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# WALL THICKNESS

a) Two-phase flow

Pd o
t= 2( FE S)

## Where,t = required wall thickness to be specified in ordering the pipe, in.

P = internal pipe pressure, psi
do = pipe outside diameter, in.
S = minimum yield strength of pipe, psi (figure 2)
F = design factor
= 0.72 for all location
E = longitudinal weld joint factor (figure 3)
= 1.00 for seamless, ERW and flash weld
= 0.80 for furnace lap and electrical fusion welded pipe
= 0.60 for furnace butt welded pipe

## For two-phase flow, nominal diameter = 15.06 in.

Refer to figure 1, outside diameter = 16 in.
Assume, seamless pipeline (API 5L)

Pd o
t =
2( FE S)
()(16∈.)
t =
2( ( 0.72 )( 1.00 )( 25000 psi ))
=

## By using ANSI B 31.3 – Chemical Plant and Petroleum refinery

Pd o 100
t = [tc + tth + 2( SE+ PY ) ][ 100 Tol ]

## Where,t = required wall thickness to be specified in ordering the pipe, in.

tc = corrosion allowance, in. (normally 0.05 in.)
tth = thread or groove depth, in. (Table 9-2)
P = internal pipe pressure, psi
do = pipe outside diameter, in.
S = allowable stress for pipe material, psi (Table 9-3 and 9-4)
E = longitudinal weld joint factor
= 1.00 for seamless
= 0.85 for ERW
Y = factor
= 0.4 for ferrous materials below 900oF
Tol = manufacturer’s allowed tolerance
= 12.5% for API 5L pipe up to 20-in. diameter
= 10% for API 5L pipe greater than 20-in. diameter

## For two-phase flow, nominal diameter = 15.06 in.

Refer to figure 1, outside diameter = 16 in.
Assume, seamless pipeline (API 5L)

Pd o 100
t = [tc + tth + ][ ]
2(SE+ PY ) 100 Tol
()(16∈.) 100
t = [0.05 in. + 0.11 in. + ][ ]
2( ( 19100 )( 1.00 )+() ( 0.4 )) 100 (0.125)
=

b) Liquid

Pd o
t= 2( FES)

## Where,t = required wall thickness to be specified in ordering the pipe, in.

P = internal pipe pressure, psi
do = pipe outside diameter, in.
S = minimum yield strength of pipe, psi (figure 2)
F = design factor
= 0.72 for all location
E = longitudinal weld joint factor (figure 3)
= 1.00 for seamless, ERW and flash weld
= 0.80 for furnace lap and electrical fusion welded pipe
= 0.60 for furnace butt welded pipe

## For liquid flow, nominal diameter = 14.20 in.

Refer to figure 1, outside diameter = 16 in.
Assume, seamless pipeline (API 5L)

Pd o
t =
2( FE S)
()(16∈.)
t =
2( ( 0.72 )( 1.00 )( 25000 psi ))
=

## By using ANSI B 31.3 – Chemical Plant and Petroleum refinery

Pd o 100
t = [tc + tth + 2( SE+ PY ) ][ 100 Tol ]

## Where,t = required wall thickness to be specified in ordering the pipe, in.

tc = corrosion allowance, in. (normally 0.05 in.)
tth = thread or groove depth, in. (Table 9-2)
P = internal pipe pressure, psi
do = pipe outside diameter, in.
S = allowable stress for pipe material, psi (Table 9-3 and 9-4)
E = longitudinal weld joint factor
= 1.00 for seamless
= 0.85 for ERW
Y = factor
= 0.4 for ferrous materials below 900oF
Tol = manufacturer’s allowed tolerance
= 12.5% for API 5L pipe up to 20-in. diameter
= 10% for API 5L pipe greater than 20-in. diameter

## For liquid flow, nominal diameter = 14.20 in.

Refer to figure 1, outside diameter = 16 in.
Assume, seamless pipeline (API 5L)

Pd o 100
t = [tc + tth + ][ ]
2(SE+ PY ) 100 Tol
()(16∈.) 100
t = [0.05 in. + 0.11 in. + ][ ]
2( ( 19100 )( 1.00 )+() ( 0.4 )) 100 (0.125)
=
c) Gas

Pdo
t= 2( FETS )

## Where,t = required wall thickness to be specified in ordering the pipe, in.

P = internal pipe pressure, psi
do = pipe outside diameter, in.
S = minimum yield strength of pipe, psi (Figure 2)
F = design factor (Table 9 and 9.13)
E = longitudinal weld joint factor (Figure 3)
= 1.00 for seamless, ERW and flash weld
= 0.80 for furnace lap and electrical fusion welded pipe
= 0.60 for furnace butt welded pipe
T = temperature derating factor (Table 10)

## For gas flow, nominal diameter = 1 in.

Refer to figure 1, outside diameter = 1.315 in.
Assume, seamless pipeline (API 5L), Location Class 1, Div 1

Pdo
t =
2( FETS )
( )(1.315∈.)
t =
2( ( 0.80 ) ( 1.00 )( 1.00 )( 25000 psi ))
=
Figure 1
Figure 2

Figure 2
Figure 3
2. a) For the system, we are using Peng-Robinson (PR) as the fluid package. The reason we
are using Peng-Robinson (PR) as a fluid package is:
1. The most enhance fluid package model in Aspen Hysys
2. Highest capability Temperature and Pressure range
3. Has special treatment for some key components
4. Largest binary interaction database: good standard for hydrocarbon