of type B. How many pieces of type A and type B should be manufactured per week to get
a maximum profit? Make it as an LPP and solve graphically. What is the maximum profit per
week?
Ans: Let x and y be the number of pieces of type A and B manufactured per week respectively. If Z
be the profit then,
Objective function, Z = 80x + 120y
We have to maximize Z, subject to the constraints
9x + 12y  180  3x + 4y  60 ...(i)
x + 3y  30 ...(ii)
x  0, y  0 ...(iii)
The graph of constraints are drawn and feasible region OABC is obtained, which is bounded having
corner points O(0, 0), A(20, 0), B(12, 6) and C(0, 10)

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Now the value of objective function is obtained at corner points as

Hence, the company will get the maximum profit of Rs. 1,680 by making 12 pieces of type A and 6
pieces of type B of teaching aid.
Yes, teaching aid is necessary for teaching learning process as
(i) it makes learning very easy.
(ii) it provides active learning.
(iii) students are able to grasp and understand concept more easily and in active manner.

3. A dealer in rural area wishes to purchase a number of sewing machines. He has only Rs. 5,760
to invest and has space for at most 20 items for storage. An electronic sewing machine cost him
Rs. 360 and a manually operated sewing machine Rs. 240. He can sell an electronic sewing
machine at a profit of Rs. 22 and a manually operated sewing machine at a profit of Rs. 18.
Assuming that he can sell all the items that he can buy, how should he invest his money in
order to maximise his profit? Make it as a LPP and solve it graphically.
Ans:
Suppose dealer purchase x electronic sewing machines and y manually operated sewing
machines. If Z denotes the total profit. Then according to question
(Objective function) Z = 22x + 18 y
Also, x + y  20
360x + 240y  5760  9x + 6y  144
x  0, y  0.

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We have to maximise Z subject to above constraint.
To solve graphically, at first we draw the graph of line corresponding to given inequations and shade
the feasible region OABC.
The corner points of the feasible region OABC are O(0, 0), A(16, 0), B(8, 12) and C(0, 20).
Now the value of objective function Z at corner points are obtained in table as

From table, it is obvious that Z is maximum when x = 8 and y = 12.


Hence, dealer should purchase 8 electronic sewing machines and 12 manually operated sewing
machines to obtain the maximum profit ` 392 under given condition.

4. An aeroplane can carry a maximum of 200 passengers. A profit of `500 is made on each
executive class ticket out of which 20% will go to the welfare fund of the employees. Similarly a
profit of `400 is made on each economy ticket out of which 25% will go for the improvement of
facilities provided to economy class passengers. In both cases, the remaining profit goes to the
airline’s fund. The airline reserves at least 20 seats for executive class. However at least four
times as many passengers prefer to travel by economy class than by the executive class.
Determine how many tickets of each type must be sold in order to maximise the net profit of
the airline. Make the above as an LPP and solve graphically. Do you think, more passengers
would prefer to travel by such an airline than by others?
Ans:
Let there be x tickets of executive class and y tickets of economy class. Let Z be net profit of the
80 75
airline. Here, we have to maximise z. Now Z = 500x  + y 
100 100
Z = 400x + 300y ....(i)
According to question x  20 ....(ii)
Also x + y  200 ....(iii)
 x + 4x  200  5x  200  x  40 ....(iv)
Shaded region is feasible region having corner points A (20, 0), B (40,0) C (40, 160), D (20,180)

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Now value of Z is calculated at corner point as

Hence, 40 tickets of executive class and 160 tickets of economy class should be sold to maximise the
net profit of the airlines.
Yes, more passengers would prefer to travel by such an airline, because some amount of profit is
invested for welfare fund.

5. A manufacturer considers that men and women workers are equally efficient and so he pays
them at the same rate. He has 30 and 17 units of workers (male and female) and capital
respectively, which he uses to produce two types of goods A and B. To produce one unit of A, 2
workers and 3 units of capital are required while 3 workers and 1 unit of capital is required to
produce one unit of B. If A and B are priced at Rs. 100 and Rs. 120 per unit respectively, how
should he use his resources to maximise the total revenue? Form the above as an LPP and
solve graphically. Do you agree with this view of the manufacturer that men and women
workers are equally efficient and so should be paid at the same rate?
Ans:
Let x, y unit of goods A and B are produced respectively.
Let Z be total revenue
Here Z = 100x + 120y ....(i)
Also 2x + 3y  30 ....(ii) 3x + y  17 ....(iii)
x  0 ....(iv) y  0 ....(v)
On plotting graph of above constants or inequalities (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v). We get shaded region as
feasible region having corner points A, O, B and C.

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For co-ordinate of 'C'
Two equations (ii) and (iii) are solved and we get coordinate of C = (3, 8)
Now the value of Z is evaluated at corner point as:

Therefore maximum revenue is Rs. 1,260 when 2 workers and 8 units capital are used for
production. Yes, although women workers have less physical efficiency but it can be managed by
her other efficiency.
6. A cooperative society of farmers has 50 hectares of land to grow two crops A and B. The
profits from crops A and B per hectare are estimated as `10,500 and `9,000 respectively. To
control weeds, a liquid herbicide has to be used for crops A and B at the rate of 20 litres and 10
litres per hectare, respectively. Further not more than 800 litres of herbicide should be used in
order to protect fish and wildlife using a pond which collects drainage from this land. Keeping
in mind that the protection of fish and other wildlife is more important than earning profit,
how much land should be allocated to each crop so as to maximize the total profit? Form an
LPP from the above and solve it graphically. Do you agree with the message that the
protection of wildlife is utmost necessary to preserve the balance in environment?
Ans:
Let x and y hectare of land be allocated to crop A and B respectively. If Z is the profit then
Z =10500x + 9000 y …(i)
We have to maximize Z subject to the constraints
x + y  50 …(ii)
20x +10y  800  2x + y  80 …(iii) x  0, y  0 …(iv)
The graph of system of inequalities (ii) to (iv) are drawn, which gives feasible region OABC with
corner points O (0, 0), A (40, 0), B (30, 20) and C (0, 50).
Firstly, draw the graph of the line x + y = 50
Secondly, draw the graph of the line 2x + y = 80

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Feasible region is bounded.
Now value of Z is calculated at corner point as

Hence the co-operative society of farmers will get the maximum profit of Rs. 4,95,000 by allocating
30 hectares for crop A and 20 hectares for crop B.
Yes, because excess use of herbicide can make drainage water poisonous and thus it harm the life of
water living creature and wildlife.

7. A company produces soft drinks that has a contract which requires that a minimum of 80
units of the chemical A and 60 units of the chemical B go into each bottle of the drink. The
chemicals are available in prepared mix packets from two different suppliers. Supplier S had a
packet of mix of 4 units of A and 2 units of B that costs Rs. 10. The supplier T has a packet of
mix of 1 unit of A and 1 unit of B costs Rs.4. How many packets of mixed from S and T should
the company purchase to honour the contract requirement and yet minimize cost? Make a
LPP and solve graphically.
Ans:
Let x and y units of packet of mixes are purchased from S and T respectively. If Z is total cost then
Z = 10x + 4y ...(i) is objective function which we have to minimize. Here constraints are.
4x + y  80 ...(ii) 2x + y  60 ...(iii)
Also, x  0 ...(iv) y  0 ...(v)
On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities (ii), (iii) , (iv) and (v) we get shaded region
having corner point A, P, B as feasible region. For coordinate of P

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Point of intersection of
2x + y = 60 ...(vi)
and 4x + y = 80 ...(vii)
(vi) – (vii)  2x + y – 4x – y = 60 – 80
 –2x = –20  x = 10
 y = 40
Since co-ordinate of P = (10, 40)
Now the value of Z is evaluated at corner point in the following table

Since feasible region is unbounded. Therefore we have to draw the graph of the inequality.
10x + 4y < 260 ...(viii)
Since the graph of inequality (viii) does not have any point common.
So the minimum value of Z is 260 at (10, 40).
i.e., minimum cost of each bottle is Rs. 260 if the company purchases 10 packets of mixes from S
and 40 packets of mixes from supplier T.

8. A cottage industry manufactures pedestal lamps and wooden shades, each requiring the use of
grinding/cutting machine and a sprayer. It takes 2 hours on the grinding/cutting machine and
3 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a pedestal lamp. It takes one hour on the
grinding/cutting machine and 2 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a shade. On any day, the
sprayer is available for at the most 20 hours and the grinding/cutting machine for at the most
12 hours. The profit from the sale of a lamp is Rs. 5 and that from a shade is Rs. 3. Assuming
that the manufacturer can sell all the lamps and shades that he produces, how should he
schedule his daily production in order to maximise his profit? Make an L.P.P. and solve it
graphically.
Ans:
Let the number of padestal lamps and wooden shades manufactured by cottage industry be x and y
respectively.
Here profit is the objective function Z.
 Z =5x + 3y … (i)
We have to maximise Z subject to the constrains
2x + y 12 … (ii)
3x + 2y  20 … (iii)
x  0 and y  0 … (iv)
On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities (ii), (iii) and (iv) we get shaded region having
corner point A, B, C as feasible region.

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Since (0, 0) Satisfy 3x 2y 20
Graph of 3x 2y 20 is that half plane in which origin lies.
The shaded area OABC is the feasible region whose corner points are O, A, B and C.
For coordinate B.
Equation 2x y 12 and 3x 2y 20 are solved as
3x 2 (12 2x) 20
3x 24 4x 20 x 4
y 12 8 4
Coordinate of B (4, 4)
Now we evaluate objective function Z at each corner.

Hence maximum profit is ` 32 when manufacturer produces 4 lamps and 4 shades.

9. A merchant plans to sell two types of personal computers — a desktop model and a portable
model that will cost Rs. 25,000 and Rs. 40,000 respectively. He estimates that the total monthly
demand of computers will not exceed 250 units. Determine the number of units of each type of
computers which the merchant should stock to get maximum profit if he does not want to
invest more than Rs. 70 lakhs and his profit on the desktop model is Rs. 4,500 and on the
portable model is Rs. 5,000. Make an L.P.P. and solve it graphically.
Ans:
Let the number of desktop and portable computers to be sold be x and y respectively.
Here, Profit is the objective function Z.
 Z = 4500x + 5000y …(i)
we have to maximise z subject to the constraints
x + y  250 …(ii) (Demand Constraint)
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25000x + 40000y  70,00,000 …(iii) (Investment constraint)
 5x + 8y  1400
x  0, y  0 …(iv) (Non-negative constraint)
On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities, we get shaded region having corner point A,
B, C as feasible region.

For coordinates of C, equation x + y = 250 and 5x + 8y = 1400 are solved and we get x = 200, y = 50
Now, we evaluate objective function Z at each corner

Maximum profit is Rs. 11,50,000 when he plan to sell 200 unit desktop and 50 portable computers.

10. A factory makes two types of items A and B, made of plywood. One piece of item A requires 5
minutes for cutting and 10 minutes for assembling. One piece of item B requires 8 minutes for
cutting and 8 minutes for assembling. There are 3 hours and 20 minutes available for cutting
and 4 hours for assembling. The profit on one piece of item A is Rs 5 and that on item B is Rs
6. How many pieces of each type should the factory make so as to maximise profit? Make it as
an L.P.P. and solve it graphically.
Ans:
Let the factory makes x pieces of item A and B by pieces of item.
Time required by item A (one piece)
cutting = 5 minutes, assembling = 10 minutes
Time required by item B (one piece)
cutting = 8 minutes, assembling = 8 minutes
Total time cutting = 3 hours & 20 minutes, assembling = 4 hours
Profit on one piece item A = Rs 5, item B = Rs 6
Thus, our problem is maximized Z = 5x + 6y
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Subject to x  0, y  0
5x + 8y  200
10x + 8y  240
On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities, we get shaded region.

From figure, possible points for maximum value of z are at (24, 0), (8, 20), (0, 25).
at (24, 0), z = 120
at (8, 20), z = 40 + 120 = 160 (maximum)
at (0, 25), z = 150
 8 pieces of item A and 20 pieces of item B produce maximum profit of Rs 160.

11. One kind of cake requires 300 g of flour and 15 g of fat, another kind of cake requires 150 g of
flour and 30 g of fat. Find the maximum number of cakes which can be made from 7 × 5 kg of
flour and 600 g of fat, assuming that there is no shortage of the other ingredients used in
making the cakes. Make it as an L.P.P. and solve it graphically.
Ans:
Let number of first kind and second kind of cakes that can be made be x and y respectively
Then, the given problem is
Maximize, z = x + y

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Subjected to x  0, y  0
300x + 150y  7500  2x + y  50
15x + 30y  600  x + 2y  40
On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities, we get shaded region.
From graph, three possible points are (25, 0), (20, 10), (0, 20)
At (25, 0), z = x + y = 25 + 0 = 25
At (20, 10), z = x + y = 20 + 10 = 30  Maximum
At (0, 20), z = 0 + 20 = 20
As Z is maximum at (20, 10), i.e., x = 20, y = 10.
 20 cakes of type I and 10 cakes of type II can be made.

12. A small firm manufactures gold rings and chains. The total number of rings and chains
manufactured per day is atmost 24. It takes 1 hour to make a ring and 30 minutes to make a
chain. The maximum number of hours available per day is 16. If the profit on a ring is Rs. 300
and that on a chain is Rs 190, find the number of rings and chains that should be
manufactured per day, so as to earn the maximum profit. Make it as an L.P.P. and solve it
graphically.
Ans:
Total no. of rings & chain manufactured per day = 24.
Time taken in manufacturing ring = 1 hour
Time taken in manufacturing chain = 30 minutes
One time available per day = 16
Maximum profit on ring = Rs 300
Maximum profit on chain = Rs 190
Let gold rings manufactured per day = x
Chains manufactured per day = y
L.P.P. is maximize Z = 300x + 190y

Subject to x  0,
y  0,
x + y  24
1
and x + y  16
2
On plotting graph of above constraints or
inequalities, we get shaded region.

Possible points for maximum Z are (16, 0),


(8, 16) and (0, 24).

At (16, 0), Z = 4800 + 0 = 4800


At (8, 16), Z = 2400 + 3040 = 5440  Maximum
At (0, 24), Z = 0 + 4560 = 4560
Z is maximum at (8, 16).
 8 gold rings & 16 chains must be manufactured per day.

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CHAPTER – 13: PROBABILITY
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

1. A die is thrown three times. Events A and B are defined as below: A : 4 on the third throw; B :
6 on the first and 5 on the second throw. Find the probability of A given that B has already
occurred.
Ans:
The sample space has 216 outcomes.
Now A =
(1,1,4) (1,2,4) ... (1,6,4) (2,1,4) (2,2,4) ... (2,6,4)
(3,1,4) (3,2,4) ... (3,6,4) (4,1,4) (4,2,4) ...(4,6,4)
(5,1,4) (5,2,4) ... (5,6,4) (6,1,4) (6,2,4) ...(6,6,4)
B = {(6,5,1), (6,5,2), (6,5,3), (6,5,4), (6,5,5), (6,5,6)}
and A ∩ B = {(6,5,4)}.
6 1
Now, P( B)  and P ( A  B ) 
216 216
1
P( A  B ) 216 1
Then P( A / B)   
P( B) 6 6
216

2. A die is thrown twice and the sum of the numbers appearing is observed to be 6. What is the
conditional probability that the number 4 has appeared at least once?
Ans:
Let E be the event that ‘number 4 appears at least once’ and F be the event
that ‘the sum of the numbers appearing is 6’.
Then, E = {(4,1), (4,2), (4,3), (4,4), (4,5), (4,6), (1,4), (2,4), (3,4), (5,4), (6,4)}
and F = {(1,5), (2,4), (3,3), (4,2), (5,1)}
11 5
We have P( E )  and P ( E ) 
36 36
Also E∩F = {(2,4), (4,2)}
2
Therefore P( E  F ) 
36
2
P( E  F ) 36 2
Hence, the required probability, P( E / F )   
P( F ) 5 5
36
3. A black and a red dice are rolled. (a) Find the conditional probability of obtaining a sum
greater than 9, given that the black die resulted in a 5. (b) Find the conditional probability of
obtaining the sum 8, given that the red die resulted in a number less than 4.
Ans:
Let the first observation be from the black die and second from the red die.
When two dice (one black and another red) are rolled, the sample space
S = 6  6 = 36 (equally likely sample events)
(i) Let E : set of events in which sum greater than 9 and F : set of events in which black die resulted
in a 5
E = {(6,4), (4,6), (5, 5), (5,6), (6, 5), (6,6)}  n(E) = 6
and F = {(5, 1), (5,2), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5), (5,6)}  n(F) = 6
 E  F = {(5, 5), (5,6)}  n(E  F) = 2

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The conditional probability of obtaining a sum greater than 9, given that the black die resulted in a 5,
is given by P(E/F)
6 6
P( E )  and P ( F ) 
36 36
2
Also, P( E  F ) 
36
2
P( E  F ) 36 2 1
 P( E / F )    
P( F ) 6 6 3
36
(ii) Let E : set of events having 8 as the sum of the observations,
F : set of events in which red die resulted in a (in any one die) number less than 4
 E = {(2,6), (3, 5), (4,4), (5, 3), (6,2)}  n(E) = 5
and F = {(1, 1), (1, 2),….. (3, 1), (3, 2)…… (5, 1), (5, 2),……….}  n(F) = 18
 E  F = {(5, 3), (6, 2)}  n(E  F) = 2
The conditional probability of obtaining a sum greater than 9, given that the black die resulted in a 5,
is given by P(E/F)
5 18
P( E )  and P ( F ) 
36 36
2
Also, P( E  F ) 
36
2
P( E  F ) 36 2 1
 P( E / F )    
P( F ) 18 18 9
36
4. An instructor has a question bank consisting of 300 easy True / False questions, 200 difficult
True / False questions, 500 easy multiple choice questions and 400 difficult multiple choice
questions. If a question is selected at random from the question bank, what is the probability
that it will be an easy question given that it is a multiple choice question?
Ans:
Total number of questions = 300 + 200 + 500 + 400 = 1400.
Let E be the event that selected question is an easy question
Then, n(E) = 500 + 300 = 800
800
 P( E ) 
1400
Let F be the event that selected question is a multiple choice question.
Then, n(F) = 500 + 400 = 900
900
 P( F )  
1400
500
Also, P( E  F ) 
1400
500
P( E  F ) 1400 500 5
 P( E / F )    
P( F ) 900 900 9
1400

5. An urn contains 10 black and 5 white balls. Two balls are drawn from the urn one after the
other without replacement. What is the probability that both drawn balls are black?
Ans:
Let E and F denote respectively the events that first and second ball drawn are black. We have to
find P(E ∩ F) or P (EF).

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10
Now P(E) = P (black ball in first draw) =
15
Also given that the first ball drawn is black, i.e., event E has occurred, now there are 9 black balls
and five white balls left in the urn. Therefore, the probability that the second ball drawn is black,
given that the ball in the first draw is black, is nothing but the conditional probability of F given that
E has occurred.
9
i.e. P(F|E) =
14
By multiplication rule of probability, we have
10 9 3
P (E ∩ F) = P(E) P(F|E) =  
15 14 7

6. Two balls are drawn at random with replacement from a box containing 10 black and 8 red
balls. Find the probability that (i) both balls are red. (ii) first ball is black and second is red.
(iii) one of them is black and other is red.
Ans:
Total number of balls = 18, number of red balls = 8 and number of black balls = 10
8
Probability of drawing a red ball =
18
10
Similarly, probability of drawing a black ball =
18
(i) Probability of getting both red balls = P (both balls are red)
8 8 16
= P (a red ball is drawn at first draw and again a red ball at second draw) =  
18 18 81
10 8 20
(ii) P (probability of getting first ball is black and second is red) =  
18 18 81
(iii) Probability of getting one black and other red ball = P(first ball is black and second is red) + P
10 8 8 10 20 20 40
(first ball is red and second is black) =      
18 18 18 18 81 81 81
1 1
7. Probability of solving specific problem independently by A and B are and respectively. If
2 3
both try to solve the problem independently, find the probability that (i) the problem is solved
(ii) exactly one of them solves the problem.
Ans:
1
Probability of solving the problem by A, P(A) =
2
1
Probability of solving the problem by B, P(B) =
3
1 1
Probability of not solving the problem by A = P(A’) = 1 – P(A) = 1  
2 2
1 2
and probability of not solving the problem by B = P(B’) = 1 – P(B) = 1  
3 3
(i) P (the problem is solved) = 1 – P(none of them solve the problem) =
 1  P( A ' B ')  1  P( A ') P( B ')
(since A and B are independent A’ and B’ are independent)
1 2 1 2
 1     1 
2 3 3 3
(ii) P (exactly one of them solve the problem) = P(A) P(B’) + P(A’) P(B)
1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1
        
2 3 2 3 3 6 6 6 2
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8. In a hostel, 60% of the students read Hindi news paper, 40% read English news paper and
20% read both Hindi and English news papers. A student is selected at random. (a) Find the
probability that she reads neither Hindi nor English news papers. (b) If she reads Hindi news
paper, find the probability that she reads English news paper. (c) If she reads English news
paper, find the probability that she reads Hindi news paper.
Ans:
Let H : Set of students reading Hindi newspaper and E : set of students reading English newspaper.
Let n(S) = 100 Then, n(H) = 60
n(E) = 40 and n(H  E) = 20
60 3 40 2 20 1
 P( H )   , P(E )   and P ( H  E )  
100 5 100 5 100 5
(i) Required probability = P (student reads neither Hindi nor English newspaper) =
 P( H ' E ')  P( H  E ) '  1  P( H  E )
3 2 1 4 1
 1   P( H )  P( E )  P( H  E )  1       1  
5 5 5 5 5
(ii) Required probability = P(a randomly chosen student reads English newspaper, if he/she reads
1
P( E  H ) 5 1
Hindi newspaper) = P( E / H )   
P( H ) 3 3
5
(iii) Required probability = P (student reads Hindi newspaper when it is given that reads English
1
P( H  E ) 5 1
newspaper) = P( H / E )   
P( E ) 2 2
5
9. Bag I contains 3 red and 4 black balls while another Bag II contains 5 red and 6 black balls.
One ball is drawn at random from one of the bags and it is found to be red. Find the
probability that it was drawn from Bag II.
Ans:
Let E1 be the event of choosing the bag I, E2 the event of choosing the bag II and A be the event of
drawing a red ball.
1
Then P(E1) = P(E2) =
2
3
Also P(A|E1) = P(drawing a red ball from Bag I) =
7
5
and P(A|E2) = P(drawing a red ball from Bag II) =
11
Now, the probability of drawing a ball from Bag II, being given that it is red, is P(E2|A)

By using Bayes' theorem, we have


1 5

P ( E2 ) P ( A / E2 ) 2 11 35
P( E2 / A)   
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( A / E2 ) 1 3 1 5 68
  
2 7 2 11
10. Given three identical boxes I, II and III, each containing two coins. In box I, both coins are
gold coins, in box II, both are silver coins and in the box III, there is one gold and one silver
coin. A person chooses a box at random and takes out a coin. If the coin is of gold, what is the
probability that the other coin in the box is also of gold?
Ans:
Let E1, E2 and E3 be the events that boxes I, II and III are chosen, respectively.

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1
Then P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) =
3
Also, let A be the event that ‘the coin drawn is of gold’
Then P(A|E1) = P(a gold coin from bag I) = 2/2 =1
P(A|E2) = P(a gold coin from bag II) = 0
1
P(A|E3) = P(a gold coin from bag III) =
2
Now, the probability that the other coin in the box is of gold
= the probability that gold coin is drawn from the box I.
= P(E1|A)
By Bayes' theorem, we know that
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )
P( E1 / A) 
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P ( A / E2 )  P( E3 ) P( A / E3 )
1
1
3 2
 
1 1 1 1 3
1   0  
3 3 3 2
11. In a factory which manufactures bolts, machines A, B and C manufacture respectively 25%,
35% and 40% of the bolts. Of their outputs, 5, 4 and 2 percent are respectively defective bolts.
A bolt is drawn at random from the product and is found to be defective. What is the
probability that it is manufactured by the machine B?
Ans:
Let events B1, B2, B3 be the following :
B1 : the bolt is manufactured by machine A
B2 : the bolt is manufactured by machine B
B3 : the bolt is manufactured by machine C
Clearly, B1, B2, B3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and hence, they represent a
partition of the sample space.
Let the event E be ‘the bolt is defective’.
The event E occurs with B1 or with B2 or with B3. Given that,
P(B1) = 25% = 0.25, P (B2) = 0.35 and P(B3) = 0.40
Again P(E|B1) = Probability that the bolt drawn is defective given that it is manufactured by machine
A = 5% = 0.05
Similarly, P(E|B2) = 0.04, P(E|B3) = 0.02.
Hence, by Bayes' Theorem, we have
P( B2 ) P ( E / B2 )
P( B2 / E ) 
P( B1 ) P( E / B1 )  P( B2 ) P( E / B2 )  P( B3 ) P( E / B3 )
0.35  0.04 0.0140 28
  
0.25  0.05  0.35  0.04  0.40  0.02 0.0345 69

12. A doctor is to visit a patient. From the past experience, it is known that the probabilities that
3 1 1
he will come by train, bus, scooter or by other means of transport are respectively , ,
10 5 10
2 1 1 1
and . The probabilities that he will be late are , and , if he comes by train, bus and
5 4 3 2
scooter respectively, but if he comes by other means of transport, then he will not be late.
When he arrives, he is late. What is the probability that he comes by train?
Ans:
Let E be the event that the doctor visits the patient late and let T1, T2, T3, T4 be the events that the
doctor comes by train, bus, scooter, and other means of transport respectively.

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3 1 1 2
Then P(T1) = , P(T2) = , P(T3) = and P(T4) =
10 5 10 5
1
P(E|T1) = Probability that the doctor arriving late comes by train =
4
1 1
Similarly, P(E|T2) = , P(E|T3) = and P(E|T4) = 0, since he is not late if he comes by other
3 12
means of transport.
Therefore, by Bayes' Theorem, we have
P(T1|E) = Probability that the doctor arriving late comes by train
P(T1 ) P( E / T1 )
 P(T1 / E ) 
P(T1 ) P( E / T1 )  P(T2 ) P( E / T2 )  P(T3 ) P( E / T3 )  P(T4 ) P( E / T4 )
3 1

10 4 3 120 1
   
3 1 1 1 1 1 2 40 18 2
      0
10 4 5 3 10 12 5
1
Hence, the required probability is
2
13. A man is known to speak truth 3 out of 4 times. He throws a die and reports that it is a six.
Find the probability that it is actually a six.
Ans:
Let E be the event that the man reports that six occurs in the throwing of the die and let S1 be the
event that six occurs and S2 be the event that six does not occur.
1
Then P(S1) = Probability that six occurs =
6
5
P(S2) = Probability that six does not occur =
6
P(E|S1) = Probability that the man reports that six occurs when six has actually occurred on the die
3
= Probability that the man speaks the truth =
4
P(E|S2) = Probability that the man reports that six occurs when six has not actually occurred on the
die
3 1
= Probability that the man does not speak the truth = 1  
4 4
Thus, by Bayes' theorem, we get
P(S1|E) = Probability that the report of the man that six has occurred is actually a six
1 3

P( S1 ) P( E / S1 ) 6 4 1 24 3
 P( S1 / E )     
P( S1 ) P( E / S1 )  P( S2 ) P( E / S 2 ) 1  3  5  1 8 8 8
6 4 6 4
3
Hence, the required probability is .
8
14. A bag contains 4 red and 4 black balls, another bag contains 2 red and 6 black balls. One of
the two bags is selected at random and a ball is drawn from the bag which is found to be red.
Find the probability that the ball is drawn from the first bag.
Ans:
Let E1 : first bag is selected, E2 : second bag is selected
Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Moreover,
1
P(E1) = P(E2) =
2
Let E : ball drawn is red.

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4 1
P(E/E1) = P(drawing a red ball from first bag) = 
8 2
2 1
P(E/E2) = P(drawing a red ball from second bag) = 
8 4
By using Baye’s theorem,
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )
Required probability = P( E1 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2
  4  4 4
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 3
   
2 2 2 4 4 8 8 8

15. Of the students in a college, it is known that 60% reside in hostel and 40% are day scholars
(not residing in hostel). Previous year results report that 30% of all students who reside in
hostel attain A grade and 20% of day scholars attain A grade in their annual examination. At
the end of the year, one student is chosen at random from the college and he has an A grade,
what is the probability that the student is a hostlier?
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that the student is residing in hostel and E2 : the event that the student is not
residing in the hostel.
Let E : a student attains A grade,
Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Moreover,
60 3 40 2
P(E1) = 60% =  and P(E2) = 40% = 
100 5 100 5
30 3 20 2
Then P(E/E1) = 30% =  and P(E/E2) = 20% = 
100 10 100 10
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
3 3

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) 5 10 9 9
P( E1 / E )    
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 ) 3  3  2  2 9  4 13
5 10 5 10

16. In answering a question on a multiple choice test, a student either knows the answer or
3 1
guesses. Let be the probability that he knows the answer and be the probability that he
4 4
1
guesses. Assuming that a student who guesses at the answer will be correct with probability .
4
What is the probability that the student knows the answer given that he answered it correctly?
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that the student knows the answer and E2 : the event that the student guesses the
answer.
Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Moreover,
3 1
P(E1) = and P(E2) =
4 4
Let E : the answer is correct.
The probability that the student answered correctly, given that he knows the answer, is 1 i.e., P
P(E/E1) = 1
1
Probability that the students answered correctly, given that the he guessed, is
4
1
i.e., P(E/E2) =
4
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 169 -
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )
P( E1 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
3 3 12
1
12
 4  4  16 
3 1 1 3 1 12  1 13
1   
4 4 4 4 16 16

17. There are three coins. One is a two headed coin (having head on both faces), another is a
biased coin that comes up heads 75% of the time and third is an unbiased coin. One of the
three coins is chosen at random and tossed, it shows heads, what is the probability that it was
the two headed coin ?
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that the coin chosen is two headed, E2 : the event that the coin chosen is biased
and E3 : the event that the coin chosen is unbiased
 E1, E2, E3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,
1
 P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) =
3
Let E : tosses coin shows up a head,
 P(E/E1) = P(coin showing heads, given that it is a two headed coin) = 1
75 3
P(E/E2) = P(coin showing heads, given that it is a biased coin) = 75%  
100 4
1
P(E/E3) = P(coin showing heads, given that it is an unbiased coin) =
2
The probability that the coin is two headed, given that it shows head, is given by P(E1/E)
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )
P( E1 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )  P( E3 ) P( E / E3 )
1
1
3 1 1 4
   
1 1 3 1 1 3 1 4 3 2 9
1     1 
3 3 4 3 2 4 2 4
18. An insurance company insured 2000 scooter drivers, 4000 car drivers and 6000 truck drivers.
The probability of an accidents are 0.01, 0.03 and 0.15 respectively. One of the insured persons
meets with an accident. What is the probability that he is a scooter driver?
Ans:
There are 2000 scooter drivers, 4000 car drivers and 6000 truck drivers.
Total number of drivers = 2000 + 4000 + 6000 = 12000
Let E1 : the event that insured person is a scooter driver, E2 : the event that insured person is a car
driver and E3 : the event that insured person is a truck driver.
Then, E1, E2, E3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,
2000 1 4000 1 6000 1
P(E1) =  , P(E2) =  and P(E3) = 
12000 6 12000 3 12000 2
Let E : the events that insured person meets with an accident,
1
 P(E/E1) = P(scooter driver met with an accident) = 0.01 
100
3
P(E/E2) = P(car driver met with an accident) = 0.03 
100
15
P(E/E3) = P(truck driver met with an accident) = 0.15 
100
The probability that the driver is a scooter driver, given he met with an accident, is given by P(E1/E)
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 170 -
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )
P( E1 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )  P( E3 ) P( E / E3 )
1 1 1

100 6 6 1 1
   
1 1 3 1 15 1 1 15 1  6  45 52
     1
100 6 100 3 100 2 6 2

19. A factory has two machines A and B. Past record shows that machine A produced 60% of the
items of output and machine B produced 40% of the items. Further, 2% of the items produced
by machine A and 1% produced by machine B were defective. All the items are put into one
stockpile and then one item is chosen at random from this and is found to be defective. What is
the probability that it was produced by machine B?
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that the item is produced by machine A and E2 : the event that the item is produced
by machine B.
Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,
60 3 40 2
P(E1) = 60%   and P(E2) = 40% = 
100 5 100 5
Let E : the event that the item chosen is defective,
2
 P(E/E1) = P(machine A produced defective items) = 2% 
100
1
P(E/E2) = P(machine B produced defective items) = 1% 
100
The probability that the randomly selected item was from machine B, given that it is defective, is
given by P(E2/E)
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
P( E2 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
2 1 2

5 100 500 2 2 1
    
3 2 2 1 6 2 62 8 4
   
5 100 5 100 500 500

20. Suppose a girl throws a die. If she gets a 5 or 6, she tosses a coin three times and notes the
number of heads. If she gets 1, 2, 3 or 4, she tosses a coin once and notes whether a head or tail
is obtained. If she obtained exactly one head, what is the probability that she threw 1, 2, 3 or 4
with the die?
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that 5 or 6 is shown on die and E2 : the event that 1, 2, 3, or 4 is shown on die.
Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.
and n(E1) = 2, n(E2) = 4
Also, n(S) = 6
2 1 4 2
P(E1) =  and P(E2) = 
6 3 6 3
Let E : The event that exactly one head show up,
3
 P(E/E1) = P(exactly one head show up when coin is tossed thrice) = P{HTT, THT, TTH} =
8
1
P(E/E2) = P(head shows up when coin is tossed once) =
2

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The probability that the girl threw, 1, 2, 3 or 4 with the die, if she obtained exactly one head, is given
by P(E2/E)
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
P( E2 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
2 1 1

3 2 8 8
  3  
1 3 2 1 1 1 3  8 11
   
3 8 3 2 8 3

21. A manufacturer has three machine operators A, B and C. The first operator A produces 1%
defective items, where as the other two operators B and C produce 5% and 7% defective items
respectively. A is on the job for 50% of the time, B is on the job for 30% of the time and C is
on the job for 20% of the time. A defective item is produced, what is the probability that it was
produced by A?
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that item is produced by machine A, E2 : the event that item is produced by
machine B and E3 : the event that item is produced by machine C
Here, E1, E2 and E3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.
Moreover,
50
P(E1) = 50% 
100
30
P(E2) = 30% =
100
20
and P(E3) = 20% =
100
Let E : The event that item chosen is found to be defective’,
1 5 7
 P(E/E1) = , P(E/E2) = , P(E/E3) =
100 100 100
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )
P( E1 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )  P( E3 ) P( E / E3 )

50 1

100 100 50 50 5
   
50 1 30 5 20 7 50  150  140 340 34
    
100 100 100 100 100 100

22. A card from a pack of 52 cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the pack, two cards are
drawn and are found to be both diamonds. Find the probability of the lost card being a
diamond.
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that lost cards is a diamond  n(E1) = 13
E2 : lost cards is not a diamond  n(E2) = 52 – 13 = 39
And, n(S) = 52
Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.
13 1 39 3
 P(E1) =  and P(E2) = 
52 4 52 4
Let E : the events that two cards drawn from the remaining pack are diamonds,
When one diamond card is lost, there are 12 diamond cards out of 51 cards.
The cards can be drawn out of 12 diamond cards in 12C2 ways.

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Similarly, 2 diamond cards can be drawn out of 51 cards in 51C2 ways. The probability of getting two
cards, when one diamond card is lost, is given by P(E/E1)
12  11
12
C 12  11 132
 P(E/E1) = 51 2  1 2  
C2 51 50 51 50 2550
1 2
13  12
13
C 13  12 156
and P(E/E2) = 51 2  1 2  
C2 51 50 51 50 2550
1 2
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )
P( E1 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
1 132

4 2550 132 132 11
   
1 132 3 156 132  468 600 50
  
4 2550 4 2550
23. Two cards are drawn successively with replacement from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards.
Find the probability distribution of the number of aces.
Ans:
The number of aces is a random variable. Let it be denoted by X. Clearly, X can take the values 0, 1,
or 2.
Now, since the draws are done with replacement, therefore, the two draws form independent
experiments.
48 48 144
Therefore, P(X = 0) = P(non-ace and non-ace) = P(non-ace) × P(non-ace)   
52 52 169
P(X = 1) = P(ace and non-ace or non-ace and ace)
= P(ace and non-ace) + P(non-ace and ace)
4 48 48 4 24
= P(ace). P(non-ace) + P (non-ace) . P(ace)     
52 52 52 52 169
4 4 1
and P(X = 2) = P (ace and ace)   
52 52 169
Thus, the required probability distribution is

24. Find the probability distribution of number of doublets in three throws of a pair of dice.
Ans:
Let X denote the number of doublets. Possible doublets are
(1,1) , (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,5), (6,6)
Clearly, X can take the value 0, 1, 2, or 3.
6 1
Probability of getting a doublet  
36 6
1 5
Probability of not getting a doublet  1  
6 6
5 5 5 125
Now P(X = 0) = P (no doublet)    
6 6 6 216

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1 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 1
P(X = 1) = P (one doublet and two non-doublets)         
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
2
 1 5  75
 3  2  
 6 6  216
1 1 5 5 1 1 1 5 1
P(X = 2) = P (two doublets and one non-doublet)         
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
 1 5  15
 3 2   
 6 6  216
1 1 1 1
and P(X = 3) = P (three doublets)    
6 6 6 216
Thus, the required probability distribution is

25. Find the variance of the number obtained on a throw of an unbiased die.
Ans:
The sample space of the experiment is S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
Let X denote the number obtained on the throw. Then X is a random variable which can take values
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.
1
Also P(1) = P(2) = P(3) = P(4) = P(5) = P(6) =
6
Therefore, the Probability distribution of X is

n
1 1 1 1 1 1 21
Now E(X) =  x p ( x )  1 6  2  6  3  6  4  6  5  6  6  6 
i 1
i i
6
1 1 1 1 1 1 91
Also E(X2)  12   22   32   42   52   62  
6 6 6 6 6 6 6
2
91  21  91 441 35
Thus, Var (X) = E (X2) – (E(X))2       
6  6  6 36 12
26. Two cards are drawn simultaneously (or successively without replacement) from a well
shuffled pack of 52 cards. Find the mean, variance and standard deviation of the number of
kings.
Ans:
Let X denote the number of kings in a draw of two cards. X is a random variable which can assume
the values 0, 1 or 2.
48!
48
C 2!(48  2)! 48  47 188
Now P(X = 0) = P (no king)  52 2   
C2 52! 52  52 221
2!(52  2)!
4
C1 48C1 4  48  2 32
P(X = 1) = P (one king and one non-king)  52
 
C2 52  51 221

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4
C2 43 1
and P(X = 2) = P (two kings)  52

C2 52  51 221
Thus, the probability distribution of X is

n
188 32 1 34
Now Mean of X = E(X) =  x p( x )  0  221  1 221  2  221  221
i 1
i i

188 2 32 1 36
Also E(X2) = 02  1   22  
221 221 221 221
2
2 36  34 
2 6800
Thus, Var (X) = E (X ) – (E(X)) =    
221  221  (221) 2
6800 6800
Therefore  x  Var ( x)  2
  0.37
(221) 221
27. Find the probability distribution of (i) number of heads in two tosses of a coin. (ii) number of
tails in the simultaneous tosses of three coins. (iii) number of heads in four tosses of a coin.
Ans:
(i) When one coin is tossed twice, the sample space is S = {HH,HT,TH,TT}.
Let X denotes, the number of heads in any outcome in S,
X (HH) = 2, X (HT) = 1, X (TH) = 1 and X (TT) = 0
Therefore, X can take the value of 0, 1 or 2. It is known that
1
P(HH) = P(HT) = P(TH) = P(TT) =
4
1
 P(X = 0) = P (tail occurs on both tosses) = P({TT}) =
4
2 1
P(X = 1) = P (one head and one tail occurs) = P({TH,HT}) = 
4 2
1
and P(X = 2) = P (head occurs on both tosses) = P({HH}) =
4
Thus, the required probability distribution is as follows

(ii) When three coins are tossed thrice, the sample space is S =
{HHH,HHT,HTH,HTT,THH,THT,TTH,TTT} which contains eight equally likely sample points.
Let X represent the number of tails. Then, X can take values 0, 1, 2 and 3.
1
P(X = 0) = P (no tail) = P({HHH}) = ,
8
3
P (X = 1) = P (one tail and two heads show up) = P({HHT,HTH,THH}) = ,
8
3
P (X = 2) = P (two tails and one head show up) = P({HTT,THT,TTH}) =
8
1
and P(X = 3) = P (three tails show up) = P({TTT}) =
8
Thus, the probability distribution is as follows

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(iii) When a coin is tossed four times, the sample space is
S = {HHHH, HHHT, HHTH, HTHT, HTTH, HTTT, THHH, HTHH, THHT, THTH, HHTT, TTHH,
TTHT, TTTH, THTT, TTTT} which contains 16 equally likely sample points.
Let X be the random variable, which represents the number of heads. It can be seen that X can take
the value of 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.
1
P (X = 0 ) = P(no head shows up) = P {TTTT} = ,
16
4 1
P(X = 1) = P (one head and three tails show up) = P(HTTT,THTT,TTHT,TTTH) =  ,
16 4
P(X = 2) = P (two heads and two tails show up) = P({HHTT,HTHT,HTTH,THHT,THTH,TTHH})
6 3
=  ,
16 8
4 1
P(X = 3) = P (three heads and one tail show up) = P({HHHT,HHTH,HTHH,THHH}) = 
16 4
1
and P (X = 4) = P (four heads show up) = P ({HHHH}) =
16
Thus, the probability distribution is as follows:

28. Find the probability distribution of the number of successes in two tosses of a die, where a
success is defined as (i) number greater than 4 (ii) six appears on at least one die
Ans:
When a die is tossed two times, we obtain (6 x 6) = 36 number of sample points.
(i) Let X be the random variable which denotes the number greater than 4 in two tosses of a die. So X
may have values 0, 1 or 2.
4 4 16 4
Now, P(X = 0) = P (number less than or equal to 4 on both the tosses) =    ,
6 6 36 9
P(X = 1) = P (number less than or equal to 4 on first toss and greater than 4 on second toss) +
P(number greater than 4 on first toss and less than or equal to 4 on second toss)
4 2 4 2 8 8 16 4
=       
6 6 6 6 36 36 36 9
2 2 4 1
P(X = 2) = P (number greater than 4 on both the tosses) =   
6 6 36 9
Probability distribution of X, i.e., number of successes is

(ii) Let X be the random variable which denotes the number of six appears on atleast one die. So, X
may have values 0 or 1.
5 5 25
P(X = 0) = P (six does not appear on any of the die) =  
6 6 36

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11
P(X = 1) = P (six appears on atleast one of the die) =
36
Thus, the required probability distribution is as follows

29. From a lot of 30 bulbs which include 6 defectives, a sample of 4 bulbs is drawn at random with
replacement. Find the probability distribution of the number of defective bulbs.
Ans:
It is given that out of 30 bulbs, 6 are defective.
Number of non-defective bulbs = 30 – 6 = 24
4 bulbs are drawn from the lot with replacement.
6 1
Let p = P(obtaining a defective bulb when a bulb is drawn) = 
30 5
24 4
and q = P(obtaining a non-defective bulb when a bulb is drawn) = 
30 5
Using Binomial distribution, we have
4
4  4
0 256
4
P(X = 0) = P (no defective bulb in the sample) = C0 p q    
5 625
1 3
4  1   4  256
1 3
P(X = 1) = P (one defective bulb in the sample) = C1 p q  4     
 5   5  625
2 2
1 4 96
P(X = 2) = P (two defective and two non-defective bulbs are drawn) = 4C2 p 2 q 2  6     
 5   5  625
P(X = 3) = P (three defective and one non-defective bulbs are drawn) =
3 1
4 3 1 1  4 16
C3 p q  4     
 5   5  625
4
4 4 1
0 1
P(X = 4) = P (four defective bulbs are drawn) = C4 p q    
 5  625
Therefore, the required probability distribution is as follows.

30. A coin is biased so that the head is 3 times as likely to occur as tail. If the coin is tossed twice,
find the probability distribution of number of tails.
Ans:
Let X denotes the random variable which denotes the number of tails when a biased coin is tossed
twice.
So, X may have value 0, 1 or 2.
Since, the coin is biased in which head is 3 times as likely to occur as a tail.
3 1
 P{H} = and P{T} =
4 4
2
3 9
P (X = 1) = P{HH} =   
 4  16
P(X = 1) = P (one tail and one head) = P{HT,TH} = P{HT} + P{TH} + P{H}P{T} + P {T} P{H}

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3 1 1 3 3 3 6 3
=       
4 4 4 4 16 16 16 8
2
1 1
P (X = 2) = P (two tails) = P{TT} = P{T} P{T} =   
 4  16
Therefore, the required probability distribution is as follows

31. A random variable X has the following probability distribution:

Determine
(i) k (ii) P(X < 3)
(iii) P(X > 6) (iv) P(0 < X < 3)
Ans:
(i) It is known that the sum of a probability distribution of random variable is one i.e.,  P( X ) = 1,
therefore
P(0) + P(1) + P(2) + P(3) + P(4) + P(5) + P(6) + P(7) = 1
 0  k  2k  2k  3k  k 2  2k 2  7 k 2  k  1
 10k 2  9k  1  0
 (k  1)(10k  1)  0
1
 k  1 or k 
10
k = – 1 is not possible as the probability of an event is never negative.
1
k 
10
3
(ii) P(X < 3) = P(0) + P(1) + P(2) = 0  k  2k  3k 
10
7 1 7  10 17
(iii) P(X > 6) = P(7) = 7k 2  k    
100 10 100 100
3
(iv) P(0 < X < 3) = P(1) + P(2) = k  2k  3k 
10

32. The random variable X has a probability distribution P(X) of the following form, where k is
some number :
 k if x  0
 2k if x  1

P( X )  
3k , if x  2
 0, otherwise
(a) Determine the value of k.
(b) Find P (X < 2), P (X ≤2), P(X ≥2).
Ans:
Given distribution of X is

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(a) Since,  P( X ) = 1, therefore P(0) + P(1) + P(2) + P (otherwise) = 1
1
 k  2k  3k  0  1  6k  1  k 
6
1 1
(b) P(X = 2) = P(0) + P(1) = k  2k  3k  3  
6 2
1
P(X  2) = P(0) + P(1) + P(2) = k  2k  3k  6k  6  1
6
1 1
and P(X  2) = P(2) + P(otherwise) = 3k  0  3k  3  
6 2

33. A class has 15 students whose ages are 14, 17, 15, 14, 21, 17, 19, 20, 16, 18, 20, 17, 16, 19 and 20
years. One student is selected in such a manner that each has the same chance of being chosen
and the age X of the selected student is recorded. What is the probability distribution of the
random variable X? Find mean, variance and standard deviation of X.
Ans:
Here, total students = 15
The ages of students in ascending order are 14, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 18, 19, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21
2 1 2 3
Now, P(X = 14) = , P(X = 15) = , P(X = 16) = , P(X = 17) =
15 15 15 15
1 2 3 1
P(X = 18) = , P(X = 19) = , P(X = 20) = , P(X = 21) =
15 15 15 15
Therefore, the probability distribution of random variable X is as follows :

The third row gives the probability distribution of X.


Mean X   XP ( X )
14  2  15 1  16  2  17  3  18 1  19  2  20  3  211

15
263
  17.53
15
2
Variance X =  X 2 P( X )   Mean 
2
14 2  2  152  1  162  2  17 2  3  182 1  192  2  202  3  212 1  263 
  
15  15 
392  225  512  867  324  722  1200  441
  307.4
15
4683
  307.4  312.2  307.4  4.8
15
SD of X = Var  4.8  2.19
34. If a fair coin is tossed 10 times, find the probability of (i) exactly six heads (ii) at least six heads
(iii) at most six heads.
Ans:
The repeated tosses of a coin are Bernoulli trials. Let X denote the number of heads in an experiment
of 10 trials.
1
Clearly, X has the binomial distribution with n = 10 and p =
2

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Therefore P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
Here n = 10,
1 1 1
p= ,q=1– p=1– =
2 2 2
10  x x 10
1 1 1
Therefore P(X = x) = 10C x      10C x  
2 2 2
10
1 10! 1 105
Now (i) P(X = 6) = 10C6     10 
2 6! 4! 2 512
(ii) P(at least six heads) = P(X ≥ 6)
= P (X = 6) + P (X = 7) + P (X = 8) + P(X = 9) + P (X = 10)
10 10 10 10 10
1 1 1 1 1
 C6    10C7    10C8    10C9    10C10  
10

 2 2 2 2 2


 10!   10!   10!   10!   10!   1 193
        10 
 6! 4!   7! 3!   8! 2!   9! 1!   10!   2 512
(iii) P(at most six heads) = P(X ≤ 6)
= P (X = 0) + P (X = 1) + P (X = 2) + P (X = 3) + P (X = 4) + P (X = 5) + P (X = 6)
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 C0    10C1    10C2    10C3    10C4    10C5    10C6  
10

 2 2  2 2 2 2 2


848 53
 
1024 64

35. A die is thrown 6 times. If ‘getting an odd number’ is a success, what is the probability of (i) 5
successes? (ii) at least 5 successes? (iii) at most 5 successes?
Ans:
The repeated tosses of a die are Bernoulli trials. Let X denote
the number of successes of getting odd numbers in an experiment of 6
trials.
p = P (success) = P (getting an odd number in a single throwof a die)
3 1 1 1
 p =  and q = P (failure) = 1  p  1  
6 2 2 2
Therefore, by Binomial distribution
P(X = r) = nCr pn – r qr , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n
6 r r 6
1
6 1 6 1
P( X  r )  Cr      Cr  
2 2 2
6
1 1 6 3
(i) P (5 successes) = 6C5    6  6  
2 2 64 32
6 6
1 1 6 1 7
(ii) P (atleast 5 successes) = P (5 successes) + P (6 successes) = C5    6C6   
6
 
2  2  64 64 64
6
1
6 1 63
(iii) P (atmost 5 successes) = 1 – P (6 successes) = 1  C6    1  
2 64 64

36. There are 5% defective items in a large bulk of items. What is the probability that a sample of
10 items will include not more than one defective item?
Ans:
Let X denote the number of defective items in a sample of 10 items drawn successively. Since, the
drawing is done with replacement, the trials are Bernoulli trials.

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5 1
p = P (success) = 5% = 
100 20
1 19
and q = 1  p  1  
20 20
1 19
X has a binomial distribution with n = 10 and p = and q =
20 20
Therefore, by Binomial distribution
P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 10  r
 1   19 
P( X  r )  10Cr    
 20   20 
Required probability = P (not more than one defective item)
= P(0) + P(1) = 10C0 p 0 q 10  10C1 p 1q 9  q 10 10 pq 9
9 9
9  19   19 1  29  19 
 q (q  10 p )      10     
 20   20 20  20  20 
37. Five cards are drawn successively with replacement from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards.
What is the probability that (i) all the five cards are spades? (ii) only 3 cards are spades? (iii)
none is a spade?
Ans:
Let X represent the number of spade cards among the five cards drawn. Since, the drawing card is
with replacement, the trials are Bernoulli trials.
In a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards, there are 13 spade cards.
13 1
p = P (success) = P (a spade card is drawn) = 
52 4
1 3
and q = 1  p  1  
4 4
1 3
X has a binomial distribution with n = 5, p = and q =
4 4
Therefore, by Binomial distribution
P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 5 r
1 3
P( X  r )  5Cr    
 4 4
5
5 5 1
0 5 1
(i) P (all the five cards are spades) = P( X = 5) = C5 p q  p    
 4  1024
3 2
5 3 1 3
2 90 45
(ii) P (only three cards are spades) = P( X = 3) = C3 p q  10      
 4   4  1024 512
5
5 3
0 5 243
(iii) P (none is a spade) = P (X = 0) = C0 p q    
 4  1024

38. It is known that 10% of certain articles manufactured are defective. What is the probability
that in a random sample of 12 such articles, 9 are defective?
Ans:
The repeated selections of articles in a random sample space are Bernoulli trials. Let X denotes the
number of times of selecting defective articles in a random sample space of 12 articles.
10 1
Here, p = 10% = 
100 10
1 9
and q = 1  p  1  
10 10

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1 9
Clearly, X has a binomial distribution with n = 12, p = and q =
10 10
Therefore, by Binomial distribution
P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 12  r
12 1  9 
P( X  r )  Cr    
 10   10 
9 3
12 9 3 12 1  9 
Required probability = P (9 items are defective) = P( X = 9) = C3 p q  C3    
 10   10 
3 3
12 1110 9 22  9
 . 12 
1 2  3 10 1011
3
39. The probability of a shooter hitting a target is . How many minimum number of times must
4
he/she fire so that the probability of hitting the target at least once is more than 0.99?
Ans:
Let the shooter fire n times. Obviously, n fires are n Bernoulli trials. In each trial, p = probability of
3 1
hitting the target = and q = probability of not hitting the target = .
4 4
n n x x
Therefore P(X = x) = C x q p , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
n x x
1 3 3x
= nC x      nC x n
4 4 4
Now, given that,
P(hitting the target at least once) > 0.99
i.e. P(x ≥ 1) > 0.99
Therefore, 1 – P (x = 0) > 0.99
1 1
 1  nC0 n  0.99  nC0 n  0.01
4 4
1 1
 n  0.01  4n   100
4 0.01
The minimum value of n to satisfy the inequality (1) is 4.
Thus, the shooter must fire 4 times.

40. A and B throw a die alternatively till one of them gets a ‘6’ and wins the game. Find their
respective probabilities of winning, if A starts first.
Ans:
Let S denote the success (getting a ‘6’) and F denote the failure (not getting a ‘6’).
1 5
Thus, P(S) = , P(F) =
6 6
1
P(A wins in the first throw) = P(S) =
6
A gets the third throw, when the first throw by A and second throw by B result into failures.
2
5 5 1 5 1
Therefore, P(A wins in the 3rd throw) = P(FFS) = P(F)P(F)P(S) =   =   
6 6 6 6 6
4
5 1
P(A wins in the 5th throw) = P (FFFFS) =    and so on.
6 6
1
2 4
1 5 1 5 1 6
Hence, P(A wins) =          .....  6 
6 6 6 6 6 25 11
1
36
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6 5
P(B wins) = 1 – P (A wins) = 1  
11 11

41. Suppose that 5% of men and 0.25% of women have grey hair. A grey haired person is selected
at random. What is the probability of this person being male? Assume that there are equal
number of males and females.
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that selected person is a male and E2 : the event that selected person is a female.
E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,
1
P(E1) = P(E2) =
2
Let E : the event that selected person is grey haired.
5 1 0.25 1
Then P(E/E1) =  and P(E/E2) = 
100 20 100 400
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
1 1 1 1

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) 2 20 20 20
P( E1 / E )     20 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 ) 1  1  1  1 1

1 21 21
2 20 2 400 20 400 400

42. Suppose that 90% of people are right-handed. What is the probability that at most 6 of a
random sample of 10 people are right-handed?
Ans:
A person can be either right handed or left handed. It is given that 90% of the people are right
handed.
90 9
Therefore p = 
100 10
9 1
and q = 1  p  1   , n = 10
10 10
9 1
Clearly, X has a binomial distribution with n = 10, p = and q =
10 10
n n x x
Therefore P(X = x) = C x q p , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 10  r
9  1 
P( X  r )  10Cr    
 10   10 
Required probability, P( X ≤6)
= 1 − P {more than 6 are right handed (7 ≤ X ≤ 10)]
10 r 10  r
9  1 
= 1   10Cr    
r 7  10   10 

43. An urn contains 25 balls of which 10 balls bear a mark 'X' and the remaining 15 bear a mark
'Y'. A ball is drawn at random from the urn, its mark is noted down and it is replaced. If 6
balls are drawn in this way, find the probability that (i) all will bear 'X' mark. (ii) not more
than 2 will bear 'Y' mark. (iii) at least one ball will bear 'Y' mark. (iv) the number of balls with
'X' mark and 'Y' mark will be equal.
Ans:
It is case of Bernoulli trials with n = 6. Let success be defined as drawing a ball marked X.
10 2
p = P (a success in a single draw) = 
25 5
2 3
and q = 1  p  1  
5 5
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2 3
Clearly, Z has a binomial distribution with n = 6, p = and q =
5 5
Therefore P(Z = r) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 6 r
6  2 3
P ( Z  r )  Cr    
5 5
6
2 6 6 0
(i) P (all bear mark X) = P (6 success) = C6 p q   
5
(ii) P (not more than 2 bear mark Y)
= P (not less than 4 bear mark X) = P (atleast 4 successes)
= P(4) + P(5) + P(6) = 6C4 p 4 q 2  6C5 p5 q1  6C6 p 6 q 0
4 2 5 1 6
 2 3  2 3  2
 15      6       
 5 5 5 5 5
4 4
 2   27 36 4   2  135  36  4 
         
 5   5 25 25   5   25 
4 4
 2  175 2
    7 
 5  25 5
(iii) P (atleast one ball will bear mark Y) = P (atleast one failure)
6
2
= P (atmost five successes) = 1  P(6)  1   
5

(iv) Required probability = P (three successes and three failures)


3 3
 2 3 8 27 864
= P(3)  6C3 p 3q 3  20      20   
 5 5 125 125 3125
44. In a hurdle race, a player has to cross 10 hurdles. The probability that he will clear each
5
hurdle is . What is the probability that he will knock down fewer than 2 hurdles?
6
Ans:
It is a case of Bernoulli trials, where success is crossing a hurdle successfully without knocking it
down and n = 10.
5
p = P (success) =
6
5 1
q = 1 − p = 1 
6 6
Let X be the random variable that represents the number of times the player will knock down the
hurdle.
5
Clearly, X has a binomial distribution with n = 10 and p =
6
n n x x
Therefore P(X = x) = C x q p , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 10  r
1 5
10
P ( X  r )  Cr    
6 6
P (player knocking down less than 2 hurdles) = P( x < 2)
= P(0) + P(1) = 10C0 p 0 q10  10C1 p1q 9
10 1 9 9 9 9
5  1   5   5   5 10   5  15 5  5  510
    10                    9
6  6   6   6  6 6   6  6 2  6  26

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45. A die is thrown again and again until three sixes are obtained. Find the probability of
obtaining the third six in the sixth throw of the die.
Ans:
1
When a die is rolled once, probability of obtaining a six is and that of not obtaining a six is
6
1 5
1 
6 6
1 5
Let p = and q =
6 6
Clearly, X has a binomial distribution.
Therefore P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 5 r
1 5
5
P ( X  r )  Cr    
6 6
P (obtaining third six in the sixth throw)
= P(obtaining two sixes in first five throws and a six in the sixth throw)
1
= P (obtaining two sixes in first five throws) ×
6
2 3
1 5 1 1 125 625
= 5C2       10   
6 6 6 36 216 23328

46. Assume that the chances of a patient having a heart attack is 40%. It is also assumed that a
meditation and yoga course reduce the risk of heart attack by 30% and prescription of certain
drug reduces its chances by 25%. At a time a patient can choose any one of the two options
with equal probabilities. It is given that after going through one of the two options the patient
selected at random suffers a heart attack. Find the probability that the patient followed a
course of meditation and yoga?
Ans:
Let E1 : the event that the patient follows meditation and yoga and E2 : the event that the patient uses
drug.
Therefore E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive events and
1
P(E1) = P(E2) =
2
40  30  28
 P(E/E1) = 1  
100  100  100
40  25  30
P(E/E2) = 1  
100  100  100

Let E : the event that the selected patient suffers a heart attack

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P (patient who suffers heart attack follows meditation and yoga) =


P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
P( E2 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
1 28 14

2 100 100 14 14
   
1 30 1 28 15 14 15  14 29
   
2 100 2 100 100 100

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47. Bag I contains 3 red and 4 black balls and Bag II contains 4 red and 5 black balls. One ball is
transferred from Bag I to Bag II and then a ball is drawn from Bag II. The ball so drawn is
found to be red in colour. Find the probability that the transferred ball is black.
Ans:
Let E1 : red ball is transferred from bag I to bag II
and E2 : black ball is transferred from bag I to bag II
 E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.
3 3
P(E1) = 
3 4 7
4 4
P(E2) = 
3 4 7
4 1 5 1
 P(E/E1) =  
(4  1)  5 10 2
4 4 2
P(E/E2) =  
4  (5  1) 10 5

Let E be the event that the ball drawn is red. When a red ball is transferred from bag I to II.

When a black ball is transferred from bag I to II.


By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
P( E2 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
4 2 8 8

7 5 8  14 16
  35  35  
3 1 4 2 3 8 305  112 217 31
   
7 2 7 5 14 35 14  35

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CHAPTER – 13: PROBABILITY
MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

Previous Years Board Exam (Important Questions & Answers)

1. Three cards are drawn at random (without replacement) from a well shuffled pack of 52
playing cards. Find the probability distribution of number of red cards. Hence find the mean
of the distribution.
Ans:
Let the number of red card in a sample of 3 cards drawn be random variable X. Obviously X may
have values 0,1,2,3.
26
C 2600 2
Now P(X = 0)= Probability of getting no red card = 52 3  
C3 22100 17
26
C1  26C2 8450 13
P(X = 1)= Probability of getting one red card and two non-red cards = 52
 
C3 22100 34
26
C2  26C1 8450 13
P(X = 2)= Probability of getting two red card and one non-red card = 52
 
C3 22100 34
26
C3 2600 2
P(X = 3)= Probability of getting 3 red cards = 52
 
C3 22100 17
Hence, the required probability distribution in table as

2 13 13 2
 Required mean = E(X) = px i i  0
17
 1  2   3 
34 34 17
13 26 6 13  26  12 51 3
     
34 34 17 34 34 2

2. There are three coins. One is a two-headed coin (having head on both faces), another is a
biased coin that comes up heads 75% of the times and third is also a biased coin that comes up
tails 40% of the times. One of the three coins is chosen at random and tossed, and it shows
heads. What is the probability that it was the two-headed coin?
Ans:
Let E1 ,E2 ,E3 and A be events defined as
E1 = selection of two-headed coin
E2 = selection of biased coin that comes up head 75% of the times.
E3 = selection of biased coin that comes up tail 40% of the times.
A = getting head.
1
P(E1) = P(E2 ) = P(E3) =
3
3 3
P(A/E1) = 1, P(A/E2) = and P(A/E3) =
4 5
By using Baye’s theorem, we have
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )
P( E1 / A) 
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P ( A / E2 )  P( E3 ) P( A / E3 )

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1 1 1
1
3 3 3 1 60 20
     
1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 20  15  12 3 47 47
1      
3 3 4 3 5 3 4 5 20

3. Two numbers are selected at random (without replacement) from the first six positive integers.
Let X denote the larger of the two numbers obtained. Find the probability distribution of the
random variable X, and hence find the mean of the distribution.
Ans:
First six positive integers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
If two numbers are selected at random from above six numbers then sample space S is given by

n(s) = 30.
Here, X is random variable, which may have value 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6.
Therefore, required probability distribution is given as
2
P(X = 2) = Probability of event getting (1, 2), (2, 1) =
30
4
P(X = 3) = Probability of event getting (1, 3), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2) =
30
6
P(X = 4) = Probability of event getting (1, 4), (2, 4), (3, 4), (4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3) =
30
8
P(X = 5) = Probability of event getting (1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5), (5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4) =
30
P(X = 6) = Probability of event getting (1, 6), (2, 6), (3, 6), (4, 6), (5, 6), (6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4),
10
(6, 5) =
30
It is represented in tabular form as

2 4 6 8 10
Required mean = E(x) = px 30
 2
 3  4   5   6 
i i
30 30 30 30
4  12  24  40  60 140 14 2
   4
30 30 3 3
4. An experiment succeeds thrice as often as it fails. Find the probability that in the next five
trials, there will be at least 3 successes.
Ans:
An experiment succeeds thrice as often as it fails.
 p = P(getting success) =
and q = P(getting failure) =
Here, number of trials = n = 5
By binomial distribution, we have
P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 5 r
5  3 1
P ( X  r )  Cr    
 4 4
Now , P(getting at least 3 success) = P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) + P(X = 5)

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3 2 4 1 5
3 1 3 1  3
= 5C3      5C4      5C5  
4 4 4 4  4
3
3  1 1 1  27 34 459
  10  16  15  16  9  16   64  16  512
4  

5. A card from a pack of 52 playing cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the pack three
cards are drawn at random (without replacement) and are found to be all spades. Find the
probability of the lost card being a spade.
Ans:
Let E1, E2 , E3 ,E4 and A be event defined as
E1 = the lost card is a spade card.
E2 = the lost card is a heart card.
E3 = the lost card is a club card.
E4 = the lost card is diamond card.
and A = Drawing three spade cards from the remaining cards.
1
P(E1) = P(E2 ) = P(E3) = P(E4) =
4
12 13
C 220 C 286
P(A/E1) = 51 3  , P(A/E2) = 51 3 
C3 20825 C3 20825
13 13
C3 286 C3 286
P(A/E3) = 51
 P(A/E4) = 51

C3 20825 C3 20825
By using Baye’s theorem, we have
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )
P( E1 / A) 
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P ( A / E2 )  P( E3 ) P( A / E3 )  P( E4 ) P( A / E4 )
1 220

4 20825 220 220 10
   
1 220 1 286 1 286 1 286 220  286  286  286 1078 49
      
4 20825 4 20825 4 20825 4 20825

6. From a lot of 15 bulbs which include 5 defectives, a sample of 4 bulbs is drawn one by one with
replacement. Find the probability distribution of number of defective bulbs. Hence find the
mean of the distribution.
Ans:
Let the number of defective bulbs be represented by a random variable X. X may have value 0, 1, 2,
3, 4.
5 1
If p is the probability of getting defective bulb in a single draw then p = 
15 3
1 2
 q = Probability of getting non defective bulb = 1 – p = 1  
3 3
Since each trial in this problem is Bernoulli trials, therefore we can apply binomial distribution as
P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 4 r
1  2
P( X  r )  4Cr    
3  3
1 3
1 2 4 1 8 32
Now, P(X = 1) = C1      4   
3  3 3 27 81
2 2
1  2
4 1 4 24
P(X = 2) = C2      6   
3  3 9 9 81

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3 1
1  2 1 2 8
P(X = 3) = 4C3      4   
 3  3 27 3 81
4
41 1
P(X = 4) = C4   
 3  81
Now probability distribution table is

16 32 24 8 1
Now mean E(X) = px i i  0
81
 1  2   3   4 
81 81 81 81
32  48  24  4 106 4
  
81 81 3

7. Assume that each born child is equally likely to be a boy or a girl. If a family has two children,
what is the conditional probability that both are girls given that (i) the youngest is a girl? (ii)
atleast one is a girl?
Ans:
A family has 2 children, then Sample space = S = {BB, BG,GB,GG}, where B stands for Boy and G
for Girl.
(i) Let A and B be two event such that
A = Both are girls = {GG}
B = the youngest is a girl = {BG, GG}
1
P( A  B ) 4 1
Now, P( A / B)   
P( B) 2 2
4
(ii) Let C be event such that
C = at least one is a girl = {BG,GB,GG}
1
P( A  C ) 4 1
Now, P( A / C )   
P(C ) 3 3
4
8. In a group of 50 scouts in a camp, 30 are well trained in first aid techniques while the
remaining are well trained in hospitality but not in first aid. Two scouts are selected at random
from the group. Find the probability distribution of number of selected scouts who are well
trained in first aid. Find the mean of the distribution also. Write one more value which is
expected from a well trained scout.
Ans:
Let X be no. of selected scouts who are well trained in first aid. Here random variable X may have
value 0, 1, 2.
20
C 20  19 38
Now, P(X = 0) = 50 2  
C2 50  49 245
20
C1  30C1 20  30  2 120
P(X = 1) = 50
 
C2 50  49 245
30
C2 30  29 87
P(X = 2) = 
50

C2 50  49 245
Now probability distribution table is

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38 120 87 120  174 294
Now mean E(X) = px i i  0
245
 1
245
 2
245

245

245
A well trained scout should be disciplined

9. Often it is taken that a truthful person commands, more respect in the society. A man is known
to speak the truth 4 out of 5 times. He throws a die and reports that it is actually a six. Find the
probability that it is actually a six. Do you also agree that the value of truthfulness leads to
more respect in the society?
Ans:
Let E1, E2 and E be three events such that
E1 = six occurs
E2 = six does not occurs
E = man reports that six occurs in the throwing of the dice.
1 5
Now P (E1) = , P (E2) =
6 6
4 4 1
P(E/E1) = , P(E/E2) = 1  
5 5 5
By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )
P( E1 / E ) 
P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )
1 4

6 5 4 4
  
1 4 5 1 45 9
  
6 5 6 5

3 5
10. The probabilities of two students A and B coming to the school in time are and
7 7
respectively. Assuming that the events, ‘A coming in time’ and ‘B coming in time’ are
independent, find the probability of only one of them coming to the school in time. Write at
least one advantage of coming to school in time.
Ans:
Let E1 and E2 be two events such that
E1 = A coming to the school in time.
E2 = B coming to the school in time.
3 5
Here P (E1) = and P (E2) =
7 7
4 2
 P( E1 )  , P( E2 ) 
7 7
P (only one of them coming to the school in time) = P ( E1 ) P ( E2 )  P ( E1 ) P ( E2 )
3 2 5 4 6  20 26
     
7 7 7 7 49 49
Coming to school in time i.e., punctuality is a part of discipline which is very essential for
development of an individual.

11. In a hockey match, both teams A and B scored same number of goals up to the end of the
game, so to decide the winner, the referee asked both the captains to throw a die alternately
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and decided that the team, whose captain gets a six first, will be declared the winner. If the
captain of team A was asked to start, find their respective probabilities of winning the match
and state whether the decision of the referee was fair or not.
Ans:
Let E1, E2 be two events such that
E1 = the captain of team ‘A’ gets a six.
E2 = the captain of team ‘B’ gets a six.
1 1
Here P (E1) = , P (E2) =
6 6
1 5 1 5
P( E1' )  1   , P( E2' )  1  
6 6 6 6
1 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 1
Now P (winning the match by team A) =          .......
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
2 4
1 5 1 5 1
          .....
6 6 6 6 6
1
6
 6 
25 11
1
36
6 5
 P (winning the match by team B) = 1  
11 11
The decision of refree was not fair because the probability of winning match is more for that team
who start to throw dice.

12. A speaks truth in 60% of the cases, while B in 90% of the cases. In what percent of cases are
they likely to contradict each other in stating the same fact? In the cases of contradiction do
you think, the statement of B will carry more weight as he speaks truth in more number of
cases than A?
Ans:
Let E1 be the event that A speaks truth and E2 be the event that B speaks truth. Then E and f are
independent events such that
60 3 90 9
P( E1 )   , P( E1 )  
100 5 100 10
2 1
 P( E1 )  , P( E2 ) 
5 10
P (A and B contradict each other) = P ( E1 ) P ( E2 )  P ( E1 ) P ( E2 )
3 1 2 9 3  18 21
     
5 10 5 10 50 50
Yes, the statement of B will carry more weight as the probability of B to speak truth is more than
that of A.

13. Assume that the chances of a patient having a heart attack is 40%. Assuming that a meditation
and yoga course reduces the risk of heart attack by 30% and prescription of certain drug
reduces its chance by 25%. At a time a patient can choose any one of the two options with
equal probabilities. It is given that after going through one of the two options, the patient
selected at random suffers a heart attack. Find the probability that the patient followed a
course of meditation and yoga. Interpret the result and state which of the above stated
methods is more beneficial for the patient.
Ans:
Let E1, E2 , A be events defined as
E1 = treatment of heart attack with Yoga and meditation

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E2 = treatment of heart attack with certain drugs.
A = Person getting heart attack.
1 1
P(E1) = , P(E2 ) =
2 2
 30  28
P(A/E1) = 40%   40   %  40%  12%  28% 
 100  100
 25  30
P(A/E2) = 40%   40   %  40%  10%  30% 
 100  100
By using Baye’s theorem, we have
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )
P( E1 / A) 
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )
1 28

2 100 28 28 14
   
1 28 1 30 28  30 58 29
  
2 100 2 100
The problem emphasises the importance of Yoga and meditation.
Treatment with Yoga and meditation is more beneficial for the heart patient.

14. A pair of dice is thrown 4 times. If getting a doublet is considered a success, find the
probability distribution of the number of successes and hence find its mean.
Ans:
Since each trial in this problem is Bernoulli trials, therefore we can apply binomial distribution as
P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n
r 4 r
1 5
P( X  r )  4Cr    
6 6
4
5 625 625
Now, P(X = 0) = 4C0    1 
6 1296 1296
1 3
4 1 5 1 125 500
P(X = 1) = C1      4   
6 6 6 216 1296
2 2
4 1 5 1 25 150
P(X = 2) = C2      4   
6 6 36 36 1296
3 1
41 5 1 5 20
P(X = 3) = C3      4   
6 6 216 6 1296
4
1 1 1
P(X = 4) = 4C4    1 
6 1296 1296
Now probability distribution table is

625 500 150 20 1


Now mean E(X) = px i i
1296
 0
 1
1296
 2
1296
 3
1296
 4
1296
500  300  60  4 864 2
  
1296 1296 3

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15. In a certain college, 4% of boys and 1% of girls are taller than 1.75 metres. Furthermore, 60%
of the students in the college are girls. A student is selected at random from the college and is
found to be taller than 1.75 metres. Find the probability that the selected student is a girl.
Ans:
Let E1, E2, A be events such that
E1 = student selected is girl
E2 = student selected is Boy
A = student selected is taller than 1.75 metres.
60 3 40 2
P(E1) =  , P(E2 ) = 
100 5 100 5
1 4
P(A/E1) = , P(A/E2) =
100 100
By using Baye’s theorem, we have
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )
P( E1 / A) 
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )
3 1

5 100 3 3
  
3 1 2 4 3  8 11
  
5 100 5 100

16. Two cards are drawn simultaneously (without replacement) from a well-shuffled pack of 52
cards. Find the mean and variance of the number of red cards.
Ans:
Total no. of cards in the deck = 52
Number of red cards = 26
No. of cards drawn = 2 simultaneously
 X = value of random variable = 0, 1, 2

17. Suppose a girl throws a die. If she gets a 5 or 6, she tosses a coin 3 times and notes the number
of heads. If she gets 1,2,3 or 4 she tosses a coin once and notes whether a head or tail is
obtained. If she obtained exactly one head, what is the probability that she threw 1,2,3, or 4
with the die?
Ans:
Consider the following events:
E1 = Getting 5 or 6 in a single throw of a die.
E2 = Getting 1, 2, 3, or 4 in a single throw of a die.

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A = Getting exactly one head.
2 1 4 2
P(E1) =  , P(E2 ) = 
6 3 6 3
P(A/E1) = Probability of getting exactly one head when a coin is tossed three times
1 2
3 1 1 1 1 3
= C1      3   
2 2 2 4 8
1
P(A/E2) = Probability of getting exactly one head when a coin is tossed once only =
2
By using Baye’s theorem, we have
P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )
P( E2 / A) 
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )
2 1 1

3 2 1 24 8
  3   
1 3 2 1 1 1 3 11 11
   
3 8 3 2 8 3

18. How many times must a man toss a fair coin, so that the probability of having at least one head
is more than 80%?
Ans:
Let no. of times of tossing a coin be n.
1
Here, Probability of getting a head in a chance = p =
2
1 1
Probability of getting no head in a chance = q = 1  
2 2
Now, P (having at least one head) = P (X  1)
n n
n 0 1 1
= 1 – P(X = 0) = 1  nC0 p 0 q  1  1.1.    1   
2  2
From question
n
1 80
1   
 2  100
n
1 8 8 1
 1     1  n
 2  10 10 2
1 1
  n  2n  5  n  3
5 2
A man must have to toss a fair coin 3 times.

19. Of the students in a college, it is known that 60% reside in hostel and 40% day scholars (not
residing in hostel). Previous year results report that 30% of all students who reside in hostel
attain ‘A’ grade and 20% of day scholars attain ‘A’ grade in their annual examination. At the
end of the year, one student is chosen at random from the college and he has an ‘A’ grade,
what is the probability that the student is a hosteler?
Ans:
Let E1 , E2 and A be events such that
E1 = student is a hosteler
E2 = student is a day scholar
A = getting A grade.
60 6 40 4
P(E1) =  , P(E2 ) = 
100 10 100 10

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30 3 20 2
P(A/E1) =  , P(A/E2) = 
100 10 100 10
By using Baye’s theorem, we have
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )
P( E1 / A) 
P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )  P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )
6 3

10 10 18 18 9
   
6 3 4 2 18  8 26 13
  
10 10 10 10

20. Find the mean number of heads in three tosses of a fair coin.
Ans:
The sample space of given experiment is S ={(HHH), (HHT), (HTT), (TTT), (TTH), (THH), (HTH),
(THT)}
Let X denotes the no. of heads in three tosses of a fair coin Here, X is random which may have
values 0, 1, 2, 3.
1 3
Now, P (X = 0) = , P (X =1) =
8 8
3 1
P (X = 2) = , P (X =3) =
8 8
Therefore, Probability distribution is

1 3 3 1
 Mean number (E(x)) = px i i  0   1  2   3 
8 8 8 8
3  6  3 12 3
    1.5
8 8 2

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CHAPTER – 6: APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES

NCERT Important Questions

EXERCISE 6.1 EXERCISE 6.3 EXERCISE 6.5


Q7 Q7 Q17
Q8 Q8 Q18
Q10 Q13 Q19
Q14 Q14 Q20
Q15 Q15 Q21
Q16 Q18 Q22
Q19 Q23
EXERCISE 6.2 Q21 Q24
Q5 Q23 Q25
Q6 Q25 Q26
Q7
Q8 EXERCISE 6.4
Q9 Q1
Q15
Q16

MISC. EXERCISE. SOLVED EXAMPLES.


Q7 2 (Pg 195)
Q8 4 (Pg 196)
Q9 5 (Pg 197)
Q10 8 (Pg 201)
Q11 11 (Pg 202)
Q15 12 (Pg 203)
Q17 13 (Pg 204)
Q18 17 (Pg 209)
18 (Pg 209)
20 (Pg 210)
25 (Pg 215)
29 (Pg 222)
30 (Pg 223)
32 (Pg 224)
37 (Pg 226)
38 (Pg 227)
39(Pg 230)
41 (Pg 231)
43 (Pg 235)
50 (Pg 240)

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CHAPTER – 7: INTEGRALS
NCERT Important Questions

EXERCISE 7.1 EXERCISE 7.3 EXERCISE 7.6


Q10 Q3 Q6
Q12 Q5 Q7
Q13 Q10 Q10
Q18 Q13 Q11
Q20 Q14 Q17
Q16 Q18
EXERCISE 7.2 Q20 Q20
Q9 Q22 Q21
Q10
Q14 EXERCISE 7.4 EXERCISE 7.7
Q15 Q7 Q3
Q19 Q14 Q5
Q20 Q16 Q7
Q28 Q19
Q31 Q22 EXERCISE 7.8
Q32 Q2
Q33 EXERCISE 7.5 . Q4
Q34 Q3 Q6
Q36 Q7
Q37 Q8 EXERCISE 7.9
Q9 Q14
Q15 Q16
Q16
Q17 EXERCISE 7.10
Q18 Q3
Q19 Q5
Q20 Q6
Q21

EXERCISE 7.11 MISC. EXERCISE. SOLVED EXAMPLES.


Q2 Q14 Example 6 Pg (203)
Q5 Q19 Example 15 (Pg 320)
Q8 Q20 Example 32 (Pg 344)
Q10 Q21 Example 34 (Pg 345)
Q22
Q12 Example 35 (Pg 345)
Q24
Q15 Q26 Example 36 (Pg 346)
Q16 Q28 Example 39 (Pg 348)
Q30 Example 40 (Pg 349)
MISC. EXERCISE. Q31 Example 41 (Pg 350)
Q7 Q32 Example 44 (Pg 351)
Q10 Q33
Q11 Q44

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CHAPTER – 8: APPLICATION OF THE INTEGRALS

NCERT Important Questions

EXERCISE 8.1 MISC EXERCISE.


Q3 Q8
Q4 Q9
Q6 Q12
Q7 Q13
Q9 Q14
Q10 Q15
Q11 Q18

EXERCISE 8.2
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q5

SOLVED EXAMPLES.
Example 2 (Pg 362)
Example 4 (Pg 364)
Example 6 (Pg 368)
Example 7 (Pg 368)
Example 8 (Pg 369)
Example 9 (Pg 370)
Example 10 (Pg 370)
Example 13 (Pg 373)
Example 14 (Pg 374)

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CHAPTER – 9: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

NCERT Important Questions

EXERCISE 9.1 EXERCISE 9.4 EXERCISE 9.6


Q4 Q3 Q2
Q11 Q4 Q5
Q5 Q7
EXERCISE 9.2 Q6 Q8
Q4 Q10 Q9
Q7 Q12 Q13
Q9 Q14
Q10 EXERCISE 9.5 Q15
Q1
EXERCISE 9.3 Q3 MISC. EXERCISE.
Q6 Q4 Q6
Q8 Q5 Q9
Q10 Q6 Q10
Q8 Q13
Q9 Q14
Q10
Q13
Q15

SOLVED EXAMPLES.
Example 10 (Pg 393)
Example 16 (Pg 401)
Example 17 (Pg 403)
Example 20 (Pg 410)
Example 22 (Pg 411)
Example 27 (Pg 417)
Example 28 (Pg 418)

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CHAPTER – 11: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

NCERT Important Questions

EXERCISE 11.1 MISC. EXERCISE. SOLVED EXAMPLES.


Q4 Q7 Example 5 (Pg 467)
Q5 Q9 Example 6 (Pg 469)
Q11 Example 9 (Pg 472)
EXERCISE 11.2 Q12 Example 11 (Pg 476)
Q6 Q13 Example 12 (Pg 476)
Q10 Q14 Example 14 (Pg 480)
Q11 Q15 Example 16 (Pg 481)
Q12 Q17 Example 20 (Pg 486)
Q14 Q18 Example 21 (Pg 488)
Q15 Q19 Example 25 (Pg 492)
Q16 Q20 Example 27 (Pg 495)
Q17 Example 28 (Pg 495)
Example 30 (Pg 497)
EXERCISE 11.3
Q5
Q6
Q9
Q10
Q11
Q12

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