00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

1 Ansichten205 Seitenstudy material for class 12

Jul 14, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

study material for class 12

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

1 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

study material for class 12

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 205

for

CLASS – XII

Project Guided By

Honourable Shri E. Krishna Murthy

Principal, KV Gachibowli

Prepared by

M. S. KUMARSWAMY, TGT(MATHS)

M. Sc. Gold Medallist (Elect.), B. Ed.

Kendriya Vidyalaya gachibowli

DEDICATED

TO

MY FATHER

INDEX

1 Relations and Functions

Page 1 – 12

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Relations and Functions

Page 13 – 20

Board Important Questions & Answers

2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Page 21 – 24

Important Concepts & Formulae

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Page 25 – 34

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Page 35 – 41

Board Important Questions & Answers

3 Matrices

Page 42 – 58

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Matrices

Page 59 – 63

Board Important Questions & Answers

4 Determinants

Page 64 – 90

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Determinants

Page 91 – 100

Board Important Questions & Answers

5 Continuity and Differentiability

Page 101 – 116

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Continuity and Differentiability

Page 117 – 119

Board Important Questions

6 Vector Algebra

Page 120 – 128

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Vector Algebra

Page 129 – 134

Board Important Questions & Answers

7 Linear Programming

Page 135 – 149

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Linear Programming

Page 150 – 161

Board Important Questions & Answers

8 Probability

Page 162 – 186

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

Probability

Page 187 – 196

Board Important Questions & Answers

9. Other Chapters

Page 197 – 202

NCERT Most Important Questions

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 1 -

CHAPTER – 1: RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

1. Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b) : a ≤ b2 } is neither

reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.

Ans:

We have R = {(a,b) :a ≤ b2 } , where a, b R

2

1 1

For reflexivity, we observe that is not true.

2 2

1 1

So, R is not reflexive as , R

2 2

For symmetry, we observe that − 1 ≤ 32 but 3 > (−1)2

(−1, 3) R but (3, −1) R.

So, R is not symmetric.

For transitivity, we observe that2 ≤ (−3 )2 and −3 ≤ (1)2 but 2 > (1)2

(2, − 3) R and (−3,1) R but (2, 1) R. So, R is not transitive.

Hence, R is neither reflexive, nor symmetric and nor transitive.

2. Prove that the relation R in R defined by R = {(a, b): a ≤ b3} is neither reflexive nor symmetric

nor transitive.

Ans:

Given that R = {(a, b): a ≤ b3}

3

1 1 1 1 1

It is observed that , R as

2 2 2 2 8

So, R is not reflexive.

Now, (1, 2) (as 1< 23=8)

But (2, 1) R (as 23 > 1)

So, R is not symmetric.

3 3

3 3 6 3 3 6

We have 3, , , R as 3 and

2 2 5 2 2 5

3

6 6

But 3, R as 3

5 5

Therefore, R is not transitive.

Hence, R is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.

3. Show that the relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} given by R = {(a, b) : |a – b| is even}, is an

equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of {1, 3, 5} are related to each other and all the

elements of {2, 4} are related to each other. But no element of {1, 3, 5} is related to any element

of 2, 4}.

Ans:

Given that A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and R = {(a, b) : |a – b| is even}

It is clear that for any element a ∈A, we have (which is even).

∴R is reflexive.

Let (a, b) ∈ R.

⇒ |a – b| is even

⇒(a – b) is even

⇒– (a – b) is even

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 2 -

⇒(b – a) is even

⇒ |b – a| is even

⇒(b, a) ∈ R

∴R is symmetric.

Now, let (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R.

⇒ |a – b| is even and |b – c| is even

⇒ (a – b) is even and (b – c) is even

⇒ (a – c) = (a – b) + (b – c) is even (Since, sum of two even integers is even)

⇒ |a – c| is even

⇒ (a, c) ∈ R

∴R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

Now, all elements of the set {1, 2, 3} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are

odd. Thus, the modulus of the difference between any two elements will be even.

Similarly, all elements of the set {2, 4} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are

even.

Also, no element of the subset {1, 3, 5} can be related to any element of {2, 4} as all elements of {1,

3, 5} are odd and all elements of {2, 4} are even. Thus, the modulus of the difference between the

two elements (from each of these two subsets) will not be even.

4. Show that each of the relation R in the set A {x Z : 0 x 12} , given by R = {(a, b): |a – b| is

a multiple of 4} is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all elements related to 1.

Ans:

A {x Z : 0 x 12} {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9,10,11,12} and

R = {(a, b): |a – b| is a multiple of 4}

For any element a ∈A, we have (a, a) ∈ R ⇒ |a – a| = 0 is a multiple of 4.

∴R is reflexive.

Now, let (a, b) ∈ R ⇒|a – b| is a multiple of 4.

⇒|–(a – b)| is a multiple of 4

⇒|b – a| is a multiple of 4.

⇒ (b, a) ∈ R

∴R is symmetric.

Now, let (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R.

⇒|a – b| is a multiple of 4 and |b – c| is a multiple of 4.

⇒(a – b) is a multiple of 4 and (b – c) is a multiple of 4.

⇒(a – b + b – c) is a multiple of 4

⇒(a – c) is a multiple of 4

⇒|a – c| is a multiple of 4

⇒ (a, c) ∈R

∴ R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

The set of elements related to 1 is {1, 5, 9} since

|1 – 1| = 0 is a multiple of 4

|5 – 1| = 4 is a multiple of 4

|9 – 1| = 8 is a multiple of 4

x2

5. Let A = R − {3} and B = R − {1} . Prove that the function f : A→ B defined by f(x) = is f

x 3

one-one and onto ? Justify your answer.

Ans:

x2

Here, A = R − { 3), B = R − {1} and f : A→ B is defined as f(x) =

x 3

Let x, y ∈A such that f(x) = f(y)

x2 y2

( x 2)( y 3) ( y 2)( x 3)

x3 y 3

xy 3x 2 y 6 xy 3 y 2 x 6

3 x 2 y 3 y 2 x

3x 2 x 3 y 2 y x y

The function f is onto if there exists x ∈ A such that f(x) = y.

Now, f(x) = y

x2

y x 2 xy 3 y

x3

x (1 y ) 3 y 2

2 3y

x A [ y 1]

1 y

2 3y

Thus, for any y ∈B, there exists A such that

1 y

2 3y

2

2 3 y 1 y 2 3y 2 2 y y

f y

1 y 2 3 y 3 2 3 y 3 3 y 1

1 y

Therefore, f is onto. Hence, function f is one-one and onto.

4x 3 2 2

6. If f ( x ) , x , show that (fof)(x) = x, for all x . What is the inverse of f?

6x 4 3 3

Ans:

4x 3 2

Given that f ( x ) ,x

6x 4 3

4x 3

Then ( fof )( x) f ( f ( x )) f

6x 4

4x 3

4 3

6 x 4 16 x 12 18 x 12 34 x

x

4x 3 24 x 18 24 x 16 34

6 4

6x 4

2

Therefore (fof)(x) = x, for all x

3

Hence, the given function f is invertible and the inverse of f is itself.

x

7. Show that f :[−1,1]→ R, given by f ( x ) , x 2 , is one-one. Find the inverse of the

x2

function f :[−1,1]→ Range f .

Ans:

x

Given that f :[−1,1]→ R, given by f ( x ) , x 2 ,

x2

Let f(x) = f(y)

x y

xy 2 x xy 2 y

x2 y2

2x 2 y x y

Therefore, f is a one-one function.

x 2y

Let y x xy 2 y x

x2 1 y

So, for every y except 1 in the range there exists x in the domain such that f(x) = y. Hence, function f

is onto.

Therefore, f :[−1,1] → Range f is one-one and onto and therefore, the inverse of the function f

:[−1,1]→ Range f exists.

Let y be an arbitrary element of range f.

Since, f :[−1,1]→ Range f is onto, we have y = f(x) for some x [1,1]

x 2y

y x xy 2 y x , y 1

x2 1 y

2y

Now, let us define g: Range f→[−1,1] as g ( y ) , y 1

1 y

x

2

x x 2 2x 2x x

( gof )( x) g ( f ( x)) g

x 2 1 x x 2 x 2

x2

2y

1 y

2y 2y 2y

and ( fog )( y ) f ( g ( y )) f y

1 y 2 y 2 2 y 2 2 y 2

1 y

Therefore, gof = fog = IR, Therefore, f –1 = g

2y

Therefore, f 1 ( y ) , y 1

1 y

Ans:

Here, f :R→R is given by f(x) = 4x + 3

Let x,y R, such that f(x) = f(y)

4x + 3 = 4y + 3

4x = 4y x = y

Therefore, f is a one-one function.

Let y = 4x + 3

y 3

There exist, x R, y R

4

y 3

Therefore, for any y R , there exist x R such that

4

y 3 y 3

f ( x) f 4 3 y

4 4

Therefore, f is onto function.

Thus, f is one-one and onto and therefore, f−1 exists.

x3

Let us define g : R → R by g ( x)

4

(4 x 3) 3

Now, ( gof )( x) g ( f ( x )) g (4 x 3) x

4

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 5 -

y 3 y 3

and ( fog )( y ) f ( g ( y )) f 4 3 y

4 4

Therefore, gof = fog = IR

y 3

Hence, f is invertible and the inverse of f is given by f 1 ( y ) g ( y )

4

9. Consider f : R+ →[4, ∞) given by f (x) = x2 + 4. Show that f is invertible with the inverse f −1 of

given by f −1y = y 4 , where R+ is the set of all non-negative real numbers.

Ans: Here, function f : R+ →[4,∞] is given as f(x) = x2 + 4

Let x,y R+ , such that f(x) = f(y)

x2 + 4 = y2 + 4 x2 = y2

x = y [as x = y R+ ]

Therefore, f is a one-one function.

For y [4,∞), let y = x2 + 4

x2 = y − 4≥ 0 [as y ≥ 4]

x = y4 ≥ 0

Therefore, for any y R+ , There exists x = y 4 R+ such that

f(x) = f( y 4 ) = ( y 4 )2 + 4 = y − 4 + 4 = y

Therefore, f is onto. Thus, f is one-one and onto and therefore, f −1 exists.

Let us define g : [4,∞)→R+ by g(y) = y 4

Now, gof(x) = g(f(x)) = g(x2 + 4) = ( x 2 4) 4 x 2 x

2

and fog(y) = f(g(y)) = f( y 4 ) = y4 4 ( y 4) 4 y

Therefore, gof I R and fog I[4, )

Hence, f is invertible and the inverse of f if given by f 1 ( y ) g ( y ) y 4

10. Consider f : R+ → [−5, ∞) given by f (x) = 9x2 + 6x − 5. Show that f is invertible with

y 6 1

f 1 ( y ) .

3

Ans:

Here, function f : R+ →[−5,∞) is given as f(x) = 9x2 + 6x − 5.

Let y be any arbitrary element of [−5,∞).

Let y = 9x2 + 6x − 5

y = (3x + 1)2 − 1 − 5 = (3x + 1)2 − 6

(3x + 1)2 = y + 6

(3x + 1)2 = y 6 [as y ≥ − 5 y + 6 ≥ 0]

y 6 1

x

3

Therefore, f is onto, thereby range f = [−5,∞).

y 6 1

Let us define g : [−5,∞)→ R+ as g ( y )

3

Now, (gof)(x) = g(f(x)) = g(9x + 6x − 5) = g((3x + 1)2 − 6)

2

(3 x 1)2 6 6 1 3 x 1 1

x

3 3

2

y 6 1 y 6 1

and (fog)(y) = f(g(y)) f 3 1 6

3 3

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 6 -

2

y6 6 y66 y

Therefore, gof I R and fog I [ 5, )

y 6 1

Hence, f is invertible and the inverse of f if given by f 1 ( y ) g ( y )

3

11. Let * be the binary operation on N given by a* b = LCM of a and b.

(i) Find 5*7 , 20*16 (ii) Is * commutative?

(iii) Is * associative? (iv) Find the identity of * in N

(v) Which elements of N are invertible for the operation *?

Ans:

The binary operation on N is defined as a*b = LCM of a and b.

(i) We have 5 *7 = LCM of 5 and 7 = 35 and 20*16 = LCM of 20 and 16 = 80

Therefore, a*b = b*a. Thus, the operation * is commutative.

(a*b) *c = (LCM of a and b) *c = LCM of a, b, and c

a* (b*c) = a * (LCM of b and c) = LCM of a, b, and c

Therefore, (a*b) *c = a* (b*c). Thus, the operation is associative.

a*1 = a = 1*a, a N

Thus, 1 is the identity of * in N.

(v) An element a in N is invertible with respect to the operation *, if there exists an element b in N

such that a*b = e = b*a.

Here, e = 1. This means that

LCM of a and b = 1 = LCM of b and a

This case is possible only when a and b are equal to 1.

Thus, 1 is the only invertible element of N with respect to the operation *.

12. Let * be the binary operation on N defined by a*b =HCF of a and b. Is * commutative? Is *

associative? Does there exist identity for this binary operation on N?

Ans:

The binary operation * on N is defined as a*b = HCF of a and b.

It is known that HCF of a and b = HCF of b and a for a,b N.

Therefore, a*b = b*a. Thus, the operation is commutative.

For a,b,c N , we have (a*b)*c = (HCF of a and b)*c = HCF of a,b and c

a*(b*c) = a*(HCF of b and c) = HCF of a,b, and c

Therefore, (a*b)*c = a*(b*c)

Thus, the operation * is associative.

Now, an element e N will be the identity for the operation if a*e = a = e*a, a N.

But this relation is not true for any a N.

Thus, the operation * does not have identity in N.

(i) a*b = a − b (ii) a*b = a2 + b2 (iii) a*b = a + ab

ab

(iv) a*b = (a − b)2 (v) a*b = (vi) a*b = ab2

4

Find which of the binary operation are commutative and which are associative?

Ans:

(i) On Q, the operation * is defined as a*b = a − b.

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 7 -

It can be observed that for 2,3,4 Q, we have 2*3 = 2 − 3 = −1 and 3*2 = 3 − 2 = 1

2*3 ≠ 3*2

Thus, the operation is not commutative.

It can also be observed that

(2*3)*4 = (−1)*4 = −1 − 4 = − 5

and 2*(3*4) = 2*(−1) = 2 − (−1) = 3

2*(3*4) ≠ 2* (3*4)

Thus, the operation * is not associative.

For a,b Q, we have

a*b = a2 + b2 = b2 + a2 = b*a

Therefore, a*b = b*a

Thus, the operation * is commutative.

It can be observed that

(1* 2)* 3 = (12 + 22) * 3 (1 + 4) * 4 = 5 * 4 = 52 + 42 = 41

and 1*(2* 3) = 1* (22 + 32) = 1 * (4 + 9) = 1*13 = 12 + 132 = 170

(1*2)* 3 ≠ 1*(2*3) where 1,2, 3 Q

Thus, the operation * is not associative.

It can be observed that

1*2 = 1 + 1 × 2 = 1 + 2 = 3, 2*1 = 2 + 2 × 1 = 2 + 2 = 4

1*2 ≠ 2*1 where 1, 2 Q

Thus, the operation * is not commutative.

It can also be observed that

(1*2)*3 = (1 + 1 × 2)*3 = 3*3 = 3 + 3 × 3 = 3 + 9 = 12

and 1*(2* 3) = 1*(2 + 2 × 3) = 1*8 = 1 + 1 × 8 = 9

(1*2)* 3 ≠ 1*(2*3) where 1,2, 3 Q

Thus, the operation * is not associative.

For a,b Q, we have a*b = (a − b)2 and b*a = (b − a)2 = [−(a − b)]2 = (a − b)2

Therefore, a*b = b*a

Thus, the operation * is commutative. It can be observed that

(1* 2) * 3 = (1 – 2)2 * 3 = ( 1) * 3 = (1 – 3)2 = 4

and 1 * (2 *3) = 1 * (2 – 3)2 = 1 * (1) = (1 – 1)2 = 0

(1*2)* 3 ≠ 1*(2* 3) where 1,2, 3 Q

Thus, the operation * is not associative.

ab

(v) On Q, the operation * is defined as a*b =

4

ab ba

For a,b Q, we have a * b = = =b*a

4 4

Therefore, a*b = b*a

Thus, the operation * is commutative.

ab bc

ab .c abc bc a. abc

For a,b,c Q, we have a*(b*c )= *c 4 and a*(b*c) = a * 4

4 4 16 4 4 16

Therefore, (a*b)*c = a*(b*c). Thus, the operation * is associative.

It can be observed that for 23 Q

2 * 3 = 2 x 32 = 18 and 3*2 = 3 x 22 = 12

Hence, 2*3 ≠ 3*2

Thus, the operation is not commutative.

It can also be observed that for 1,2,3 Q

(1*2)*3 = (1. 22 )*3 = 4 *3 = 4.32 = 36

and 1*(2* 3) = 1*(2. 32) = 1 *18 =1.182 = 324

(1*2)*3 ≠ 1*(2*3)

Thus, the operation * is not associative.

Hence, the operations defined in parts (ii), (iv), (v) are commutative and the operation defined in part

(v) is associative.

14. Show that none of the operation given in the above question has identity.

Ans:

An element e Q will be the identity element for the operation if

a*e = a = e*a, a Q

(i) a*b = a − b

If a*e = a,a ≠ 0 a −e = a, a ≠ 0 e = 0

Also, e*a = a e − a = a e = 2a

e = 0 = 2a,a ≠ 0

But the identiry is unique. Hence this operation has no identity.

(ii) a*b = a2 + b2

If a*e = a, then a2 + e2 = a

For a = −2, (−2)2 + e2 = 4 + e2 ≠ −2

Hence, there is no identity element.

(iii) a*b = a + ab

If a*e = a a + ae = a ae = 0 e = 0,a ≠ 0

a

Also if e*a = a e + ea = a e ,a 1

1 a

a

e 0 ,a 0

1 a

But the identity is unique. Hence this operation has no identify.

If a*e = a, then (a − e)2 = a. A square is always positive, so for

a = −2,(−2 − e)2 ≠ − 2

Hence, there is no identity element.

(v) a*b = ab /4

If a*e = a, then ae /4 = a. Hence, e = 4 is the identity element.

a*4 =4 *a =4a/4 = a

If a*e =a then ae2 = a e2 = 1 e = ± 1

But identity is unique. Hence this operation has no identity.

Therefore only part (v) has an identity element.

x

15. Show that the function f :R→ {x R : −1 < x <1} defined by f( x) = , x R is one-one and

1 | x |

onto function.

Ans:

x

It is given that f :R→ {x R : −1 < x <1} defined by f( x) = ,xR

1 | x |

x y

Suppose, f(x) = f(y), where x, y R

1 | x | 1 | y |

It can be observed that if x is positive and y is negative, then we have

x y

2 xy x y

1 x 1 y

Since, x is positive and y is negative, then x > y x − y > 0

But, 2xy is negative. Then, 2xy ≠ x − y.

Thus, the case of x being positive and y being negative can be ruled out.

Under a similar argument, x being negative and y being positive can also be ruled out. Therefore, x

and y have to be either positive or negative.

x y

When x and y are both positive, we have f ( x) f ( y ) x xy y xy x y

1 x 1 y

x y

When x and y are both negative, we have f ( x) f ( y ) x xy y xy x y

1 x 1 y

Therefore, f is one-one. Now, let y R such that −1 < y < 1.

y

If y is negative, then there exists x R such that

1 y

y y

y 1 y 1 y y

f ( x) f y

1 y 1 y y 1 y y

1

1 y 1 y

y

If y is positive, then there exists x R such that

1 y

y y

y 1 y 1 y y

f ( x) f y

1 y 1 y y 1 y y

1

1 y 1 y

Therefore, f is onto. Hence, f is one-one and onto.

Ans:

Here, f :R→R is given as f(x) = x3.

Suppose, f(x) = f(y),where x,y R x3 = y3 …(i)

Now, we need to show that x = y

Suppose, x ≠ y, their cubes will also not be equal.

x3 ≠ y3

However, this will be a contradiction to Eq. i).

Therefore, x = y. Hence, f is injective.

a b, ifa b 6

17. Define a binary operation * on the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} as a * b . Show

a b 6, ifa b 6

that zero is the identity for this operation and each element a ≠ 0 of the set is invertible with (6

−a) being the inverse of a.

Ans:

Let X = {0,1,2, 3,4, 5}

a b, ifa b 6

The operation * on X is defined as a * b

a b 6, ifa b 6

a*e = a = e*a a X

For a X, we observed that

a*0 = a + 0 = a [ a X a + 0 < 6]

0*a = 0 + a = a [ a X 0 + a < 6]

a*0 = a = 0*a a X

An element a X is invertible, if there exists b X such that a*b = 0 = b*a

a b 0 b a, ifa b 6

i.e.

a b 6 0 b a 6, ifa b 6

i.e., a = −b or b = 6 − a

But X = {0,1,2, 3,4,5} and a, b X

Then, a ≠ −b

Therefore, b = 6 − a is the inverse of a, a X.

Hence, the inverse of an element a X, a ≠ 0 is (6 − a) i.e., a–1 = 6 – a.

18. Show that the relation R in the set Z of integers given by R = {(a, b) : 2 divides a – b} is an

equivalence relation.

Ans:

R is reflexive, as 2 divides (a – a) for all a Z.

Further, if (a, b) R, then 2 divides a – b.

Therefore, 2 divides b – a.

Hence, (b, a) R, which shows that R is symmetric.

Similarly, if (a, b) R and (b, c) R, then a – b and b – c are divisible by 2.

Now, a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) is even.

So, (a – c) is divisible by 2. This shows that R is transitive.

Thus, R is an equivalence relation in Z.

19. Show that if f : A → B and g : B → C are one-one, then gof : A → C is also one-one.

Ans:

Suppose gof (x1) = gof (x2)

g (f (x1)) = g(f (x2))

f (x1) = f (x2), as g is one-one

x1 = x2, as f is one-one

Hence, gof is one-one.

20. Determine which of the following binary operations on the set N are associative and which are

ab

commutative. (a) a * b = 1 a, b N (b) a * b = a, b N

2

Ans:

(a) Clearly, by definition a * b = b * a = 1 a, b N .

Also (a * b) * c = (1 * c) =1 and a * (b * c) = a * (1) = 1, a, b, c N .

Hence R is both associative and commutative.

ab ba

(b) a * b b * a , shows that * is commutative. Further,

2 2

ab

c a b 2c

a b 2

( a * b) * c *c

2 2 4

bc

a

bc 2 2a b c a b 2c in general.

But a * (b * c ) a *

2 2 4 4

Hence, * is not associative.

7 3 3x 4 3 7

21. Show that if f : R R is defined by f ( x ) and g : R R is

5 5 5x 7 5 5

7x 4 3 7

defined by g ( x ) , then fog = IA and gof = IB, where, A R , B R ; IA(x) = x,

5x 3 5 5

x A, IB(x) = x, x B are called identity functions on sets A and B, respectively.

Ans:

3x 4

7 4

3x 4 5 x 7 21x 28 20 x 28 41x

We have gof ( x) g x

5 x 7 5 3x 4 3 15 x 20 15 x 21 41

5x 7

7x 4

3 4

7x 4 5 x 3 21x 12 20 x 12 41x

Similarly, fog ( x ) f x

5 x 3 5 7 x 4 7 35 x 20 35 21 41

5x 3

Thus, gof (x) = x, x B and fog (x) = x, x A, which implies that gof = IB and fog = IA.

22. Let f : N →R be a function defined as f (x) = 4x2 + 12x + 15. Show that f : N→ S, where, S is the

range of f, is invertible. Find the inverse of f.

Ans:

Let y be an arbitrary element of range f. Then y = 4x2 + 12x + 15, for some x in N, which implies that

y 6 3

y = (2x + 3)2 + 6. This gives x , as y ≥ 6.

2

y 6 3

Let us define g : S → N by g ( y )

2

Now gof (x) = g(f (x)) = g(4x2 + 12x + 15) = g ((2x + 3)2 + 6)

(2 x 3)2 6 6 3 (2 x 3 3)

x

2 2

2

y 6 3 y 6 3

and fog ( y ) f

2 3 6

2 2

2 2

y 6 33 6 y6 6 y66 y

Hence, gof = IN and fog =IS. This implies that f is invertible with f –1 = g.

CHAPTER – 1: RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

Ans:

Given f(x) = x + 7 and g(x) = x – 7, x∈R

fog(x) = f(g(x)) = g(x) + 7 = (x – 7) + 7 = x

(fog) (7) = 7.

3x 2

2. If f(x) is an invertible function, find the inverse of f (x) =

5

Ans:

3x 2

Given f ( x )

5

3x 2

Let y

5

5y 2

3x 2 5 y x

3

5x 2

f 1 ( x )

3

3. Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R as relation in T given by R = {(T1, T2) :T1

T2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation.

Ans:

(i) Reflexive

R is reflexive if T1 R T1

Since T1 T1

R is reflexive.

(ii) Symmetric

R is symmetric if T1 R T2 T2 R T1

Since T1 T2 T2 T1

R is symmetric.

(iii) Transitive

R is transitive if T1 R T2 and T2 R T3 T1 R T3

Since T1 T2 and T2 T3 T1 T3

R is transitive

From (i), (ii) and (iii), we get R is an equivalence relation.

4. If the binary operation * on the set of integers Z, is defined by a *b = a + 3b2 , then find the

value of 2 * 4.

Ans:

Given a *b = a + 3b2 a, b z

2*4 = 2 + 3 x 42 = 2 + 48 = 50

Ans:

Given a * b = HCF (a, b), a, b N

22 * 4 = HCF (22, 4) = 2

n 1

2 , if n is odd

6. Let f : N N be defined by f (n) for all n N . Find whether the

n , if n is even

2

function f is bijective.

Ans:

n 1

2 , if n is odd

Given that f : N N be defined by f (n) for all n N .

n , if n is even

2

Let x, y N and let they are odd then

x 1 y 1

f ( x) f ( y ) x y

2 2

If x, y N are both even then also

x y

f ( x) f ( y ) x y

2 2

If x, y N are such that x is even and y is odd then

x 1 y

f ( x) and f ( y )

2 2

Thus, x y for f(x) = f(y)

Let x = 6 and y = 5

6 5 1

We get f (6) 3, f (5) 3

2 2

f(x) = f(y) but x y ...(i)

So, f (x) is not one-one.

Hence, f (x) is not bijective.

the value of 3 * 4 .

Ans:

Given binary operation is a*b = 2a + b – ab

3* 4 = 2 3 + 4 – 3 4

3* 4 = –2

| x 1|

8. What is the range of the function f ( x ) ?

( x 1)

Ans:

| x 1|

We have given f ( x )

( x 1)

( x 1), if x 1 0 or x 1

| x 1|

( x 1), if x 1 0 or x 1

( x 1)

(i) For x > 1, f ( x) 1

( x 1)

( x 1)

(ii) For x < 1, f ( x ) 1

( x 1)

| x 1|

Range of f ( x ) is {–1 , 1}.

( x 1)

9. Let Z be the set of all integers and R be the relation on Z defined as R = {(a, b) ; a, b Z, and

(a – b) is divisible by 5.} Prove that R is an equivalence relation.

Ans:

We have provided R = {(a, b) : a, b Z, and(a – b) is divisible by 5}

(i) As (a – a) = 0 is divisible by 5.

(a, a) R a R

Hence, R is reflexive.

(a – b) is divisible by 5.

– (b – a) is divisible by 5.

(b – a) is divisible by 5.

(b, a) R

Hence, R is symmetric.

Then, (a – b) is divisible by 5 and (b – c) is divisible by 5.

(a – b) + (b – c) is divisible by 5.

(a – c) is divisible by 5.

(a, c) R

R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

3ab

10. Let * be a binary operation on Q defined by a * b . Show that * is commutative as well as

5

associative. Also find its identity element, if it exists.

Ans:

For commutativity, condition that should be fulfilled is a * b = b * a

3ab 3ba

Consider a * b b*a

5 5

a*b=b*a

Hence, * is commutative.

For associativity, condition is (a * b) * c = a * (b * c)

3ab 9ab

Consider (a * b) * c *c

5 25

3bc 9ab

and a *(b * c ) a *

5 25

Hence, (a * b) * c = a * (b * c)

* is associative.

Let e Q be the identity element,

Then a * e = e * a = a

3ae 3ea 5

ae

5 5 3

Ans:

If f : R R be defined by f(x) = (3 – x3)1/3 then ( fof) x = f( f(x)) = f [(3 – x3)1/3]

= [3 – {(3 – x3)1/3}3]1/3 = [3 – (3 – x3)]1/3 = (x3)1/3 = x

12. Let A = N ´ N and * be a binary operation on A defined by (a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d). Show

that * is commutative and associative. Also, find the identity element for * on A, if any.

Ans:

Given A = N N

* is a binary operation on A defined by

(a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)

(i) Commutativity: Let (a, b), (c, d) N N

Then (a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d) = (c + a, d + b)

( a, b, c, d N, a + c = c + a and b + d = d + c)

= (c, d) * b

Hence, (a, b) * (c, d) = (c, d) * (a, b)

* is commutative.

(ii) Associativity: let (a, b), (b, c), (c, d)

Then [(a, b) * (c, d)] * (e, f) = (a + c, b + d) * (e, f) = ((a + c) + e, (b + d) + f)

= {a + (c + e), b + (d + f)] ( set N is associative)

= (a, b) * (c + e, d + f) = (a, b) * {(c, d) * (e, f)}

Hence, [(a, b) * (c, d)] * (e, f) = (a, b) * {(c, d) * (e, f)}

* is associative.

(iii) Let (x, y) be identity element for on A,

Then (a, b) * (x, y) = (a, b)

(a + x, b + y) = (a, b)

a + x = a, b + y = b

x = 0, y = 0

But (0, 0) A

For *, there is no identity element.

13. If f : R R and g : R R are given by f(x) = sin x and g(x) = 5x2, find gof(x).

Ans:

Given f : R R and g : R R defined by f (x) = sin x and g(x) = 5x2

gof(x) = g [f(x)] = g (sin x) = 5 (sin x)2 = 5 sin2x

14. Consider the binary operation* on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined by a * b = min. {a, b}. Write the

operation table of the operation *.

Ans:

Required operation table of the operation * is given as

* 1 2 3 4 5

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 2 2 2 2

3 1 2 3 3 3

4 1 2 3 4 4

5 1 2 3 4 5

Ans:

f (f (x)) = f (3x + 2)

=3. (3x + 2) + 2 = 9x + 6 + 2

= 9x + 8

16. Write fog, if f : R R and g : R R are given by f(x) = 8x3 and g(x) = x1/3 .

Ans:

fog (x) = f (g(x))

= f (x1/3)

= 8(x1/3)3

= 8x

17. Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7} and let f = {(1, 4), (2,5), (3, 6)} be a function from A to B. State

whether f is one-one or not.

Ans:

f is one-one because

f(1) = 4 ; f(2) = 5 ; f(3) = 6

No two elements of A have same f image.

18. Let f : R R be defined as f(x) =10x +7. Find the function g : R R such that gof = fog =IR.

Ans:

gof = fog = IR

fog = IR

fog(x) = I (x)

f (g(x)) = x [ I(x) = x being identity function]

10(g(x)) + 7 = x [ f(x) = 10x + 7]

x7

g ( x)

10

x7

i.e., g : R R is a function defined as g ( x )

10

x2

19. Let A = R – {3} and B = R – {1}. Consider the function f : A B defined by f ( x ) .

x 3

Show that f is one-one and onto and hence find f –1.

Ans:

Let x1, x2 A.

x 2 x2 2

Now, f(x1) = f(x2) 1

x1 3 x2 3

( x1 2)( x2 3) ( x1 3)( x2 2)

x1 x2 3 x1 2 x2 6 x1 x2 2 x1 3x2 6

3 x1 2 x2 2 x1 3 x2

x1 x2 x1 x2

Hence f is one-one function.

For Onto

x2

Let y xy 3 y x 2

x 3

xy x 3 y 2 x( y 1) 3 y 2

3y 2

x ----- (i )

y 1

From above it is obvious that y except 1, i.e., y B R {1} x A

Hence f is onto function.

Thus f is one-one onto function.

3y 2

It f –1 is inverse function of f then f 1 ( y ) [from (i)]

y 1

Ans:

(2 * 3) * 4 = (2 × 2 +3) * 4

=7*4

= 2 × 7 + 4 = 18

x 1, if x is odd

21. Show that f : N N, given by f ( x) is both one-one and onto.

x 1, if x is even

Ans:

For one-one

Case I : When x1, x2 are odd natural number.

f(x1) = f(x2) x1+1 = x2 +1 x1 , x2 N

x1 = x2

i.e., f is one-one.

f(x1) = f(x2) x1 – 1 = x2 – 1

x1 = x2

i.e., f is one-one.

f(x1) = f(x2) x1+1 = x2 – 1

x2 – x1 = 2 which is never possible as the difference of odd and even number is always odd

number.

Hence in this case f (x1) f(x2)

i.e., f is one-one.

Similar as case III, We can prove f is one-one

For onto:

f(x) = x +1 if x is odd

= x – 1 if x is even

For every even number ‘y’ of codomain odd number y - 1 in domain and for every odd number

y of codomain even number y +1 in Domain.

i.e. f is onto function.

Hence f is one-one onto function.

aob = a for all a, b R. Show that ‘*’ is commutative but not associative, ‘o’ is associative but

not commutative.

Ans:

For operation ‘*’

‘*’ : R ´ R R such that

a*b = |a – b| a, b R

Commutativity

a*b = |a – b| = |b – a| = b * a

i.e., ‘*’ is commutative

Associativity

a, b, c R

(a * b) * c = |a – b| * c = ||a – b| – c|

a * (b * c) = a * |b – c| = |a – |b – c||

But ||a – b| – c| |a – |b – c||

(a*b)* c a*( b * c) " a, b, c R

* is not associative.

Hence, ‘*’ is commutative but not associative.

o : R × R R such that aob = a

Commutativity a, b R

aob = a and boa = b

a b aob boa

‘o’ is not commutative.

Associativity: " a, b, c R

(aob) oc = aoc = a

ao(boc) = aob = a

(aob) oc = ao (boc)

‘o’ is associative

Hence ‘o’ is not commutative but associative.

23. If the binary operation * on the set Z of integers is defined by a * b = a + b – 5, then write the

identity element for the operation * in Z.

Ans:

Let e Z be required identity

a* e = a a Z

a + e – 5 = a

e = a – a + 5

e = 5

3ab

24. If the binary operation * on set R of real numbers is defined as a*b = , write the identity

7

element in R for *.

Ans:

Let e R be identity element.

a * e = a a R

3ae 7a

ae

7 3a

7

e

3

25. Prove that the relation R in the set A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9} given by R = {(a, b) : |a – b| , is divisible by

2}, is an equivalence relation. Find all elements related to the element 6.

Ans:

Here R is a relation defined as R = {(a, b) : |a – b| is divisible by 2}

Reflexivity

Here (a, a) R as |a – a| = 0 = 0 divisible by 2 i.e., R is reflexive.

Symmetry

Let (a, b) R

(a, b) R |a – b| is divisible by 2

a – b = ± 2m b – a = 2m

|b – a| is divisible by 2 (b, a) R

Hence R is symmetric

Transitivity Let (a, b), (b, c) R

Now, (a, b), (b, c) R |a – b|, |b – c| are divisible by 2

a – b = ±2m and b – c = ±2n

a – b + b – c = ± 2(m + n)

(a – c) = ± 2k [ k = m + n]

(a – c) = 2k

(a – c) is divisible by 2 (a, c) R.

Hence R is transitive.

Therefore, R is an equivalence relation.

The elements related to 6 are 6, 8.

ab

26. Let * be a binary operation, on the set of all non-zero real numbers, given by a * b for all

5

a, b R {0} . Find the value of x, given that 2 * (x * 5) = 10.

Ans:

Given 2 * (x * 5) = 10

x5

2* 10 2* x 10

5

2 x 10 5

10 x x 25

5 5

27. Let A = {1, 2, 3, …, 9} and R be the relation in A × A defined by (a, b) R (c, d) if a + d = b + c for

(a, b), (c, d) in A × A. Prove that R is an equivalence relation. Also obtain the equivalence class

[(2, 5)].

Ans:

Given, R is a relation in A × A defined by (a, b)R(c, d) a + d = b + c

(i) Reflexivity: a, b A

Q a + b = b + a (a, b)R(a, b)

So, R in reflexive.

(ii) Symmetry: Let (a, b) R (c, d)

Q (a, b)R(c, d) a + d = b + c

b + c = d + a [Q a, b, c, d N and N is commutative under addition[

c + b = d + a

(c, d)R(a, b)

So, R is symmetric.

(iii) Transitivity: Let (a, b)R(c, d) and (c, d)R(e, f)

Now, (a, b)R(c, d) and (c, d)R(e, f) a + d = b + c and c + f = d + e

a + d + c + f = b + c + d + e

a + f = b + e

(a, b)R(e, f).

R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

2nd Part: Equivalence class: [(2, 5)] = {(a, b) A A: (a, b)R(2, 5)}

= {(a, b) A A: a + 5 = b + 2}

= {(a, b) A A: b – a = 3}

= {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6), (4, 7), (5, 8), (6, 9)}

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 21 -

CHAPTER – 2: INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

A function f : A B is invertible if it is a bijection. The inverse of f is denoted by f –1 and is defined as

f –1(y) = x f (x) = y.

The inverse of sine function is defined as sin–1x = sinq = x, where [– /2, /2] and

x [–1, 1].

Thus, sin –1 x has infinitely many values for given x [–1, 1]

There is one value among these values which lies in the interval [–/2, /2]. This value is called the

principal value.

sin–1(sin) = and sin(sin–1x) = x, provided that 1 x 1 and

2 2

tan–1(tan) = and tan(tan–1 x) = x, provided that x and

2 2

cot –1(cot) = and cot(cot –1 x) = x, provided that – < x < and 0 < < .

1 1

sin 1 x cos ec 1 or cos ec 1 x sin 1

x x

1 1

cos 1 x s ec 1 or s ec 1 x cos 1

x x

1 1

tan 1 x cot 1 or cot 1 x tan 1

x x

x 1 x2 1 1

sin 1 x cos 1 1 x 2 tan 1 cot 1 sec1 cos ec 1

1 x2 x 1 x2 x

1 x2 x 1 1

cos1 x sin 1 1 x 2 tan 1 cot 1 cos ec 1 s ec 1

x 1 x2 1 x2 x

2

x 1 1 1 1 x

1

tan x sin 1

cos 1

cot 1 1 2

sec 1 x cos ec

1 x2 1 x2 x x

sin 1 x cos 1 x , where 1 x 1

2

tan 1 x cot 1 x , where x

2

sec 1 x cos ec 1 x , where x 1 or x 1

2

x y

tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1 , if xy 1

1 xy

x y

tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1 , if xy 1

1 xy

x y

tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

1 xy

sin 1 x sin 1 y sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

sin 1 x sin 1 y sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

sin 1 x sin 1 y sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

sin 1 x sin 1 y sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

cos1 x cos1 y cos 1 xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

cos1 x cos1 y cos1 xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

cos1 x cos1 y cos 1 xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

cos1 x cos1 y cos 1 xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if x, y 0, x 2 y 2 1

sin 1 ( x ) sin 1 x, cos 1 ( x ) cos1 x

tan 1 ( x) tan 1 x, cot 1 ( x) cot 1 x

2sin 1 x sin 1 2 x 1 x 2 ,

2cos 1 x cos 1 2 x 2 1

2

2x 2x 1 1 x

2 tan 1 x tan 1 2

sin 1 2 cos 2

1 x 1 x 1 x

3x x3

1

3 tan x tan 1

2

1 3x

CHAPTER – 2: INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

1 1

1. Find the values of tan 1 (1) cos 1 sin 1

2 2

Ans:

Let tan 1 1 x tan x 1 tan x where x ,

4 4 2 2

tan 1 1

4

1 1 2

Let cos1 y cos y cos cos cos cos( ) cos

2 2 3 3 3

2

y where y 0,

3

1 1

Let sin 1 z sin z sin sin z where z ,

2 2 6 6 6 2 2

1

sin 1

2 6

1 1 2

tan 1 1 cos 1 sin 1 x y z

2 2 4 3 6

3 8 2 9 3

12 12 4

1 1

2. Prove that 3sin 1 x sin 1 (3x 4 x3 ), x ,

2 2

Ans:

Let sin 1 x x sin , then

We know that sin 3 3sin 4sin 3

3 sin 1 (3sin 4sin 3 ) sin 1 (3 x 4 x 3 )

3sin 1 x sin 1 (3 x 4 x 3 )

2 7 1

3. Prove that tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

11 24 2

Ans:

2 7 1

Given tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

11 24 2

2 7

1 2 1 7

11 24 x y

LHS tan tan 1

tan tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

11 24 2 7 1 x. y

1 .

11 24

48 77 125 125

125 1

tan 1 264 tan 1 264 tan 1 264 tan 1 tan 1 RHS

1 14 264 14 250 250 2

264 264 264

1 1 31

4. Prove that 2 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

2 7 17

Ans:

1 1 31

Given 2 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

2 7 17

1

2

1 1 1 1 1 2 tan 1 1 1 2 x

2 tan x tan

1

LHS 2 tan tan tan 2 2

2 7 1 7 1 x

1

2

1 1 4 1

= tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

1 7 3 7

1

4

4 1

x y

tan 1 3 7 tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

1 4 . 1 1 x. y

3 7

28 3 31

31

tan 1 21 tan 1 21 tan 1 RHS

4 17 17

1

21 21

1 x2 1

5. Simplify : tan 1 ,x 0

x

Ans:

Let x = tan θ, then θ = tan–1x ………………… (i)

1 x2 1 1 tan 2 1 sec 2 1

tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

2 tan tan

1 1 cos

1

sec 1

tan 1 tan 1 cos tan 1 cos

tan sin sin

cos cos

2sin 2 1 cos 2sin 2

1 cos 2 2

tan 1 tan 1

sin and sin 2sin cos

2sin cos

2 2 2 2

sin

tan 1 2 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 x [using (i)]

cos

2 2 2

2

1

6. Simplify : tan 1 ,| x | 1

x2 1

Ans:

Let x = sec θ, then θ = sec–1x ………………… (i)

1 1 1

tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

2 2

x 1 sec 1 tan 2

1

tan 1 tan 1 (cot ) tan 1 tan tan cot

tan 2 2

sec 1 x [using (i)]

2 2

cos x sin x

7. Simplify : tan 1 ,0 x

cos x sin x

Ans:

cos x sin x

1 cos x sin x

tan tan 1 cos x cos x

cos x sin x cos x sin x

cos x cos x

(inside the bracket divide numerator and denominator by cos x)

1 tan x 1 1 tan x

tan 1 tan tan x tan x

1 tan x 4 4 1 tan x

x

4

2

1 2x 1 1 y

8. Simplify : tan sin 1 cos ,| x | 1, y 0 and xy 1

2 1 x2 1 y2

Ans:

2

1 2x 1 1 y

tan sin 1 cos ,| x | 1, y 0 and xy 1

2 1 x2 1 y2

2

1 2 x 1 1 y

2 tan 1

x sin and 2 tan 1

y cos

1 x2 1 y2

1 1

tan (2 tan 1 x 2 tan 1 y ) tan .2(tan 1 x tan 1 y ) tan(tan 1 x tan 1 y )

2 2

x y 1 x y

tan tan 1 tan x tan y tan

1 1

1 x. y 1 x. y

x y

1 x. y

x 1 x 1

9. If tan 1 tan 1 , find the value of x.

x2 x2 4

Ans:

x 1 x 1

Given that tan 1 tan 1

x2 x2 4

x 1 x 1

x2 x2 1 x y

tan 1 tan x tan y tan

1 1

1 x 1 x 1 4 1 x. y

x 2 x 2

( x 1)( x 2) ( x 1)( x 2)

tan 1 ( x 2)( x 2)

2

x 1 4

1 2

x 4

( x 2 2 x x 2) ( x 2 2 x x 2)

x 2

4 tan

2 2

x 4 x 1 4

2

x 4

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 27 -

2 x2 4 2 2 2 1

1 2 x 4 3 2 x 1 x

3 2

1

x

2

7

10. Find the value of cos1 cos .

6

Ans:

7 1 5 5

cos 1 cos cos cos 2 where, [0, ]

6 6 6

7 1 5 5

cos 1 cos cos cos cos(2 ) cos

6 6 6

12 3 56

11. Prove that cos 1 sin 1 sin 1

13 5 65

Ans:

12 3 56

Given cos 1 sin 1 sin 1

13 5 65

12 12

Let cos 1 x cos x

13 13

2

2 12 25 5

sin x 1 cos x 1

13 169 13

5

x sin 1

13

12 3 5 3

LHS cos 1 sin 1 sin 1 sin 1

13 5 13 5

5 2 2

3 3 5

sin 1

13

1 1

5 5 13

sin 1 x sin 1 y sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2

5 16 3 144 1 5 4 3 12

sin 1 sin

13 25 5 169 13 5 5 13

20 36 56

sin 1 sin 1 RHS

65 65 65

63 5 3

12. Prove that tan 1 sin 1 cos 1

16 13 5

Ans:

5 3

RHS sin 1 cos 1

13 5

5 5

Let sin 1 x sin x

13 13

2

2 5 144 12

cos x 1 sin x 1

13 169 13

5

sin x 13 5 5

tan x x tan 1

cos x 12 12 12

13

3 3

Let cos 1 y cos y

5 5

2

2 3 16 4

sin y 1 cos y 1

5 25 5

4

sin x 5 4 4

tan y y tan 1

cos x 3 3 3

5

63

then the equation becomes tan 1 x y

16

63 5 4

tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

16 12 3

5 4

x y

5 4

RHS tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 12 3 tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

12 3 1 5 . 4 1 x. y

12 3

15 48 63

63

tan 1 36 tan 1 36 tan 1 LHS

1 20 16 16

36 36

1 1 1 1

13. Prove that tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

5 7 3 8 4

Ans:

1 1 1 1

LHS = tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

5 7 3 8

1 1 1 1

x y

tan 1 5 7 + tan 1 3 8 tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

1 1 . 1 1 1 . 1 1 x. y

5 7 3 8

75 83 12 11

tan 1 35 tan 1 24 tan 1 35 tan 1 24

1 1 1

1

30

23

35 24 35 24

12 11 6 11

tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

34 23 17 23

6 11 138 187 325

tan 1 17 23 tan 1 391 tan 1 391 tan 1 1 RHS

6

1 . 11 1 66 325 4

17 23 391 391

1 sin x 1 sin x x

14. Prove that cot 1 , x 0,

1 sin x 1 sin x 2 4

Ans:

1 sin x 1 sin x x

Given cot 1 , x 0,

1 sin x 1 sin x 2 4

1 sin x 1 sin x

LHS cot 1

1 sin x 1 sin x

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 29 -

1 sin x 1 sin x 1 sin x 1 sin x

cot 1 (by rationalizing the denominator)

1 sin x 1 sin x 1 sin x 1 sin x

2

1

cot

1 sin x 1 sin x cot 1 1 sin x 1 sin x 2 1 sin x

2

2 2

1 sin x 1 sin x

1 sin x 1 sin x

2 2cos x 1 2(1 cos x) 1 1 cos x

cot 1 cot cot

sin x 2sin x sin x

x

2 cos 2

cot 1 2 x

1 cos x 2cos 2 and sin x 2sin cos

x x

x x

2sin cos 2 2 2

2 2

x

cos

cot 1 2 cot 1 cot x x RHS

x

2 2

sin

2

1 x 1 x 1

15. Prove that tan 1 cos x

1

1 x 1 x 4 2

Ans:

Let x = cosy y cos 1 x

y y

1 cos y 1 cos y 2 cos 2sin

LHS tan 1 tan 1 2 2

1 cos y 1 cos y y y

2cos 2sin

2 2

2 y y

1 cos y 2 cos and 1 cos y 2sin 2

2 2

y y y

cos sin 1 tan

tan 1 2 2 tan 1 2 tan 1 tan y 1 cos 1 x

y y y

cos sin 1 tan 4 2 4 2

2 2 2

1 tan x

tan x

4 1 tan x

1 x 1

16. Solve for x: tan 1 tan 1 x, ( x 0)

1 x 2

Ans:

1 x 1

Given tan 1 tan 1 x, ( x 0)

1 x 2

1 x

2 tan 1 tan 1 x

1 x

1 x

2

1 1 x 2 x

tan 2

tan 1 x 2 tan 1 x tan 1 2

1 x 1 x

1

1 x

1 x

2

tan 1 1 x tan 1 x

(1 x) 2 (1 x )2

(1 x) 2

2(1 x)(1 x )

tan 1 2 2

tan 1 x

(1 x) (1 x )

1 2(1 x 2 )

tan 2 2

tan 1 x

1 2x x 1 2x x

2(1 x 2 ) 2

1 1 x

tan 1 tan 1

x tan

1

tan x

4 x 2 x

2

1 x 1 1

x 1 x 2 2 x 2 1 3x 2 x 2 x

2x 3 3

1

x 0 given, so we do not take x

3

1

x

3

17. Solve for x: 2 tan 1 (cos x) tan 1 (2cos ecx )

Ans:

Given 2 tan 1 (cos x) tan 1 (2cos ecx )

2cos x 2x

tan 1 2

1

tan (2cos ecx) 2 tan 1 x tan 1 2

1 cos x 1 x

2cos x 1 2

tan 1 2 tan

sin x sin x

2 cos x 2 cos x

2

1

sin x sin x sin x

cot x 1 cot x cot x

4 4

18. Solve for x: sin 1 (1 x) 2sin 1 x

2

Ans:

Given sin 1 (1 x) 2sin 1 x

2

2sin 1 x sin 1 (1 x ) 2sin 1 x cos 1 (1 x)

2

sin (1 x) cos (1 x ) 2

1 1

cos 2sin 1 x 1 x

cos 2sin x 1 x

1

cos( x) cos x

1 2sin sin x 1 x

2 1

cos 2 x 1 2sin 2 x

2

1 2 sin sin x 1 x

1

1 2 x 2 1 x 2 x2 x 0

x (2 x 1) 0 x 0 or 2 x 1 0

1

x 0 or x

2

1

But x does not satisfy the given equation, so x = 0.

2

x x y

19. Simplify: tan 1 tan 1

y x y

Ans:

x

1

x x y 1 x y

Given tan 1 tan 1 1

= tan tan x

y x y y

y 1

x x 1 x y

tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 1 tan x tan y tan

1 1

y y 1 x. y

tan 1 1

4

cos x

20. Express tan 1 , x in the simplest form.

1 sin x 2 2

Ans:

cos x

Given tan 1 , x

1 sin x 2 2

x x x x

2 x 2 x cos sin cos sin

cos sin

2 2 2 2

tan 1 2 2

tan 1 2

x x x x x x

cos 2 sin 2 2 cos sin cos sin

2 2 2 2

2 2

2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x x x

1 cos x cos sin ,sin cos 1 and sin x 2sin cos

2 2 2 2 2 2

x x x

cos sin 1 tan

tan 1 2 2 tan 1 2 tan 1 tan x x

x x x

4 2 4 2

cos sin 1 tan

2 2 2

1

21. Simplify : cot 1 ,| x | 1

x2 1

Ans:

Let x = sec θ, then θ = sec–1x ………………… (i)

1 1 1

cot 1 cot 1 cot 1

x2 1 sec 2 1 tan 2

1

cot 1 cot 1 (cot ) sec 1 x

tan

3 8 84

22. Prove that sin 1 sin 1 cos 1

5 17 85

Ans:

3 8

Let sin 1 x and sin 1 y

5 17

3 8

Therefore sin x and sin y

5 17

2

3 9 4

Now, cos x 1 sin 2 x 1 1

5 25 5

2

8 64 15

and cos y 1 sin 2 y 1 1

17 289 17

4 15 3 8 60 24 84

We have cos( x y ) cos x cos y sin x sin y

5 17 5 17 85 85 85

84

x y cos 1

85

3 8 84

sin 1 sin 1 cos 1

5 17 85

12 4 63

23. Prove that sin 1 cos 1 tan 1

13 5 16

Ans:

12 4 63

Let sin 1 x , cos 1 y and tan 1 z

13 5 16

12 4 63

Then sin x , cos y and tan z

13 5 16

2

12 144 5

Now, cos x 1 sin 2 x 1 1

13 169 13

2

4 16 3

and sin y 1 cos 2 y 1 1

5 25 5

12 3

sin x 13 12 sin y 5 3

tan x and tan y

cos x 5 5 cos y 4 4

13 5

12 3 48 15 63

tan x tan y 63

tan( x y ) 5 4 20 20 tan z

1 tan x.tan y 1 12 . 3 1 36

16 16

5 4 20 20

tan( x y ) tan z tan( z ) tan( z )

x y z

x y z

12 4 63

sin 1 cos 1 tan 1

13 5 16

a cos x b sin x a

24. Simplify: tan 1 , if tan x 1

b cos x a sin x b

Ans:

a cos x b sin x

a cos x b sin x b cos x

tan 1 1

tan b cos x a sin x

b cos x a sin x

b cos x

a

tan x

a a

tan 1 b tan 1 tan 1 (tan x ) tan 1 x

1 a tan x b b

b

25. Solve: tan 1 2 x tan 1 3 x

4

Ans:

Given tan 1 2 x tan 1 3 x

4

2 x 3x 1 x y

tan 1 tan x tan y tan

1 1

1 2 x.3 x 4 1 x. y

5x 5x

tan 1 2

2

tan 1

1 6x 4 1 6x 4

2

6 x 5 x 1 0 (6 x 1)( x 1) 0

1

x or x 1

6

Since x = – 1 does not satisfy the equation, as the L.H.S. of the equation becomes negative,

1

x is the only solution of the given equation.

6

CHAPTER – 2: INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 05 marks

1

1. Evaluate : sin sin 1

3 2

Ans:

1

sin sin 1 sin

3 2 3 6

sin sin 1

3 6 2

Ans:

cot tan 1 a cot 1 a cot cot 1 a cot 1 a cot 0

2 2

7

3. Find the principal values of cos1 cos .

6

Ans:

7 1

cos 1 cos cos cos

6 6

3 5

cos1 cos cos1

6 2 6 6

3

4. Find the principal values of tan 1 tan

4

Ans:

3 1

tan 1 tan tan tan

4 4

tan 1 tan tan 1 (1)

4 4

1 a 1 a 2b

5. Prove that: tan cos 1 tan cos 1

4 2 b 4 2 b a

Ans:

1 a 1 a

LHS tan cos 1 tan cos 1

4 2 b 4 2 b

1 a 1 a

tan tan cos 1 tan tan cos1

4 2 b 4 2 b

1 a 1 a

1 tan tan cos1 1 tan tan cos 1

4 2 b 4 2 b

1 a 1 a

1 tan cos 1 1 tan cos1

2 b

2 b

1 a 1 a

1 tan cos 1 1 tan cos 1

2 b 2 b

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 35 -

2 2

1 1 a 1 1 a

1 tan 2 cos b 1 tan 2 cos b

21 1 a

1 tan 2 cos b

1 a 21 1 a

2 2 tan 2 cos 1 2 1 tan cos

2 b 2 b

1 a 1 a

1 tan 2 cos 1 1 tan 2 cos 1

2 b 2 b

2 2 2 2b

= RHS

1 1 a 1 a a a

cos 2 cos cos cos

2 b b b

8

6. Solve: tan 1 x 1 tan 1 x 1 tan 1

31

Ans:

8

tan 1 x 1 tan 1 x 1 tan 1

31

( x 1) ( x 1) 1 8

tan 1 tan

1 ( x 1).( x 1) 31

2x 1 8 2x 8

tan 1 2 tan tan 1 2

tan 1

1 ( x 1) 31 2 x 31

2x 8

2

62 x 16 8 x 2 8 x 2 62 x 16 0

2 x 31

2

4 x 31x 8 0 (4 x 1)( x 8) 0

1

x and x 8

4

As x = –8 does not satisfy the equation

1

Hence x is only solution.

4

4 5 16

7. Prove that sin 1 sin 1 sin 1

5 13 65 2

Ans:

4 5 16

sin 1 sin 1 sin 1

5 13 65 2

4 5 16 16

sin 1 sin 1 sin 1 cos 1

5 13 2 65 65

4 5

Let sin 1 x and sin 1 y

5 13

4 5

Therefore sin x and sin y

5 13

2

2 4 16 3

Now, cos x 1 sin x 1 1

5 25 5

2

2 5 25 12

and cos y 1 sin y 1 1

13 144 13

3 12 4 5 36 20 16

We have cos( x y ) cos x cos y sin x sin y

5 13 5 13 65 65 65

16

x y cos 1

65

4 5 16

sin 1 sin 1 cos 1

5 13 65

1 2 1 3

8. Prove that tan 1 tan 1 cos 1

4 9 2 5

Ans:

1 2

LHS tan 1 tan 1

4 9

1 2 98 17

x y

tan 1 4 9 tan 1 36 tan 1 36 tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

1 1 . 2 1 2 34 1 x. y

4 9 36 36

17 1 1 1

tan 1 tan 1 2 tan 1

34 2 2 2

2

1 1

1 1 2

1 2 1 1 1 x

cos 1 2 cos 1 4 2 tan 1

x cos 2

2 1 2 1 1 x

1 1

2 4

3

1 1 3

cos 1 4 cos 1 RHS

2 5

2 5

4

x2 1 2 x 2

9. Solve for x: cos 1 2 tan 1 2

x 1 x 1 3

Ans:

x2 1 2 x 2

cos 1 2 tan 1 2

x 1 x 1 3

(1 x 2 ) 1 2 x 2

cos 1 2 tan 2

1 x 1 x 3

1 x2 2 x 2

cos 1 2

tan 1 2

1 x 1 x 3

2 2

2 tan 1 x 2 tan 1 x 4 tan 1 x

3 3

2

4 tan 1 x 4 tan 1 x tan 1 x

3 3 12

tan tan

4 6

tan 1 x x tan

4 6 4 6 1 tan .tan

4 6

1

1

x 3 3 1

1 3 1

1

3

3 1 3 1 3 1 2 3 4 2 3

x 2 3

3 1 3 1 3 1 2

1 1 x

10. Prove that tan 1 x cos1 , x (0,1)

2 1 x

Ans:

1

LHS tan 1 x 2 tan 1 x

2

1 x 2

1 1

1 1 x

2

2 tan x cos

1

cos 2 2

2

1 x

1 x

1 1 x

cos 1 RHS

2 1 x

9 9 1 1 9 1 2 2

11. Prove that sin sin

8 4 3 4 3

Ans:

9 9 1 1 9 1 9 1

LHS sin sin 1 cos 1

8 4 3 4 2 3 4 3

1 1

Let cos 1 x cos x sin x 1 cos 2 x

3 3

2

1 1 8 2 2

sin x 1 1

3 9 9 3

2 2 1 1

2 2

x sin 1 cos sin 1

3 3 3

9 1 9 2 2

cos 1 sin 1 RHS

4 3 4 3

Ans:

tan 1 3 sec 1 (2)

tan 1 tan sec 1 sec

3 3

2

sec1 sec sec 1 sec

3 3 3 3

2

3 3 3

3 3 6

13. Prove that : cos sin 1 cot 1

5 2 5 13

Ans:

3 3

Let sin 1 x and cot 1 y

5 2

3 3

Then sin x and cot y

5 2

2

2 3 9 16 4

Now cos x 1 sin x 1 1

5 25 25 5

1 1 1 1 2

and sin y

1 cot 2 y 3

2

9 13 13

1 1

2 4 4

3

cos y

13

4 3 3 2

LHS cos( x y ) cos x cos y sin x sin y

5 13 5 13

12 6 6

RHS

5 13 5 13 5 13

1

Write the value of tan 2 tan 1

5

Ans:

1 1 x x 1

Let 2 tan 1 x tan 1 tan

5 5 2 2 5

x 1

2 tan 2

1 2 5 2 25 5

tan 2 tan 1 tan x 2

5 x 1 5 24 12

1 tan 2 1

2

5

2

1 2x 1 1 y

14. Find the value of the following: tan sin 1 cos ,| x | 1, y 0 and xy 1

2 1 x2 1 y2

Ans:

Let x tan and y tan tan 1 x, tan 1 y

2

1 1 2 x 1 1 y

tan sin cos

2 1 x2 1 y2

2

1 2 tan 1 1 tan

tan sin 1 cos

2 1 tan 2 1 tan 2

1 2 tan 1 tan 2

tan sin (sin 2 ) cos (cos 2 ) sin 2

1 1

and cos 2

2 1 tan 2 1 tan 2

1 tan tan x y

tan 2 2 tan

2 1 tan . tan 1 xy

3

15. Write the value of tan 1 2sin 2 cos1

2

Ans:

3

tan 1 2sin 2 cos1

2

3

tan 1 2sin 2 tan 1 2sin tan 1 2

6 3 2

tan 1 3

3

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 39 -

1 3 4 7

16. Prove that tan sin 1

2 4 3

Ans:

3 3

Let sin 1 sin

4 4

2 tan

2 3 2 tan

sin 2

1 tan 2

4 1 tan 2

2

3 3tan 2 8 tan 3 tan 2 8 tan 3 0

2 2 2 2

8 64 36 8 28

tan

2 6 6

8 2 7 4 7

tan tan

2 6 2 3

1 3 4 7

tan sin 1

2 4 3

x

17. If y cot 1

cos x tan 1

cos x , then prove that sin y tan 2

2

Ans:

y cot 1

cos x tan 1 cos x

y

2

tan 1 cos x tan cos x 2 2 tan

1 1

cos x

2

1 cos x 1 1 x

y cos 1 2 tan x cos

1

2

2 1 cos x 1 x

1 cos x

y sin 1

1 cos x

x

2sin 2

1 cos x 2 tan 2 x

sin y

1 cos x 2 cos 2 x 2

2

1

18. If sin sin 1 cos 1 x 1 , then find the value of x.

5

Ans:

1 1

sin sin 1 cos 1 x 1 sin 1 cos 1 x sin 1 1

5 5

1 1

sin 1 cos 1 x sin 1 cos 1 x sin 1 x

5 2 5 2

1

x

5

1 5 2 1

19. Prove that 2 tan 1 sec 1 2 tan 1

5 7 8 4

Ans:

1 5 2 1

LHS 2 tan 1 sec 1 2 tan 1

5 7 8

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 40 -

1 1 5 2 1 1 5 2

2 tan 1 2 tan 1 sec 1 2 tan 1 tan 1 sec 1

5 8 7 5 8 7

1 1 2

1

58 1

5 2

2 tan tan 1

1 1 . 1 7

5 8

85

50

2 tan 1 40 tan 1 1

1 1 49

40

13

1 13 1

2 tan 1 40 tan 1 2 tan 1 tan 1

39 49 39 7

40

1

2

1 1 1 1 1 3 tan 1 1 2 x

2 tan tan tan 2 2 tan 1 x tan 1 2

3 7 1 7 1 x

1

3

2 2

1 1 2 9 1

tan 1 3 tan 1 tan 1 3 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1

1 1 7 8 7 3 8 7

9 9

3 1

1 3 1 1

47 x y

tan tan tan 1

tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

4 7 1 3 . 1 1 x. y

4 7

21 4 25

tan 1 28 tan 1 28 tan 1 1

1 3 25 4

28 28

20. If tan 1 x tan 1 y then write the value of x + y + xy.

4

Ans:

tan 1 x tan 1 y

4

x y x y

tan 1 tan 1

1 x. y 4 1 x. y 4

x y 1 xy x y xy 1

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 42 -

CHAPTER – 3: MATRICES

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 03 marks

1. If a matrix has 18 elements, what are the possible orders it can have? What, if it has 5

elements?

Ans:

Since, a matrix containing 18 elements can have any one of the following orders :

1 × 18, 18 × 1, 2 × 9, 9 × 2, 3 × 6,6 × 3

Similarly, a matrix containing 5 elements can have order 1 × 5 or 5 × 1.

1

(i) aij = |−3i + j| (ii) aij = 2i − j

2

Ans:

(i) The order of given matrix is 3 × 4, so the required matrix is

a11 a12 a13 a14

1

A a21 a22 a23 a24 , where aij = |−3i + j|

2

a31 a32 a33 a34 34

Putting the values in place of i and j, we will find all the elements of matrix A.

1 1 1 1

a11 | 3 1| 1, a12 | 3 2 | , a13 | 3 3 | 0

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 5 1

a14 | 3 4 | , a21 | 6 1| , a22 | 6 2 | 2

2 2 2 2 2

1 3 1 1

a23 | 6 3 | , a24 | 6 4 | 1, a31 | 9 1| 4

2 2 2 2

1 7 1 1 5

a32 | 9 2 | , a33 | 9 3 | 3, a34 | 9 4 |

2 2 2 2 2

1 1

1 2 0 2

5 3

Hence, the required matrix is A 2 1

2 2

4 7 3 5

2 2 34

(ii) Here, A a21 a22 a23 a24 ,where aij = 2i – j

a31 a32 a33 a34 34

a11 = 2 − 1 = 1, a12 = 2 − 2 = 0,

a13 = 2 − 3 = − 1, a14 = 2 − 4 = − 2,

a21 = 4 − 1 = 3, a22 = 4 − 2 = 2,

a23 = 4 − 3 = 1, a24 = 4 − 4 = 0

a31 = 6 − 1 = 5, a32 = 6 − 2 = 4,

a33 = 6 − 3 = 3 and a34 = 6 − 4 = 2

1 0 1 2

Hence, the required matrix is A 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 34

a b 2a c 1 5

3. Find the value of a, b, c and d from the equation:

2a b 3c d 0 13

Ans:

a b 2a c 1 5

Given that

2a b 3c d 0 13

By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are

equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get

a−b=−1 …(i)

2a − b = 0 …(ii)

2a + c = 5 …(iii)

and 3c + d = 13 …(iv)

Subtracting Eq.(i) from Eq.(ii), we get a = 1

Putting a = 1 in Eq. (i) and Eq. (iii), we get

1 − b = − 1 and 2 + c = 5

b = 2 and c = 3

Substituting c = 3 in Eq. (iv), we obtain

3 × 3 + d = 13 d = 13 − 9 = 4

Hence, a = 1,b = 2, c = 3 and d = 4.

5 2 3 6

4. Find X and Y, if X + Y = and X – Y = .

0 9 0 1

Ans:

5 2 3 6

(X Y ) (X Y )

0 9 0 1

8 8 1 8 8

2X X

0 8 2 0 8

4 4

X

0 4

5 2 3 6

Now,( X Y ) ( X Y )

0 9 0 1

2 4 1 2 4

2Y X

0 10 2 0 10

1 2

Y

0 5

x 5 3 4 7 6

2

7 y 3 1 2 15 14

Ans:

x 5 3 4 7 6

2

7 y 3 1 2 15 14

2 x 10 3 4 7 6

14 2 y 6 1 2 15 14

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 44 -

2 x 3 6 7 6

15 2 y 4 15 14

or 2x + 3 = 7 and 2y – 4 = 14

or 2x = 7 – 3 and 2y = 18

4 18

or x = and y =

2 2

i.e. x = 2 and y = 9.

0 1 3 5

6. Find AB, if A and B .

0 2 0 0

Ans:

0 1 3 5 0 0

We have AB

0 2 0 0 0 0

Thus, if the product of two matrices is a zero matrix, it is not necessary that one of the matrices is a

zero matrix.

1 2 3

7. If A 3 2 1 , then show that A3 – 23A – 40 I = O

4 2 1

Ans:

1 2 3 1 2 3 19 4 8

A A. A 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 12 8

2

1 2 3 19 4 8 63 46 69

So, A A.A 3 2 1 1

3 2

12 8 69 6 23

4 2 1 14 6 15 92 46 63

63 46 69 1 2 3 1 0 0

Now, A 23 A 40 I 69 6

3

23 23 3 2 1 40 0 1 0

92 46 63 4 2 1 0 0 1

63 46 69 23 46 69 40 0 0

69 6 23 69 46 23 0 40 0

92 46 63 92 46 23 0 0 40

63 23 40 46 46 0 69 69 0

69 69 0 6 46 40 23 23 0

92 92 0 46 46 0 63 23 40

0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

2 1 10

8. If x y , find the values of x and y.

3 1 5

Ans:

2 1 10 2 x y 10

x y

3 1 5 3x y 5

By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are

equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get

2x − y = 10 …(i)

and 3x + y = 5 …(ii)

Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

5x = 15 x = 3

Substituting x = 3 in Eq. (i), we get

2 × 3 − y = 10 y = 6 − 10 = −4

x y x 6 4 x y

9. Given 3 , find the values of x, y, z and w.

z w 1 2 w z w 3

Ans:

By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are

equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get

3x = x + 4 2x = 4 x = 2

6 x

and 3y = 6 + x + y 2y = 6 + x y=

2

Putting the value of x, we get

62 8

y 4

2 2

Now, 3z = −1 + z + w, 2z = −1 + w

1 w

z …(i)

2

Now, 3w = 2w + 3 w = 3

Putting the value of w in Eq. (i), we get

1 3 2

z 1

2 2

Hence, the values of x, y, z and w are 2, 4, 1 and 3.

cos x sin x 0

10. If F ( x ) sin x cos x 0 , show that F(x) F(y) = F(x + y).

0 0 1

Ans:

cos x sin x 0 cos y sin y 0

LHS F ( x) F ( y ) sin x cos x 0 sin y cos y 0

0 0 1 0 0 1

cos x cos y sin x sin y sin y cos x sin x cos y 0

sin x cos y cos x sin y sin x sin y cos x cos y 0

0 0 1

cos( x y ) sin( x y ) 0

sin( x y ) cos( x y ) 0 F ( x y ) RHS

0 0 1

2 0 1

11. Find A – 5A + 6I, if A 2 1 3

2

1 1 0

Ans:

2 0 1 2 0 1 5 1 2

A A. A 2 1 3 2 1 3 9 2 5

2

1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 2

5 1 2 2 0 1 1 0 0

A 5 A 6 I 9 2 5 5 2 1 3 6 0 1 0

2

0 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1

5 1 2 10 0 5 6 0 0

9 2 5 10 5 15 0 6 0

0 1 2 5 5 0 0 0 6

5 10 6 1 0 0 2 5 0 1 1 3

9 10 0 2 5 6 5 15 0 1 1 10

0 5 0 1 5 0 2 0 6 5 4 4

1 0 2

12. If A 0 2 1 , prove that A3 – 6A2 + 7A + 2I = 0

2 0 3

Ans:

1 0 2 1 0 2 5 0 8

A A. A 0

2

2 1 0 2 1 2 4

5

2 0 3 2 0 3 8 013

5 0 8 1 0 2 21 0 34

A A . A 2

3 2

4 5 0 2 1 12

8 23

8 0 13 2 0 3 340 55

21 0 34 5 0 8 1 0 2 1 0 0

A 6 A 7 A 2 I 12 8 23 6 2 4 5 7 0 2

3 2 1 2 0 1 0

34 0 55 8 0 13 2 0 3 0 0 1

21 0 34 30 0 48 7 0 14 2 0 0

12 8 23 12 24 30 0 14 7 0 2 0

34 0 55 48 0 78 14 0 21 0 0 2

21 30 7 2 0 0 0 0 34 48 14 0 0 0 0

12 12 0 0 8 24 14 2 23 30 7 0 0 0

0 O

34 48 14 0 0 0 0 0 55 78 21 2 0 0 0

3 2 1 0

13. If A and I 0 , find k so that A2 = kA – 2I

4 2 1

Ans:

Given than A2 = kA – 2I

3 2 3 2 3 2 1 0

k 2

4 2 4 2 4 2 0 1

9 8 6 4 3k 2k 2 0

12 8 8 4 4k 2k 0 2

1 2 3k 2 2 k

4 4 4k 2k 2

By definition of equality of matrix as the given matrices are equal, their corresponding elements are

equal. Comparing the corresponding elements, we get

3k − 2 = 1 k = 1

−2k = −2 k = 1

4k = 4 k = 1

−4 = −2k − 2 k = 1

Hence, k = 1

0 tan

2 and I is the identity matrix of order 2, show that

14. If A

tan 0

2

cos sin

I + A = (I – A)

sin cos

Ans:

0 x

Let A where x tan

x 0 2

1 tan 2 2 2 tan

Now, cos 2 1 x and cos 2 2x

2

1 x 1 x2

1 tan 2 1 tan 2

2 2

cos sin

RHS ( I A)

sin cos

1 x2 2x

1 0 0 x 1 x 2

1 x2

0 1 x 0 2 x 1 x2

1 x 2 1 x 2

1 x 2 2x 1 x2 2x2 2 x x (1 x 2 )

1 x 1 x 2

1 x2 1 x2 1 x2

x 1 2 x 1 x 2 x (1 x 2 ) 2 x 2x2 1 x2

1 x 2 1 x 2 1 x2 1 x2

1 x2 2 x x x 3 x x3 x(1 x 2 )

1 1

1 x2 1 x2 1 x2 1 x2 1 x

x x3 2 x 1 x2 x3 x x( x 2 1) x 1

1 x 2 1 x 2 1 1 x 2 1

1 x2

1 0 0 x 1 x

LHS RHS

0 1 x 0 x 1

2 2 4

15. Express the matrix B 1 3 4 as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric

1 2 3

matrix.

Ans:

2 2 4 2 1 1

B 1 3 4 B ' 2 3 2

1 2 3 4 4 3

2 3 3

4 3 3 2 2

1 1

Let P ( B B ') 3 6 2 3 3 1

2 2 2

3 2 6 3

1 3

2

2 3 3

2 2

Now P ' 3 3 1 P

2

3 1 3

2

1

Thus P ( B B ') is a symmetric matrix.

2

0 1 5

0 1 5 2 2

1 1

Also, let Q ( B B ') 1 0 6 1 0 3

2 2 2

5 6 0 5

3 0

2

0 1 5

2 2

Now Q ' 1 0 3 Q

2

5 3 0

2

1

Thus Q ( B B ') is a skew symmetric matrix.

2

2 3 3 0 1 5

2 2 2 2 2 2 4

Now, P Q 3 3 1 1 0 3 1 3 4 B

2 2

3 1 2 3

2 1 3 5 3 0

2

Thus, B is represented as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix.

16. Express the following matrices as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix:

6 2 2 3 3 1

3 5 1 5

(i ) ( ii ) 2 3 1 (iii ) 2 2 1 (iv ) 1 2

1 1 2 1 3 4 5 2

Ans:

(i)

3 5

Let A , then A P Q

1 1

1 1

where, P ( A A ') and Q ( A A ')

2 2

1 1 3 5 3 1 1 6 6 3 3

Now, P ( A A ')

2 2 1 1 5 1 2 6 2 3 1

3 3 3 3

P' P

3 1 3 1

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 49 -

1

Thus P ( A A ') is a symmetric matrix.

2

1 1 3 5 3 1 1 0 4 0 2

Now, Q ( A A ')

2 2 1 1 5 1 2 4 0 2 0

0 2

Q ' Q

2 0

1

Thus Q ( A A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.

2

Representing A as the sum of P and Q,

3 3 0 2 3 5

PQ A

3 1 2 0 1 1

(ii)

6 2 2

Let A 2 3 1 , then A P Q

2 1 3

1 1

where, P ( A A ') and Q ( A A ')

2 2

6 2 2 6 2 2 12 4 4 6 2 2

1 1 1

Now, P ( A A ') 2 3 1 2 3 1 4 6 2 2 3 1

2 2 2 4 2 6 2 1 3

2 1 3 2 1 3

6 2 2 6 2 2

P ' 2 3 1 2 3 1 P

2 1 3 2 1 3

1

Thus P ( A A ') is a symmetric matrix.

2

6 2 2 6 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1

Now, Q ( A A ') 2 3 1 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 3 2 1 3

0 0 0

Q ' 0 0 0 Q

0 0 0

1

Thus Q ( A A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.

2

Representing A as the sum of P and Q,

6 2 2 0 0 0 6 2 2

P Q 2 3 1 0 0 0 2 3 1 A

2 1 3 0 0 0 2 1 3

(iii)

3 3 1

Let A 2 2 1 , then A P Q

4 5 2

1 1

where, P ( A A ') and Q ( A A ')

2 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 50 -

3 1 5

3 3 1 3 2 4 6 1 5 2 2

1 1 1

Now, P ( A A ') 2 2 1 3 2 5 1 4 4 1 2 2

2 2 2 2

4 5 2 1 1 2 5 4 4 5

2 2

2

3 1 5 3 1 5

2 2 2 2

P' 1 2 2 1 2 2 P

2 2

5 2 2 5 2 2

2 2

1

Thus P ( A A ') is a symmetric matrix.

2

0 5 3

3 3 1 3 2 4 0 5 3 2 2

1 1 1

Now, Q ( A A ') 2 2 1 3 2 5 5 0 6 5 0 2

2 2 2 2

4 5 2 1 1 2 3 6 0 3

2 0

2

0 5 3

2 2

Q ' 5 0 2 Q

2

3 0

2 2

1

Thus Q ( A A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.

2

Representing A as the sum of P and Q,

3 1 5 0 5 3

2 2 2 2 3 3 1

PQ 1 2 2 5 0 2 2 2 1 A

2 2

4 5 2

5 2 2 3 2 0

2 2

(iv)

1 5

Let A , then A P Q

1 2

1 1

where, P ( A A ') and Q ( A A ')

2 2

1

1 1 5 1 1 1 2 4 1 2

Now, P ( A A ')

2 2 1 2 5 2 2 4 4 2 2

1 2 1 2

P' P

2 2 2 2

1

Thus P ( A A ') is a symmetric matrix.

2

1 1 1 5 1 1 1 0 6 0 3

Now, Q ( A A ')

2 2 1 2 5 2 2 6 0 3 0

0 3

Q ' Q

3 0

1

Thus Q ( A A ') is a skew symmetric matrix.

2

Representing A as the sum of P and Q,

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 51 -

1 2 0 3 1 5

PQ A

2 2 3 0 1 2

cos sin

17. If A = and A + A′ = I, find the value of α .

sin cos

Ans:

cos sin cos sin

A A

sin cos sin cos

Now, A A ' I

cos sin cos sin 1 0

sin cos sin cos 0 1

2cos 0 1 0

0 2 cos 0 1

Comparing the corresponding elements of the above matrices, we have

1

2cos 1 cos cos

2 3 3

0 1 2

18. Obtain the inverse of the following matrix using elementary operations: A 1 2 3

3 1 1

Ans:

0 1 2 1 0 0

Write A = I A, i.e., 1 2 3 0 1 0 A

3 1 1 0 0 1

1 2 3 0 1 0

0 1 2 1 0 0 A (applying R1↔ R2)

3 1 1 0 0 1

1 2 3 0 1 0

0 1 2 1 0 0 A (applying R3 → R3 – 3R1)

0 5 8 0 3 1

1 0 1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1 0 0 A (applying R1 → R1 – 2R2)

0 5 8 0 3 1

1 0 1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1 0 0 A (applying R3 → R3 + 5R2)

0 0 2 5 3 1

1 0 1 2 1 0

1

0 1 2 1 0 0 A (applying R3 → R3)

2

0 0 1 5 3 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

1 0 0 2 2 2

0 1 2 1 0 0 A (applying R1 → R1 + R3)

0 0 1 5 3 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

1 0 0 2 2 2

0 1 0 4 3 1 A (applying R2 → R2 – 2R3)

0 0 1 5 3 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

1

A 4 3 1

5 3 1

2 2 2

6 3

19. Using elementary transformations, find the inverse of , if it exists.

2 1

Ans:

6 3

Let A

2 1

We know that A = IA

6 3 1 0

A

2 1 0 1

1 1

1 0 1

2 6 A Using R1 R1

6

2 1 0 1

1

1 0

1 6

2 A Using R2 R2 2 R1

1

0 0 1

3

Now, in the above equation, we can see all the elements are zero in the second row of the matrix on

the LHS. Therefore, A−1 does not exist.

Note Suppose A = IA, after applying the elementary transformation, if any row or column of a

matrix on LHS is zero, then A−1 does not exist.

20. Show that the matrix B′ AB is symmetric or skew-symmetric according as A is symmetric or

skew-symmetric.

Ans:

We suppose that A is a symmetric matrix, then A′ = A

Consider (B′ AB)′ ={B′ (AB)}′ = (AB)′ (B′ )′ [ (AB)′ = B ′ A′ ]

= B′ A′ (B) [ (B′ )′ = B]

= B′ (A′ B) = B′ (AB) [ A′ = A]

(B′ AB)′ = B′ AB

which shows that B′ AB is a symmetric matrix.

Now, we suppose that A is a skew-symmetric matrix.

Then, A′ = − A

Consider (B′ AB)′ = [B′ (AB)]′ = (AB)′ (B′ )′ [ (AB)′ = B′ A′ and (A′ )′ = A]

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 53 -

= (B′ A′ )B = B′ (−A)B= − B′ AB [ A′ = − A]

(B′ AB)′ = − B′ AB

which shows that B′ AB is a skew-symmetric matrix.

Ans:

Here, A and Bare symmetric matrices, then A′ = A and B′ = B

Now, (AB − BA)′ = (AB)′ − (BA)′ ( (A − B)′ = A′ − B′ and (AB)′ = B′ A′ )

= B ′ A′ − A′ B ′ = BA − AB ( B′ = Band A′ = A)

= −(AB − BA)

(AB − BA)′ = −(AB − BA)

Thus, (AB − BA) is a skew-symmetric matrix.

2 3 3

22. Using elementary transformations, find the inverse of 2 2 3 , if it exists.

3 2 2

Ans:

2 3 3

Let A 2 2 3 . We know that A = IA

3 2 2

2 3 3 1 0 0

2 2 3 0 1 0 A

3 2 2 0 0 1

1 1 4 1 1 1

2 2 3 0 1 0 A (Using R1 → R1 + R2 – R3)

3 2 2 0 0 1

1 1 4 1 1 1

0 0 5 2 1 2 A (Using R2 → R2 − 2R1 and R3 → R3 − 3R1)

0 5 10 3 3 4

1 1 4 1 1 1

0 5 10 3 3 4 A (Using R2 R3)

0 0 5 2 1 2

1 1 1

1 1 4

3 3 4 1 1

0 1 2 A (Using R2 → R2 and R3 → R3 )

5 5 5 5 5

0 0 1

2 1 2

5 5 5

3 1 3

5

1 1 0 5 5

1 1

0 1 0 0 A (Using R2 → R2 – 2R3 and R1 → R1 – 4R3 )

5 5

0 0 1

2 1 2

5 5 5

2 3

0

1 0 0 5 5

1 1

0 1 0 0 A (Using R1 → R1 – R2)

5 5

0 0 1

2 1 2

5 5 5

2 3

5 0

5 2 0 3

1 1 1

A

1

0 1 1 0

5 5 5

2 1 2

2 1 2

5 5 5

3 4 1 2n 4n

23. If A , then prove that An , where n is any positive integer.

1 1 n 1 2n

Ans:

We are required to prove that for all n N

1 2n 4n

P ( n)

n 1 2n

1 2(1) 4(1) 3 4

Let n = 1, then P(1) ........(i )

1 1 2(1) 1 1

which is true for n = 1.

Let the result be true for n = k.

1 2k 4k

P ( k ) Ak ........(ii )

k 1 2k

Let n = k + 1

1 2(k 1) 4(k 1) 2k 3 4k 4

P(k 1) Ak 1

k 1 1 2(k 1) k 1 2k 1

1 2k 4k 3 4

Now, LHS Ak 1 Ak A1

k 1 2k 1 1

(1 2k ).3 (4k ).1 (1 2k ).(4) (4k )(1)

k .3 (1 2k ).1 k .(4) (1 2k )(1)

3 2k 4 4k 1 2(k 1) 4(k 1)

k 1 1 2k k 1 1 2(k 1)

Therefore, the result is true for n = k + 1whenever it is true for n = k. So, by principle of

mathematical induction, it is true for all n N.

1 2 0 0

24. For what values of x : 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 O ?

1 0 2 x

Ans:

1 2 0 0

1 2 1 2 0 1 2 O

1 0 2 x

040

Since Matrix multiplication is associative, therefore 1 2 1 0 0 x O

0 0 2 x

4

1 2 1 x O

2 x

4 2 x 2 x O 4 4 x O

4 4 x 0 4 x 4 x 1

3 1

25. If A , show that A2 – 5A + 7I = 0.

1 2

Ans:

3 1

Given that A

1 2

3 1 3 1 8 5

A2 A. A

1 2 1 2 5 3

8 5 3 1 1 0

A2 5 A 7 I 5 7

5 3 1 2 0 1

8 5 15 5 7 0

5 3 5 10 0 7

8 15 7 5 5 0 0 0

O

5 5 0 3 10 7 0 0

1 0 2 x

26. Find x, if x 5 1 0 2 1 4 O ?

2 0 3 1

Ans:

1 0 2 x

Given that x 5 1 0 2 1 4 O

2 0 3 1

x02

Since Matrix multiplication is associative, therefore x 5 1 0 8 1 O

2 x 0 3

x2

x 5 1 9 O

2 x 3

x ( x 2) (5).9 (1)(2 x 3) O

x 2 48 O x 2 48 0 x 2 48

x 48 4 3

1 2 3 7 8 3

27. Find the matrix X so that X

4 5 6 2 4 6

Ans:

1 2 3 7 8 3

Given that X

4 5 6 2 4 6

The matrix given on the RHS of the equation is a 2 × 3matrix and the one given on the LHS of the

equation is as a 2 × 3 matrix. Therefore, X has to be a 2 × 2 matrix.

a c

Now, let X

b d

a 4c 2a 5c 3a 6c 7 8 3

b 4d 2b 5d 3b 6d 2 4 6

Equating the corresponding elements of the two matrices, we have

a + 4c = − 7, 2a + 5c = −8, 3a + 6c = −9

b + 4d = 2, 2b + 5d = 4, 3b + 6d = 6

Now, a + 4c = − 7 a = − 7 − 4c

2a + 5c = −8 −14 − 8c + 5c = −8

−3c = 6 c = −2

a = − 7 − 4(−2) = − 7 + 8 = 1

Now, b + 4d = 2 b = 2 − 4d and 2b + 5d = 4 4 − 8d + 5d = 4

−3d = 0 d = 0

b = 2 − 4(0) = 2

Thus, a = 1, b = 2, c = − 2, d = 0

1 2

Hence, the required matrix X is

2 0

cos sin cos n sin n

28. If A , then prove that An ,n N

sin cos sin n cos n

Ans:

We shall prove the result by using principle of mathematical induction.

cos sin cos n sin n

We have P(n) : If A , then An ,n N

sin

cos sin n cos n

cos sin

Let n = 1, then P(1) A1

sin cos

Therefore, the result is true for n = 1.

Let the result be true for n = k. So

cos k sin k

P ( k ) Ak

sin k cos k

Now, we prove that the result holds for n = k +1

cos(k 1) sin(k 1)

i.e. P (k 1) Ak 1

sin(k 1) cos(k 1)

cos k sin k cos sin

Now, P (k 1) Ak 1 Ak . A

sin k cos k sin cos

cos cos k sin sin k cos sin k sin cos k

sin cos k cos sin k sin sin k cos cos k

cos(k ) sin(k ) cos(k 1) sin(k 1)

sin(k ) cos(k ) sin(k 1) cos(k 1)

Therefore, the result is true for n = k + 1. Thus by principle of mathematical induction, we have

cos n sin n

An ,n N

sin n cos n

2 1 5 2 2 5

29. Let A ,B ,C . Find a matrix D such that CD – AB = O.

3 4 7 4 3 8

Ans:

Since A, B, C are all square matrices of order 2, and CD – AB is well defined, D must be a square

matrix of order 2.

a b 2 5 a b 2 1 5 2

Let D , then CD AB 0 O

c d 3 8 c d 3 4 7 4

2a 5c 2b 5d 3 0 0 0

3a 8c 3b 8d 43 22 0 0

2a 5c 3 2b 5d 0 0

3a 8c 43 3b 8d 22 0 0

By equality of matrices, we get

2a + 5c – 3 = 0 ... (1)

3a + 8c – 43 = 0 ... (2)

2b + 5d = 0 ... (3)

and 3b + 8d – 22 = 0 ... (4)

Solving (1) and (2), we get a = –191, c = 77. Solving (3) and (4), we get b = – 110, d = 44.

a b 191 110

Therefore D

c d 77 44

1 2

30. By using elementary operations, find the inverse of the matrix A

2 1

Ans:

In order to use elementary row operations we may write A = IA.

1 2 1 0 1 2 1 0

2 1 0 1 A, then 0 5 2 1 A (applying R2 → R2 – 2R1)

1 0

1 2 1

2 1 A (applying R2 → R2)

0 1 5

5 5

1 2

1 0 5 5

A (applying R1 → R1 – 2R2)

0 1 2 1

5 5

1 2

5 5

Thus A–1 =

2 1

5 5

CHAPTER – 3: MATRICES

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 03 marks

4 2 1 2 2 0

3 3 0 3 1 1

Ans:

4 2 1 2 2 0

Given that

3 3 0 3 1 1

Applying C2 C2 – 2C1, we get

4 6 1 2 2 4

3 3 0 3 1 1

a 4 3b 2a 2 b 2

2. If write the value of a – 2b.

8 6 8 a 8b

Ans:

a 4 3b 2a 2 b 2

Give that

8 6 8 a 8b

On equating, we get

a + 4 = 2a + 2, 3b = b + 2, a – 8b = – 6

a = 2, b = 1

Now the value of a – 2b = 2 – (2 1) = 2 - 2 = 0

3. If A is a square matrix such that A2 = A, then write the value of 7A – (I + A)3 , where I is an

identity matrix.

Ans:

7A – (I + A)3 = 7A - {I3 + 3I2A + 3I.A2 + A3}

= 7A – {I + 3A + 3A + A2A} [ I3 = I2 = I , A2 = A]

= 7A – {I + 6A + A2} = 7A – {I + 6A + A}

= 7A – {I + 7A} = 7A – I – 7A = –I

x y z 1 4

4. If , find the value of x + y.

2 x y w 0 5

Ans:

x y z 1 4

Given that

2 x y w 0 5

Equating, we get

x - y = -1 … (i)

2x - y = 0 …(ii)

z = 4, w = 5

(ii) – (i) 2x – y – x + y = 0 + 1

x = 1 and y = 2

x + y = 2 + 1 = 3.

1 0

5. Solve the following matrix equation for x : x 1 O

2 0

Ans:

1 0

Given that x 1 O

2 0

x 2 0 0 0

x – 2 = 0

x = 2

3 4 1 y 7 0

6. If 2 , find (x – y).

5 x 0 1 10 5

Ans:

3 4 1 y 7 0

Given that 2

5 x 0 1 10 5

6 8 1 y 7 0

10 2 x 0 1 10 5

7 8 y 7 0

10 2 x 1 10 5

Equating we get 8 + y = 0 and 2x + 1 = 5

y = –8 and x = 2

x – y = 2 + 8 = 10

0 1 2

7. For what value of x, is the matrix A 1 0 3 a skew-symmetric matrix?

x 3 0

Ans:

A will be skew symmetric matrix if

A = – A'

0 1 2 0 1 x 0 1 x

1 0 3 1 0 3 1 0

3

x 3 0 2 3 0 2 3 0

Equating, we get x = 2

1 1 2

8. If matrix A and A = kA, then write the value of k.

1 1

Ans:

Given A2 = kA

1 1 1 1 1 1

k

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 1 1

k

2 2 1 1

1 1 1 1

2 k

1 1 1 1

k = 2

a b 2a c 1 5

9. Find the value of a if

2a b 3c d 0 13

Ans:

a b 2a c 1 5

Given that

2a b 3c d 0 13

Equating the corresponding elements we get.

a – b = – 1…(i)

2a + c = 5 …(ii)

2a – b = 0 …(iii)

3c + d =13 …(iv)

From (iii) 2a = b

b

a

2

b

Putting in (i) we get b 1

2

b

1 b 2

2

a =1

(ii) c =5 - 2 1 =5 - 2 = 3

(iv) d =13 – 3 (3) =13 – 9 = 4

i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, d = 4

9 1 4 1 2 1

10. If A , then find the matrix A.

2 1 3 0 4 9

Ans:

9 1 4 1 2 1

Given that A

2 1 3 0 4 9

9 1 4 1 2 1

A

2 1 3 0 4 9

8 3 5

A

2 3 6

11. If A is a square matrix such that A2 = A, then write the value of (I + A)2 – 3A.

Ans:

(I + A)2 – 3A = I2 + A2 + 2A – 3A

= I2 + A2 - A

= I2 + A - A [ A2 = A]

= I2 = I . I = I

2 1 10

12. If x y , write the value of x.

3 1 5

Ans:

2 1 10

Given that x y

3 1 5

2 x y 10

3x y 5

2 x y 10

3x y 5

Equating the corresponding elements we get.

2x – y = 10 ...(i)

3x + y = 5 ...(ii)

Adding (i) and (ii), we get 2x – y + 3x + y = 10 + 5

5x = 15 x = 3.

x 5 3 4 7 6

13. Find the value of x + y from the following equation: 2

7 y 3 1 2 15 14

Ans:

x 5 3 4 7 6

Given that 2

7 y 3 1 2 15 14

2 x 10 3 4 7 6

14 2 y 6 1 2 15 14

2 x 3 6 7 6

15 2 y 4 15 14

Equating the corresponding element we get

2x + 3 = 7 and 2y – 4 = 14

7 3 14 4

x and y

2 2

x = 2 and y = 9

x + y = 2 + 9 = 11

3 4

1 2 1

14. If AT 1 2 and B T T

, then find A – B .

1 2 3

0 1

Ans:

1 1

1 2 1

Given that B B 2 2

T

1 2 3 1 3

3 4 1 1 4 3

Now, A B 1 2 2 2 3 0

T T

0 1 1 3 1 2

2 3 1 3 4 6

15. If , write the value of x

5 7 2 4 9 x

Ans:

2 3 1 3 4 6

Given that

5 7 2 4 9 x

2 6 6 12 4 6

5 14 15 28 9 x

4 6 4 6

9 13 9 x

Equating the corresponding elements, we get

x = 13

cos sin sin cos

16. Simplify: cos sin

sin cos cos sin

Ans:

cos sin sin cos

cos sin

sin cos cos sin

cos 2 sin cos sin 2 sin cos

sin cos cos 2 sin cos sin 2

cos 2 sin 2 0 1 0

2 2

0 cos sin 0 1

x y z 9

17. Write the values of x – y + z from the following equation: x z 5

y z 7

Ans:

By definition of equality of matrices, we have

x + y + z = 9 ... (i)

x + z =5 .... (ii)

y + z =7 ... (iii)

(i) – (ii) x + y + z – x – z = 9 – 5

y = 4 ... (iv)

(ii) – (iv) x – y + z = 5 – 4

x – y + z =1

y 2 x 5 7 5

18. If , then find the value of y.

x 3 2 3

Ans:

y 2 x 5 7 5

Given that

x 3 2 3

By definition of equality of matrices, we have

y + 2x = 7

- x = -2 x = 2

y + 2(2) = 7 y = 3

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 64 -

CHAPTER – 4: DETERMINANTS

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

x 2 6 2

1. If , then find the value of x.

18 x 18 6

Ans:

x 2 6 2

Given that

18 x 18 6

On expanding both determinants, we get

x × x − 18 × 2 = 6 × 6 − 18 × 2 x2 − 36 = 36 − 36

x2 − 36 = 0 x2 = 36

x = ± 6

a ab abc

2. Prove that 2a 3a 2b 4a 3b 2c a3

3a 6a 3b 10a 6b 3c

Ans:

Applying operations R2 → R2 – 2R1 and R3 → R3 – 3R1 to the given determinant Δ, we have

a ab abc

0 a 2a b

0 3a 7a 3b

Now applying R3 → R3 – 3R2 , we get

a ab abc

0 a 2a b

0 0 a

Expanding along C1, we obtain

a 2a b

a 0 0 a (a 2 0) a(a 2 ) a 3

0 a

bc a a

3. Prove that b ca b 4abc

c c ab

Ans:

bc a a

Let b ca b

c c a b

Applying R1 → R1 – R2 – R3 to Δ, we get

0 2c 2b

b ca b

c c a b

Expanding along R1, we obtain

ca b b b b ca

0 (2c ) (2b)

c ab c ab c c

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 65 -

= 2 c (a b + b2 – bc) – 2 b (b c – c2 – ac)

= 2 abc + 2 cb2 – 2 bc2 – 2 b2c + 2 bc2 + 2abc

= 4 abc

x x2 1 x3

4. If x, y, z are different and y y 2 1 y 3 0 then show that 1 + xyz = 0

z z2 1 z3

Ans:

x x 2 1 x3

We have y y2 1 y3

z z2 1 z3

Now, we know that If some or all elements of a row or column of a determinant are expressed as

sum of two (or more) terms, then the determinant can be expressed as sum of two (or more)

determinants.

x x 2 1 x x 2 x3

y y 2 1 y y 2 y 3

z z 2 1 z z 2 z3

1 x x2 1 x x2

(1)2 1 y y 2 xyz 1 y y2 (Using C3↔C2 and then C1 ↔ C2)

1 z z2 1 z z2

1 x x2

(1 xyz ) 1 y y2

1 z z2

1 x x2

(1 xyz ) 0 yx y 2 x2 (Using R2→R2–R1 and R3 → R3–R1)

2 2

0 zx z x

Taking out common factor (y – x) from R2 and (z – x) from R3, we get

1 x x2

(1 xyz )( y x)( z x) 0 1 y x

0 1 zx

= (1 + xyz) (y – x) (z – x) (z – y) (on expanding along C1)

Since Δ = 0 and x, y, z are all different, i.e., x – y ≠ 0, y – z ≠ 0, z – x ≠ 0, we get

1 + xyz = 0

1 a 1 1

1 1 1

5. Show that 1 1 b 1 abc 1 abc bc ca ab

a b c

1 1 1 c

Ans:

1 a 1 1

LHS 1 1 b 1

1 1 1 c

Taking out factors a,b,c common from R1, R2 and R3, we get

1 1 1

1

a a a

1 1 1

abc 1

b b b

1 1 1

1

c c c

Applying R1→ R1 + R2 + R3, we have

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

a b c a b c a b c

1 1 1

abc 1

b b b

1 1 1

1

c c c

1 0 0

1 1 1 1

abc 1 1 0

a b c b

1

0 1

c

1 1 1

abc 1 1(1 0)

a b c

1 1 1

abc 1 abc bc ca ab = RHS

a b c

6. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

bc qr y z a p x

ca r p z x 2 b q y

ab pq x y c r z

Ans:

bc qr y z

LHS c a r p zx

a b pq x y

bc ca ab

qr r p pq (interchange row and column)

yz zx x y

bc ca 2c

q r r p 2r [usingC3 → C3 − (C1 + C2)]

y z z x 2 z

bc ca c

(2) q r r p r (taking ‘–2’ common from C3)

yz zx z

b a c

(2) q p r (using C1 → C1 – C3 and C2 → C2 − C3)

y x z

a b c

2 p q r (using

x y z

C1 ↔ C2)

a p x

2 b q y RHS (interchange row and column)

c r z

7. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

a 2 ab ac

ba b 2 bc 4a 2b 2c 2

ca cb c 2

Ans:

a 2 ab ac a b c

2

LHS ba b bc abc a b c [taking out factors a from R1, b from R2 and c from

ca cb c 2 a b c

R3]

1 1 1

(abc)(abc) 1 1 1 (taking out factors a from C1, b from C2 and c from C3)

1 1 1

0 0 2

2 2 2

a b c 0 2 2 (using R1 → R1 + R2 and R2 → R2 − R3)

1 1 1

Expanding corresponding to first row R1, we get

0 2

a 2b 2 c 2 2

1 1

a 2b 2c 2 2(0 2) 4a 2b 2 c 2 RHS

8. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

1 a a2

1 b b 2 (a b)(b c)(c a )

1 c c2

Ans:

1 a a2

LHS 1 b b 2

1 c c2

Applying R1 R1 R3 and R2 R2 R3 , we get

0 a c a2 c2 0 a c (a c )(a c )

2 2

0 bc b c 0 bc (b c )(b c)

2

1 c c 1 c c2

Taking common factors (a − c) and (b − c) from R1 and R2 respectively, we get

0 1 (a c)

(a c )(b c ) 0 1 (b c )

1 c c2

Now, expanding corresponding to C1, we get

= (a − c) (b − c) (b + c − a − c) = (a − b) (b − c) (c − a) = RHS

1 1 1

a b c (a b)(b c )(c a )(a b c )

a 3 b3 c3

Ans:

1 1 1

LHS a b c

a3 b3 c3

Applying C1 C1 C2 and C2 C2 C3 , we get

0 0 1

a b bc c

a 3 b3 b3 c3 c3

0 0 1

ab bc c

(a b)(a ab b ) (b c)(b bc c ) c3

2 2 2 2

0 0 1

(a b)(b c ) ab bc c

(a ab b ) (b bc c ) c3

22 2 2

= (a − b) (b − c) [1 × (b2 + bc + c2) − 1 × (a2 + ab + b2 )]

= (a − b) (b − c) [b2 + bc + c2 − a2 − ab − b2 ]

= (a − b) (b − c) (bc − ab + c2 − a2 )

= (a − b) (b − c) [b(c − a) + (c − a) (c + a)]

= (a − b) (b − c) (c − a) (a + b + c)= RHS.

10. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

x x 2 yz

y y 2 zx ( x y )( y z )( z x)( xy yz zx)

z z 2 xy

Ans:

x x2 yz

2

LHS y y zx

2

z z xy

Applying R1 xR1 , R2 yR2 and R3 zR3 , we have

x2 x3 xyz

1 2 3

y y xyz

xyz 2 3

z z xyz

x2 x3 1

xyz 2

y y3 1 (take out xyz common from C3)

xyz 2 3

z z 1

x2 x3 1

2 2 3 3

y x y x 0 (using R2 R2 R1 and R3 R3 R1 )

2 2 3 3

z x z x 0

Expanding corresponding to C3, we get

y 2 x 2 y 3 x3

1 2

z x 2 z 3 x3

( y 2 x 2 )( z 3 x 3 ) ( z 2 x 2 )( y 3 x3 )

= (y + x) (y − x) (z − x) (z2 + x2 + xz) − (z + x) (z − x) (y − x) (y2 + x2 + xy)

= (y − x) (z − x) [(y + x) (z2 + x2 + xz) − (z + x) (y2 + x2 + xy)]

= (y − x)(z − x)[yz2 + yx2 + xyz + xz2 + x3 + x2z − zy2 − zx2 − xyz − xy2 − x3 − x2y]

= (y − x)(z − x)[yz2 − zy2 + xz2 − xy2 ]

= (y − x)(z − x)[yz(z − y) + x(z2 − y2 )]

= (y − x)(z − x)[yz(z − y) + x(z − y)(z + y)]

= (y − x) (z − x) [(z − y) (xy + yz + zx)]

= (x − y) (y − z) (z − x) (xy + yz + zx) = RHS.

11. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

x 4 2x 2x

2x x 4 2 x (5 x 4)(4 x )2

2x 2x x 4

Ans:

x4 2x 2x

LHS 2 x x 4 2x

2x 2x x 4

5x 4 2x 2x

5x 4 x 4 2 x (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )

5x 4 2 x x 4

1 2x 2x

(5 x 4) 1 x 4 2 x [take out (5x + 4) common from C1].

1 2x x 4

1 2x 2x

(5 x 4) 0 x 4 0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)

0 0 x 4

Expanding along C1, we get

= (5x + 4) {1(4 − x) (4 − x)}

(5 x 4)(4 x) 2 = RHS.

12. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

yk y y

y yk y k 2 (3 y k )

y y yk

Ans:

yk y y

LHS y yk y

y y yk

3y k y y

3y k yk y (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )

3y k y yk

1 y y

(3 y k ) 1 y k y [take out (5x + 4) common from C1].

1 y yk

1 y y

(3 y k ) 0 k 0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)

0 0 k

Expanding along C3, we get

(3 y k ) 1(k 2 0)

k 2 (3 y k ) = RHS

13. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

a b c 2a 2a

2b bca 2b (a b c)3

2c 2c c a b

Ans:

a b c 2a 2a

LHS 2b bca 2b

2c 2c cab

abc a bc abc

2b bca 2b (Using R1 R1 R2 R3 )

2c 2c c a b

Take out (a + b + c) common from R1, we get

1 1 1

(a b c) 2b b c a 2b

2c 2c c a b

1 0 0

(a b c) 2b b c a 0 (Using C 2 C 2 C1 and C3 C3 C1 )

2c 0 c a b

Expanding along R1, we get

= (a + b + c) {1(− b − c − a) (− c − a − b)}

= (a + b + c) [− (b + c + a) × ( −) (c + a + b)]

(a b c )(a b c )(a b c ) (a b c )3 = RHS

14. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

x y 2z x y

z y z 2x y 2( x y z )3

z x z x 2y

Ans:

x y 2z x y

LHS z y z 2x y

z x z x 2y

2( x y z ) x y

2( x y z ) y z 2x y (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )

2( x y z ) x z x 2y

1 x y

2( x y z ) 1 y z 2 x y [take out 2(x + y + z) common from C1].

1 x z x 2y

1 x y

2( x y z ) 0 yzx 0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)

0 0 z x y

1 x y

2( x y z )( x y z )( x y z ) 0 1 0

0 0 1

Expanding along R3, we get

2( x y z )( x y z )( x y z ) 1(1 0)

2( x y z )( x y z )( x y z ) 2( x y z ) 3 =RHS

1 x x2

2

15. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that x 2 1

x 1 x3

x x2 1

Ans:

1 x x2

LHS x 2 1 x

2

x x 1

1 x x2 x x2

1 x x2 1 x (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )

2 2

1 x x x 1

1 x x2

(1 x x 2 ) 1 1 x [take out (1 x x 2 ) common from C1].

1 x2 1

1 x x2

(1 x x 2 ) 0 1 x x x2 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)

0 x 2 x 1 x2

1 x x2

(1 x x 2 ) 0 1 x x (1 x )

0 x ( x 1) 1 x2

Take out (1 − x) common from R2 and same from R3, we get

1 x x2

(1 x x 2 )(1 x)(1 x ) 0 1 x

0 x 1 x

Expanding along C1, we get

1 x

(1 x x 2 )(1 x )(1 x)

x 1 x

(1 x x 2 )(1 x )(1 x)(1 x x 2 )

2

1 x 3 1 x3 1 x 3 = RHS

16. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

1 a 2 b2 2ab 2b

2 2

2ab 1 a b 2a (1 a 2 b 2 )3

2b 2a 1 a 2 b2

Ans:

1 a 2 b2 2ab 2b

2 2

LHS 2ab 1 a b 2a

2b 2 a 1 a 2 b2

1 a2 b2 0 2b

2 2

0 1 a b 2a (Using C1 C1 bC3 and C2 C2 aC3 )

2 2 2 2 2 2

b(1 a b ) a (1 a b ) 1 a b

1 0 2b

(1 a 2 b 2 )2 0 1 2a

b a 1 a 2 b 2

1 0 2b

2 2 2

(1 a b ) 0 1 2a ( R3 R3 bR1 aR2 )

0 0 1 a 2 b2

Expanding along R1, we get

(1 a 2 b 2 )2 1(1 a 2 b 2 )

(1 a 2 b 2 )3 RHS

17. Using the property of determinants and without expanding, prove that

a 2 1 ab ac

ab b 1 bc 1 a 2 b 2 c 2

2

ca cb c2 1

Ans:

a2 1 ab ac

2

LHS ab b 1 bc

ca cb c2 1

Taking out common factors a, b and c from R1, R2 and R3 respectively, we get

1

a b c

a

1

a b c

b

1

a b c

c

1

a b c

a

1 1

0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)

a b

1 1

0

a c

Multiply and divide C1 by a, C2 by b and C3 by c and then take common out from C1, C2 and C3

respectively, we get

a 2 1 b2 c 2 a 2 1 b2 c2

1

abc 1 1 0 1 1 0

abc

1 0 1 1 0 1

Expanding along R3, we get

1 ( c 2 ) 1 1( a 2 1) 1(b 2 )

1 a 2 b 2 c 2 RHS

18. Find values of k if area of triangle is 4 sq. units and vertices are

(i) (k, 0), (4, 0), (0, 2) (ii) (–2, 0), (0, 4), (0, k)

Ans:

k 0 1

1

(i) We have Area of triangle = 4 0 1 4

2

0 2 1

| k(0 − 2) + 1(8 − 0)| = 8

k(0 − 2) + 1(8 − 0) = ± 8

On taking positive sign − 2k + 8 = 8

− 2k = 0

k = 0

On taking negative sign −2k + 8 = − 8

− 2k = − 16

k = 8

k =0, 8

2 0 1

1

(ii) We have Area of triangle = 0 4 1 4

2

0 k 1

| − 2(4 − k) + 1(0 − 0)| = 8

− 2(4 − k) + 1(0 − 0) = ± 8

[− 8 + 2k] = ± 8

On taking positive sign, 2k − 8 = 8 2k = 16 k = 8

On taking negative sign, 2k − 8 = − 8 2k = 0 k = 0

k =0, 8

19. If area of triangle is 35 sq units with vertices (2, – 6), (5, 4) and (k, 4). Then find the value of k.

Ans:

2 6 1

1

We have Area of triangle = 5 4 1 35

2

k 4 1

|2 (4 − 4) + 6(5 − k) + 1(20 − 4k)| = 70

2 (4 − 4) + 6 (5 − k) + 1(20 − 4k) = ± 70

30 − 6k + 20 − 4k = ± 70

On taking positive sign, − 10k + 50 = 70

− 10k = 20 k = − 2

On taking negative sign, − 10k + 50 = − 70

− 10k = − 120 k = 12

k = 12, − 2

5 3 8

20. Using Cofactors of elements of second row, evaluate 2 0 1

1 2 3

Ans:

5 3 8

Given that 2 0 1

1 2 3

Cofactors of the elements of second row

3 8

A21 (1) 21 (9 16) 7

2 3

5 8

A22 (1) 2 2 (15 8) 7

1 3

5 3

and A23 (1)23 (10 3) 7

1 2

Now, expansion of Δ using cofactors of elements of second row is given by

a21 A21 a22 A22 a23 A23

= 2 × 7 + 0 × 7 + 1(− 7) = 14 − 7 = 7

3 1

21. If A = , show that A2 – 5A + 7I = O. Hence find A–1.

1 2

Ans:

3 1

Given that A =

1 2

Now, A2 – 5A + 7I = O

3 1 3 1 9 2 3 2 8 5

A2 A. A

1 2 1 2 3 2 1 4 5 3

8 5 3 1 1 0

5 7

5 3 1 2 0 1

8 5 15 5 7 0

5 3 5 10 0 7

8 15 7 5 5 0 0 0

O

5 5 0 3 10 3 0 0

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 75 -

A2 – 5A + 7I = O

3 1

| A | 6 1 7 0

1 2

A−1 exists.

Now, A.A − 5A = − 7I

Multiplying by A−1 on both sides, we get

A.A (A−1) – 5A(A−1) = − 7I(A−1)

AI − 5I = –7A−1 (using AA−1 = I and IA−1 = A−1)

1 1 1 5 0 3 1

A 1 ( A 5 I ) 5 I A

7 7 7 0 5 1 2

1 2 1

7 1 3

1 2 1

A1

7 1 3

3 1

22. For the matrix A = , find the numbers a and b such that A2 + aA + bI = O.

1 2

Ans:

3 1

Given that A =

1 2

3 2 3 2 9 2 6 2 11 8

A2 A. A

1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 4 3

Now, A2 aA bI O

11 8 3 2 1 0

a b O

4 3 1 1 0 1

11 8 3a 2a b 0

O

4 3 a a 0 b

11 3a b 8 2a 0 0

4 a 3 a b 0 0

If two matrices are equal, then their corresponding elements are equal.

11 + 3a + b = 0 …(i)

8 + 2a = 0 …(ii)

4 + a = 0 …(iii)

and 3 + a + b = 0 …(iv)

Solving Eqs. (iii) and (iv), we get 4 + a = 0

a=−4

and 3 + a + b = 0

3 − 4 + b = 0 b = 1

Thus, a = − 4 and b = 1

1 1 1

23. For the matrix A = 1 2 3 , Show that A3– 6A2 + 5A + 11 I = O. Hence, find A–1.

2 1 3

Ans:

1 1 1

Given that A = 1 2 3

2

1 3

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 4 2 1

2

A A. A 1 23 1 2 3 1 2 6 1 4 3 1 6 9 3 8 14

2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 6 2 2 3 2 3 9 7 3 14

4 2 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 4 4 1 463

and A A . A 3 8 14 1 2 3 3 8 28 3 16 14 3 24 42

3 2

7 3 14 2 1 3 7 3 28 7 6 14 7 9 42

8 7 1

23 27 69

32 13 58

A3 6 A2 5 A 11I

8 7 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

23 27 69 6 3 8 14 5 1 2 3 11 0

1 0

32 13 58 7 3 14 2 1 3 0 0 1

8 7 1 24 12 6 5 5 5 11 0 0

23 27 69 18 48 84 5 10 15 0

11 0

32 13 58 42 18 84 10 5 15 0 0 11

8 24 5 11 7 12 5 0 1 6 5 0

23 18 5 0 27 48 10 11 69 84 15 0

32 42 10 0 13 18 5 0 58 84 15 11

0 0 0

0 0 0 O

0 0 0

1 1 1

| A | 1 2 3 1(6 3) 1(3 6) 1(1 4) 3 9 5 11 0

2 1 3

A1 exist

Now, A3 6 A2 5 A 11I O

AA( AA1 ) 6 A( AA1 ) 5( AA1 ) 11( IA1 ) O

AAI 6 AI 5 I 11A1 O

A2 6 A 5 I 11A1

1

A 1 ( A 2 6 A 5 I )

11

1

A 1 ( A 2 6 A 5 I )

11

4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

1

A 3 8 14 6 1 2 3 5 0 1 0

1

11

7 3 14 2 1 3 0 0 1

4 2 1 6 6 6 5 0 0

1

A 3 8 14 6

1

12 18 0 5 0

11

7 3 14 12 6 18 0 0 5

4 6 5 2 6 0 1 6 0

1

1

A 3 6 0 8 12 5 14 18 0

11

7 12 0 3 6 0 14 18 5

3 4 5

1

A 9 1 4

1

11

5 3 1

24. Solve system of linear equations, using matrix method,

2x + y + z = 1

3

x – 2y – z =

2

3y – 5z = 9

Ans:

The given system can be written as AX = B, where

2 1 1 x 1

A 2 4 2 , X y and B 3

0 3 5 z 9

2 1 1

| A | 2 4 2 2(20 6) 1( 10 0) 1(6 0)

0 3 5

= 52 + 10 + 6 = 68 ≠ 0

Thus, A is non-singular, Therefore, its inverse exists.

Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B.

Cofactors of A are

A11 = 20 + 6 = 26,

A12 = − (− 10 + 0) = 10,

A13 = 6 + 0 = 6

A21 = − (− 5 − 3) = 8,

A22 = − 10 − 0 = − 10,

A23 = − (6 − 0) = − 6

A31 = (− 2 + 4) = 2,

A32 = − (− 4 − 2) = 6,

A33 = − 8 − 2 = − 10

T

26 10 6 26 8 2

adj ( A) 8 10 6 10 10 6

2 6 10 6 6 10

26 8 2

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 10 10 6

| A| 68

6 6 10

x 26 8 2 1

1

1

Now, X A B y 10 10 6 3

68

z 6 6 10 9

1

x 26 24 18 68

1 1 34 1

y 10 30 54

68 68 2

z 6 18 90 102

3

2

1 3

Hence, x 1, y and z

2 2

x–y+z=4

2x + y – 3z = 0

x+y+z=2

Ans:

The given system can be written as AX = B, where

1 1 1 x 4

A 2 1 3 , X y and B 0

1 1 1 z 2

1 1 1

Here,| A | 2 1 3 = 1(1 + 3) − (− 1) (2 + 3) + 1(2 − 1) = 4 + 5 + 1 = 10 ≠ 0

1 1 1

Thus, A is non-singular, Therefore, its inverse exists.

Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B.

Cofactors of A are

A11 = 1 + 3 = 4,

A12 = − (2 + 3) = − 5,

A13 = 2 − 1 = 1,

A21 = − (− 1 − 1) = 2,

A22 = 1 − 1 = 0,

A23 = − (1 + 1) = − 2,

A31 = 3 − 1 = 2,

A32 = − (− 3 − 2) = 5,

A33 = 1 + 2 = 3

T

4 5 1 4 2 2

adj ( A) 2 0 2 5

0 5

2 5 3 1 2 3

4 2 2

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 5 0 5

| A| 10

1 2 3

x 4 2 2 4

1

Now, X A B y 5 0 5 0

1

10

z 1 2 3 2

x 16 0 4 20 2

1 1

y 20 0 10 10 1

10 10

z 4 0 6 10 1

Hence, x = 2, y = − 1 and z = 1.

26. Solve system of linear equations, using matrix method,

2x + 3y +3 z = 5

x – 2y + z = – 4

3x – y – 2z = 3

Ans:

The given system can be written as AX = B, where

2 3 3 x 5

A 1 2 1 , X y and B 4

3 1 2 z 3

2 3 3

Here,| A | 1 2 1 = 2(4 + 1) − 3 (− 2 − 3) + 3 (− 1 + 6)

3 1 2

= 10 + 15 + 15 = 40 ≠ 0

Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists. Therefore, the given system is consistent

and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B

Cofactors of A are

A11 = 4 + 1 = 5,

A12 = − (− 2 − 3) = 5,

A13 = (− 1 + 6) = 5,

A21 = − (− 6 + 3) = 3,

A22 = (− 4 − 9) = − 13,

A23 = − (− 2 − 9) = 11,

A31 = 3 + 6 = 9,

A32 = − (2 − 3) = 1,

A33 = − 4 − 3 = − 7

T

5 5 5 5 3 9

adj ( A) 3 13 11 5 13 1

9 1 7 5 11 7

5 3 9

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 5 13 1

| A| 40

5 11 7

x 5 3 9 5

1

1

Now, X A B y 5 13 1 4

40

z 5 11 7 3

x 25 12 27 40 1

1 1

y 25 52 3 80 2

40 40

z 25 44 21 40 1

Hence, x = 1, y = 2 and z = − 1.

x – y + 2z = 7

3x + 4y – 5z = – 5

2x – y + 3z = 12

Ans:

The given system can be written as AX = B, where

1 1 2 x 7

A 3 4 5 , X y and B 5

2 1 3 z 12

1 1 2

Here,| A | 3 4 5 = 1(12 − 5) − (− 1) (9 + 10) + 2 (− 3 − 8)

2 1 3

= 7 + 19 − 22 = 4 ≠ 0

Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists.

Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B

Cofactors of A are

A11 = 12 − 5 = 7,

A12 = − (9 + 10) = − 19,

A13 = − 3 − 8 = − 11,

A21 = − (− 3 + 2) = 1,

A22 = 3 − 4 = − 1,

A23 = − (− 1 + 2) = − 1,

A31 = 5 − 8 = − 3,

A32 = − (− 5 − 6) = 11,

A33 = 4 + 3 = 7

T

7 19 11 7 1 3

adj ( A) 1 1 1 19 1 11

3 11 7 11 1 7

7 13

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 19 1 11

| A| 4

11 1 7

x 7 1 3 5

1

1

Now, X A B y 19 1 11 4

4

z 111 7 3

x 49 5 36 8 2

1 1

y 133 5 132 4 1

4 4

z 77 5 84 12 3

Hence, x = 2, y = 1 and z = 3.

2 3 5

28. If A = 3 2 4 find A–1. Using A–1,Solve system of linear equations:

1 1 2

2x – 3y + 5z = 11

3x + 2y – 4z = – 5

x + y – 2z = – 3

Ans:

The given system can be written as AX = B, where

2 3 5 x 11

A 3 2 4 , X y and B 5

1 1 2 z 3

2 3 5

Here,| A | 3 2 4 = 2 (− 4 + 4) − (− 3) (−6 + 4) + 5 (3 − 2)

1 1 2

=0−6+5=−1≠0

Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists.

Therefore, the given system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B

Cofactors of A are

A11 = − 4 + 4 = 0,

A12 = − (− 6 + 4) = 2,

A13 = 3 − 2 = 1,

A21 = − (6 − 5) = −1,

A22 = − 4 − 5 = − 9,

A23 = − (2 + 3) = − 5,

A31 = (12 − 10) = 2,

A32 = − (− 8 − 15) = 23,

A33 = 4 + 9 = 13

T

0 2 1 0 1 2

adj ( A) 1 9 5 2

9 23

2 23 13 1 5 13

0 1 2 0 1 2

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 2 9 23 2 9 23

| A| 1

1 5 13 1 5 13

x 0 1 2 11

Now, X A B y 2 9 23 5

1

z 1 5 13 3

x 0 5 6 1

y 22 45 69 2

z 11 25 39 3

Hence, x = 1, y = 2 and z = 3.

29. The cost of 4 kg onion, 3 kg wheat and 2 kg rice is Rs 60. The cost of 2 kg onion, 4 kg wheat

and 6 kg rice is Rs 90. The cost of 6 kg onion 2 kg wheat and 3 kg rice is Rs 70. Find cost of

each item per kg by matrix method.

Ans:

Let the prices (per kg) of onion, wheat and rice be Rs. x, Rs. y and Rs. z, respectively then

4x + 3y + 2z = 60, 2x + 4y + 6z = 90, 6x + 2y + 3z = 70

This system of equations can be written as AX = B, where

4 3 2 x 60

A 2 4 6 , X y and B 90

6 2 3 z 70

4 3 2

Here,| A | 2 4 6 = 4(12 − 12) − 3(6 − 36) + 2(4 − 24)

6 2 3

= 0 + 90 − 40 = 50 ≠ 0

Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists. Therefore, the given system is consistent and

has a unique solution given by X = A−1B

Cofactors of A are,

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 82 -

A11 = 12 − 12 = 0,

A12 = − (6 − 36) = 30,

A13 = 4 − 24 = − 20,

A21 = − (9 − 4) = − 5,

A22 = 12 − 12 = 0,

A23 = − (8 − 18) = 10,

A31 = (18 − 8) = 10,

A32 = − (24 − 4) = − 20,

A33 = 16 − 6 = 10

T

0 30 20 0 5 10

adj ( A) 5 0 10 30

0 20

10 20 10 20 10 10

0 5 10

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 30 0 20

| A| 50

20 10 10

x 0 5 10 60

1

1

Now, X A B y 30 0 20 90

50

z 20 10 10 70

x 0 450 700 250 5

1 1

y 1800 0 1400 400 8

50 50

z 1200 900 700 400 8

x = 5, y = 8 and z = 8.

Hence, price of onion per kg is Rs. 5, price of wheat per kg is Rs. 8 and that of rice per kg is Rs. 8.

a a2 bc 1 a2 a3

30. Without expanding the determinant, prove that b b 2 ca 1 b 2 b3

c c2 ab 1 c2 c3

Ans:

a a2 bc

2

LHS b b ca

c c2 ab

Applying R1 aR1 , R2 bR2 and R3 cR3 , we get

a2 a3 abc

1 2 3

b b abc

abc 2

c c3 abc

a2 a3 1

abc 2

b b3 1 [Taking out factor abc from C3]

abc 2

c c3 1

1 a2 a3

(1) 2 1 b 2 b3 (using C1 ↔ C3 and C2 ↔ C3 )

1 c2 c3

1 a2 a3

1 b2 b 3 RHS

1 c2 c3

bc ca ab

31. If a, b and c are real numbers, and c a a b b c 0 . Show that either a + b + c = 0 or

ab bc ca

a = b = c.

Ans:

bc ca a b

ca ab bc

ab bc ca

2(a b c) c a a b

2(a b c) a b b c (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3 )

2(a b c) b c c a

1 ca a b

2(a b c) 1 a b b c [take out 2(a b c) common from C1].

1 bc ca

1 ca ab

2(a b c) 0 b c c a (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)

0 b a c b

Expanding along C1, we get

bc ca

2(a b c)

ba cb

2(a b c) (b c)(c b) (c a )(b a )

2(a b c) bc b 2 c 2 bc (bc ac ab a 2 )

2(a b c) bc b 2 c 2 bc bc ac ab a 2

2(a b c) ab bc ac a 2 b 2 c 2

It is given that Δ= 0,

2(a b c) ab bc ac a 2 b 2 c 2 0

Either a b c 0 or ab bc ac a 2 b 2 c 2 0

ab bc ac a 2 b 2 c 2 0

2ab 2bc 2ac 2a 2 2b 2 2c 2 0

2a 2 2b 2 2c 2 2ab 2bc 2ac 0

a 2 b 2 2ab b 2 c 2 2bc c 2 a 2 2ac 0

(a b)2 (b c) 2 (c a )2 0

(a b)2 (b c)2 (c a )2 0 [since square of any real number is never negative]

(a b) (b c ) (c a ) 0

a b, b c, c a

abc

a2 bc ac c 2

32. Prove that a 2 ab b2 ac 4a 2b 2c 2

ab b 2 bc c2

Ans:

a2 bc ac c 2

LHS a 2 ab b2 ac

ab b 2 bc c2

Taking out a from C1, b from C2 and c from C3, we get

a b ac

abc a b b a

b bc c

0 c ac

abc 2b b a [Using C1 C1+ C2 – C3]

2b b c c

0 c ac

abc 0 c ac [Using R2 R2 – R3]

2b b c c

Expanding along C1,we get

= (abc) [ (2 b) { c(a − c) + c (a + c) } ]

= 2 (ab2c) (2ac) = 4 a2b2c2 = RHS.

2

33. Using properties of determinants, prove that 2 ( )( )( )( )

2

Ans:

2

LHS 2

2

2

2 (using C3 → C3 + C1)

2

2 1

( ) 2 1 (Taking out (α + β + γ) common from C1)

2 1

2 1

2 2

( ) 0 (Using R2 → R2 – R1 and R3 → R3 – R1)

2 2

0

Expanding along C3, we get

= (α + β + γ) [(β − α)(γ2 −α2 ) −(γ −α)(β2 − α2 )]

= (α + β + γ) [(β − α)(γ −α)(γ + α) −(γ − α)(β − α)(β + α)]

= (α + β + γ) (β − α)(γ −α)[γ + α −β − α]

= (α + β + γ) (β − α)(γ −α)(γ −β)

= (α + β + γ) (α − β)(β − γ)(γ −α) = RHS

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 85 -

3a a b a c

34. Using properties of determinants, prove that b a 3b b c 3(a b c)(ab bc ca)

c a c b 3c

Ans:

3a a b a c

LHS b a 3b b c

c a c b 3c

a b c a b a c

abc 3b b c (using C1 → C1 + C2 + C3)

a b c c b 3c

1 a b a c

( a b c) 1 3b b c (Taking out (a + b + c) common from C1)

1 c b 3c

Now applying R2 → R2 – R1, R3 → R3 – R1, we get

1 a b a c

(a b c ) 0 2b a a b

0 ac 2c a

Expanding along C1, we get

= (a + b + c)[(2b + a) (2c + a) − (a − b) (a − c)]

= (a + b + c)[4bc + 2ab + 2ac + a − a + ac + ba − bc] 2 2

= (a + b + c) (3ab + 3bc + 3ac) = 3(a + b + c)(ab + bc + ca) = RHS

2 3 10

4

x y z

4 6 5

1

x y z

6 9 20

2

x y z

Ans:

1 1 1

Let p, q and r , then the given equations become

x y z

2p + 3q + 10r = 4, 4p − 6q + 5r = 1, 6p + 9q − 20r = 2

This system can be written as AX = B, where

2 3 10 p 4

A 4 6 5 , X q and B 1

6 9 20 r 2

2 3 10

Here,| A | 4 6 5 2(120 45) 3( 80 30) 10(36 36)

6 9 20

= 150 + 330 + 720 = 1200 ≠ 0

Thus, A is non-singular. Therefore, its inverse exists.

Therefore, the above system is consistent and has a unique solution given by X = A−1B

Cofactors of A are

A11 = 120 − 45 = 75,

A12 = − ( − 80 − 30) = 110,

A13 = (36 + 36) = 72,

A21 = − ( − 60 − 90) = 150,

A22 = ( − 40 − 60) = − 100,

A23 = − (18 − 18) = 0,

A31 = 15 + 60 = 75,

A32 = − (10 − 40) = 30,

A33 = − 12 − 12 = − 24

T

75 110 72 75 150 75

adj ( A) 150 100 0 110 100 30

75 30 24 72 0 24

75 150 75

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 110 100 30

| A| 1200

72 0 24

x 75 150 75 4

1

1

X A B y 110 100 30 1

1200

z 72 0 24 2

1

x 300 150 150 600 2

1 1 1

y 440 100 60 400

1200 1200 3

z 288 0 48 240

1

5

1 1 1

p ,q ,r

2 3 5

1 1 1 1 1 1

, ,

x 2 y 3 z 5

x = 2, y = 3 and z = 5.

x2 x 3 x 2a

36. If a, b, c, are in A.P, then find the determinant of x 3 x 4 x 2b

x4 x5 x 2c

Ans:

x2 x3 x 2a

Let A x 3 x 4 x 2b

x4 x5 x 2c

x2 x3 x 2a

1

0 0 2(2b a c) (using R2 → 2R2 − R1 − R3)

2

x4 x5 x 2c

But a,b, c are in AP. Using 2b = a + c, we get

x 2 x 3 x 2a

1

A 0 0 0 0 [Since, all elements of R2 are zero]

2

x 4 x 5 x 2c

2 3

37. Show that the matrix A satisfies the equation A2 – 4A + I = O, where I is 2 × 2

1 2

identity matrix and O is 2 × 2 zero matrix. Using this equation, find A–1.

Ans:

2 3

Given that A

1 2

2 3 2 3 7 12

A2 AA

1 2 1 2 4 7

7 12 2 3 1 0

Hence, A2 4 A I 4 1 2 0 1

4 7

7 12 8 12 1 0 7 8 1 12 12 0 0 0

O

4 7 4 8 0 1 4 4 0 7 8 1 0 0

Now, A2 4 A I O

AA 4 A I

AA( A1 ) 4 AA1 IA1 (Post multiplying by A–1 because |A| ≠ 0)

A( AA1 ) 4 I A1

AI 4 I A1

1 0 2 3 4 2 0 3 2 3

A1 4 I A 4

0 1 1 2 0 1 4 2 1 2

2 3

A1

1 2

38. Solve the following system of equations by matrix method.

3x – 2y + 3z = 8

2x + y – z = 1

4x – 3y + 2z = 4

Ans:

The system of equation can be written as AX = B, where

3 2 3 x 8

A 2 1 1 , X y and B 1

4 3 2 z 4

3 2 3

Here,| A | 2 1 1

4 3 2

= 3 (2 – 3) + 2(4 + 4) + 3 (– 6 – 4) = – 17 ≠ 0

Hence, A is nonsingular and so its inverse exists. Now

A11 = –1, A12 = – 8, A13 = –10

A21 = –5, A22 = – 6, A23 = 1

A31 = –1, A32 = 9, A33 = 7

T

1 8 10 1 5 1

adj ( A) 5 6 1 8 6 9

1 9 7 10 1 7

1 5 1

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 8 6 9

| A| 17

10 1 7

x 1 5 1 8

1

X A B y 8 6 9 1

1

17

z 10 1 7 4

x 17 1

1

y 34 2

17

z 51 3

Hence x = 1, y = 2 and z = 3.

( y z)2 xy zx

2

39. Show that xy ( x z) yz 2 xyz ( x y z )3

xz yz ( x y)2

Ans:

( y z )2 xy zx

2

Given that xy ( x z) yz

xz yz ( x y )2

Applying R1 →xR1, R2 → yR2 ,R3 → zR3 to Δ and dividing by xyz, we get

x( y z ) 2 x2 y x2 z

1

xy 2 y( x z ) 2 y2 z

xyz

xz 2 yz 2 z ( x y)2

Taking common factors x, y, z from C1, C2 and C3 respectively, we get

( y z )2 x2 x2

xyz

y2 ( x z)2 y2

xyz

z2 z2 ( x y )2

Applying C2 → C2– C1, C3 → C3– C1, we have

( y z )2 x 2 ( y z )2 x 2 ( y z )2

y2 ( x z )2 y 2 0

z2 0 ( x y )2 z 2

Taking common factor (x + y + z) from C2 and C3, we have

( y z )2 x ( y z) x ( y z )

( x y z )2 y2 ( x z) y 0

z2 0 ( x y) z

Applying R1 → R1 – (R2 + R3), we have

2 yz 2 z 2 y

( x y z )2 y 2 x y z 0

2

z 0 x yz

1 1

Applying C2 → (C2 + C1) and C3 → C3 + C1, we get

y z

2 yz 0 0

y2

( x y z )2 y 2 x z

z

2 z2

z x y

y

Finally expanding along R1, we have

Δ = (x + y + z)2 (2yz) [(x + z) (x + y) – yz] = (x + y + z)2 (2yz) (x2 + xy + xz)

= (x + y + z)3 (2xyz)

1 1 2 2 0 1

40. Use product 0 2 3 9 2 3 to solve the system of equations

3 2 4 6 1 2

x – y + 2z = 1

2y – 3z = 1

3x – 2y + 4z = 2

Ans:

1 1 2 2 0 1

Consider the product 0 2 3 9 2 3

3 2 4 6 1 2

2 9 12 0 2 2 1 3 4 1 0 0

0 18 18 0 4 3 0 6 6 0 1 0

6 18 24 0 4 4 3 6 8 0 0 1

1

1 1 2 2 0 1

Hence, 0 2 3 9 2 3

3 2 4 6 1 2

Now, given system of equations can be written, in matrix form, as follows

1 1 2 x 1

0 2 3 y 1

3 2 4 z 2

1

x 1 1 2 1 2 0 1 1

y 0 2 3 1 9 2 3 1

z 3 2 4 2 6 1 2 2

2 0 2 0

9 2 6 5

6 1 4 3

Hence x = 0, y = 5 and z = 3

CHAPTER – 3: DETERMINANTS

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

19. Let A be a square matrix of order 3 × 3. Write the value of |2A|, where |A| = 4.

Ans:

Since |2A| = 2n|A| where n is order of matrix A.

Here |A| = 4 and n = 3

|2A| = 23 ×4 = 32

102 18 36

20. Write the value of the following determinant: 1 3 4

17 3 6

Ans:

102 18 36

Given that 1 3 4

17 3 6

Applying R1 R1 – 6R3

0 0 0

1 3 4 0 (Since R1 is zero)

17 3 6

21. If A is a square matrix and |A| = 2, then write the value of | AA'| , where A' is the transpose of

matrix A.

Ans:

|AA|' = |A|. |A'| = |A|. |A|= |A|2 = 2 x 2 = 4.

[since, | AB|=|A|.|B| and| A|=| A'|, where A and B are square matrices.]

22. If A is a 3 × 3 matrix, |A| 0 and |3A| = k |A|, then write the value of k.

Ans:

Here, |3A| = k|A|

33|A| = k|A| [ |kA| = kn|A| where n is order of A]

27 |A| = k|A|

k = 27

a ib c id

23. Evaluate:

c id a ib

Ans:

a ib c id

(a ib)(a ib) (c id )(c id )

c id a ib

(a ib)(a ib) (c id )(c id )

a 2 i 2b 2 c 2 i 2 d 2

a2 b2 c 2 d 2

x2 3

24. If 3 , find the value of x.

x5 4

Ans:

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 91 -

x2 3

Given that 3

x5 4

4x + 8 – 3x – 15 = 3

x – 7 = 3

x = 10

5 3 8

25. If = 2 0 1 , write the minor of the element a23.

1 2 3

Ans:

5 3

Minor of a23 = = 10 – 3 = 7.

1 2

cos150 sin150

26. Evaluate:

sin 750 cos 750

Ans:

Expanding the determinant, we get

cos 15° . cos 75° - sin 15° . sin 75°

= cos (15° + 75° ) = cos 90° = 0

[since cos (A + B) = cos A. cos B – sinA . sin B]

a ab a 2b

27. Using properties of determinants, prove the following: a 2b a a b 9b 2 (a b)

a b a 2b a

Ans:

a ab a 2b

Let a 2b a a b

ab a 2b a

Applying R1 R1 + R2 + R3 , we have

3(a b) 3(a b) 3(a b)

a 2b a ab

a b a 2b a

Taking out 3(a + b) from 1st row, we have

1 1 1

3(a b) a 2b a ab

a b a 2b a

Applying C1 C1 – C2 and C2 C2 – C3

0 0 1

3(a b) 2b b a b

b 2b a

Expanding along first row, we have

D = 3(a + b) [1. (4b2 – b2 )]

= 3 (a + b) 3b2 = 9b2 (a + b)

2 3 4

28. Write the value of the determinant 5 6 8

6 x 9 x 12 x

Ans:

2 3 4

Given determinant |A|= 5 6 8

6 x 9 x 12 x

2 3 4

3 x 5 6 8 = 0 ( R1 = R3)

2 3 4

29. Two schools P and Q want to award their selected students on the values of Tolerance,

Kindness and Leadership. The school P wants to award Rs. x each, Rs. y each and Rs. z each

for the three respective values to 3, 2 and 1 students respectively with a total award money of

Rs. 2,200. School Q wants to spend Rs. 3,100 to award its 4, 1 and 3 students on the respective

values (by giving the same award money to the three values as school P). If the total amount of

award for one prize on each value is Rs. 1,200, using matrices, find the award money for each

value. Apart from these three values, suggest one more value that should be considered for

award.

Ans:

According to question,

3x + 2y + z = 2200

4x + y + 3z = 3100

x + y + z = 1200

The above system of equation may be written in matrix form as AX = B

3 2 1 x 2200

A 4 1 3 , X y and B 3100

1 1 1 z 1200

3 2 1

Here,| A | 4 1 3 3(1 3) 2(4 3) 1(4 1) 6 2 3 5 0

1 1 1

–1

A exists.

Now, A11 = (1 – 3) = –2,

A12 = – (4 – 3) = –1,

A13 = (4 – 1) = 3,

A21 = – (2 – 1) = –1,

A22 = (3 – 1) = 2,

A23 = – (3 – 2) = –1

A31 = (6 – 1) = 5,

A32 = – (9 – 4) = –5,

A33 = (3 – 8) = –5

T

2 1 3 2

1 5

adj ( A) 1 2 1 1

2 5

5 5 5 3

1 5

2 1

5 2 1 5

1 1 1

A 1

(adjA) 5 1 2 5

1 2

| A| 5 5

3 1

5 3 1 5

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 93 -

x 2 1 5 2200

1

Now, X A B y 1 2 5 3100

1

5

z 3 1 5 1200

x 4400 3100 6000 1500 300

1 1

y 2200 6200 6000 2000 400

5 5

z 6600 3100 6000 2500 500

x = 300, y = 400, z = 500

i.e., Rs. 300 for tolerance, Rs. 400 for kindness and Rs. 500 for leadership are awarded.

One more value like punctuality, honesty etc may be awarded.

Ans:

ax y z

LHS x a y z

x y az

Applying C1 C1 + C2 + C3 , we get

a x y z y z

a x y z a y z

a x y z y az

Apply R1 R1 – R2 , we get

1 y z

(a x y z ) 1 a y z

1 y az

0 a 0

(a x y z ) 1 a y z

1 y az

Expanding along R1, we get

= (a + x + y + z) {0 + a (a + z – z)} = a2(a + x + y + z) = RHS

31. 10 students were selected from a school on the basis of values for giving awards and were

divided into three groups. The first group comprises hard workers, the second group has

honest and law abiding students and the third group contains vigilant and obedient students.

Double the number of students of the first group added to the number in the second group

gives 13, while the combined strength of first and second group is four times that of the third

group. Using matrix method, find the number of students in each group. Apart from the

values, hard work, honesty and respect for law, vigilance and obedience, suggest one more

value, which in your opinion, the school should consider for awards.

Ans:

Let no. of students in Ist, 2nd and 3rd group to x, y, z respectively.

From the statement we have

x + y+ z = 10

2x + y =13

x + y – 4z = 0

The above system of linear equations may be written in matrix form as AX = B where

1 1 1 x 10

A 2 1 0 , X y and B 13

1 1 4 z 0

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 94 -

1 1 1

Here,| A | 2 1 0 1( 4 0) 1( 8 0) 1(2 1) 4 8 1 5 0

1 1 4

–1

A exists.

Now, A11 = – 4 – 0 = –4

A12 = – (–8 – 0) = 8

A13 = 2 – 1 = 1

A21 = –(–4 – 1) = 5

A22 = –4 – 1 = –5

A23 = –(1 – 1) = 0

A31 = 0 – 1 = –1

A32 = –(0 – 2) = 2

A33 = 1 – 2 = –1

T

4 8 1 4 5 1

adj ( A) 5 5 0 8 5

2

1 2 1 1 0 1

4 5 1

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 8 5 2

| A| 5

1 0 1

x 4 5 1 10

1

1

Now, X A B y 8 5 2 13

5

z 1 0 1 0

x 40 65 25 5

1 1

y 80 65 15 3

5 5

z 10 10 2

x = 5, y = 3, z = 2

32. The management committee of a residential colony decided to award some of its members (say

x) for honesty, some (say y) for helping others and some others (say z) for supervising the

workers to keep the colony neat and clean. The sum of all the awardees is 12. Three times the

sum of awardees for cooperation and supervision added to two times the number of awardees

for honesty is 33. If the sum of the number of awardees for honesty and supervision is twice the

number of awardees for helping others, using matrix method, find the number of awardees of

each category. Apart from these values, namely, honesty, cooperation and supervision, suggest

one more value which the management of the colony must include for awards.

Ans:

According to question

x + y + z = 12

2x + 3y + 3z = 33

x – 2y + z = 0

The above system of linear equation can be written in matrix form as AX = B where

1 1 1 x 12

A 2 3 3 , X y and B 33

1 2 1 z 0

1 1 1

Here,| A | 2 3 3

1 2 1

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 95 -

= 1 (3 + 6) –1 (2–3) + 1 (– 4 –3) = 9 + 1 – 7 = 3

A–1 exists.

A11 = 9, A12 = 1, A13 = –7

A21 = –3, A22 = 0, A23 = 3

A31 = 0, A32 = –1, A33 = 1

T

9 1 7 9 3 0

adj ( A) 3 0 3 1 0 1

0 1 1 7 3 1

9 3 0

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 1 0 1

| A| 3

7 3 1

x 9 3 0 12

1

Now, X A B y 1 0 1 33

1

3

z 7 3 1 0

x 108 99 9 3

1 1

y 12 0 0 12 4

3 3

z 84 99 15 5

x = 3, y = 4, z = 5

No. of awards for honesty = 3

No. of awards for helping others = 4

No. of awards for supervising = 5.

The persons, who work in the field of health and hygiene should also be awarded.

3x x y x z

x y 3y z y 3( x y z )( xy yz zx)

xz yz 3z

Ans:

3x x y x z

LHS x y 3y zy

xz yz 3z

Applying C1 C1 + C2 + C3

x y z x y x z

x y z 3y zy

x y z yz 3z

Taking out (x + y + z) along C1, we get

1 x y x z

( x y z) 1 3y z y

1 yz 3z

Applying R2 R2 – R1; R3 R3 – R1

1 x y x z

( x y z) 0 2 y x x y

0 x z x 2z

Applying C2 C2 – C3

1 y z x z

( x y z) 0 3y xy

0 3 z x 2 z

Expanding along I column, we get

D = (x + y + z)[(3y (x + 2z) + 3z (x – y)]

= 3(x + y + z)[xy + 2z + 2yz + xz – yz]

= 3(x + y + z)(xy + yz + zx) = R.H.S.

34. A school wants to award its students for the values of Honesty, Regularity and Hard work with

a total cash award of Rs. 6,000. Three times the award money for Hardwork added to that

given for honesty amounts to ` 11,000. The award money given for Honesty and Hardwork

together is double the one given for Regularity. Represent the above situation algebraically

and find the award money for each value, using matrix method. Apart from these values,

namely, Honesty, Regularity and Hardwork, suggest one more value which the school must

include for awards.

Ans:

Let x, y and z be the awarded money for honesty, Regularity and hardwork.

From the statement

x + y +z = 6000 …(i)

x + 3z =11000 …(ii)

x +z = 2y x – 2y +z = 0 …(iii)

The above system of three equations may be written in matrix form as AX = B, where

1 1 1 x 6000

A 1 0 3 , X y and B 11000

0 2 1 z 0

1 1 1

Here,| A | 1 0 3 1(0 6) 1(1 3) 1(2 0) 6 2 2 6 0

0 2 1

–1

Hence A exist

If Aij is co-factor of aij then

A11 = 0 + 6 = 6

A12 = – (1 – 3) = 2 ;

A13 = (–2 – 0) = –2

A21 = –(1 + 2) = –3

A22 = 0

A23 = (–2 – 1) = –3

A31 = 3 – 0 = 3

A32 = – (3 – 1) = – 2 ;

A33 = 0 – 1 = – 1

T

6 2 2 6 3 3

adj ( A) 3 0 3 2 0

2

3 2 1 2 3 1

6 3 3

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 2 0 2

| A| 6

2 3 1

x 6 3 3 6000

1

1

Now, X A B y 2 0 2 11000

6

z 2 3 1 0

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 97 -

x 36000 33000 0 3000 500

1 1

y 12000 0 0 12000 2000

6 6

z 12000 33000 0 21000 3500

x =500, y = 2000, z = 3500

Except above three values, school must include discipline for award as discipline has great

importance in student’s life.

x 1 x 1 4 1

35. If , then write the value of x.

x3 x2 1 3

Ans:

x 1 x 1 4 1

Given that

x3 x2 1 3

(x +1) (x + 2) – (x – 1)(x – 3) =12 +1

x2 + 2x + x + 2 – x2 + 3x + x – 3 =13

7x – 1 =13

7x =14

x = 2

a a b a bc

36. Using properties of determinants, prove that 2a 3a 2b 4a 3b 2c a 3

3a 6a 3b 10a 6b 3c

Ans:

a a b a bc

LHS 2a 3a 2b 4a 3b 2c

3a 6a 3b 10a 6b 3c

a a abc a b abc

2a 3a 4a 3b 2c 2a 2b 4a 3b 2c

3a 6a 10a 6b 3c 3a 3b 10a 6b 3c

1 1 a bc 1 1 a bc

2

a 2 3 4a 3b 2c ab 2 2 4a 3b 2c

3 6 10a 6b 3c 3 3 10a 6b 3c

1 1 a bc

2

a 2 3 4a 3b 2c ab.0 [since C1 = C2 in second determinant]

3 6 10a 6b 3c

1 1 a bc

2

a 2 3 4a 3b 2c

3 6 10a 6b 3c

1 1 a 1 1 b 1 1 c

2

a 2 3 4a 2 3 3b 2 3 2c

3 6 10a 3 6 6b 3 6 3c

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2

a .a 2 3 4 b 2 3 3 c 2 3 2

3 6 10 3 6 6 3 6 3

1 1 1

2

a .a 2 3 4 b.0 c.0 [since C2 = C3 in second determinant and C1 = C3 in third

3 6 10

determinant]

1 1 1

a3 2 3 4

3 6 10

Applying C2 C2 – C1 and C3 C3 – C1 we get

1 0 0

3

a 2 1 2

3 3 7

Expanding along R1 we get

= a3 .1(7 – 6) – 0 + 0

= a3 .

x – y + z = 4; 2x + y – 3z = 0; x + y + z = 2

Ans:

Given equations

x–y+z=4

2x + y – 3z = 0

x+y+z=2

We can write this system of equations as AX = B where

1 1 1 x 4

A 2 1 3 , X y and B 0

1 1 1 z 2

1 1 1

Here,| A | 2 1 3

1 1 1

= 1 (1 + 3) - (- 1) (2 + 3) + 1 (2 - 1) = 4 + 5 + 1 = 10

A–1 exists.

A11 = 4, A12 = –5, A13 = 1

A21 = 2, A22 = 0, A23 = –2

A31 = 2, A32 = 5, A33 = 3

T

4 5 1 4 2 2

adj ( A) 2 0 2 5 0 5

2 5 3 1 2 3

4 2 2

1 1

A 1

(adjA) 5 0 5

| A| 10

1 2 3

x 4 2 2 4

1

Now, X A B y 5 0 5 0

1

10

z 1 2 3 2

x 16 0 4 20 2

1 1

y 20 0 10 10 1

10 10

z 4 0 6 10 1

The required solution is

x = 2, y = - 1, z = 1

3 1 1 1 2 2

38. If A = 15 6 5 and B = 1 3 0 , find (AB)–1.

–1

5 2 2 0 2 1

Ans:

For B–1

1 2 2

| B | 1 3 0 = 1(3 – 0) – 2(–1 – 0) – 2(2 – 0 ) = 3 + 2 – 4 = 1 0

0 2 1

i.e., B is invertible matrix

B–1 exist.

A11 = 3, A12 = 1, A13 = 2

A21 = 2, A22 = 1, A23 = 2

A31 = 6, A32 = 2, A33 = 5

T

3 1 2 3 2 6

adj ( B) 2 1 2 1 1

2

6 2 5 2 2 5

3 2 6 3 2 6

1 1

B 1

(adjb) 1 1 2 1 1 2

|B| 1

2 2 5 2 2 5

Now (AB)–1 = B–1. A–1

3 2 6 3 1 1

1 1 2 15 6 5

2 2 5 5 2 2

9 30 30 3 12 12 3 10 12

3 15 10 1 6 4 1 5 4

6 30 25 2 12 10 2 10 10

9 3 5

2 1 0

1 0 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 101 -

CHAPTER – 5: CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

2 x 3, if x 2

1. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined by f ( x) .

2 x 3, if x 2

Ans.

2 x 3, if x 2

Here, f ( x) .

2 x 3, if x 2

lim lim

At x =2, LHL

f ( x) (2 x 3)

x2 x 2

Putting x = 2 − h has x → 2− when h → 0

lim lim lim lim

f ( x) (2(2 h) 3) (4 2h 3) (7 2h) 7

x2 h0 h0 h0

lim lim

At x =2, RHL

f ( x) (2 x 3)

x2 x 2

Putting x = 2 + h as x → 2+ when h → 0

lim lim lim lim

f ( x) (2(2 h) 3) (4 2h 3) (1 2h) 1

x2 h0 h0 h0

LHL ≠ RHL. Thus, f(x) is discontinuous at x = 2.

| x |

, if x0

2. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined by f ( x ) x

0, if x0

| x |

, if x 0

Ans. Here, f ( x ) x

0, if x 0

lim lim | x |

LHL

f ( x)

x0 x 0 x

Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0− when h → 0

lim lim | 0 h | lim h

f ( x) 1

x0 h 0 0 h h 0 h

lim lim | x |

RHL f ( x )

x 0 x 0 x

Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0+ ; h → 0

lim lim | 0 h | lim h

f ( x ) 1

x 0 h 0 0h h 0h

LHL ≠ RHL. Thus, f(x) is discontinuous at x = 0.

x 3 3, if x 2

3. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined by f ( x) 2

x 1, if x 2

Ans.

For x < 2, f(x) = x3 − 3 and for x > 2, f(x) = x2 + 1 is a polynomial function, so f is continuous in the

above interval. Therefore, we have to check the continuity at x = 2.

lim lim

LHL

f ( x)

( x3 3)

x2 x2

Putting x = 2 − h has x → 2− when h → 0

f ( x) ((2 h)3 3) (8 12h 6h 2 h3 3)

x2 h0 h0

lim

(5 12h 6h 2 h3 ) 5

h0

lim lim

RHL

f ( x)

( x 2 1)

x2 x2

Putting x = 2 + h as x → 2+ when h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) ((2 h) 2 1) (4 4h h 2 1)

x2 h0 h0

lim

(5 4h h 2 ) 5

h0

Also, f(2) = (2) − 3 = 8 − 3 = 5 [since f(x) = x3 − 3]

3

Hence, there is no point of discontinuity for this function f(x).

ax 1, if x 3

4. Find the relationship between a and b so that the function f defined by f ( x)

bx 3, if x 3

is continuous at x = 3.

Ans.

ax 1, if x 3

Here, f ( x)

bx 3, if x 3

lim lim

LHL

f ( x) (ax 1)

x3 x 3

Putting x = 3 − h has x → 3− when h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) (a(3 h) 1) (3a ah 1) 3a 1

x3 h0 h0

lim lim

RHL

f ( x) (bx 3)

x3 x 3

Putting x = 3 + h as x → 3+ when h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) (b(3 h) 3) (3b bh 3) 3b 3

x3 h0 h0

Also, f(3) =3 a +1 [since f(x) = ax + 1]

Since, f(x) is continuous at x = 3.

LHL = RHL = f(3)

2

3a 1 3b 3 3a 3b 2 a b

3

( x 2 2 x ), if x 0

5. For what value of is the function defined by f ( x) continuous at x =

4 x 1, if x 0

0? What about continuity at x = 1?

Ans.

( x 2 2 x ), if x 0

Here, f ( x)

4 x 1, if x 0

lim lim

At x = 0, LHL

f ( x)

( x 2 2 x)

x0 x0

−

Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0 when h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) [(0 h) 2 2(0 h)] (h 2 2h) 0

x0 h0 h0

lim lim

At x = 0, RHL

f ( x) (4 x 1)

x0 x 0

Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0+ ; h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) [4(0 h) 1] (4h 1) 1

x0 h0 h0

LHL ≠ RHL. Thus, f(x) is discontinuous at x = 0 for any value of .

lim lim

At x = 1, LHL

f ( x) (4 x 1)

x 1 x 1

Putting x = 1 − h as x → 1− when h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) (4(1 h) 1) (4 4h 1) 5

x 1 h0 h0

lim lim

At x = 1, RHL

f ( x) (4 x 1)

x 1 x 1

Putting x = 1 + h as x → 1+ ; h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) [4(1 h) 1] (4 4h 1) 5

x 1 h0 h0

LHL = RHL. Thus, f(x) is continuous at x = 1 for any value of .

sin x

, if x 0

6. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f ( x ) x

x 1, if x 0

sin x

, if x 0

Ans. Here, f ( x ) x

x 1, if x 0

lim lim sin x

At x = 0, LHL

f ( x)

x0 x 0 x

Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0− when h → 0

lim lim sin(0 h) lim sin(h) lim sin h lim sin h

f ( x) 1

x0 h 0 0h h 0 h h 0 h h0 h

lim lim sin x

At x = 0, RHL

f ( x)

x0 x 0 x

Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0+ ; h → 0

lim lim sin(0 h) lim sin h

f ( x) 1

x0 h 0 0h h0 h

Also, f(0) = 0 + 1 = 1

LHL = RHL = f(0). Thus, f(x) is continuous at x = 0.

sin x

When x < 0, sin x and x both are continuous. Therefore, is also continuous.

x

When x > 0, f(x) = x + 1 is a polynomial. Therefore f is continuous.

Hence, there is no point of discontinuity for this function f(x).

2 1

x sin , if x 0

7. Determine if f defined by f ( x) x is a continuous function?

0, if x 0

Ans.

2 1

x sin , if x 0

Here, f ( x) x

0, if x 0

lim lim 2 1

At x = 0, LHL

f ( x)

x sin

x0 x0 x

−

Putting x = 0 − h as x → 0 when h → 0

lim lim 1 lim 2 1

f ( x) (0 h)2 sin h sin 0 sin

x0 h0 0 h h 0 h

= 0 x value between –1 and 1 (since − 1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1, for all values of x R)

lim lim 2 1

At x = 0, RHL

f ( x)

x sin

x0 x0 x

+

Putting x = 0 + h as x → 0 ; h → 0

lim lim 1 lim 2 1

f ( x) (0 h)2 sin h sin 0 sin

x0 h0 0 h h 0 h

= 0 x value between –1 and 1 (since − 1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1, for all values of x R)

LHL = RHL = f(0). Thus, f(x) is continuous at x = 0.

k cos x

2 x , if x 2

8. Find the values of k so that the function f f ( x) is continuous at point

3, if x

2

x

2

Ans.

k cos x

2 x , if x 2

Here, f ( x)

3, if x

2

lim lim

k cos x

LHL f ( x)

2x

x x

2 2

Putting x = − h as x → when h → 0

2 2

lim

k cos h

lim 2 lim ksinh k lim sinh k 1 k

f ( x) h 0

x h 0 2h 2 h0 h 2 2

2 2 h

2

Since f(x) is continuous at x , therefore LHL = f

2 2

k

Also, f = 3 3 k 6

2 2

kx 1, if x 5

9. Find the values of k so that the function f f ( x) is continuous at point x = 5.

3 x 5, if x 5

Ans.

kx 1, if x 5

Here, f ( x)

3 x 5, if x 5

lim lim

At x = 5, LHL

f ( x) (kx 1)

x5 x 5

Putting x = 5 − h has x → 5− when h → 0

f ( x) (k (5 h) 1) (5k kh 1) 5k 1

x5 h0 h0

lim lim

At x = 5, RHL

f ( x) (3 x 5)

x5 x 5

Putting x = 5 + h as x → 5+ ; h → 0

f ( x) (3(5 h) 5) (10 3h) 10

x5 h0 h0

Also, f(5) = 5k + 1

Since f(x) is continuous at x = 5, therefore LHL = RHL = f(5)

9

5k 1 10 5k 9 k

5

5, if x 2

10. Find the values of a and b such that the function defined by f ( x) ax b, if 2 x 10 is a

21, if x 10

continuous function.

Ans.

5, if x 2

Here, f ( x) ax b, if 2 x 10

21, if x 10

lim lim

At x =2, LHL

f ( x) (5) 5

x2 x 2

lim lim

At x =2, RHL

f ( x) (ax b)

x2 x 2

Putting x = 2 + h as x → 2+ when h → 0

lim lim lim

f ( x) (a (2 h) b) (2a ah b) 2a b

x2 h0 h0

Also, f(2) = 5

Since f(x) is continuous at x = 2, therefore LHL = RHL = f(2)

2a b 5 ----------------- (1)

lim lim

At x =10, LHL

f ( x) (ax b)

x 10 x 10

Putting x = 10 − h has x → 10− when h → 0

f ( x ) ( a (10 h ) b ) (10a ah b) 10a b

x 10 h0 h0

lim lim

At x =2, RHL

f ( x) (21) 21

x 10 x 10

Also, f(10) = 21

Since f(x) is continuous at x = 10, therefore LHL = RHL = f(10)

Since, f(x) is continuous at x = 10.

LHL = RHL = f(10)

10a + b = 21 …………….…(2)

Subtracting Eq. (1) from Eq. (2), we get 8a =16 a =2

Put a =2 in Eq. (1), we get 2 ×2 + b = 5 b =1

Ans.

x 1, if x 1 0

Given, f ( x) | x 1|

( x 1), if x 1 0

We have to check the differentiability at x = 1

Here, f(1) = 1 − 1 = 0

lim f (1 h) f (1) lim 1 (1 h) 0)

Lf ' (1)

h0 h h0 h

lim h

1

h 0 h

and

lim f (1 h) f (1) lim (1 h) 1 0

Rf ' (1)

h0 h h0 h

lim h

1

h0 h

Lf ' (1) Rf ' (1).

Hence, f(x) is not differentiable at x = 1

dy 1 x2

12. Find if y cos 1 2

,0 x 1

dx 1 x

Ans.

Let x = tan tan 1 x , then we have

1 x2 2

1 1 tan

y cos 1 2

cos 2

1

cos cos 2 2

1 x 1 tan

y 2 tan 1 x

dy 1 2

2 2

dx 1 x 1 x2

dy 1 x2

13. Find if y sin 1 2

,0 x 1

dx 1 x

Ans.

Let x = tan tan 1 x , then we have

1 x2 2

1 1 tan

y sin 1 2 sin 2

1 1

sin cos 2 sin sin 2

1 x 1 tan 2

y 2 y 2 tan 1 x

2 2

dy 1 2

0 2 2

dx 1 x 1 x2

dy 2x

14. Find if y cos1 2

, 1 x 1

dx 1 x

Ans.

Let x = tan tan 1 x , then we have

2x 2 tan

y cos1 2

cos1 2

1 1

cos sin 2 cos cos 2

1 x 1 tan 2

y 2 y 2 tan 1 x

2 2

dy 1 2

0 2 2

dx 1 x 1 x2

dy 1 1

15. Find if y sec 1 2 , 0 x

dx 2x 1 2

Ans.

Let x cos cos1 x , then we have

1 1 1 1

y sec 1 2 sec1 2 sec

1

sec sec 2 2

2x 1 2 cos 1 cos 2

1 2

y 2cos 1 x 2

1 x2 1 x2

Ans.

Let y = sin (tan–1 e–x)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy d d

sin(tan 1 e x ) cos(tan 1 e x ) (tan 1 e x )

dx dx dx

1 d

cos(tan 1 e x ) ( e x )

1 (e x ) 2 dx

1 e x cos(tan 1 e x )

cos(tan 1 e x ) ( e x

)

1 e 2 x 1 e 2 x

Ans.

Let y = log (cos ex)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy d 1 d

log(cos e x ) x

(cos e x )

dx dx cos e dx

1 d

x

( sin e x ) (e x ) ( tan e x ).e x e x tan e x

cos e dx

Ans.

Let y = cos (log x + ex)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy d d

cos(log x e x ) sin(log x e x ) (log x e x )

dx dx dx

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 108 -

1 1 xe x

sin(log x e x ) e x sin(log x e x )

x x

(1 xe x ) sin(log x e x )

x

dy

19. Find if yx + xy + xx = ab.

dx

Ans.

Given that yx + xy + xx = ab

Putting u = yx, v = xy and w = xx, we get u + v + w = ab

du dv dw

Therefore, 0 ------------------ (1)

dx dx dx

Now, u = yx. Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = x log y

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 du d d 1 dy

x (log y ) log y ( x ) x . log y.1

u dx dx dx y dx

du x dy x dy

u log y y x log y -------------------- (2)

dx y dx y dx

y

Also v = x

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = y log x

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 dv d dy 1 dy

y (log x) log x y log x

v dx dx dx x dx

dv y dy y dy

v log x x y log x ------------------ (3)

dx x dx x dx

Again w = xx

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log w = x log x.

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 dw d d 1

x (log x ) log x ( x ) x log x.1

w dx dx dx x

dw

w 1 log x x x 1 log x -------------------- (4)

dx

From (1), (2), (3), (4), we have

x dy y dy

yx log y x y log x x x 1 log x 0

y dx x dx

dy

( x. y x 1 x y .log x) x x 1 log x y. x y 1 y x log y

dx

x y 1 x

dy x 1 log x y.x y log y

dx x. y x1 x y .log x

Ans.

Let y = xx – 2sin x

Let u = xx and v = 2sin x then we have y = u – v

dy du dv

Therefore, -------------------- (1)

dx dx dx

Now, u = xx

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = x log x.

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 du d d 1

x (log x) log x ( x) x log x.1

u dx dx dx x

du

u 1 log x x x 1 log x -------------------- (2)

dx

Again v = 2sinx

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = (sinx) log 2.

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 dv dv

cos x(log 2) v[cos x (log 2)] 2sin x [cos x(log 2)]

v dx dx

From (1), (2) and (3), we get

dy du dv

x x 1 log x 2sin x [cos x(log 2)]

dx dx dx

Ans.

Let y = (log x)x + xlog x

Let u = (log x)x and v = xlog x then we have y = u + v

dy du dv

Therefore, -------------------- (1)

dx dx dx

Now, u = (logx)x

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = xlog(logx).

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 du d d x 1

x log(log x ) log(log x) ( x ) log(log x)

u dx dx dx log x x

du 1 1

u log(log x ) (log x) x log(log x) ---------------------- (2)

dx log x log x

Again v = xlogx

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = (logx) logx = (logx)2

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 dv d 1

2log x (log x) 2 log x

v dx dx x

dv 2 log x 2log x

v x log x ---------------------- (3)

dx x x

From (1), (2) and (3)

dy 1 2log x

(log x ) x log(log x) x log x

dx log x x

dy

(log x) x 1 1 log x log(log x) 2 x log x 1.log x

dx

Ans.

Let y = (sin x) x sin 1 x

Let u = (sin x) x , v = sin 1 x then we have y = u + v

dy du dv

Therefore, -------------------- (1)

dx dx dx

Now, u = (sin x)x

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = xlog(sin x).

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 110 -

1 du d d x

x log(sin x) log(sin x) ( x) cos x log(sin x)

u dx dx dx sin x

du

u x cot x log(sin x) (sin x) x x cot x log(sin x) ------------- (2)

dx

Again v = sin 1 x

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

dv 1 d 1 1 1

( x) ---------------- (3)

dx 2 dx 1 x 2 x 2 x x2

1 x

From (1), (2) and (3)

dy 1

(sin x ) x x cot x log(sin x )

dx 2 x x2

Ans.

Let y = xsin x + (sin x)cos x

Let u = xsin x, v = (sin x)cos x then we have y = u + v

dy du dv

Therefore, -------------------- (1)

dx dx dx

Now, u = xsinx

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = (sinx) logx.

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 du d d 1

sin x log x log x (sin x) sin x log x cos x

u dx dx dx x

du sin x sin x

u log x cos x x sin x log x cos x ---------------------- (2)

dx x x

Again v = sinxcosx

Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log v = (cosx) log(sinx)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 dv d d 1

cosx log(sin x ) log(sin x) (cos x ) cos x cos x log(sin x)( sin x)

v dx dx dx sin x

dv

v cot x cos x sin x log(sin x) sin x cos x cot x cos x sin x log(sin x) ----------- (3)

dx

From (1), (2) and (3)

dy sin x

x sin x log x cos x sin x cos x cot x cos x sin x log(sin x )

dx x

dy

24. Find if x = a (θ + sin θ), y = a (1 – cos θ).

dx

Ans.

Given that x = a (θ + sin θ), y = a (1 – cos θ)

Differentiating w.r.t. θ, we get

dx dy

a(1 cos ), a(sin )

d d

dy

2sin cos sin

dy d a (sin ) sin 2 2 2 tan

Therefore,

dx dx a(1 cos ) 1 cos 2

2 cos 2 cos

d 2 2

dy

25. Find if x = cos θ – cos 2θ, y = sin θ – sin 2θ

dx

Ans.

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 111 -

Given that x = cos θ – cos 2θ, y = sin θ – sin 2θ

Differentiating w.r.t. θ, we get

dx

sin ( sin 2 ) 2 sin 2sin 2

d

dy

cos (cos 2 ) 2 cos 2cos 2

d

dy

dy d sin 2sin 2

Therefore,

dx dx cos 2cos 2

d

dy

26. Find if x = a (θ – sin θ), y = a (1 + cos θ)

dx

Ans.

Given that x = a (θ – sin θ), y = a (1 + cos θ)

Differentiating w.r.t. θ, we get

dx dy

a(1 cos ), a(0 sin ) a sin

d d

dy

2sin cos cos

dy d a sin sin 2 2 2 cot

Therefore,

dx dx a(1 cos ) 1 cos 2

2sin 2 sin

d 2 2

1 1 dy y

27. If x a sin t , y a cos t

, show that

dx x

Ans.

1 1

Given that x a sin t , y a cos t

1 1 1 1 1

t cos1 t

xy a sin t a cos t a sin t .a cos t a sin a 2

dy dy dy y

x y 0 x y

dx dx dx x

d2y dy

28. If y = 3e2x + 2e3x, prove that 2

5 6y 0

dx dx

Ans.

Given that y = 3e2x + 2e3x

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy

6e 2 x 63 x 6(e2 x e3 x )

dx

Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

d2y

2

6(2e 2 x 3e3 x )

dx

d2y dy

Now, 2

5 6 y 6(2e 2 x 3e3 x ) 5(6(e 2 x e3 x )) 6(3e2 x 2e3 x )

dx dx

12e 18e 30e 2 x 30e3 x 18e2 x 12e3 x 0

2x 3x

Ans.

Given that y = 3 cos (log x) + 4 sin (log x)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy d d

y1 3sin(log x) (log x) 4cos(log x) (log x)

dx dx dx

1 1 1

3sin(log x) 4 cos(log x) 3sin(log x) 4 cos(log x)

x x x

xy1 3sin(log x ) 4 cos(log x)

Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

d d

xy2 y1.1 3cos(log x) (log x) 4sin(log x) (log x)

dx dx

1 1 1 y

3cos(log x ) 4sin(log x ) 3cos(log x) 4sin(log x)

x x x x

2

x y2 xy1 y

x 2 y2 xy1 y 0

2

y d 2 y dy

30. If e (x + 1) = 1, show that

dx 2 dx

Ans.

Given that ey (x + 1) = 1

1

ey

x 1

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy 1 1 dy 1

ey 2

dx ( x 1) x 1 dx ( x 1) 2

dy 1

dx x 1

Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

2 2

d2y 1 1 dy

2

2

dx ( x 1) x 1 dx

Ans.

Given that y = (tan–1 x)2

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy d 1

2 tan 1 x (tan 1 x ) 2 tan 1 x

dx dx 1 x2

2 tan 1 x

y1 2

(1 x 2 ) y1 2 tan 1 x

1 x

Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

1

(1 x 2 ) y2 2 xy1 2 (1 x 2 )2 y2 2 x(1 x 2 ) y1 2

1 x2

Ans.

Given function is f(x) = x2 +2 x − 8, x [ −4, 2] .

Since, a polynomial function is continuous and derivable on R, therefore

(i) f(x) is continuous on [− 4,2].

(ii) f(x) is derivable on (− 4,2).

Also, f(− 4) = (− 4)2 + 2 (− 4) − 8 = 0 (since f (x) = x2 + 2x − 8)

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 113 -

and f(2) = 22 + 2 x 2 – 8 = 0 f(− 4) = f(2)

This means that all the conditions of Rolle's theorem are satisfied by f(x) in [− 4,2].

Therefore, it exists at least one real c [ −4, 2] such that f′ (c) = 0.

d

Now, f (x) = x2 + 2x − 8 f ' ( x ) ( x 2 2 x 8) 2 x 2

dx

Putting f′ (c) = 0 2c + 2 = 0 c = − 1.

Thus, f′( −1) =0 and − 1 (− 4,2).

Hence, Rolle's theorem is verified with c = − 1.

33. Verify Mean Value Theorem, if f (x) = x2 – 4x – 3 in the interval [a, b], where a = 1 and b = 4.

Ans.

Here, f(x) = x2 − 4x − 3, x [1, 4] which is a polynomial function, so it is continuous and derivable

at all x R, therefore

(i) f(x) is continuous on [1, 4] (ii) f(x) is derivable on (1, 4).

Therefore, Conditions of Lagrange's theorem are satisfied on [1, 4].

Hence, there is atleast one real number. c (1, 4) such that

d

Now, f '( x) ( x 2 4 x 3) 2 x 4

dx

2

f (4) 4 4(4) 3 16 16 3 3

and f (1) 1 4 3 6

f (4) f (1) 3 (6) 3 6

f ' ( c) 1

4 1 3 3

5

2c 4 1 2c 1 4 5 c (1, 4)

2

Hence Mean Value Theorem is verified.

34. Verify Mean Value Theorem, if f (x) = x3 – 5x2 – 3x in the interval [a, b], where a = 1 and b = 3.

Find all c (1, 3) for which f ′(c) = 0.

Ans.

Given, f (x) = x3 – 5x2 – 3x, x (1, 3), which is a polynomial function. Since, a polynomial function

is continuous and derivable at all

x R, therefore

(i) f(x) is continuous on [1, 3]. (ii) f(x) is derivable on (1, 3).

Therefore, Condition of Lagrange's MVT are satisfied on [1, 3].

Hence, there exists aleast one real c (1, 3) .

d

Now, f '( x) ( x3 5 x 2 3 x) 3x 2 10 x 3

dx

f (3) (3) 5(3) 2 3(3) 27 45 9 27

3

and f (1) 1 5 3 7

f (3) f (1) 27 (7) 27 7

f ' ( c) 10

3 1 2 2

3c 2 10c 3 10 3c 2 10c 3 10 0

3c 2 10c 7 0

10 100 84 10 4 7 7

c 1, out of which (1,3)

6 6 3 3

Hence Mean Value Theorem is verified.

dy 1

35. If x 1 y y 1 x 0 , for , – 1 < x < 1, prove that

dx (1 x )2

Ans.

Given that x 1 y y 1 x 0 x 1 y y 1 x

Squaring both sides, we get

x 2 (1 y ) y 2 (1 x ) x2 y2 x2 y y2 x 0

( x y )( x y ) xy ( x y ) 0 ( x y )( x y xy ) 0

x y 0 or x y xy 0

x

y x or y (1 x) x y x or y

1 x

But y =x does not satisfy the given equation

x

So, we consider, y

1 x

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

d d

(1 x) ( x ) x (1 x )

dy d x dx dx (1 x ) x 1

2

2

dx dx x 1 (1 x ) (1 x ) (1 x) 2

dy cos 2 (a y )

36. If cos y = x cos (a + y), with cos a ≠ ± 1, prove that

dx sin a

Ans.

cos y

Given that cos y = x cos (a + y) x

cos(a y )

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. y, we get

dx d cos y cos(a y )( sin y ) cos y[ sin(a y )]

dy dy cos(a y ) cos 2 (a y )

sin(a y ) cos y cos(a y ) sin y sin(a y y ) sin a

2

2

cos (a y ) cos (a y ) cos 2 (a y )

dy cos 2 (a y )

dx sin a

d2y

37. If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t), find

dx 2

Ans.

Given that x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. t, we get

dx d d d

a cos t t sin t sin t (t ) a[ sin t (t sin t sin t )] at cos t

dt dt dt dt

dy d d d

and a sin t t cos t cos t (t ) a[cos t (t sin t cos t )] at sin t

dt dt dt dt

dy

dy dt at sin t

Now, tan t

dx dx at cos t

dt

Again, Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

d2y d 2 dt sec 2 t 1

2

tan t sec t sec3 t

dx dx dx at cos t at

sin x

38. Differentiate tan 1 w.r.t. x

1 cos x

Ans.

x x

2sin cos

sin x 2 2

Let y = tan 1 tan

1

1 cos x 2 x

2 cos

2

x

sin

tan 1 2 tan 1 (tan x ) x

x 2 2

cos

2

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy 1

dx 2

2 x 1

39. Differentiate sin 1 x

w.r.t. x

1 4

Ans.

2 x 1 x

1 2 2

Let y = sin 1 x

sin x 2

1 4 1 (2 )

Let 2 x tan tan 1 2 x then we have

2 tan

y sin 1 2

1

sin (sin 2 ) 2 2 tan 2

1 x

1 tan

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

dy 1 d x 2 x 2 x 1 log 2

2 (2 ) 2 log 2

dx 1 (2 x )2 dx 1 4x 1 4x

Ans.

Let u = sin2 x and v = ecos x

Differentiating u and v w.r.t. x, we get

du d

2sin x (sin x ) 2sin x cos x

dx dx

dv d

and ecos x (cos x ) ecos x ( sin x ) ( sin x)e cos x

dx dx

du

du dx 2sin x cos x 2 cos x

Now, cos x

cos x

dv dv ( sin x )e e

dx

CHAPTER – 5: CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

2 x 1 ; x 2

f ( x) k ; x 2

3 x 1 ; x 2

x4 2 x3 x 2

,x 0

2. Discuss the continuity of the following function at x = 0 : f ( x ) tan 1 x

0 ,x 0

3ax b ; x 1

3. If the function f (x) given by f ( x) 11 ; x 1 is continuous at x =1, find the values of a and

5ax 2b ; x 1

b.

4. Find the relationship between ‘a’ and ’b’ so that the function ‘f’ defined by:

ax 1, x 3

f ( x) is continuous at x = 3 .

bx 3, x 3

5. Show that the function f(x) = |x – 3| , x R , is continuous but not differentiable at x = 3.

1 kx 1 kx

, 1 x 0

6. Find the value of k, for which f ( x) x is continuous at x = 0.

2x 1

, 0 x 1

x 1

kx 1, x

7. Find the value of k so that the function f, defined by f ( x ) is continuous at x = .

cos x, x

8. Find the value of ‘a’ for which the function f defined as

a sin 2 ( x 1), x 0

f ( x) is continuous at x = 0.

tan x sin x

, x0

x3

9. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined as follows :

| x | 3 ; x 3

f ( x) 2 x ; 3 x 3

6x 2 ; x 3

10. Show that the function f defined as follows, is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable:

3 x 2 ; 0 x 1

f ( x) 2 x 2 - x; 1 x 2

5x 4 ; x 2

11. Verify Lagrange’s mean value theorem for the following function: f(x) = x2 + 2x + 3, for [4, 6].

sec x 1

12. If f ( x ) , then f’(x). Also find f ' .

sec x 1 2

dy

13. Find ,if ( x 2 y 2 )2 xy .

dx

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 117 -

dy sin 2 (a y )

14. If sin y = x sin(a + y), prove that

dx sin a

dy

15. If (cos x)y = (sin y)x, find .

dx

sin 1 x d2y dy

16. If y , then prove that (1 x 2 ) 2

3x y 0 .

1 x2 dx dx

d2y dy

17. If y = ex(sin x + cos x), then show that 2

2 2y 0 .

dx dx

d2y

18. If x = a(cost + t sin t) and y = a(sin t - t cost), then find .

dx 2

y dy x y

19. If log( x 2 y 2 ) 2 tan 1 , then show that

x dx x y

d2y dy

20. If y = a cos(log x) + b sin(log x), then show that x 2 2 x y 0

dx dx

dy 1 y2

21. If 1 x 2 1 y 2 a( x y ) , then show that

dx 1 x2

dy

22. Find ,if y sin 1 x 1 x x 1 x 2

dx

dy

23. Find ,if y (cos x ) x (sin x )1/ x

dx

1 x 1 x

24. Differentiate the following with respect to x : tan 1

1 x 1 x

1 sin x 1 sin x dy

25. If y cot 1 , find

1 sin x 1 sin x dx

26. Differentiate the following function w.r.t. x : (x)cos x + (sin x)tan x

1 d2y dy

27. If y e a sin x , 1 x 1 , then show that (1 x 2 ) 2 x a 2 y 0

dx dx

3x 4 1 x 2

dy

28. If y cos 1 , find

5 dx

d2y dy

29. If y = cosec-1 x, x > 1. then show that x( x 2 1) 2 (2 x 2 1) 0.

dx dx

x dy d2y

30. If y log tan then show that sec x . Also find 2

at x .

4 2 dx dx 4

1 x 1 x 2

31. Differentiate the following function with respect to x: f ( x) tan 1 tan

1 x 1 2x

t d2y

32. If x a cos t log tan , y a (1 sin t ) , then find .

2 dx 2

d2y

33. If x a ( sin ), y a (1 cos ) , then find .

dx 2

cos x x2 1

34. Differentiate x 2 w.r.t.x

x 1

dy log x

35. If x y e x y , then show that

dx log( xe) 2

1 d2y dy

36. If x tan log y , then show that (1 x 2 ) 2 (2 x a) 0.

a dx dx

d x 2 a2 x

37. Prove that a x 2

sin 1 a 2 x 2

dx 2 2 a

d2y dy

38. If y log x x 2 1 then show that ( x 2 1) 2 x 0

dx dx

d2y dy

39. If y log x x 2 a 2 then show that ( x 2 a 2 ) 2 x 0

dx dx

2

1 2 d y dy

40. If y sin x , then show that (1 x ) 2 x 0.

dx dx

1

1 x2 1

41. Differentiate tan w.r.t. x.

x

d2x d2 y d2 y

42. If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t), 0 t , find 2 , 2 , 2 .

2 dt dt dx

dy y

43. If x m y m ( x y ) m n , then show that .

dx x

dy 2 y

44. If x16 y 9 ( x 2 y )17 , then show that .

dx x

t d2y

45. If x a sin t , y a cos t log tan , then find .

2 dx 2

dy (1 log y )2

46. If y x e y x , then show that .

dx log y

dy log x

47. If x y e x y , then show that

dx (1 log x)2

2 x 1.3x

48. Differentiate the following with respect to x : sin 1 x

1 (36)

d2y

49. If x = a cos3 and y = a sin3, then find the value of 2

at .

dx 6

2

dy sin (a y )

50. If x sin (a + y) + sin a cos(a + y) = 0, prove that .

dx sin a

d2y dy

51. If y = sin (log x), then prove that x 2 2 x y 0 .

dx dx

52. Show that the function f(x) = 2x – |x| is continuous but not differentiable at x = 0.

1 x2

53. Differentiate tan 1

x

with respect to cos1 2 x 1 x 2 .

1 x 1

2

2x

54. Differentiate tan 1 with respect to sin 1 2

.

x 1 x

2

x d 2 y 1 dy y

55. If y x , then show that 0

dx 2 y dx x

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 120 -

CHAPTER – 10: VECTOR ALGEBRA

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks

NCERT Important Questions & Answers

1. Find the unit vector in the direction of the sum of the vectors, a 2i 2 j 5k and

b 2i j 3k

Ans:

The sum of the given vectors is a b ( c, say ) 4i 3 j 2k

2 2 2

and | c | 4 3 (2) 29

Thus, the required unit vector is

1 1 4 3 2

c c (4i 3 j 2k ) i j k

|c| 29 29 29 29

2. Show that the points are A(2i j k ), B (i 3 j 5k ), C (3i 4 j 4k ) the vertices of a right angled

triangle.

Ans:

We have AB (1 2)i (3 1) j (5 1)k i 2 j 6k

BC (3 1)i (4 3) j (4 5)k 2i j k

and CA (2 3)i (1 4) j (1 4)k i 3 j 5k

Then | AB |2 41,| BC |2 6,| CA |2 35

| AB |2 | BC |2 | CA |2

Hence, the triangle is a right angled triangle.

3. Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the points A(1, 2, –3) and B(–1, –2, 1), directed

from A to B.

Ans:

The given points are A(1,2, − 3) and B(−1, −2,1).

Then AB (1 1)i (2 2) j (1 (3))k 2i 4 j 4k

Now, | AB | 4 16 16 36 6

1 1 1 2 2

unit vector along AB = AB (2i 4 j 4k ) i j k

| AB | 6 3 3 3

1 2 2

Hence direction cosines are , ,

3 3 3

4. Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q whose

position vectors are i 2 j k and i j k respectively, in the ratio 2 : 1 (i) internally (ii)

externally

Ans:

The position vector of a point R divided the line segment joining two points P and Q in the ratio m: n

is given by

mb na

Case I Internally

mn

mb na

Case II Externally

mn

Position vectors of P and Q are given as OP i 2 j k , OQ i j k

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 121 -

(i) Position vector of R [dividing (PQ ) in the ratio 2 : 1 internally]

mOQ nOP 2(i j k ) 1(i 2 j k ) i 4 j k 1 4 1

i j k

mn 2 1 3 3 3 3

(i) Position vector of R [dividing (PQ ) in the ratio 2 : 1 externally]

mOQ nOP 2(i j k ) 1(i 2 j k ) 3i 0 j 3k

3i 3k

mn 2 1 1

5. Find the position vector of the mid point of the vector joining the points P(2, 3, 4) and

Q(4, 1, –2).

Ans:

Position vectors of P and Q are given as OP 2i 3 j 4k , OQ 4i j 2k

The position vector of the mid point of the vector joining the points P(2, 3, 4) and Q(4, 1, –2) is

given by

1 1

Position Vector of the mid-point of (PQ) = OQ OP 4i j 2k 2i 3 j 4k

2 2

1

6i 4 j 2k 3i 2 j k

2

6. Show that the points A, B and C with position vectors, a 3i 4 j 4k , b 2i j k and

c i 3 j 5k respectively form the vertices of a right angled triangle.

Ans:

Position vectors of points A, B and C are respectively given as

a 3i 4 j 4k , b 2i j k and c i 3 j 5k

Now, AB b a 2i j k 3i 4 j 4k i 3 j 5k

| AB |2 1 9 25 35

BC c b i 3 j 5k 2i j k i 2 j 6k

| BC |2 1 4 36 41

CA a c 3i 4 j 4k i 3 j 5k 2i j k

| CA |2 4 1 1 6

| BC |2 | AB |2 | CA |2

Hence it form the vertices of a right angled triangle.

7. Find angle ‘θ’ between the vectors a i j k and b i j k

Ans:

The angle θ between two vectors a and b is given by

a.b

cos

| a || b |

Now, a.b (i j k ).(i j k ) 1 1 1 1

1 1

Therefore, we have cos cos 1

3 3

8. If a 5i j 3k and b i 3 j 5k , then show that the vectors a b and a b are

perpendicular.

Ans:

We know that two nonzero vectors are perpendicular if their scalar product is zero.

Here, a b 5i j 3k i 3 j 5k 6i 2 j 8k

and a b 5i j 3k i 3 j 5k 4i 4 j 2k

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 122 -

Now, (a b).(a b) (6i 2 j 8k ).(4i 4 j 2k ) 24 8 16 0

Hence a b and a b are perpendicular.

9. Find | a b | , if two vectors a and b are such that | a | 2 , | b | 3 and a.b = 4.

Ans:

We have

| a b |2 (a b).(a b) a.a a.b b.a b.b

| a |2 2(a.b) | b |2 22 2(4) 32 4 8 9 5

| a b | 5

10. Show that the points A(2i 3 j 5k ), B (i 2 j 3k ), C (7i k ) are collinear.

Ans:

We have

AB (1 2)i (2 3) j (3 5)k 3i j 2k

BC (7 1)i (0 2) j (1 3) k 6i 2 j 4k

CA (7 2)i (0 3) j (1 5)k 9i 3 j 6k

Now, | AB |2 14,| BC |2 56,| CA |2 126

| AB | 14,| BC | 2 14,| CA | 3 14

| CA || AB | | BC |

Hence the points A, B and C are collinear.

11. If a, b, c are unit vectors such that a b c 0 , find the value of a.b b.c c.a

Ans:

Given that | a | 1,| b | 1,| c | 1, a b c 0

(a b c) 2 (a b c ).(a b c) 0

a.a a.b a.c b.b b.c b.a c.a c.b c.c 0

| a | 2 | b | 2 | c | 2 2(a.b b.c c.a ) 0

1 1 1 2( a.b b.c c.a) 0

2(a.b b.c c.a ) 3

3

a.b b.c c.a

2

12. If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are (1, 2, 3), (–1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 2), respectively, then find

ABC.

Ans:

We are given the points A(1, 2, 3), B(−1, 0, 0) and C(0, 1, 2).

Also, it is given that ABC is the angle between the vectors BA and BC

Now, BA (i 2 j 3k ) (i 0 j 0k ) 2i 2 j 3k

| BA | 4 4 9 17

and BC (0i j 2k ) (i 0 j 0k ) i j 2k

| BC | 1 1 4 6

BA.BC (2i 2 j 3k ).(i j 2k ) 2 2 6 10

BA.BC 10 10

cos cos ABC

| BA || BC | ( 17)( 6) 102

10

ABC cos 1

102

13. Show that the points A(1, 2, 7), B(2, 6, 3) and C(3, 10, –1) are collinear.

Ans:

The given points are A(1, 2, 7), B (2, 6, 3) and C(3, 10, −1).

AB (2i 6 j 3k ) (i 2 j 7 k ) i 4 j 4k

| AB | 1 16 16 33

BC (3i 10 j k ) (2i 6 j 3k ) i 4 j 4k

| BC | 1 16 16 33

and AC (3i 10 j k ) (i 2 j 7 k ) 2i 8 j 8k

| AC | 4 64 64 132 2 33

| AC || AB | | BC |

Hence, the given points A, B and C are collinear.

14. Show that the vectors 2i j k , i 3 j 5k and 3i 4 j 4k form the vertices of a right angled

triangle.

Ans:

Let A= 2i j k B = i 3 j 5k and C = 3i 4 j 4k

AB (i 3 j 5k ) (2i j k ) i 2 j 6k

| AB | 1 4 36 41

BC (3i 4 j 4k ) (i 3 j 5k ) 2i j k

| BC | 4 1 1 6

and AC (3i 4 j 4k ) (2i j k ) i 3 j 5k

| AC | 1 9 25 35

| AB |2 | AC |2 | BC |2

Hence, ABC is a right angled triangle.

15. Find a unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors (a b) and (a b) , where

a i j k , b i 2 j 3k .

Ans:

We have a b 2i 3 j 4k and a b j 2k

A vector which is perpendicular to both (a b) and (a b) is given by

i j k

(a b) (a b) 2 3 4 2i 4 j 2k ( c, say )

0 1 2

Now, | c | 4 16 4 24 2 6

Therefore, the required unit vector is

1 1 1 2 2

c c (2i 4 j 2k ) i j k

|c| 2 6 6 6 6

16. Find the area of a triangle having the points A(1, 1, 1), B(1, 2, 3) and C(2, 3, 1) as its vertices.

Ans:

We have AB j 2k and AC i 2 j .

1

The area of the given triangle is | AB AC |

2

i j k

Now, AB AC 0 1 2 4i 2 j k

1 2 0

Therefore, | AB AC | 16 4 1 21

1 1

Thus, the required area is | AB AC | 21

2 2

17. Find the area of a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are given by the vectors a 3i j 4k

and b i j k .

Ans:

The area of a parallelogram with a and b as its adjacent sides is given by | a b |

i j k

Now, a b 3 1 4 5i j 4k

1 1 1

Therefore, | a b | 25 1 16 42

and hence, the required area is 42 .

18. Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1, 1, 2), B(2, 3, 5) and C(1, 5, 5).

Ans:

AB (2i 3 j 5k ) (i j 2k ) i 2 j 3k

AC (i 5 j 5k ) (i j 2k ) 4 j 3k

i j k

Now, AB AC 1 2 3 6i 3 j 4k

0 4 3

| AB AC | 36 9 16 61

1 61

Area of triangle ABC = | AB AC | sq. units.

2 2

19. Find the area of the parallelogram whose adjacent sides are determined by the vectors

a i j 3k and b 2i 7 j k .

Ans:

Adjacent sides of parallelogram are given by the vectors a i j 3k and b 2i 7 j k .

i j k

Now, a b 1 1 3 20i 5 j 5k

2 7 1

| a b | 400 25 25 450 15 2

Hence, the area of the given parallelogram is 15 2 sq. units.

2

20. Let the vectors a and b be such that | a | 3 and | b | , then a b is a unit vector, find the

3

angle between a and b .

Ans:

2

Given that vectors a and b be such that | a | 3 and | b | .

3

Also, a b is a unit vector | a b | 1

2

| a | . | b | sin 1 3 sin 1

3

1

sin

2 4

21. If i j k , 2i 5 j , 3i 2 j 3k and i 6 j k are the position vectors of points A, B, C and D

respectively, then find the angle between AB and CD . Deduce that AB and CD are collinear.

Ans:

Note that if θ is the angle between AB and CD , then θ is also the angle between AB and CD .

Now AB = Position vector of B – Position vector of A

= (2i 5 j ) (i j k ) i 4 j k

Therefore, | AB | 1 16 1 18 3 2

Similarly, CD 2i 8 j 2k | CD | 4 64 4 72 6 2

AB.CD 1(2) 4(8) (1)(2)

Thus, cos 1

| AB || CD | (3 2)(6 2)

Since 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, it follows that θ = π. This shows that AB and CD are collinear.

22. Let a , b and c be three vectors such that | a | 3,| b | 4,| c | 5 and each one of them being

perpendicular to the sum of the other two, find | a b c | .

Ans:

Given that each one of them being perpendicular to the sum of the other two.

Therefore, a.(b c ) 0, b.(c a) 0, c.(a b) 0

Now, | a b c |2 (a b c )2 (a b c).(a b c )

a.a a.(b c) b.b b.(c a ) c.(a b) c.c

| a | 2 | b | 2 | c | 2

9 16 25 50

Therefore, | a b c | 50 5 2

23. Find a vector of magnitude 5 units, and parallel to the resultant of the vectors a 2i 3 j k

and b i 2 j k .

Ans:

Given vectors a 2i 3 j k and b i 2 j k .

Let c be the resultant vector a and b then

c (2i 3 j k ) (i 2 j k ) 3i j 0k

| c | 9 1 0 10

1 1

Unit vector in the direction of c = c c (3i j )

|c| 10

Hence, the vector of magnitude 5 units and parallel to the resultant of vectors a and b is

1 3 10 10

5c 5 (3i j ) i j

10 2 2

24. The two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 2i 4 j 5k and i 2 j 3k . Find the unit vector

parallel to its diagonal. Also, find its area.

Ans:

Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are given by a 2i 4 j 5k and b i 2 j 3k

Then the diagonal of a parallelogram is given by c a b

c a b 2i 4 j 5k i 2 j 3k 3i 6 j 2k

| c | 9 36 4 49 7

1 1 3 6 2

Unit vector parallel to its diagonal = c c (3i 6 j 2k ) i j k

|c| 7 7 7 7

i j k

Now, a b 2 4 5 22i 11j 0k

1 2 3

Then the area of a parallelogram = | a b | 484 121 0 605 11 5 sq. units.

25. Let a i 4 j 2k , b 3i 2 j 7 k and c 2i j 4k . Find a vector d which is perpendicular

to both a and b and c.d 15 .

Ans:

The vector which is perpendicular to both a and b must be parallel to a b .

i j k

Now, a b 1 4 2 32i j 14k

3 2 7

Let d (a b) (32i j 14k )

Also c.d 15 (2i j 4k ). (32i j 14k ) 15

15 5

64 56 15 9 15

9 3

5

Required vector d (32i j 14k )

3

26. The scalar product of the vector i j k with a unit vector along the sum of vectors

2i 4 j 5k and i 2 j 3k is equal to one. Find the value of λ.

Ans: Let a = i j k , b = 2i 4 j 5k and c = i 2 j 3k

Now, b c 2i 4 j 5k i 2 j 3k (2 )i 6 j 2k

| b c | (2 )2 36 4 4 2 4 40 2 4 44

bc (2 )i 6 j 2k

Unit vector along b c is

|bc| 2 4 44

The scalar product of i j k with this unit vector is 1.

b c (2 )i 6 j 2k

(i j k ). 1 (i j k ). 1

|bc| 2 4 44

(2 ) 6 2 6

1 1

2 2

4 44 4 44

6 2 4 44 ( 6)2 2 4 44

2 12 36 2 4 44 8 8 1

27. If with reference to the right handed system of mutually perpendicular unit vectors i, j and k ,

3i j , 2i j 3k , then express in the form 1 2 , where 1 is parallel to and 2 is

perpendicular to

Ans:

Let 1 , is a scalar, i.e. 1 3i j .

Now, 2 1 (2 3 )i (1 ) j 3k

Now, since 2 is perpendicular to , we should have 2 0. i.e.,

3(2 3 ) (1 ) 0

6 9 1 0 5 10 0

5 1

10 5

10 2

3 1 1 3

Therefore, 1 i j and 2 i j 3k

2 2 2 2

28. If a , b and c are mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitudes, show that the vector

a b c is equally inclined to a , b and c .

Ans:

Given that a , b and c are mutually perpendicular vectors.

a.b b.c c.a 0

It is also given that | a || b || c |

Let vector a b c be inclined to a , b and c at angles andrespectively.

(a b c).a a.a b.a c.a | a |2 0 0

cos

| a b c || a | | a b c || a | | a b c || a |

2

|a| |a|

| a b c || a | | a b c |

(a b c).b a.b b.b c.b 0 | b |2 0

cos

| a b c || b | | a b c || a | | a b c || a |

2

|b| |b|

| a b c || a | | a b c |

(a b c).c a.c b.c c.c 0 0 | c |2

cos

| a b c || c | | a b c || a | | a b c || a |

| c |2 |c|

| a b c || a | | a b c |

Now as | a || b || c | , therefore, cos = cos = cos

Hence, the vector a b c is equally inclined to a , b and c .

CHAPTER – 10: VECTOR ALGEBRA

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks

Ans:

(i j k ). j 0 1 0 1

Required projection 1

| j | 0 1 0 1

2. Find a vector in the direction of vector 2i 3 j 6k which has magnitude 21 units.

Ans:

2i 3 j 6k 2i 3 j 6k

Required vector 21 21

4 9 36 49

2i 3 j 6k

21

3(2i 3 j 6k ) 6i 9 j 18k

7

3. Show that the vectors a b , b c and c a are coplanar if a, b, c are coplanar.

Ans:

Let a, b, c are coplanar then we have a b c 0

a.(b c ) b.(c a ) c.(a b) 0

Now, a b b c c a (a b).{(b c) (c a)}

(a b).{b c b a c c c a}

(a b).{b c b a c a}

a.(b c) a.(b a) a.(c a) b.(b c) b.(b a ) b.(c a)

a b c 0 0 0 0 b c a

a b c a b c

2 a b c 2 0 0

Hence, a, b, c are coplanar

4. Show that the vectors a, b, c are coplanar if a b , b c and c a are coplanar.

Ans:

Let a b, b c, c a are coplanar

(a b).{(b c ) (c a )} 0

(a b).{b c b a c c c a} 0

(a b).{b c b a c a} 0

a.(b c ) a.(b a ) a.(c a) b.(b c) b.(b a) b.(c a ) 0

a b c 0 0 0 0 0

a b c 0

a, b, c are coplanar

5. Write a unit vector in the direction of vector PQ , where P and Q are the points (1, 3, 0) and

(4, 5, 6) respectively.

Ans:

PQ (4 1)i (5 3) j (6 0)k 3i 2 j 6k

3i 2 j 6k 3i 2 j 6k 3i 2 j 6k 3 2 6

Required unit vector = i j k

9 4 36 49 7 7 7 7

6. Write the value of the following : i ( j k ) j (k i ) k (i j )

Ans:

i ( j k ) j (k i ) k (i j )

i j i k j k j i k i k j

k j i k j i 0

7. Find the value of 'p' for which the vectors 3i 2 j 9k and i 2 p j 3k are parallel.

Ans:

Since given two vectors are parallel.

3 2 9 3 2

1 2 p 3 1 2 p

1

6 p 2 p

3

8. Find a.(b c) , if a 2i j 3k , b i 2 j k and c 3i j 2k .

Ans:

Given that a 2i j 3k , b i 2 j k and c 3i j 2k

2 1 3

a.(b c) 1 2 1 2(4 1) 1(2 3) 3(1 6)

3 1 2

6 5 21 10

9. Show that the four points A, B, C and D with position vectors 4i 5 j k , j k ,3i 9 j 4k and

4(i j k ) are coplanar.

Ans:

Position vectors of A, B, C and D are

Position vector of A = 4i 5 j k

Position vector of B = j k

Position vector of C = 3i 9 j 4k

Position vector of D = 4(i j k ) = 4i 4 j 4k

AB 4i 6 j 2k , AC i 4 j 3k , AD 8i j 3k

4 6 2

Now, AB.( AC AD) 1 4 3 4(12 3) 6(3 24) 2(1 32)

8 1 3

60 126 66 0

AB.( AC AD ) 0

Hence AB, AC and AD are coplanar i.e. A, B, C and D are coplanar.

10. Find a vector a of magnitude 5 2 , making an angle of with x-axis., with y-axis and an

4 2

acute angle with z-axis.

Ans:

Direction cosines of required vector a are

1

l cos , m cos 0 and n cos

4 2 2

l m n 1

2 2 2

2

1 2 2 1 1

0 cos 1 cos 1 2 2

2

1 1

cos n

2 2

1 1

Unit vector in the direction of a i 0 j k

2 2

1 1

a 5 2 i0j k 5i 5k

2 2

11. If a and b are perpendicular vectors, | a b | = 13 and | a | = 5 find the value of | b |.

Ans:

Given | a b | = 13

| a b |2 169 (a b).(a b) 169

| a |2 2a.b | b |2 169

| a |2 | b |2 169 a b a.b 0

2 2

| b | 169 | a | 169 25 144

| b | 12

12. Find the projection of the vector i 3 j 7k on the vector 2i 3 j 6k .

Ans:

Let a = i 3 j 7k and b = 2i 3 j 6k

a.b (i 3 j 7 k ).(2i 3 j 6k )

Projection of the vector a on b =

|b| | 2i 3 j 6k |

2 9 42 35 35

5

4 9 36 49 7

13. If a and b are two unit vectors such that a b is also a unit vector, then find the angle

between a and b .

Ans:

Given that a b is also a unit vector

|ab | = 1

| a b |2 (a b).(a b)

| a |2 2a.b | b |2 12 1

1 2a.b 1 1 | a | 1,| b | 1

1 1

2a.b 1 a.b | a || b | cos

2 2

1 1 2

1 1 cos cos cos cos

2 2 3

2

3

14. Prove that, for any three vectors a, b, c

a b b c c a 2 a b c

Ans:

a b b c c a (a b).{(b c) (c a)}

(a b).{b c b a c c c a}

(a b).{b c b a c a}

a.(b c) a.(b a) a.(c a) b.(b c) b.(b a ) b.(c a)

a b c 0 0 0 0 b c a

a b c a b c

2 a b c

15. Vectors a, b, c are such that a b c = 0 and | a | 3, | b | 5 and | c | 7 . Find the angle

between a and b .

Ans:

a b c 0 a b c

( a b) 2 ( c ) 2

| (a b).(a b) c.c

| a |2 2a.b | b |2 | c |2 9 2a.b 25 49

2a.b 49 25 9 15

15 15

a.b | a || b | cos

2 2

15 1

3 5 cos cos cos cos

2 2 3

3

16. If a is a unit vector and ( x a )( x a ) 24 , then write the value of | x |.

Ans:

Given that ( x a )( x a ) 24

x.x x.a a.x a.a 24

| x |2 | a |2 24 x.a a.x

2 2

| x | 1 24 | x | 25 | x | 5

17. For any three vectors a, b and c , write the value of the following:

a (b c ) b (c a ) c ( a b )

Ans:

a (b c ) b (c a ) c ( a b )

ab ac bc ba ca cb

ab ac bc ab ac bc 0

18. The magnitude of the vector product of the vector i j k with a unit vector along the sum of

vectors 2i 4 j 5k and i 2 j 3k is equal to 2 . Find the value of .

Ans:

Let a = i j k , b = 2i 4 j 5k and c = i 2 j 3k

Now, b c 2i 4 j 5k i 2 j 3k (2 )i 6 j 2k

| b c | (2 )2 36 4 4 2 4 40 2 4 44

The vector product of i j k with this unit vector is 2 .

bc a (b c)

a 2 2

|bc| |bc|

i j k

Now, a (b c ) 1 1 1 (2 6)i (2 2 ) j (6 2 ) k

2 6 2

8i (4 ) j (4 ) k

a (b c ) 8i (4 ) j (4 )k

2 2

|bc| 2 4 44

64 (4 )2 (4 ) 2

2

2 4 44

64 (4 )2 (4 ) 2 64 16 2 8 16 2 8 96 2 2

2 2 2

2 4 44 2 4 44 2 4 44

96 2 2 2( 2 4 44) 96 2 2 2 2 8 88

8 8 1

19. Find a unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors a 2b and 2a b , where

a 3i 2 j 2k and b i 2 j 2k .

Ans.

Given that a 3i 2 j 2k and b i 2 j 2k

a 2b 3i 2 j 2k 2(i 2 j 2k )

3i 2 j 2k 2i 4 j 4k 5i 6 j 2k

and 2a b 2(3i 2 j 2k ) i 2 j 2k

6i 4 j 4k i 2 j 2k 7i 6 j 2k

Now, perpendicular vector of a 2b and 2a b

i j k

= 5 6 2 (12 12)i (10 14) j (30 42) k

7 6 2

12(2i 2 j k ) 2i 2 j k

Required unit vector =

12 4 4 1 9

2i 2 j k 2 2 1

i j k

3 3 3 3

20. If a i j 7k and b 5i j k , then find the value of , so that a b and a b are

perpendicular vectors.

Ans:

Given that a i j 7k and b 5i j k

a b i j 7 k 5i j k 6i 2 j (7 )k

and a b i j 7k 5i j k 4i (7 )k

Now, a b and a b are perpendicular vectors

(a b).(a b) 0

(6i 2 j (7 )k ).(4i (7 ) k 0

24 0 (7 )(7 ) 0

24 49 2 0 2 25 5

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 135 -

CHAPTER – 12: LINEAR PROGRAMMING

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks

1. Determine graphically the minimum value of the objective function Z = – 50x + 20y subject to

the constraints:

2x – y ≥ – 5; 3x + y ≥ 3 ; 2x – 3y ≤ 12 ; x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0

Ans:

Given that Z = – 50x + 20y ... (1)

2x – y ≥ – 5 ... (2)

3x + y ≥ 3 ... (3)

2x – 3y ≤ 12 ... (4)

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 ... (5)

First of all, let us graph the feasible region of the system of inequalities (2) to (5). The feasible

region (shaded) is shown in the below figure. Observe that the feasible region is unbounded. We

now evaluate Z at the corner points.

From this table, we find that – 300 is the smallest value of Z at the corner point (6, 0).

We know that if the region would have been bounded, this smallest value of Z is the minimum value

of Z. But here we see that the feasible region is unbounded. Therefore, – 300 may or may not be the

minimum value of Z.

To decide this issue, we graph the inequality – 50x + 20y < – 300 (see Step 3(ii) of corner Point

Method.) i.e., – 5x + 2y < – 30 and check whether the resulting open half plane has points in

common with feasible region or not. If it has common points, then –300 will not be the minimum

value of Z. Otherwise, –300 will be the minimum value of Z.

As shown in the above figure, it has common points. Therefore, Z = –50 x + 20 y has no minimum

value subject to the given constraints.

Maximise Z = 5x + 3y subject to 3x + 5y ≤ 15, 5x + 2y ≤ 10, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.

Ans:

Our problem is to maximize Z = 5x + 3y …(i)

Subject to constraints 3x + 5y ≤ 15 …(ii)

5x + 2y ≤ 10 (iii)

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)

Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 5y = 15

Secondly, draw the graph of the line 5x + 2y = 10

20 45

On solving given equations 3x + 5y = 15 and 5x + 2y = 10, we get x = ,y=

19 19

Feasible region is OABCO (see the below figure).

20 45

The corner points of the feasible region are O(0, 0), A(2, 0), B , and C(0, 3) The values of Z

19 19

at these points are as follows:

235 20 45

Therefore, the maximum value of Z is at the point B , .

19 19 19

3. Show that the minimum of Z occurs at more than two points.

Minimise and Maximise Z = x + 2y subject to x + 2y ≥ 100, 2x – y ≤ 0, 2x + y ≤ 200; x, y ≥ 0.

Ans:

Our problem is to minimize and maximize

Z = x + 2y …(i)

Subject to constraints are x + 2y ≥ 100 …(ii)

2x − y ≤ 0 …(iii)

2x + y ≤ 200 …(iv)

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 137 -

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(v)

Firstly, draw the graph of the line x + 2y = 100

Secondly, draw the graph of line 2x − y = 0

Thirdly, draw the graph of line 2x + y = 200

On solving equations 2x − y = 0 and x + 2y = 100, we get B(20, 40) and on solving the equations 2x

− y = 0 and 2x + y = 200, we get C(50, 100).

Feasible region is ABCDA (see below figure)

The corner points of the feasible region are A(0, 50), B(20, 40), C(50, 100) and D(0, 200). The

values of Z at these points are as follows:

The maximum value of Z is 400 at D(0, 200) and the minimum value of Z is 100 at all the points

on the line segment joining A(0, 50) and B(20, 40).

4. A dietician wishes to mix two types of foods in such a way that vitamin contents of the mixture

contain atleast 8 units of vitamin A and 10 units of vitamin C. Food ‘I’ contains 2 units/kg of

vitamin A and 1 unit/kg of vitamin C. Food ‘II’ contains 1 unit/kg of vitamin A and 2 units/kg

of vitamin C. It costs Rs 50 per kg to purchase Food ‘I’ and Rs 70 per kg to purchase Food ‘II’.

Formulate this problem as a linear programming problem to minimise the cost of such a

mixture.

Ans:

Let the mixture contain x kg of Food ‘I’ and y kg of Food ‘II’. Clearly, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0. We make the

following table from the given data:

Since the mixture must contain at least 8 units of vitamin A and 10 units of vitamin C, we have the

constraints:

2x + y ≥ 8

x + 2y ≥ 10

Total cost Z of purchasing x kg of food ‘I’ and y kg of Food ‘II’ is Z = 50x + 70y

Hence, the mathematical formulation of the problem is:

Minimise Z = 50x + 70y ... (1)

subject to the constraints:

2x + y ≥ 8 ... (2)

x + 2y ≥ 10 ... (3)

x, y ≥ 0 ... (4)

Let us graph the inequalities (2) to (4). The feasible region determined by the system is shown in the

below figure. Here again, observe that the feasible region is unbounded.

In the table, we find that smallest value of Z is 380 at the point (2,4). We know that the feasible

region is unbounded. Therefore, we have to draw the graph of the inequality 50x + 70y < 380 i.e., 5x

+ 7y < 38 to check whether the resulting open half plane has any point common with the feasible

region. From the above figure, we see that it has no points in common.

Thus, the minimum value of Z is 380 attained at the point (2, 4). Hence, the optimal mixing strategy

for the dietician would be to mix 2 kg of Food ‘I’ and 4 kg of Food ‘II’, and with this strategy, the

minimum cost of the mixture will be Rs 380.

5. Reshma wishes to mix two types of food P and Q in such a way that the vitamin contents of the

mixture contain at least 8 units of vitamin A and 11 units of vitamin B. Food P costs Rs 60/kg

and Food Q costs Rs 80/kg. Food P contains 3 units/kg of Vitamin A and 5 units / kg of

Vitamin B while food Q contains 4 units/kg of Vitamin A and 2 units/kg of vitamin B.

Determine the minimum cost of the mixture.

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 139 -

Ans:

Let Reshma mixes x kg of food P and y kg of food Q.

Construct the following table:

The mixture must contain atleast 8 units of vitamin A and 11 units of Vitamin B. Total cost Z of

purchasing food is Z = 60x + 80y

The mathematical formulation of the given problem is

Minimize Z = 60x + 80y …(i)

Subject to the constraints 3x + 4y ≥ 8 …(ii)

5x + 2y ≥ 11 …(iii)

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)

Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 4y = 8

Secondly, draw the graph of the line 5x + 2y = 11

1

On solving equations 3x + 4y = 8 and 5x + 2y = 11, we get B 2,

2

8 1 11

The corner points of the feasible region are A , 0 , B 2, and C 0, (see the below figure)

3 2 2

As the feasible region is unbounded, therefore 160 may or may not be the minimum value of Z. For

this, we graph the inequality 60x + 80y < 160 or 3x + 4y < 8 and check whether the resulting half

plane has points in common with the feasible region or not. It can be seen that the feasible region has

no common point with 3x + 4y < 8 therefore, the minimum cost of the mixture will be Rs. 160 at the

8 1

line segment joining the points A , 0 and B 2,

3 2

6. A merchant plans to sell two types of personal computers – a desktop model and a portable

model that will cost Rs 25000 and Rs 40000 respectively. He estimates that the total monthly

demand of computers will not exceed 250 units. Determine the number of units of each type of

computers which the merchant should stock to get maximum profit if he does not want to

invest more than Rs 70 lakhs and if his profit on the desktop model is Rs 4500 and on portable

model is Rs 5000.

Ans:

Let the manufacturer produces x pedestal lamps and y wooden shades everyday. We construct the

following table :

Our problem is to maximize Z = 5x + 3y …(i)

Subject to the constraints 2x + y ≤ 12 …(ii) 3x + 2y ≤ 20 …(iii) x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)

Firstly, draw the graph of the line 2x + y = 12

Secondly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 2y = 20

On solving equations 2x + y = 12 and 3x + 2y = 20, we get B(4, 4).

Feasible region is OABCO. (see below figure)

The corner points of the feasible region are O(0, 0), A(6, 0), B(4, 4) and C(0, 10). The values of Z

at these points are as follows:

Thus, the manufacturer should produce 4 pedestal lamps and 4 wooden shades to maximize his

profits.

7. A diet is to contain at least 80 units of vitamin A and 100 units of minerals. Two foods F1 and

F2 are available. Food F1 costs Rs 4 per unit food and F2 costs Rs 6 per unit. One unit of food

F1 contains 3 units of vitamin A and 4 units of minerals. One unit of food F2 contains 6 units of

vitamin A and 3 units of minerals. Formulate this as a linear programming problem. Find the

minimum cost for diet that consists of mixture of these two foods and also meets the minimal

nutritional requirements.

Ans:

Let the diet contains x unit of food F1 and y units of food F2. We construct the following table :

The cost of food F1 is Rs. 4 per unit and of food F2 is Rs. 6 per unit.

So, our problem is to minimize Z = 4x + 6y …(i)

Subject to constraints 3x + 6y ≥ 80 …(ii) 4x + 3y ≥ 100 …(iii) x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(iv)

Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 6y = 80

Secondly, draw the graph of the line 4x + 3y = 100

4

On solving the equations 3x + 6y = 80 and4x + 3y = 100, we get B 24,

3

It can be seen that the feasible region is unbounded. (see the below figure)

80 4 100

The corner points of the feasible region are A , 0 and B 24, and C 0, . The values

3 3 3

of Z at these points are as follows:

As the feasible is unbounded therefore, 104 may or may not be the minimum value of Z.

For this, we draw a graph of the inequality, 4x + 6y < 104 or 2x + 3y < 52 and check, whether the

resulting half plane has points in common with the feasible region or not.

It can be seen that the feasible region has no common point with 2x + 3y < 52

Therefore, the minimum cost of the mixture will be Rs. 104.

8. A dietician has to develop a special diet using two foods P and Q. Each packet (containing 30 g)

of food P contains 12 units of calcium, 4 units of iron, 6 units of cholesterol and 6 units of

vitamin A. Each packet of the same quantity of food Q contains 3 units of calcium, 20 units of

iron, 4 units of cholesterol and 3 units of vitamin A. The diet requires atleast 240 units of

calcium, atleast 460 units of iron and at most 300 units of cholesterol. How many packets of

each food should be used to minimise the amount of vitamin A in the diet? What is the

minimum amount of vitamin A?

Ans:

Let x and y be the number of packets of food P and Q respectively. Obviously

x ≥0, y ≥0. Mathematical formulation of the given problem is as follows:

Minimise Z = 6x + 3y (vitamin A)

subject to the constraints

12x + 3y ≥240 (constraint on calcium), i.e. 4x + y ≥80 ... (1)

4x + 20y ≥460 (constraint on iron), i.e. x + 5y ≥115 ... (2)

6x + 4y ≤300 (constraint on cholesterol), i.e. 3x + 2y ≤150 ... (3)

x ≥0, y ≥0 ... (4)

Let us graph the inequalities (1) to (4).

The feasible region (shaded) determined by the constraints (1) to (4) is shown in below figure and

note that it is bounded. The coordinates of the corner points L, M and N are (2, 72), (15, 20) and (40,

15) respectively. Let us evaluate Z at these points:

From the table, we find that Z is minimum at the point (15, 20). Hence, the amount of vitamin A

under the constraints given in the problem will be minimum, if 15 packets of food P and 20 packets

of food Q are used in the special diet. The minimum amount of vitamin A will be 150 units.

9. A manufacturer has three machines I, II and III installed in his factory. Machines I and II are

capable of being operated for at most 12 hours whereas machine III must be operated for

atleast 5 hours a day. She produces only two items M and N each requiring the use of all the

three machines. The number of hours required for producing 1 unit of each of M and N on the

three machines are given in the following table:

Number of hours required on

Items machines

I II III

M 1 2 1

N 2 1 1.25

She makes a profit of Rs 600 and Rs 400 on items M and N respectively. How many of each

item should she produce so as to maximise her profit assuming that she can sell all the items

that she produced? What will be the maximum profit?

Ans:

Let x and y be the number of items M and N respectively.

Total profit on the production = Rs (600 x + 400 y)

Mathematical formulation of the given problem is as follows:

Maximise Z = 600 x + 400 y

subject to the constraints:

x + 2y ≤ 12 (constraint on Machine I) ... (1)

2x + y ≤ 12 (constraint on Machine II) ... (2)

5

x + y ≥ 5 (constraint on Machine III) ... (3)

4

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 ... (4)

Let us draw the graph of constraints (1) to (4). ABCDE is the feasible region (shaded) as shown in

below figure determined by the constraints (1) to (4). Observe that the feasible region is bounded,

coordinates of the corner points A, B, C, D and E are (5, 0) (6, 0), (4, 4), (0, 6) and (0, 4)

respectively. Let us evaluate Z = 600 x + 400 y at these corner points.

We see that the point (4, 4) is giving the maximum value of Z. Hence, the manufacturer has to

produce 4 units of each item to get the maximum profit of Rs 4000.

10. There are two factories located one at place P and the other at place Q. From these locations, a

certain commodity is to be delivered to each of the three depots situated at A, B and C. The

weekly requirements of the depots are respectively 5, 5 and 4 units of the commodity while the

production capacity of the factories at P and Q are respectively 8 and 6 units. The cost of

transportation per unit is given below:

Cost (in Rs.)

From/To

A B C

P 160 100 150

Q 100 120 100

How many units should be transported from each factory to each depot in order that the

transportation cost is minimum. What will be the minimum transportation cost?

Ans:

Let x units and y units of the commodity be transported from the factory at P to the depots at A and B

respectively. Then (8 – x – y) units will be transported to depot at C

i.e. x ≥0, y ≥0 and x + y ≤8

Now, the weekly requirement of the depot at A is 5 units of the commodity. Since x units are

transported from the factory at P, the remaining (5 – x) units need to be transported from the factory

at Q. Obviously, 5 – x ≥0, i.e. x ≤5.

Similarly, (5 – y) and 6 – (5 – x + 5 – y) = x + y – 4 units are to be transported from the factory at Q

to the depots at B and C respectively.

Thus, 5 – y ≥0 , x + y – 4 ≥0

i.e. y ≤5 , x + y ≥4

Total transportation cost Z is given by

Z = 160 x + 100 y + 100 ( 5 – x) + 120 (5 – y) + 100 (x + y – 4) + 150 (8 – x – y)

= 10 (x – 7 y + 190)

Therefore, the problem reduces to

Minimise Z = 10 (x – 7y + 190)

subject to the constraints:

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 ... (1)

x + y ≤ 8 ... (2)

x ≤ 5 ... (3)

y ≤ 5 ... (4)

and x + y ≥ 4 ... (5)

The shaded region ABCDEF represented by the constraints (1) to (5) is the feasible region (see

below figure). Observe that the feasible region is bounded. The coordinates of the corner points of

the feasible region are (0, 4), (0, 5), (3, 5), (5, 3), (5, 0) and (4, 0).

Let us evaluate Z at these points.

From the table, we see that the minimum value of Z is 1550 at the point (0, 5).

Hence, the optimal transportation strategy will be to deliver 0, 5 and 3 units from the factory at P and

5, 0 and 1 units from the factory at Q to the depots at A, B and C respectively. Corresponding to this

strategy, the transportation cost would be minimum, i.e., Rs 1550.

11. A farmer mixes two brands P and Q of cattle feed. Brand P, costing Rs 250 per bag, contains 3

units of nutritional element A, 2.5 units of element B and 2 units of element C. Brand Q costing

Rs 200 per bag contains 1.5 units of nutritional element A, 11.25 units of element B, and 3 units

of element C. The minimum requirements of nutrients A, B and C are 18 units, 45 units and 24

units respectively. Determine the number of bags of each brand which should be mixed in

order to produce a mixture having a minimum cost per bag? What is the minimum cost of the

mixture per bag?

Ans:

Let the farmer mixes x bags of brand P and y bags of brand Q. We construct the following table:

So, our problem is minimize Z = 250x + 200y …(i)

Subject to constraints 3x + 1.5y ≥ 18

2x + y ≥ 12 …(ii)

2.5x + 11.25y ≥ 45

2x + 9y ≥ 36 …(iii)

2x + 3y ≥ 24 …(iv)

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(v)

Firstly, draw the graph of the line 3x + 1.5y = 18

Secondly, draw the graph of the line 2.5x + 11.25y = 45

Thirdly, draw the graph of the line 2x + 3y = 24

Similarly, on solving equations 2.5x + 11.25y = 45 and2x + 3y = 24, we get B(9, 2).

The corner points of the feasible region are A(18, 0), B(9, 2), C(3, 6) and D (0, 12). (See below

figure)

As the feasible region is unbounded, therefore 1950 may or may not be the minimum value of Z.

For this, we draw a graph of the inequality 250x + 200y < 1950 or

5x + 4y < 39 and check, whether the resulting half plane has points in common with the feasible

region or not.

It can be seen that the feasible region has no common point with 5x + 4y < 39.

Therefore, the minimum value of Z is 1950 at C(3, 6).

Thus, 3 bags of brand P and 6 bags of brand Q should be used in the mixture to minimize the cost to

Rs. 1950.

12. A dietician wishes to mix together two kinds of food X and Y in such a way that the mixture

contains at least 10 units of vitamin A, 12 units of vitamin B and 8 units of vitamin C. The

vitamin contents of one kg food is given below:

Food Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C

X 1 2 3

Y 2 2 1

One kg of food X costs Rs 16 and one kg of food Y costs Rs 20. Find the least cost of the

mixture which will produce the required diet?

Ans:

Let the dietician mixes x kg of food X and y kg of food Y. We construct the following table:

Subject to constraints x + 2y ≥ 10 …(ii)

2x + 2y ≥ 12 x + y ≥ 6 …(iii)

3x + y ≥ 8 …(iv)

x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 …(v)

Firstly, draw the graph of the line x + 2y = 10

Secondly, draw the graph of the line line x + y = 6

Thirdly, draw the graph of the line 3x + y = 8

On solving equations x + y = 6 and x + 2y = 10, we get B(2, 4)

Similarly, solving the equations 3x + y = 8 and x + y = 6, we get C(1, 5).

The corner points of the feasible region are A(10, 0), B(2, 4), C(1, 5) and D(0, 8).

The values of Z at these points are as follows:

As the feasible region is unbounded, therefore 112 may or may not be the minimum value of Z.

For this,we drawa graph of the inequality,16x + 20y < 112 or4x + 5y < 28 and check, whether the

resulting half plane has points in common with the feasible region or not.

It can be seen that the feasible region has no common point with 4x + 5y < 28.

Therefore, the minimum value of Z is 112 at B(2, 4).

Thus, the mixture should contain 2 kg of food X and 4 kg of food Y. The minimum cost of the

mixture is Rs. 112.

CHAPTER – 12: LINEAR PROGRAMMING

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 06 marks

1. A cottage industry manufactures pedestal lamps and wooden shades, each requiring the use of

a grinding/cutting machine and a sprayer. It takes 2 hours on the grinding/cutting machine

and 3 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a pedestal lamp. It takes 1 hour on the

grinding/cutting machine and 2 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a shade. On any day, the

sprayer is available for at the most 20 hours and the grinding/cutting machine for at the most

12 hours. The profit from the sale of a lamp is Rs. 25 and that from a shade is Rs. 15.

Assuming that the manufacturer can sell all the lamps and shades that he produces, how

should he schedule his daily production in order to maximise his profit. Formulate an LPP and

solve it graphically.

Ans:

Let the manufacturer produces x padestal lamps and y wooden shades; then time taken by x pedestal

lamps and y wooden shades on grinding/cutting machines = (2x + y) hours and time taken on the

sprayer = (3x + 2y) hours.

Since grinding/cutting machine is available for at the most 12 hours.

2x + y 12

and sprayer is available for at most 20 hours. Thus, we have

3x + 2y 20

Now profit on the sale of x lamps and y shades is,

Z = 25x + 15y.

So, our problem is to find x and y so as to

Maximise Z = 25x + 15y …(i)

Subject to the constraints:

3x + 2y 20 …(ii)

2x + y 12 …(iii)

x 0 …(iv)

y 0 …(v)

The feasible region (shaded) OABC determined by the linear inequalities (ii) to (v) is shown in the

figure. The feasible region is bounded.

Let us evaluate the objective function at each corner point as shown below:

We find that maximum value of Z is Rs. 160 at B(4, 4). Hence, manufacturer should produce 4 lamps

and 4 shades to get maximum profit of Rs. 160.

2. A manufacturing company makes two types of teaching aids A and B of Mathematics for class

XII. Each type of A requires 9 labour hours of fabricating and 1 labour hour for finishing.

Each type of B requires 12 labour hours for fabricating and 3 labour hours for finishing. For

fabricating and finishing, the maximum labour hours available per week are 180 and 30

respectively. The company makes a profit of Rs. 80 on each piece of type A and Rs. 120 on each

piece of type B. How many pieces of type A and type B should be manufactured per week to get

a maximum profit? Make it as an LPP and solve graphically. What is the maximum profit per

week?

Ans: Let x and y be the number of pieces of type A and B manufactured per week respectively. If Z

be the profit then,

Objective function, Z = 80x + 120y

We have to maximize Z, subject to the constraints

9x + 12y 180 3x + 4y 60 ...(i)

x + 3y 30 ...(ii)

x 0, y 0 ...(iii)

The graph of constraints are drawn and feasible region OABC is obtained, which is bounded having

corner points O(0, 0), A(20, 0), B(12, 6) and C(0, 10)

Now the value of objective function is obtained at corner points as

Hence, the company will get the maximum profit of Rs. 1,680 by making 12 pieces of type A and 6

pieces of type B of teaching aid.

Yes, teaching aid is necessary for teaching learning process as

(i) it makes learning very easy.

(ii) it provides active learning.

(iii) students are able to grasp and understand concept more easily and in active manner.

3. A dealer in rural area wishes to purchase a number of sewing machines. He has only Rs. 5,760

to invest and has space for at most 20 items for storage. An electronic sewing machine cost him

Rs. 360 and a manually operated sewing machine Rs. 240. He can sell an electronic sewing

machine at a profit of Rs. 22 and a manually operated sewing machine at a profit of Rs. 18.

Assuming that he can sell all the items that he can buy, how should he invest his money in

order to maximise his profit? Make it as a LPP and solve it graphically.

Ans:

Suppose dealer purchase x electronic sewing machines and y manually operated sewing

machines. If Z denotes the total profit. Then according to question

(Objective function) Z = 22x + 18 y

Also, x + y 20

360x + 240y 5760 9x + 6y 144

x 0, y 0.

We have to maximise Z subject to above constraint.

To solve graphically, at first we draw the graph of line corresponding to given inequations and shade

the feasible region OABC.

The corner points of the feasible region OABC are O(0, 0), A(16, 0), B(8, 12) and C(0, 20).

Now the value of objective function Z at corner points are obtained in table as

Hence, dealer should purchase 8 electronic sewing machines and 12 manually operated sewing

machines to obtain the maximum profit ` 392 under given condition.

4. An aeroplane can carry a maximum of 200 passengers. A profit of `500 is made on each

executive class ticket out of which 20% will go to the welfare fund of the employees. Similarly a

profit of `400 is made on each economy ticket out of which 25% will go for the improvement of

facilities provided to economy class passengers. In both cases, the remaining profit goes to the

airline’s fund. The airline reserves at least 20 seats for executive class. However at least four

times as many passengers prefer to travel by economy class than by the executive class.

Determine how many tickets of each type must be sold in order to maximise the net profit of

the airline. Make the above as an LPP and solve graphically. Do you think, more passengers

would prefer to travel by such an airline than by others?

Ans:

Let there be x tickets of executive class and y tickets of economy class. Let Z be net profit of the

80 75

airline. Here, we have to maximise z. Now Z = 500x + y

100 100

Z = 400x + 300y ....(i)

According to question x 20 ....(ii)

Also x + y 200 ....(iii)

x + 4x 200 5x 200 x 40 ....(iv)

Shaded region is feasible region having corner points A (20, 0), B (40,0) C (40, 160), D (20,180)

Now value of Z is calculated at corner point as

Hence, 40 tickets of executive class and 160 tickets of economy class should be sold to maximise the

net profit of the airlines.

Yes, more passengers would prefer to travel by such an airline, because some amount of profit is

invested for welfare fund.

5. A manufacturer considers that men and women workers are equally efficient and so he pays

them at the same rate. He has 30 and 17 units of workers (male and female) and capital

respectively, which he uses to produce two types of goods A and B. To produce one unit of A, 2

workers and 3 units of capital are required while 3 workers and 1 unit of capital is required to

produce one unit of B. If A and B are priced at Rs. 100 and Rs. 120 per unit respectively, how

should he use his resources to maximise the total revenue? Form the above as an LPP and

solve graphically. Do you agree with this view of the manufacturer that men and women

workers are equally efficient and so should be paid at the same rate?

Ans:

Let x, y unit of goods A and B are produced respectively.

Let Z be total revenue

Here Z = 100x + 120y ....(i)

Also 2x + 3y 30 ....(ii) 3x + y 17 ....(iii)

x 0 ....(iv) y 0 ....(v)

On plotting graph of above constants or inequalities (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v). We get shaded region as

feasible region having corner points A, O, B and C.

For co-ordinate of 'C'

Two equations (ii) and (iii) are solved and we get coordinate of C = (3, 8)

Now the value of Z is evaluated at corner point as:

Therefore maximum revenue is Rs. 1,260 when 2 workers and 8 units capital are used for

production. Yes, although women workers have less physical efficiency but it can be managed by

her other efficiency.

6. A cooperative society of farmers has 50 hectares of land to grow two crops A and B. The

profits from crops A and B per hectare are estimated as `10,500 and `9,000 respectively. To

control weeds, a liquid herbicide has to be used for crops A and B at the rate of 20 litres and 10

litres per hectare, respectively. Further not more than 800 litres of herbicide should be used in

order to protect fish and wildlife using a pond which collects drainage from this land. Keeping

in mind that the protection of fish and other wildlife is more important than earning profit,

how much land should be allocated to each crop so as to maximize the total profit? Form an

LPP from the above and solve it graphically. Do you agree with the message that the

protection of wildlife is utmost necessary to preserve the balance in environment?

Ans:

Let x and y hectare of land be allocated to crop A and B respectively. If Z is the profit then

Z =10500x + 9000 y …(i)

We have to maximize Z subject to the constraints

x + y 50 …(ii)

20x +10y 800 2x + y 80 …(iii) x 0, y 0 …(iv)

The graph of system of inequalities (ii) to (iv) are drawn, which gives feasible region OABC with

corner points O (0, 0), A (40, 0), B (30, 20) and C (0, 50).

Firstly, draw the graph of the line x + y = 50

Secondly, draw the graph of the line 2x + y = 80

Feasible region is bounded.

Now value of Z is calculated at corner point as

Hence the co-operative society of farmers will get the maximum profit of Rs. 4,95,000 by allocating

30 hectares for crop A and 20 hectares for crop B.

Yes, because excess use of herbicide can make drainage water poisonous and thus it harm the life of

water living creature and wildlife.

7. A company produces soft drinks that has a contract which requires that a minimum of 80

units of the chemical A and 60 units of the chemical B go into each bottle of the drink. The

chemicals are available in prepared mix packets from two different suppliers. Supplier S had a

packet of mix of 4 units of A and 2 units of B that costs Rs. 10. The supplier T has a packet of

mix of 1 unit of A and 1 unit of B costs Rs.4. How many packets of mixed from S and T should

the company purchase to honour the contract requirement and yet minimize cost? Make a

LPP and solve graphically.

Ans:

Let x and y units of packet of mixes are purchased from S and T respectively. If Z is total cost then

Z = 10x + 4y ...(i) is objective function which we have to minimize. Here constraints are.

4x + y 80 ...(ii) 2x + y 60 ...(iii)

Also, x 0 ...(iv) y 0 ...(v)

On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities (ii), (iii) , (iv) and (v) we get shaded region

having corner point A, P, B as feasible region. For coordinate of P

Point of intersection of

2x + y = 60 ...(vi)

and 4x + y = 80 ...(vii)

(vi) – (vii) 2x + y – 4x – y = 60 – 80

–2x = –20 x = 10

y = 40

Since co-ordinate of P = (10, 40)

Now the value of Z is evaluated at corner point in the following table

Since feasible region is unbounded. Therefore we have to draw the graph of the inequality.

10x + 4y < 260 ...(viii)

Since the graph of inequality (viii) does not have any point common.

So the minimum value of Z is 260 at (10, 40).

i.e., minimum cost of each bottle is Rs. 260 if the company purchases 10 packets of mixes from S

and 40 packets of mixes from supplier T.

8. A cottage industry manufactures pedestal lamps and wooden shades, each requiring the use of

grinding/cutting machine and a sprayer. It takes 2 hours on the grinding/cutting machine and

3 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a pedestal lamp. It takes one hour on the

grinding/cutting machine and 2 hours on the sprayer to manufacture a shade. On any day, the

sprayer is available for at the most 20 hours and the grinding/cutting machine for at the most

12 hours. The profit from the sale of a lamp is Rs. 5 and that from a shade is Rs. 3. Assuming

that the manufacturer can sell all the lamps and shades that he produces, how should he

schedule his daily production in order to maximise his profit? Make an L.P.P. and solve it

graphically.

Ans:

Let the number of padestal lamps and wooden shades manufactured by cottage industry be x and y

respectively.

Here profit is the objective function Z.

Z =5x + 3y … (i)

We have to maximise Z subject to the constrains

2x + y 12 … (ii)

3x + 2y 20 … (iii)

x 0 and y 0 … (iv)

On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities (ii), (iii) and (iv) we get shaded region having

corner point A, B, C as feasible region.

Since (0, 0) Satisfy 3x 2y 20

Graph of 3x 2y 20 is that half plane in which origin lies.

The shaded area OABC is the feasible region whose corner points are O, A, B and C.

For coordinate B.

Equation 2x y 12 and 3x 2y 20 are solved as

3x 2 (12 2x) 20

3x 24 4x 20 x 4

y 12 8 4

Coordinate of B (4, 4)

Now we evaluate objective function Z at each corner.

9. A merchant plans to sell two types of personal computers — a desktop model and a portable

model that will cost Rs. 25,000 and Rs. 40,000 respectively. He estimates that the total monthly

demand of computers will not exceed 250 units. Determine the number of units of each type of

computers which the merchant should stock to get maximum profit if he does not want to

invest more than Rs. 70 lakhs and his profit on the desktop model is Rs. 4,500 and on the

portable model is Rs. 5,000. Make an L.P.P. and solve it graphically.

Ans:

Let the number of desktop and portable computers to be sold be x and y respectively.

Here, Profit is the objective function Z.

Z = 4500x + 5000y …(i)

we have to maximise z subject to the constraints

x + y 250 …(ii) (Demand Constraint)

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 158 -

25000x + 40000y 70,00,000 …(iii) (Investment constraint)

5x + 8y 1400

x 0, y 0 …(iv) (Non-negative constraint)

On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities, we get shaded region having corner point A,

B, C as feasible region.

For coordinates of C, equation x + y = 250 and 5x + 8y = 1400 are solved and we get x = 200, y = 50

Now, we evaluate objective function Z at each corner

Maximum profit is Rs. 11,50,000 when he plan to sell 200 unit desktop and 50 portable computers.

10. A factory makes two types of items A and B, made of plywood. One piece of item A requires 5

minutes for cutting and 10 minutes for assembling. One piece of item B requires 8 minutes for

cutting and 8 minutes for assembling. There are 3 hours and 20 minutes available for cutting

and 4 hours for assembling. The profit on one piece of item A is Rs 5 and that on item B is Rs

6. How many pieces of each type should the factory make so as to maximise profit? Make it as

an L.P.P. and solve it graphically.

Ans:

Let the factory makes x pieces of item A and B by pieces of item.

Time required by item A (one piece)

cutting = 5 minutes, assembling = 10 minutes

Time required by item B (one piece)

cutting = 8 minutes, assembling = 8 minutes

Total time cutting = 3 hours & 20 minutes, assembling = 4 hours

Profit on one piece item A = Rs 5, item B = Rs 6

Thus, our problem is maximized Z = 5x + 6y

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 159 -

Subject to x 0, y 0

5x + 8y 200

10x + 8y 240

On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities, we get shaded region.

From figure, possible points for maximum value of z are at (24, 0), (8, 20), (0, 25).

at (24, 0), z = 120

at (8, 20), z = 40 + 120 = 160 (maximum)

at (0, 25), z = 150

8 pieces of item A and 20 pieces of item B produce maximum profit of Rs 160.

11. One kind of cake requires 300 g of flour and 15 g of fat, another kind of cake requires 150 g of

flour and 30 g of fat. Find the maximum number of cakes which can be made from 7 × 5 kg of

flour and 600 g of fat, assuming that there is no shortage of the other ingredients used in

making the cakes. Make it as an L.P.P. and solve it graphically.

Ans:

Let number of first kind and second kind of cakes that can be made be x and y respectively

Then, the given problem is

Maximize, z = x + y

Subjected to x 0, y 0

300x + 150y 7500 2x + y 50

15x + 30y 600 x + 2y 40

On plotting graph of above constraints or inequalities, we get shaded region.

From graph, three possible points are (25, 0), (20, 10), (0, 20)

At (25, 0), z = x + y = 25 + 0 = 25

At (20, 10), z = x + y = 20 + 10 = 30 Maximum

At (0, 20), z = 0 + 20 = 20

As Z is maximum at (20, 10), i.e., x = 20, y = 10.

20 cakes of type I and 10 cakes of type II can be made.

12. A small firm manufactures gold rings and chains. The total number of rings and chains

manufactured per day is atmost 24. It takes 1 hour to make a ring and 30 minutes to make a

chain. The maximum number of hours available per day is 16. If the profit on a ring is Rs. 300

and that on a chain is Rs 190, find the number of rings and chains that should be

manufactured per day, so as to earn the maximum profit. Make it as an L.P.P. and solve it

graphically.

Ans:

Total no. of rings & chain manufactured per day = 24.

Time taken in manufacturing ring = 1 hour

Time taken in manufacturing chain = 30 minutes

One time available per day = 16

Maximum profit on ring = Rs 300

Maximum profit on chain = Rs 190

Let gold rings manufactured per day = x

Chains manufactured per day = y

L.P.P. is maximize Z = 300x + 190y

Subject to x 0,

y 0,

x + y 24

1

and x + y 16

2

On plotting graph of above constraints or

inequalities, we get shaded region.

(8, 16) and (0, 24).

At (8, 16), Z = 2400 + 3040 = 5440 Maximum

At (0, 24), Z = 0 + 4560 = 4560

Z is maximum at (8, 16).

8 gold rings & 16 chains must be manufactured per day.

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 162 -

CHAPTER – 13: PROBABILITY

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

1. A die is thrown three times. Events A and B are defined as below: A : 4 on the third throw; B :

6 on the first and 5 on the second throw. Find the probability of A given that B has already

occurred.

Ans:

The sample space has 216 outcomes.

Now A =

(1,1,4) (1,2,4) ... (1,6,4) (2,1,4) (2,2,4) ... (2,6,4)

(3,1,4) (3,2,4) ... (3,6,4) (4,1,4) (4,2,4) ...(4,6,4)

(5,1,4) (5,2,4) ... (5,6,4) (6,1,4) (6,2,4) ...(6,6,4)

B = {(6,5,1), (6,5,2), (6,5,3), (6,5,4), (6,5,5), (6,5,6)}

and A ∩ B = {(6,5,4)}.

6 1

Now, P( B) and P ( A B )

216 216

1

P( A B ) 216 1

Then P( A / B)

P( B) 6 6

216

2. A die is thrown twice and the sum of the numbers appearing is observed to be 6. What is the

conditional probability that the number 4 has appeared at least once?

Ans:

Let E be the event that ‘number 4 appears at least once’ and F be the event

that ‘the sum of the numbers appearing is 6’.

Then, E = {(4,1), (4,2), (4,3), (4,4), (4,5), (4,6), (1,4), (2,4), (3,4), (5,4), (6,4)}

and F = {(1,5), (2,4), (3,3), (4,2), (5,1)}

11 5

We have P( E ) and P ( E )

36 36

Also E∩F = {(2,4), (4,2)}

2

Therefore P( E F )

36

2

P( E F ) 36 2

Hence, the required probability, P( E / F )

P( F ) 5 5

36

3. A black and a red dice are rolled. (a) Find the conditional probability of obtaining a sum

greater than 9, given that the black die resulted in a 5. (b) Find the conditional probability of

obtaining the sum 8, given that the red die resulted in a number less than 4.

Ans:

Let the first observation be from the black die and second from the red die.

When two dice (one black and another red) are rolled, the sample space

S = 6 6 = 36 (equally likely sample events)

(i) Let E : set of events in which sum greater than 9 and F : set of events in which black die resulted

in a 5

E = {(6,4), (4,6), (5, 5), (5,6), (6, 5), (6,6)} n(E) = 6

and F = {(5, 1), (5,2), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5), (5,6)} n(F) = 6

E F = {(5, 5), (5,6)} n(E F) = 2

The conditional probability of obtaining a sum greater than 9, given that the black die resulted in a 5,

is given by P(E/F)

6 6

P( E ) and P ( F )

36 36

2

Also, P( E F )

36

2

P( E F ) 36 2 1

P( E / F )

P( F ) 6 6 3

36

(ii) Let E : set of events having 8 as the sum of the observations,

F : set of events in which red die resulted in a (in any one die) number less than 4

E = {(2,6), (3, 5), (4,4), (5, 3), (6,2)} n(E) = 5

and F = {(1, 1), (1, 2),….. (3, 1), (3, 2)…… (5, 1), (5, 2),……….} n(F) = 18

E F = {(5, 3), (6, 2)} n(E F) = 2

The conditional probability of obtaining a sum greater than 9, given that the black die resulted in a 5,

is given by P(E/F)

5 18

P( E ) and P ( F )

36 36

2

Also, P( E F )

36

2

P( E F ) 36 2 1

P( E / F )

P( F ) 18 18 9

36

4. An instructor has a question bank consisting of 300 easy True / False questions, 200 difficult

True / False questions, 500 easy multiple choice questions and 400 difficult multiple choice

questions. If a question is selected at random from the question bank, what is the probability

that it will be an easy question given that it is a multiple choice question?

Ans:

Total number of questions = 300 + 200 + 500 + 400 = 1400.

Let E be the event that selected question is an easy question

Then, n(E) = 500 + 300 = 800

800

P( E )

1400

Let F be the event that selected question is a multiple choice question.

Then, n(F) = 500 + 400 = 900

900

P( F )

1400

500

Also, P( E F )

1400

500

P( E F ) 1400 500 5

P( E / F )

P( F ) 900 900 9

1400

5. An urn contains 10 black and 5 white balls. Two balls are drawn from the urn one after the

other without replacement. What is the probability that both drawn balls are black?

Ans:

Let E and F denote respectively the events that first and second ball drawn are black. We have to

find P(E ∩ F) or P (EF).

10

Now P(E) = P (black ball in first draw) =

15

Also given that the first ball drawn is black, i.e., event E has occurred, now there are 9 black balls

and five white balls left in the urn. Therefore, the probability that the second ball drawn is black,

given that the ball in the first draw is black, is nothing but the conditional probability of F given that

E has occurred.

9

i.e. P(F|E) =

14

By multiplication rule of probability, we have

10 9 3

P (E ∩ F) = P(E) P(F|E) =

15 14 7

6. Two balls are drawn at random with replacement from a box containing 10 black and 8 red

balls. Find the probability that (i) both balls are red. (ii) first ball is black and second is red.

(iii) one of them is black and other is red.

Ans:

Total number of balls = 18, number of red balls = 8 and number of black balls = 10

8

Probability of drawing a red ball =

18

10

Similarly, probability of drawing a black ball =

18

(i) Probability of getting both red balls = P (both balls are red)

8 8 16

= P (a red ball is drawn at first draw and again a red ball at second draw) =

18 18 81

10 8 20

(ii) P (probability of getting first ball is black and second is red) =

18 18 81

(iii) Probability of getting one black and other red ball = P(first ball is black and second is red) + P

10 8 8 10 20 20 40

(first ball is red and second is black) =

18 18 18 18 81 81 81

1 1

7. Probability of solving specific problem independently by A and B are and respectively. If

2 3

both try to solve the problem independently, find the probability that (i) the problem is solved

(ii) exactly one of them solves the problem.

Ans:

1

Probability of solving the problem by A, P(A) =

2

1

Probability of solving the problem by B, P(B) =

3

1 1

Probability of not solving the problem by A = P(A’) = 1 – P(A) = 1

2 2

1 2

and probability of not solving the problem by B = P(B’) = 1 – P(B) = 1

3 3

(i) P (the problem is solved) = 1 – P(none of them solve the problem) =

1 P( A ' B ') 1 P( A ') P( B ')

(since A and B are independent A’ and B’ are independent)

1 2 1 2

1 1

2 3 3 3

(ii) P (exactly one of them solve the problem) = P(A) P(B’) + P(A’) P(B)

1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1

2 3 2 3 3 6 6 6 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 165 -

8. In a hostel, 60% of the students read Hindi news paper, 40% read English news paper and

20% read both Hindi and English news papers. A student is selected at random. (a) Find the

probability that she reads neither Hindi nor English news papers. (b) If she reads Hindi news

paper, find the probability that she reads English news paper. (c) If she reads English news

paper, find the probability that she reads Hindi news paper.

Ans:

Let H : Set of students reading Hindi newspaper and E : set of students reading English newspaper.

Let n(S) = 100 Then, n(H) = 60

n(E) = 40 and n(H E) = 20

60 3 40 2 20 1

P( H ) , P(E ) and P ( H E )

100 5 100 5 100 5

(i) Required probability = P (student reads neither Hindi nor English newspaper) =

P( H ' E ') P( H E ) ' 1 P( H E )

3 2 1 4 1

1 P( H ) P( E ) P( H E ) 1 1

5 5 5 5 5

(ii) Required probability = P(a randomly chosen student reads English newspaper, if he/she reads

1

P( E H ) 5 1

Hindi newspaper) = P( E / H )

P( H ) 3 3

5

(iii) Required probability = P (student reads Hindi newspaper when it is given that reads English

1

P( H E ) 5 1

newspaper) = P( H / E )

P( E ) 2 2

5

9. Bag I contains 3 red and 4 black balls while another Bag II contains 5 red and 6 black balls.

One ball is drawn at random from one of the bags and it is found to be red. Find the

probability that it was drawn from Bag II.

Ans:

Let E1 be the event of choosing the bag I, E2 the event of choosing the bag II and A be the event of

drawing a red ball.

1

Then P(E1) = P(E2) =

2

3

Also P(A|E1) = P(drawing a red ball from Bag I) =

7

5

and P(A|E2) = P(drawing a red ball from Bag II) =

11

Now, the probability of drawing a ball from Bag II, being given that it is red, is P(E2|A)

1 5

P ( E2 ) P ( A / E2 ) 2 11 35

P( E2 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( A / E2 ) 1 3 1 5 68

2 7 2 11

10. Given three identical boxes I, II and III, each containing two coins. In box I, both coins are

gold coins, in box II, both are silver coins and in the box III, there is one gold and one silver

coin. A person chooses a box at random and takes out a coin. If the coin is of gold, what is the

probability that the other coin in the box is also of gold?

Ans:

Let E1, E2 and E3 be the events that boxes I, II and III are chosen, respectively.

1

Then P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) =

3

Also, let A be the event that ‘the coin drawn is of gold’

Then P(A|E1) = P(a gold coin from bag I) = 2/2 =1

P(A|E2) = P(a gold coin from bag II) = 0

1

P(A|E3) = P(a gold coin from bag III) =

2

Now, the probability that the other coin in the box is of gold

= the probability that gold coin is drawn from the box I.

= P(E1|A)

By Bayes' theorem, we know that

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )

P( E1 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P ( A / E2 ) P( E3 ) P( A / E3 )

1

1

3 2

1 1 1 1 3

1 0

3 3 3 2

11. In a factory which manufactures bolts, machines A, B and C manufacture respectively 25%,

35% and 40% of the bolts. Of their outputs, 5, 4 and 2 percent are respectively defective bolts.

A bolt is drawn at random from the product and is found to be defective. What is the

probability that it is manufactured by the machine B?

Ans:

Let events B1, B2, B3 be the following :

B1 : the bolt is manufactured by machine A

B2 : the bolt is manufactured by machine B

B3 : the bolt is manufactured by machine C

Clearly, B1, B2, B3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and hence, they represent a

partition of the sample space.

Let the event E be ‘the bolt is defective’.

The event E occurs with B1 or with B2 or with B3. Given that,

P(B1) = 25% = 0.25, P (B2) = 0.35 and P(B3) = 0.40

Again P(E|B1) = Probability that the bolt drawn is defective given that it is manufactured by machine

A = 5% = 0.05

Similarly, P(E|B2) = 0.04, P(E|B3) = 0.02.

Hence, by Bayes' Theorem, we have

P( B2 ) P ( E / B2 )

P( B2 / E )

P( B1 ) P( E / B1 ) P( B2 ) P( E / B2 ) P( B3 ) P( E / B3 )

0.35 0.04 0.0140 28

0.25 0.05 0.35 0.04 0.40 0.02 0.0345 69

12. A doctor is to visit a patient. From the past experience, it is known that the probabilities that

3 1 1

he will come by train, bus, scooter or by other means of transport are respectively , ,

10 5 10

2 1 1 1

and . The probabilities that he will be late are , and , if he comes by train, bus and

5 4 3 2

scooter respectively, but if he comes by other means of transport, then he will not be late.

When he arrives, he is late. What is the probability that he comes by train?

Ans:

Let E be the event that the doctor visits the patient late and let T1, T2, T3, T4 be the events that the

doctor comes by train, bus, scooter, and other means of transport respectively.

3 1 1 2

Then P(T1) = , P(T2) = , P(T3) = and P(T4) =

10 5 10 5

1

P(E|T1) = Probability that the doctor arriving late comes by train =

4

1 1

Similarly, P(E|T2) = , P(E|T3) = and P(E|T4) = 0, since he is not late if he comes by other

3 12

means of transport.

Therefore, by Bayes' Theorem, we have

P(T1|E) = Probability that the doctor arriving late comes by train

P(T1 ) P( E / T1 )

P(T1 / E )

P(T1 ) P( E / T1 ) P(T2 ) P( E / T2 ) P(T3 ) P( E / T3 ) P(T4 ) P( E / T4 )

3 1

10 4 3 120 1

3 1 1 1 1 1 2 40 18 2

0

10 4 5 3 10 12 5

1

Hence, the required probability is

2

13. A man is known to speak truth 3 out of 4 times. He throws a die and reports that it is a six.

Find the probability that it is actually a six.

Ans:

Let E be the event that the man reports that six occurs in the throwing of the die and let S1 be the

event that six occurs and S2 be the event that six does not occur.

1

Then P(S1) = Probability that six occurs =

6

5

P(S2) = Probability that six does not occur =

6

P(E|S1) = Probability that the man reports that six occurs when six has actually occurred on the die

3

= Probability that the man speaks the truth =

4

P(E|S2) = Probability that the man reports that six occurs when six has not actually occurred on the

die

3 1

= Probability that the man does not speak the truth = 1

4 4

Thus, by Bayes' theorem, we get

P(S1|E) = Probability that the report of the man that six has occurred is actually a six

1 3

P( S1 ) P( E / S1 ) 6 4 1 24 3

P( S1 / E )

P( S1 ) P( E / S1 ) P( S2 ) P( E / S 2 ) 1 3 5 1 8 8 8

6 4 6 4

3

Hence, the required probability is .

8

14. A bag contains 4 red and 4 black balls, another bag contains 2 red and 6 black balls. One of

the two bags is selected at random and a ball is drawn from the bag which is found to be red.

Find the probability that the ball is drawn from the first bag.

Ans:

Let E1 : first bag is selected, E2 : second bag is selected

Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Moreover,

1

P(E1) = P(E2) =

2

Let E : ball drawn is red.

4 1

P(E/E1) = P(drawing a red ball from first bag) =

8 2

2 1

P(E/E2) = P(drawing a red ball from second bag) =

8 4

By using Baye’s theorem,

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

Required probability = P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2

4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 3

2 2 2 4 4 8 8 8

15. Of the students in a college, it is known that 60% reside in hostel and 40% are day scholars

(not residing in hostel). Previous year results report that 30% of all students who reside in

hostel attain A grade and 20% of day scholars attain A grade in their annual examination. At

the end of the year, one student is chosen at random from the college and he has an A grade,

what is the probability that the student is a hostlier?

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that the student is residing in hostel and E2 : the event that the student is not

residing in the hostel.

Let E : a student attains A grade,

Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Moreover,

60 3 40 2

P(E1) = 60% = and P(E2) = 40% =

100 5 100 5

30 3 20 2

Then P(E/E1) = 30% = and P(E/E2) = 20% =

100 10 100 10

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

3 3

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) 5 10 9 9

P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 ) 3 3 2 2 9 4 13

5 10 5 10

16. In answering a question on a multiple choice test, a student either knows the answer or

3 1

guesses. Let be the probability that he knows the answer and be the probability that he

4 4

1

guesses. Assuming that a student who guesses at the answer will be correct with probability .

4

What is the probability that the student knows the answer given that he answered it correctly?

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that the student knows the answer and E2 : the event that the student guesses the

answer.

Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Moreover,

3 1

P(E1) = and P(E2) =

4 4

Let E : the answer is correct.

The probability that the student answered correctly, given that he knows the answer, is 1 i.e., P

P(E/E1) = 1

1

Probability that the students answered correctly, given that the he guessed, is

4

1

i.e., P(E/E2) =

4

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 169 -

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

3 3 12

1

12

4 4 16

3 1 1 3 1 12 1 13

1

4 4 4 4 16 16

17. There are three coins. One is a two headed coin (having head on both faces), another is a

biased coin that comes up heads 75% of the time and third is an unbiased coin. One of the

three coins is chosen at random and tossed, it shows heads, what is the probability that it was

the two headed coin ?

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that the coin chosen is two headed, E2 : the event that the coin chosen is biased

and E3 : the event that the coin chosen is unbiased

E1, E2, E3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,

1

P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) =

3

Let E : tosses coin shows up a head,

P(E/E1) = P(coin showing heads, given that it is a two headed coin) = 1

75 3

P(E/E2) = P(coin showing heads, given that it is a biased coin) = 75%

100 4

1

P(E/E3) = P(coin showing heads, given that it is an unbiased coin) =

2

The probability that the coin is two headed, given that it shows head, is given by P(E1/E)

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 ) P( E3 ) P( E / E3 )

1

1

3 1 1 4

1 1 3 1 1 3 1 4 3 2 9

1 1

3 3 4 3 2 4 2 4

18. An insurance company insured 2000 scooter drivers, 4000 car drivers and 6000 truck drivers.

The probability of an accidents are 0.01, 0.03 and 0.15 respectively. One of the insured persons

meets with an accident. What is the probability that he is a scooter driver?

Ans:

There are 2000 scooter drivers, 4000 car drivers and 6000 truck drivers.

Total number of drivers = 2000 + 4000 + 6000 = 12000

Let E1 : the event that insured person is a scooter driver, E2 : the event that insured person is a car

driver and E3 : the event that insured person is a truck driver.

Then, E1, E2, E3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,

2000 1 4000 1 6000 1

P(E1) = , P(E2) = and P(E3) =

12000 6 12000 3 12000 2

Let E : the events that insured person meets with an accident,

1

P(E/E1) = P(scooter driver met with an accident) = 0.01

100

3

P(E/E2) = P(car driver met with an accident) = 0.03

100

15

P(E/E3) = P(truck driver met with an accident) = 0.15

100

The probability that the driver is a scooter driver, given he met with an accident, is given by P(E1/E)

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 170 -

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 ) P( E3 ) P( E / E3 )

1 1 1

100 6 6 1 1

1 1 3 1 15 1 1 15 1 6 45 52

1

100 6 100 3 100 2 6 2

19. A factory has two machines A and B. Past record shows that machine A produced 60% of the

items of output and machine B produced 40% of the items. Further, 2% of the items produced

by machine A and 1% produced by machine B were defective. All the items are put into one

stockpile and then one item is chosen at random from this and is found to be defective. What is

the probability that it was produced by machine B?

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that the item is produced by machine A and E2 : the event that the item is produced

by machine B.

Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,

60 3 40 2

P(E1) = 60% and P(E2) = 40% =

100 5 100 5

Let E : the event that the item chosen is defective,

2

P(E/E1) = P(machine A produced defective items) = 2%

100

1

P(E/E2) = P(machine B produced defective items) = 1%

100

The probability that the randomly selected item was from machine B, given that it is defective, is

given by P(E2/E)

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

P( E2 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

2 1 2

5 100 500 2 2 1

3 2 2 1 6 2 62 8 4

5 100 5 100 500 500

20. Suppose a girl throws a die. If she gets a 5 or 6, she tosses a coin three times and notes the

number of heads. If she gets 1, 2, 3 or 4, she tosses a coin once and notes whether a head or tail

is obtained. If she obtained exactly one head, what is the probability that she threw 1, 2, 3 or 4

with the die?

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that 5 or 6 is shown on die and E2 : the event that 1, 2, 3, or 4 is shown on die.

Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.

and n(E1) = 2, n(E2) = 4

Also, n(S) = 6

2 1 4 2

P(E1) = and P(E2) =

6 3 6 3

Let E : The event that exactly one head show up,

3

P(E/E1) = P(exactly one head show up when coin is tossed thrice) = P{HTT, THT, TTH} =

8

1

P(E/E2) = P(head shows up when coin is tossed once) =

2

The probability that the girl threw, 1, 2, 3 or 4 with the die, if she obtained exactly one head, is given

by P(E2/E)

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

P( E2 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

2 1 1

3 2 8 8

3

1 3 2 1 1 1 3 8 11

3 8 3 2 8 3

21. A manufacturer has three machine operators A, B and C. The first operator A produces 1%

defective items, where as the other two operators B and C produce 5% and 7% defective items

respectively. A is on the job for 50% of the time, B is on the job for 30% of the time and C is

on the job for 20% of the time. A defective item is produced, what is the probability that it was

produced by A?

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that item is produced by machine A, E2 : the event that item is produced by

machine B and E3 : the event that item is produced by machine C

Here, E1, E2 and E3 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.

Moreover,

50

P(E1) = 50%

100

30

P(E2) = 30% =

100

20

and P(E3) = 20% =

100

Let E : The event that item chosen is found to be defective’,

1 5 7

P(E/E1) = , P(E/E2) = , P(E/E3) =

100 100 100

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 ) P( E3 ) P( E / E3 )

50 1

100 100 50 50 5

50 1 30 5 20 7 50 150 140 340 34

100 100 100 100 100 100

22. A card from a pack of 52 cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the pack, two cards are

drawn and are found to be both diamonds. Find the probability of the lost card being a

diamond.

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that lost cards is a diamond n(E1) = 13

E2 : lost cards is not a diamond n(E2) = 52 – 13 = 39

And, n(S) = 52

Then, E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.

13 1 39 3

P(E1) = and P(E2) =

52 4 52 4

Let E : the events that two cards drawn from the remaining pack are diamonds,

When one diamond card is lost, there are 12 diamond cards out of 51 cards.

The cards can be drawn out of 12 diamond cards in 12C2 ways.

Similarly, 2 diamond cards can be drawn out of 51 cards in 51C2 ways. The probability of getting two

cards, when one diamond card is lost, is given by P(E/E1)

12 11

12

C 12 11 132

P(E/E1) = 51 2 1 2

C2 51 50 51 50 2550

1 2

13 12

13

C 13 12 156

and P(E/E2) = 51 2 1 2

C2 51 50 51 50 2550

1 2

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

1 132

4 2550 132 132 11

1 132 3 156 132 468 600 50

4 2550 4 2550

23. Two cards are drawn successively with replacement from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards.

Find the probability distribution of the number of aces.

Ans:

The number of aces is a random variable. Let it be denoted by X. Clearly, X can take the values 0, 1,

or 2.

Now, since the draws are done with replacement, therefore, the two draws form independent

experiments.

48 48 144

Therefore, P(X = 0) = P(non-ace and non-ace) = P(non-ace) × P(non-ace)

52 52 169

P(X = 1) = P(ace and non-ace or non-ace and ace)

= P(ace and non-ace) + P(non-ace and ace)

4 48 48 4 24

= P(ace). P(non-ace) + P (non-ace) . P(ace)

52 52 52 52 169

4 4 1

and P(X = 2) = P (ace and ace)

52 52 169

Thus, the required probability distribution is

24. Find the probability distribution of number of doublets in three throws of a pair of dice.

Ans:

Let X denote the number of doublets. Possible doublets are

(1,1) , (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,5), (6,6)

Clearly, X can take the value 0, 1, 2, or 3.

6 1

Probability of getting a doublet

36 6

1 5

Probability of not getting a doublet 1

6 6

5 5 5 125

Now P(X = 0) = P (no doublet)

6 6 6 216

1 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 1

P(X = 1) = P (one doublet and two non-doublets)

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

2

1 5 75

3 2

6 6 216

1 1 5 5 1 1 1 5 1

P(X = 2) = P (two doublets and one non-doublet)

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1 5 15

3 2

6 6 216

1 1 1 1

and P(X = 3) = P (three doublets)

6 6 6 216

Thus, the required probability distribution is

25. Find the variance of the number obtained on a throw of an unbiased die.

Ans:

The sample space of the experiment is S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.

Let X denote the number obtained on the throw. Then X is a random variable which can take values

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

1

Also P(1) = P(2) = P(3) = P(4) = P(5) = P(6) =

6

Therefore, the Probability distribution of X is

n

1 1 1 1 1 1 21

Now E(X) = x p ( x ) 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6

i 1

i i

6

1 1 1 1 1 1 91

Also E(X2) 12 22 32 42 52 62

6 6 6 6 6 6 6

2

91 21 91 441 35

Thus, Var (X) = E (X2) – (E(X))2

6 6 6 36 12

26. Two cards are drawn simultaneously (or successively without replacement) from a well

shuffled pack of 52 cards. Find the mean, variance and standard deviation of the number of

kings.

Ans:

Let X denote the number of kings in a draw of two cards. X is a random variable which can assume

the values 0, 1 or 2.

48!

48

C 2!(48 2)! 48 47 188

Now P(X = 0) = P (no king) 52 2

C2 52! 52 52 221

2!(52 2)!

4

C1 48C1 4 48 2 32

P(X = 1) = P (one king and one non-king) 52

C2 52 51 221

4

C2 43 1

and P(X = 2) = P (two kings) 52

C2 52 51 221

Thus, the probability distribution of X is

n

188 32 1 34

Now Mean of X = E(X) = x p( x ) 0 221 1 221 2 221 221

i 1

i i

188 2 32 1 36

Also E(X2) = 02 1 22

221 221 221 221

2

2 36 34

2 6800

Thus, Var (X) = E (X ) – (E(X)) =

221 221 (221) 2

6800 6800

Therefore x Var ( x) 2

0.37

(221) 221

27. Find the probability distribution of (i) number of heads in two tosses of a coin. (ii) number of

tails in the simultaneous tosses of three coins. (iii) number of heads in four tosses of a coin.

Ans:

(i) When one coin is tossed twice, the sample space is S = {HH,HT,TH,TT}.

Let X denotes, the number of heads in any outcome in S,

X (HH) = 2, X (HT) = 1, X (TH) = 1 and X (TT) = 0

Therefore, X can take the value of 0, 1 or 2. It is known that

1

P(HH) = P(HT) = P(TH) = P(TT) =

4

1

P(X = 0) = P (tail occurs on both tosses) = P({TT}) =

4

2 1

P(X = 1) = P (one head and one tail occurs) = P({TH,HT}) =

4 2

1

and P(X = 2) = P (head occurs on both tosses) = P({HH}) =

4

Thus, the required probability distribution is as follows

(ii) When three coins are tossed thrice, the sample space is S =

{HHH,HHT,HTH,HTT,THH,THT,TTH,TTT} which contains eight equally likely sample points.

Let X represent the number of tails. Then, X can take values 0, 1, 2 and 3.

1

P(X = 0) = P (no tail) = P({HHH}) = ,

8

3

P (X = 1) = P (one tail and two heads show up) = P({HHT,HTH,THH}) = ,

8

3

P (X = 2) = P (two tails and one head show up) = P({HTT,THT,TTH}) =

8

1

and P(X = 3) = P (three tails show up) = P({TTT}) =

8

Thus, the probability distribution is as follows

(iii) When a coin is tossed four times, the sample space is

S = {HHHH, HHHT, HHTH, HTHT, HTTH, HTTT, THHH, HTHH, THHT, THTH, HHTT, TTHH,

TTHT, TTTH, THTT, TTTT} which contains 16 equally likely sample points.

Let X be the random variable, which represents the number of heads. It can be seen that X can take

the value of 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.

1

P (X = 0 ) = P(no head shows up) = P {TTTT} = ,

16

4 1

P(X = 1) = P (one head and three tails show up) = P(HTTT,THTT,TTHT,TTTH) = ,

16 4

P(X = 2) = P (two heads and two tails show up) = P({HHTT,HTHT,HTTH,THHT,THTH,TTHH})

6 3

= ,

16 8

4 1

P(X = 3) = P (three heads and one tail show up) = P({HHHT,HHTH,HTHH,THHH}) =

16 4

1

and P (X = 4) = P (four heads show up) = P ({HHHH}) =

16

Thus, the probability distribution is as follows:

28. Find the probability distribution of the number of successes in two tosses of a die, where a

success is defined as (i) number greater than 4 (ii) six appears on at least one die

Ans:

When a die is tossed two times, we obtain (6 x 6) = 36 number of sample points.

(i) Let X be the random variable which denotes the number greater than 4 in two tosses of a die. So X

may have values 0, 1 or 2.

4 4 16 4

Now, P(X = 0) = P (number less than or equal to 4 on both the tosses) = ,

6 6 36 9

P(X = 1) = P (number less than or equal to 4 on first toss and greater than 4 on second toss) +

P(number greater than 4 on first toss and less than or equal to 4 on second toss)

4 2 4 2 8 8 16 4

=

6 6 6 6 36 36 36 9

2 2 4 1

P(X = 2) = P (number greater than 4 on both the tosses) =

6 6 36 9

Probability distribution of X, i.e., number of successes is

(ii) Let X be the random variable which denotes the number of six appears on atleast one die. So, X

may have values 0 or 1.

5 5 25

P(X = 0) = P (six does not appear on any of the die) =

6 6 36

11

P(X = 1) = P (six appears on atleast one of the die) =

36

Thus, the required probability distribution is as follows

29. From a lot of 30 bulbs which include 6 defectives, a sample of 4 bulbs is drawn at random with

replacement. Find the probability distribution of the number of defective bulbs.

Ans:

It is given that out of 30 bulbs, 6 are defective.

Number of non-defective bulbs = 30 – 6 = 24

4 bulbs are drawn from the lot with replacement.

6 1

Let p = P(obtaining a defective bulb when a bulb is drawn) =

30 5

24 4

and q = P(obtaining a non-defective bulb when a bulb is drawn) =

30 5

Using Binomial distribution, we have

4

4 4

0 256

4

P(X = 0) = P (no defective bulb in the sample) = C0 p q

5 625

1 3

4 1 4 256

1 3

P(X = 1) = P (one defective bulb in the sample) = C1 p q 4

5 5 625

2 2

1 4 96

P(X = 2) = P (two defective and two non-defective bulbs are drawn) = 4C2 p 2 q 2 6

5 5 625

P(X = 3) = P (three defective and one non-defective bulbs are drawn) =

3 1

4 3 1 1 4 16

C3 p q 4

5 5 625

4

4 4 1

0 1

P(X = 4) = P (four defective bulbs are drawn) = C4 p q

5 625

Therefore, the required probability distribution is as follows.

30. A coin is biased so that the head is 3 times as likely to occur as tail. If the coin is tossed twice,

find the probability distribution of number of tails.

Ans:

Let X denotes the random variable which denotes the number of tails when a biased coin is tossed

twice.

So, X may have value 0, 1 or 2.

Since, the coin is biased in which head is 3 times as likely to occur as a tail.

3 1

P{H} = and P{T} =

4 4

2

3 9

P (X = 1) = P{HH} =

4 16

P(X = 1) = P (one tail and one head) = P{HT,TH} = P{HT} + P{TH} + P{H}P{T} + P {T} P{H}

3 1 1 3 3 3 6 3

=

4 4 4 4 16 16 16 8

2

1 1

P (X = 2) = P (two tails) = P{TT} = P{T} P{T} =

4 16

Therefore, the required probability distribution is as follows

Determine

(i) k (ii) P(X < 3)

(iii) P(X > 6) (iv) P(0 < X < 3)

Ans:

(i) It is known that the sum of a probability distribution of random variable is one i.e., P( X ) = 1,

therefore

P(0) + P(1) + P(2) + P(3) + P(4) + P(5) + P(6) + P(7) = 1

0 k 2k 2k 3k k 2 2k 2 7 k 2 k 1

10k 2 9k 1 0

(k 1)(10k 1) 0

1

k 1 or k

10

k = – 1 is not possible as the probability of an event is never negative.

1

k

10

3

(ii) P(X < 3) = P(0) + P(1) + P(2) = 0 k 2k 3k

10

7 1 7 10 17

(iii) P(X > 6) = P(7) = 7k 2 k

100 10 100 100

3

(iv) P(0 < X < 3) = P(1) + P(2) = k 2k 3k

10

32. The random variable X has a probability distribution P(X) of the following form, where k is

some number :

k if x 0

2k if x 1

P( X )

3k , if x 2

0, otherwise

(a) Determine the value of k.

(b) Find P (X < 2), P (X ≤2), P(X ≥2).

Ans:

Given distribution of X is

(a) Since, P( X ) = 1, therefore P(0) + P(1) + P(2) + P (otherwise) = 1

1

k 2k 3k 0 1 6k 1 k

6

1 1

(b) P(X = 2) = P(0) + P(1) = k 2k 3k 3

6 2

1

P(X 2) = P(0) + P(1) + P(2) = k 2k 3k 6k 6 1

6

1 1

and P(X 2) = P(2) + P(otherwise) = 3k 0 3k 3

6 2

33. A class has 15 students whose ages are 14, 17, 15, 14, 21, 17, 19, 20, 16, 18, 20, 17, 16, 19 and 20

years. One student is selected in such a manner that each has the same chance of being chosen

and the age X of the selected student is recorded. What is the probability distribution of the

random variable X? Find mean, variance and standard deviation of X.

Ans:

Here, total students = 15

The ages of students in ascending order are 14, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 18, 19, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21

2 1 2 3

Now, P(X = 14) = , P(X = 15) = , P(X = 16) = , P(X = 17) =

15 15 15 15

1 2 3 1

P(X = 18) = , P(X = 19) = , P(X = 20) = , P(X = 21) =

15 15 15 15

Therefore, the probability distribution of random variable X is as follows :

Mean X XP ( X )

14 2 15 1 16 2 17 3 18 1 19 2 20 3 211

15

263

17.53

15

2

Variance X = X 2 P( X ) Mean

2

14 2 2 152 1 162 2 17 2 3 182 1 192 2 202 3 212 1 263

15 15

392 225 512 867 324 722 1200 441

307.4

15

4683

307.4 312.2 307.4 4.8

15

SD of X = Var 4.8 2.19

34. If a fair coin is tossed 10 times, find the probability of (i) exactly six heads (ii) at least six heads

(iii) at most six heads.

Ans:

The repeated tosses of a coin are Bernoulli trials. Let X denote the number of heads in an experiment

of 10 trials.

1

Clearly, X has the binomial distribution with n = 10 and p =

2

Therefore P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

Here n = 10,

1 1 1

p= ,q=1– p=1– =

2 2 2

10 x x 10

1 1 1

Therefore P(X = x) = 10C x 10C x

2 2 2

10

1 10! 1 105

Now (i) P(X = 6) = 10C6 10

2 6! 4! 2 512

(ii) P(at least six heads) = P(X ≥ 6)

= P (X = 6) + P (X = 7) + P (X = 8) + P(X = 9) + P (X = 10)

10 10 10 10 10

1 1 1 1 1

C6 10C7 10C8 10C9 10C10

10

10! 10! 10! 10! 10! 1 193

10

6! 4! 7! 3! 8! 2! 9! 1! 10! 2 512

(iii) P(at most six heads) = P(X ≤ 6)

= P (X = 0) + P (X = 1) + P (X = 2) + P (X = 3) + P (X = 4) + P (X = 5) + P (X = 6)

10 10 10 10 10 10 10

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

C0 10C1 10C2 10C3 10C4 10C5 10C6

10

848 53

1024 64

35. A die is thrown 6 times. If ‘getting an odd number’ is a success, what is the probability of (i) 5

successes? (ii) at least 5 successes? (iii) at most 5 successes?

Ans:

The repeated tosses of a die are Bernoulli trials. Let X denote

the number of successes of getting odd numbers in an experiment of 6

trials.

p = P (success) = P (getting an odd number in a single throwof a die)

3 1 1 1

p = and q = P (failure) = 1 p 1

6 2 2 2

Therefore, by Binomial distribution

P(X = r) = nCr pn – r qr , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n

6 r r 6

1

6 1 6 1

P( X r ) Cr Cr

2 2 2

6

1 1 6 3

(i) P (5 successes) = 6C5 6 6

2 2 64 32

6 6

1 1 6 1 7

(ii) P (atleast 5 successes) = P (5 successes) + P (6 successes) = C5 6C6

6

2 2 64 64 64

6

1

6 1 63

(iii) P (atmost 5 successes) = 1 – P (6 successes) = 1 C6 1

2 64 64

36. There are 5% defective items in a large bulk of items. What is the probability that a sample of

10 items will include not more than one defective item?

Ans:

Let X denote the number of defective items in a sample of 10 items drawn successively. Since, the

drawing is done with replacement, the trials are Bernoulli trials.

5 1

p = P (success) = 5% =

100 20

1 19

and q = 1 p 1

20 20

1 19

X has a binomial distribution with n = 10 and p = and q =

20 20

Therefore, by Binomial distribution

P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 10 r

1 19

P( X r ) 10Cr

20 20

Required probability = P (not more than one defective item)

= P(0) + P(1) = 10C0 p 0 q 10 10C1 p 1q 9 q 10 10 pq 9

9 9

9 19 19 1 29 19

q (q 10 p ) 10

20 20 20 20 20

37. Five cards are drawn successively with replacement from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards.

What is the probability that (i) all the five cards are spades? (ii) only 3 cards are spades? (iii)

none is a spade?

Ans:

Let X represent the number of spade cards among the five cards drawn. Since, the drawing card is

with replacement, the trials are Bernoulli trials.

In a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards, there are 13 spade cards.

13 1

p = P (success) = P (a spade card is drawn) =

52 4

1 3

and q = 1 p 1

4 4

1 3

X has a binomial distribution with n = 5, p = and q =

4 4

Therefore, by Binomial distribution

P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 5 r

1 3

P( X r ) 5Cr

4 4

5

5 5 1

0 5 1

(i) P (all the five cards are spades) = P( X = 5) = C5 p q p

4 1024

3 2

5 3 1 3

2 90 45

(ii) P (only three cards are spades) = P( X = 3) = C3 p q 10

4 4 1024 512

5

5 3

0 5 243

(iii) P (none is a spade) = P (X = 0) = C0 p q

4 1024

38. It is known that 10% of certain articles manufactured are defective. What is the probability

that in a random sample of 12 such articles, 9 are defective?

Ans:

The repeated selections of articles in a random sample space are Bernoulli trials. Let X denotes the

number of times of selecting defective articles in a random sample space of 12 articles.

10 1

Here, p = 10% =

100 10

1 9

and q = 1 p 1

10 10

1 9

Clearly, X has a binomial distribution with n = 12, p = and q =

10 10

Therefore, by Binomial distribution

P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r , where r = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 12 r

12 1 9

P( X r ) Cr

10 10

9 3

12 9 3 12 1 9

Required probability = P (9 items are defective) = P( X = 9) = C3 p q C3

10 10

3 3

12 1110 9 22 9

. 12

1 2 3 10 1011

3

39. The probability of a shooter hitting a target is . How many minimum number of times must

4

he/she fire so that the probability of hitting the target at least once is more than 0.99?

Ans:

Let the shooter fire n times. Obviously, n fires are n Bernoulli trials. In each trial, p = probability of

3 1

hitting the target = and q = probability of not hitting the target = .

4 4

n n x x

Therefore P(X = x) = C x q p , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

n x x

1 3 3x

= nC x nC x n

4 4 4

Now, given that,

P(hitting the target at least once) > 0.99

i.e. P(x ≥ 1) > 0.99

Therefore, 1 – P (x = 0) > 0.99

1 1

1 nC0 n 0.99 nC0 n 0.01

4 4

1 1

n 0.01 4n 100

4 0.01

The minimum value of n to satisfy the inequality (1) is 4.

Thus, the shooter must fire 4 times.

40. A and B throw a die alternatively till one of them gets a ‘6’ and wins the game. Find their

respective probabilities of winning, if A starts first.

Ans:

Let S denote the success (getting a ‘6’) and F denote the failure (not getting a ‘6’).

1 5

Thus, P(S) = , P(F) =

6 6

1

P(A wins in the first throw) = P(S) =

6

A gets the third throw, when the first throw by A and second throw by B result into failures.

2

5 5 1 5 1

Therefore, P(A wins in the 3rd throw) = P(FFS) = P(F)P(F)P(S) = =

6 6 6 6 6

4

5 1

P(A wins in the 5th throw) = P (FFFFS) = and so on.

6 6

1

2 4

1 5 1 5 1 6

Hence, P(A wins) = ..... 6

6 6 6 6 6 25 11

1

36

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 182 -

6 5

P(B wins) = 1 – P (A wins) = 1

11 11

41. Suppose that 5% of men and 0.25% of women have grey hair. A grey haired person is selected

at random. What is the probability of this person being male? Assume that there are equal

number of males and females.

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that selected person is a male and E2 : the event that selected person is a female.

E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Moreover,

1

P(E1) = P(E2) =

2

Let E : the event that selected person is grey haired.

5 1 0.25 1

Then P(E/E1) = and P(E/E2) =

100 20 100 400

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

1 1 1 1

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) 2 20 20 20

P( E1 / E ) 20

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 ) 1 1 1 1 1

1 21 21

2 20 2 400 20 400 400

42. Suppose that 90% of people are right-handed. What is the probability that at most 6 of a

random sample of 10 people are right-handed?

Ans:

A person can be either right handed or left handed. It is given that 90% of the people are right

handed.

90 9

Therefore p =

100 10

9 1

and q = 1 p 1 , n = 10

10 10

9 1

Clearly, X has a binomial distribution with n = 10, p = and q =

10 10

n n x x

Therefore P(X = x) = C x q p , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 10 r

9 1

P( X r ) 10Cr

10 10

Required probability, P( X ≤6)

= 1 − P {more than 6 are right handed (7 ≤ X ≤ 10)]

10 r 10 r

9 1

= 1 10Cr

r 7 10 10

43. An urn contains 25 balls of which 10 balls bear a mark 'X' and the remaining 15 bear a mark

'Y'. A ball is drawn at random from the urn, its mark is noted down and it is replaced. If 6

balls are drawn in this way, find the probability that (i) all will bear 'X' mark. (ii) not more

than 2 will bear 'Y' mark. (iii) at least one ball will bear 'Y' mark. (iv) the number of balls with

'X' mark and 'Y' mark will be equal.

Ans:

It is case of Bernoulli trials with n = 6. Let success be defined as drawing a ball marked X.

10 2

p = P (a success in a single draw) =

25 5

2 3

and q = 1 p 1

5 5

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 183 -

2 3

Clearly, Z has a binomial distribution with n = 6, p = and q =

5 5

Therefore P(Z = r) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 6 r

6 2 3

P ( Z r ) Cr

5 5

6

2 6 6 0

(i) P (all bear mark X) = P (6 success) = C6 p q

5

(ii) P (not more than 2 bear mark Y)

= P (not less than 4 bear mark X) = P (atleast 4 successes)

= P(4) + P(5) + P(6) = 6C4 p 4 q 2 6C5 p5 q1 6C6 p 6 q 0

4 2 5 1 6

2 3 2 3 2

15 6

5 5 5 5 5

4 4

2 27 36 4 2 135 36 4

5 5 25 25 5 25

4 4

2 175 2

7

5 25 5

(iii) P (atleast one ball will bear mark Y) = P (atleast one failure)

6

2

= P (atmost five successes) = 1 P(6) 1

5

3 3

2 3 8 27 864

= P(3) 6C3 p 3q 3 20 20

5 5 125 125 3125

44. In a hurdle race, a player has to cross 10 hurdles. The probability that he will clear each

5

hurdle is . What is the probability that he will knock down fewer than 2 hurdles?

6

Ans:

It is a case of Bernoulli trials, where success is crossing a hurdle successfully without knocking it

down and n = 10.

5

p = P (success) =

6

5 1

q = 1 − p = 1

6 6

Let X be the random variable that represents the number of times the player will knock down the

hurdle.

5

Clearly, X has a binomial distribution with n = 10 and p =

6

n n x x

Therefore P(X = x) = C x q p , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 10 r

1 5

10

P ( X r ) Cr

6 6

P (player knocking down less than 2 hurdles) = P( x < 2)

= P(0) + P(1) = 10C0 p 0 q10 10C1 p1q 9

10 1 9 9 9 9

5 1 5 5 5 10 5 15 5 5 510

10 9

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 26

45. A die is thrown again and again until three sixes are obtained. Find the probability of

obtaining the third six in the sixth throw of the die.

Ans:

1

When a die is rolled once, probability of obtaining a six is and that of not obtaining a six is

6

1 5

1

6 6

1 5

Let p = and q =

6 6

Clearly, X has a binomial distribution.

Therefore P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 5 r

1 5

5

P ( X r ) Cr

6 6

P (obtaining third six in the sixth throw)

= P(obtaining two sixes in first five throws and a six in the sixth throw)

1

= P (obtaining two sixes in first five throws) ×

6

2 3

1 5 1 1 125 625

= 5C2 10

6 6 6 36 216 23328

46. Assume that the chances of a patient having a heart attack is 40%. It is also assumed that a

meditation and yoga course reduce the risk of heart attack by 30% and prescription of certain

drug reduces its chances by 25%. At a time a patient can choose any one of the two options

with equal probabilities. It is given that after going through one of the two options the patient

selected at random suffers a heart attack. Find the probability that the patient followed a

course of meditation and yoga?

Ans:

Let E1 : the event that the patient follows meditation and yoga and E2 : the event that the patient uses

drug.

Therefore E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive events and

1

P(E1) = P(E2) =

2

40 30 28

P(E/E1) = 1

100 100 100

40 25 30

P(E/E2) = 1

100 100 100

Let E : the event that the selected patient suffers a heart attack

P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

P( E2 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

1 28 14

2 100 100 14 14

1 30 1 28 15 14 15 14 29

2 100 2 100 100 100

47. Bag I contains 3 red and 4 black balls and Bag II contains 4 red and 5 black balls. One ball is

transferred from Bag I to Bag II and then a ball is drawn from Bag II. The ball so drawn is

found to be red in colour. Find the probability that the transferred ball is black.

Ans:

Let E1 : red ball is transferred from bag I to bag II

and E2 : black ball is transferred from bag I to bag II

E1 and E2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.

3 3

P(E1) =

3 4 7

4 4

P(E2) =

3 4 7

4 1 5 1

P(E/E1) =

(4 1) 5 10 2

4 4 2

P(E/E2) =

4 (5 1) 10 5

Let E be the event that the ball drawn is red. When a red ball is transferred from bag I to II.

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

P( E2 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

4 2 8 8

7 5 8 14 16

35 35

3 1 4 2 3 8 305 112 217 31

7 2 7 5 14 35 14 35

CHAPTER – 13: PROBABILITY

MARKS WEIGHTAGE – 10 marks

1. Three cards are drawn at random (without replacement) from a well shuffled pack of 52

playing cards. Find the probability distribution of number of red cards. Hence find the mean

of the distribution.

Ans:

Let the number of red card in a sample of 3 cards drawn be random variable X. Obviously X may

have values 0,1,2,3.

26

C 2600 2

Now P(X = 0)= Probability of getting no red card = 52 3

C3 22100 17

26

C1 26C2 8450 13

P(X = 1)= Probability of getting one red card and two non-red cards = 52

C3 22100 34

26

C2 26C1 8450 13

P(X = 2)= Probability of getting two red card and one non-red card = 52

C3 22100 34

26

C3 2600 2

P(X = 3)= Probability of getting 3 red cards = 52

C3 22100 17

Hence, the required probability distribution in table as

2 13 13 2

Required mean = E(X) = px i i 0

17

1 2 3

34 34 17

13 26 6 13 26 12 51 3

34 34 17 34 34 2

2. There are three coins. One is a two-headed coin (having head on both faces), another is a

biased coin that comes up heads 75% of the times and third is also a biased coin that comes up

tails 40% of the times. One of the three coins is chosen at random and tossed, and it shows

heads. What is the probability that it was the two-headed coin?

Ans:

Let E1 ,E2 ,E3 and A be events defined as

E1 = selection of two-headed coin

E2 = selection of biased coin that comes up head 75% of the times.

E3 = selection of biased coin that comes up tail 40% of the times.

A = getting head.

1

P(E1) = P(E2 ) = P(E3) =

3

3 3

P(A/E1) = 1, P(A/E2) = and P(A/E3) =

4 5

By using Baye’s theorem, we have

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )

P( E1 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P ( A / E2 ) P( E3 ) P( A / E3 )

1 1 1

1

3 3 3 1 60 20

1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 20 15 12 3 47 47

1

3 3 4 3 5 3 4 5 20

3. Two numbers are selected at random (without replacement) from the first six positive integers.

Let X denote the larger of the two numbers obtained. Find the probability distribution of the

random variable X, and hence find the mean of the distribution.

Ans:

First six positive integers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

If two numbers are selected at random from above six numbers then sample space S is given by

n(s) = 30.

Here, X is random variable, which may have value 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6.

Therefore, required probability distribution is given as

2

P(X = 2) = Probability of event getting (1, 2), (2, 1) =

30

4

P(X = 3) = Probability of event getting (1, 3), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2) =

30

6

P(X = 4) = Probability of event getting (1, 4), (2, 4), (3, 4), (4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3) =

30

8

P(X = 5) = Probability of event getting (1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5), (5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4) =

30

P(X = 6) = Probability of event getting (1, 6), (2, 6), (3, 6), (4, 6), (5, 6), (6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4),

10

(6, 5) =

30

It is represented in tabular form as

2 4 6 8 10

Required mean = E(x) = px 30

2

3 4 5 6

i i

30 30 30 30

4 12 24 40 60 140 14 2

4

30 30 3 3

4. An experiment succeeds thrice as often as it fails. Find the probability that in the next five

trials, there will be at least 3 successes.

Ans:

An experiment succeeds thrice as often as it fails.

p = P(getting success) =

and q = P(getting failure) =

Here, number of trials = n = 5

By binomial distribution, we have

P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 5 r

5 3 1

P ( X r ) Cr

4 4

Now , P(getting at least 3 success) = P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) + P(X = 5)

3 2 4 1 5

3 1 3 1 3

= 5C3 5C4 5C5

4 4 4 4 4

3

3 1 1 1 27 34 459

10 16 15 16 9 16 64 16 512

4

5. A card from a pack of 52 playing cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the pack three

cards are drawn at random (without replacement) and are found to be all spades. Find the

probability of the lost card being a spade.

Ans:

Let E1, E2 , E3 ,E4 and A be event defined as

E1 = the lost card is a spade card.

E2 = the lost card is a heart card.

E3 = the lost card is a club card.

E4 = the lost card is diamond card.

and A = Drawing three spade cards from the remaining cards.

1

P(E1) = P(E2 ) = P(E3) = P(E4) =

4

12 13

C 220 C 286

P(A/E1) = 51 3 , P(A/E2) = 51 3

C3 20825 C3 20825

13 13

C3 286 C3 286

P(A/E3) = 51

P(A/E4) = 51

C3 20825 C3 20825

By using Baye’s theorem, we have

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )

P( E1 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P ( A / E2 ) P( E3 ) P( A / E3 ) P( E4 ) P( A / E4 )

1 220

4 20825 220 220 10

1 220 1 286 1 286 1 286 220 286 286 286 1078 49

4 20825 4 20825 4 20825 4 20825

6. From a lot of 15 bulbs which include 5 defectives, a sample of 4 bulbs is drawn one by one with

replacement. Find the probability distribution of number of defective bulbs. Hence find the

mean of the distribution.

Ans:

Let the number of defective bulbs be represented by a random variable X. X may have value 0, 1, 2,

3, 4.

5 1

If p is the probability of getting defective bulb in a single draw then p =

15 3

1 2

q = Probability of getting non defective bulb = 1 – p = 1

3 3

Since each trial in this problem is Bernoulli trials, therefore we can apply binomial distribution as

P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 4 r

1 2

P( X r ) 4Cr

3 3

1 3

1 2 4 1 8 32

Now, P(X = 1) = C1 4

3 3 3 27 81

2 2

1 2

4 1 4 24

P(X = 2) = C2 6

3 3 9 9 81

3 1

1 2 1 2 8

P(X = 3) = 4C3 4

3 3 27 3 81

4

41 1

P(X = 4) = C4

3 81

Now probability distribution table is

16 32 24 8 1

Now mean E(X) = px i i 0

81

1 2 3 4

81 81 81 81

32 48 24 4 106 4

81 81 3

7. Assume that each born child is equally likely to be a boy or a girl. If a family has two children,

what is the conditional probability that both are girls given that (i) the youngest is a girl? (ii)

atleast one is a girl?

Ans:

A family has 2 children, then Sample space = S = {BB, BG,GB,GG}, where B stands for Boy and G

for Girl.

(i) Let A and B be two event such that

A = Both are girls = {GG}

B = the youngest is a girl = {BG, GG}

1

P( A B ) 4 1

Now, P( A / B)

P( B) 2 2

4

(ii) Let C be event such that

C = at least one is a girl = {BG,GB,GG}

1

P( A C ) 4 1

Now, P( A / C )

P(C ) 3 3

4

8. In a group of 50 scouts in a camp, 30 are well trained in first aid techniques while the

remaining are well trained in hospitality but not in first aid. Two scouts are selected at random

from the group. Find the probability distribution of number of selected scouts who are well

trained in first aid. Find the mean of the distribution also. Write one more value which is

expected from a well trained scout.

Ans:

Let X be no. of selected scouts who are well trained in first aid. Here random variable X may have

value 0, 1, 2.

20

C 20 19 38

Now, P(X = 0) = 50 2

C2 50 49 245

20

C1 30C1 20 30 2 120

P(X = 1) = 50

C2 50 49 245

30

C2 30 29 87

P(X = 2) =

50

C2 50 49 245

Now probability distribution table is

38 120 87 120 174 294

Now mean E(X) = px i i 0

245

1

245

2

245

245

245

A well trained scout should be disciplined

9. Often it is taken that a truthful person commands, more respect in the society. A man is known

to speak the truth 4 out of 5 times. He throws a die and reports that it is actually a six. Find the

probability that it is actually a six. Do you also agree that the value of truthfulness leads to

more respect in the society?

Ans:

Let E1, E2 and E be three events such that

E1 = six occurs

E2 = six does not occurs

E = man reports that six occurs in the throwing of the dice.

1 5

Now P (E1) = , P (E2) =

6 6

4 4 1

P(E/E1) = , P(E/E2) = 1

5 5 5

By using Baye’s theorem, we obtain

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 )

P( E1 / E )

P( E1 ) P( E / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( E / E2 )

1 4

6 5 4 4

1 4 5 1 45 9

6 5 6 5

3 5

10. The probabilities of two students A and B coming to the school in time are and

7 7

respectively. Assuming that the events, ‘A coming in time’ and ‘B coming in time’ are

independent, find the probability of only one of them coming to the school in time. Write at

least one advantage of coming to school in time.

Ans:

Let E1 and E2 be two events such that

E1 = A coming to the school in time.

E2 = B coming to the school in time.

3 5

Here P (E1) = and P (E2) =

7 7

4 2

P( E1 ) , P( E2 )

7 7

P (only one of them coming to the school in time) = P ( E1 ) P ( E2 ) P ( E1 ) P ( E2 )

3 2 5 4 6 20 26

7 7 7 7 49 49

Coming to school in time i.e., punctuality is a part of discipline which is very essential for

development of an individual.

11. In a hockey match, both teams A and B scored same number of goals up to the end of the

game, so to decide the winner, the referee asked both the captains to throw a die alternately

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 191 -

and decided that the team, whose captain gets a six first, will be declared the winner. If the

captain of team A was asked to start, find their respective probabilities of winning the match

and state whether the decision of the referee was fair or not.

Ans:

Let E1, E2 be two events such that

E1 = the captain of team ‘A’ gets a six.

E2 = the captain of team ‘B’ gets a six.

1 1

Here P (E1) = , P (E2) =

6 6

1 5 1 5

P( E1' ) 1 , P( E2' ) 1

6 6 6 6

1 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 1

Now P (winning the match by team A) = .......

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

2 4

1 5 1 5 1

.....

6 6 6 6 6

1

6

6

25 11

1

36

6 5

P (winning the match by team B) = 1

11 11

The decision of refree was not fair because the probability of winning match is more for that team

who start to throw dice.

12. A speaks truth in 60% of the cases, while B in 90% of the cases. In what percent of cases are

they likely to contradict each other in stating the same fact? In the cases of contradiction do

you think, the statement of B will carry more weight as he speaks truth in more number of

cases than A?

Ans:

Let E1 be the event that A speaks truth and E2 be the event that B speaks truth. Then E and f are

independent events such that

60 3 90 9

P( E1 ) , P( E1 )

100 5 100 10

2 1

P( E1 ) , P( E2 )

5 10

P (A and B contradict each other) = P ( E1 ) P ( E2 ) P ( E1 ) P ( E2 )

3 1 2 9 3 18 21

5 10 5 10 50 50

Yes, the statement of B will carry more weight as the probability of B to speak truth is more than

that of A.

13. Assume that the chances of a patient having a heart attack is 40%. Assuming that a meditation

and yoga course reduces the risk of heart attack by 30% and prescription of certain drug

reduces its chance by 25%. At a time a patient can choose any one of the two options with

equal probabilities. It is given that after going through one of the two options, the patient

selected at random suffers a heart attack. Find the probability that the patient followed a

course of meditation and yoga. Interpret the result and state which of the above stated

methods is more beneficial for the patient.

Ans:

Let E1, E2 , A be events defined as

E1 = treatment of heart attack with Yoga and meditation

E2 = treatment of heart attack with certain drugs.

A = Person getting heart attack.

1 1

P(E1) = , P(E2 ) =

2 2

30 28

P(A/E1) = 40% 40 % 40% 12% 28%

100 100

25 30

P(A/E2) = 40% 40 % 40% 10% 30%

100 100

By using Baye’s theorem, we have

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )

P( E1 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )

1 28

2 100 28 28 14

1 28 1 30 28 30 58 29

2 100 2 100

The problem emphasises the importance of Yoga and meditation.

Treatment with Yoga and meditation is more beneficial for the heart patient.

14. A pair of dice is thrown 4 times. If getting a doublet is considered a success, find the

probability distribution of the number of successes and hence find its mean.

Ans:

Since each trial in this problem is Bernoulli trials, therefore we can apply binomial distribution as

P(X = x) = nC x q n x p x , x = 0, 1, 2,...,n

r 4 r

1 5

P( X r ) 4Cr

6 6

4

5 625 625

Now, P(X = 0) = 4C0 1

6 1296 1296

1 3

4 1 5 1 125 500

P(X = 1) = C1 4

6 6 6 216 1296

2 2

4 1 5 1 25 150

P(X = 2) = C2 4

6 6 36 36 1296

3 1

41 5 1 5 20

P(X = 3) = C3 4

6 6 216 6 1296

4

1 1 1

P(X = 4) = 4C4 1

6 1296 1296

Now probability distribution table is

Now mean E(X) = px i i

1296

0

1

1296

2

1296

3

1296

4

1296

500 300 60 4 864 2

1296 1296 3

15. In a certain college, 4% of boys and 1% of girls are taller than 1.75 metres. Furthermore, 60%

of the students in the college are girls. A student is selected at random from the college and is

found to be taller than 1.75 metres. Find the probability that the selected student is a girl.

Ans:

Let E1, E2, A be events such that

E1 = student selected is girl

E2 = student selected is Boy

A = student selected is taller than 1.75 metres.

60 3 40 2

P(E1) = , P(E2 ) =

100 5 100 5

1 4

P(A/E1) = , P(A/E2) =

100 100

By using Baye’s theorem, we have

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )

P( E1 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )

3 1

5 100 3 3

3 1 2 4 3 8 11

5 100 5 100

16. Two cards are drawn simultaneously (without replacement) from a well-shuffled pack of 52

cards. Find the mean and variance of the number of red cards.

Ans:

Total no. of cards in the deck = 52

Number of red cards = 26

No. of cards drawn = 2 simultaneously

X = value of random variable = 0, 1, 2

17. Suppose a girl throws a die. If she gets a 5 or 6, she tosses a coin 3 times and notes the number

of heads. If she gets 1,2,3 or 4 she tosses a coin once and notes whether a head or tail is

obtained. If she obtained exactly one head, what is the probability that she threw 1,2,3, or 4

with the die?

Ans:

Consider the following events:

E1 = Getting 5 or 6 in a single throw of a die.

E2 = Getting 1, 2, 3, or 4 in a single throw of a die.

A = Getting exactly one head.

2 1 4 2

P(E1) = , P(E2 ) =

6 3 6 3

P(A/E1) = Probability of getting exactly one head when a coin is tossed three times

1 2

3 1 1 1 1 3

= C1 3

2 2 2 4 8

1

P(A/E2) = Probability of getting exactly one head when a coin is tossed once only =

2

By using Baye’s theorem, we have

P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )

P( E2 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )

2 1 1

3 2 1 24 8

3

1 3 2 1 1 1 3 11 11

3 8 3 2 8 3

18. How many times must a man toss a fair coin, so that the probability of having at least one head

is more than 80%?

Ans:

Let no. of times of tossing a coin be n.

1

Here, Probability of getting a head in a chance = p =

2

1 1

Probability of getting no head in a chance = q = 1

2 2

Now, P (having at least one head) = P (X 1)

n n

n 0 1 1

= 1 – P(X = 0) = 1 nC0 p 0 q 1 1.1. 1

2 2

From question

n

1 80

1

2 100

n

1 8 8 1

1 1 n

2 10 10 2

1 1

n 2n 5 n 3

5 2

A man must have to toss a fair coin 3 times.

19. Of the students in a college, it is known that 60% reside in hostel and 40% day scholars (not

residing in hostel). Previous year results report that 30% of all students who reside in hostel

attain ‘A’ grade and 20% of day scholars attain ‘A’ grade in their annual examination. At the

end of the year, one student is chosen at random from the college and he has an ‘A’ grade,

what is the probability that the student is a hosteler?

Ans:

Let E1 , E2 and A be events such that

E1 = student is a hosteler

E2 = student is a day scholar

A = getting A grade.

60 6 40 4

P(E1) = , P(E2 ) =

100 10 100 10

30 3 20 2

P(A/E1) = , P(A/E2) =

100 10 100 10

By using Baye’s theorem, we have

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 )

P( E1 / A)

P( E1 ) P( A / E1 ) P( E2 ) P( A / E2 )

6 3

10 10 18 18 9

6 3 4 2 18 8 26 13

10 10 10 10

20. Find the mean number of heads in three tosses of a fair coin.

Ans:

The sample space of given experiment is S ={(HHH), (HHT), (HTT), (TTT), (TTH), (THH), (HTH),

(THT)}

Let X denotes the no. of heads in three tosses of a fair coin Here, X is random which may have

values 0, 1, 2, 3.

1 3

Now, P (X = 0) = , P (X =1) =

8 8

3 1

P (X = 2) = , P (X =3) =

8 8

Therefore, Probability distribution is

1 3 3 1

Mean number (E(x)) = px i i 0 1 2 3

8 8 8 8

3 6 3 12 3

1.5

8 8 2

Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 197 -

CHAPTER – 6: APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES

Q7 Q7 Q17

Q8 Q8 Q18

Q10 Q13 Q19

Q14 Q14 Q20

Q15 Q15 Q21

Q16 Q18 Q22

Q19 Q23

EXERCISE 6.2 Q21 Q24

Q5 Q23 Q25

Q6 Q25 Q26

Q7

Q8 EXERCISE 6.4

Q9 Q1

Q15

Q16

Q7 2 (Pg 195)

Q8 4 (Pg 196)

Q9 5 (Pg 197)

Q10 8 (Pg 201)

Q11 11 (Pg 202)

Q15 12 (Pg 203)

Q17 13 (Pg 204)

Q18 17 (Pg 209)

18 (Pg 209)

20 (Pg 210)

25 (Pg 215)

29 (Pg 222)

30 (Pg 223)

32 (Pg 224)

37 (Pg 226)

38 (Pg 227)

39(Pg 230)

41 (Pg 231)

43 (Pg 235)

50 (Pg 240)

CHAPTER – 7: INTEGRALS

NCERT Important Questions

Q10 Q3 Q6

Q12 Q5 Q7

Q13 Q10 Q10

Q18 Q13 Q11

Q20 Q14 Q17

Q16 Q18

EXERCISE 7.2 Q20 Q20

Q9 Q22 Q21

Q10

Q14 EXERCISE 7.4 EXERCISE 7.7

Q15 Q7 Q3

Q19 Q14 Q5

Q20 Q16 Q7

Q28 Q19

Q31 Q22 EXERCISE 7.8

Q32 Q2

Q33 EXERCISE 7.5 . Q4

Q34 Q3 Q6

Q36 Q7

Q37 Q8 EXERCISE 7.9

Q9 Q14

Q15 Q16

Q16

Q17 EXERCISE 7.10

Q18 Q3

Q19 Q5

Q20 Q6

Q21

Q2 Q14 Example 6 Pg (203)

Q5 Q19 Example 15 (Pg 320)

Q8 Q20 Example 32 (Pg 344)

Q10 Q21 Example 34 (Pg 345)

Q22

Q12 Example 35 (Pg 345)

Q24

Q15 Q26 Example 36 (Pg 346)

Q16 Q28 Example 39 (Pg 348)

Q30 Example 40 (Pg 349)

MISC. EXERCISE. Q31 Example 41 (Pg 350)

Q7 Q32 Example 44 (Pg 351)

Q10 Q33

Q11 Q44

CHAPTER – 8: APPLICATION OF THE INTEGRALS

Q3 Q8

Q4 Q9

Q6 Q12

Q7 Q13

Q9 Q14

Q10 Q15

Q11 Q18

EXERCISE 8.2

Q1

Q2

Q4

Q5

SOLVED EXAMPLES.

Example 2 (Pg 362)

Example 4 (Pg 364)

Example 6 (Pg 368)

Example 7 (Pg 368)

Example 8 (Pg 369)

Example 9 (Pg 370)

Example 10 (Pg 370)

Example 13 (Pg 373)

Example 14 (Pg 374)

CHAPTER – 9: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Q4 Q3 Q2

Q11 Q4 Q5

Q5 Q7

EXERCISE 9.2 Q6 Q8

Q4 Q10 Q9

Q7 Q12 Q13

Q9 Q14

Q10 EXERCISE 9.5 Q15

Q1

EXERCISE 9.3 Q3 MISC. EXERCISE.

Q6 Q4 Q6

Q8 Q5 Q9

Q10 Q6 Q10

Q8 Q13

Q9 Q14

Q10

Q13

Q15

SOLVED EXAMPLES.

Example 10 (Pg 393)

Example 16 (Pg 401)

Example 17 (Pg 403)

Example 20 (Pg 410)

Example 22 (Pg 411)

Example 27 (Pg 417)

Example 28 (Pg 418)

CHAPTER – 11: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

Q4 Q7 Example 5 (Pg 467)

Q5 Q9 Example 6 (Pg 469)

Q11 Example 9 (Pg 472)

EXERCISE 11.2 Q12 Example 11 (Pg 476)

Q6 Q13 Example 12 (Pg 476)

Q10 Q14 Example 14 (Pg 480)

Q11 Q15 Example 16 (Pg 481)

Q12 Q17 Example 20 (Pg 486)

Q14 Q18 Example 21 (Pg 488)

Q15 Q19 Example 25 (Pg 492)

Q16 Q20 Example 27 (Pg 495)

Q17 Example 28 (Pg 495)

Example 30 (Pg 497)

EXERCISE 11.3

Q5

Q6

Q9

Q10

Q11

Q12

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.